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Shammu
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« Reply #135 on: November 06, 2007, 02:23:28 PM »

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 6th of November, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that activity of the volcano stays discharge with a smooth descendent tendency. The heights of the emissions have not surpassed 3 km on the crater. Ash fall was reported from Runtún. The climate of the zone has varied between cleared and dimmed. It was registered to lahar that it temporarily closed the access road to Baños.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: 45 events of long period (LPs), 44 events of tremor of emission, 1 volcano-tectonic and 3 explosions were registered. The explosion of 1828hrs (DR=5.03 cm2) was accompanied with a cannon shot and the bearing of incandescent blocks that descended by the western flank. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: The wind direction has varied from north to the northwest. The observed emissions showed a moderate ash content. In the morning of today a continuous emission of 500 m of height was appraised on the crater. Only from Runtún one slight white ash fall was reported during the dawn. Climate/Rains/Lahars: The zone has varied between cleared, partially cloudy and cloudy. From 1640hrs (local time) of the afternoon yesterday registered a lahar. By prevention and disposition of the local authorities, the access road to Baños was closed until 2200hrs in the sector of Pampas. During the night a light rain appeared without registering new lahars. Noises: It is continued heard roars of slight and moderate intensity.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

SANTA MARIA

As of the 1st of November, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash-and-gas plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex rose to an altitude of (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 26 October.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 1st of November, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that multiple ash "puffs" from Fuego drifted SE on 26 October.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
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« Reply #136 on: November 06, 2007, 02:26:37 PM »

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 6th of November, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant change over the last 72 hours. Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding although the likelihood of this is thought to decrease with time as no further lava extrusion occurs. During heavy downpours, such during the passing of tropical depressions, lahar activity in drainages around the volcano (including the Belham Valley to the northwest), remains a potential hazard. The Alert Level remained elevated at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 6th of November, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift east to southeast.

Another clear day is dawning over the mountain, with a few wispy steam plumes visible over the lava dome at this hour from Johnston Ridge. Seismicity continues to be low and no other anomalous activity has been reported. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 6th of November, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours, the activity of Popocatepetl volcano showed a steady level. There was a small exhalation mainly composed of steam and gas. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report CENAPRED can see the volcano with a small steam and gas emission.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
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« Reply #137 on: November 06, 2007, 02:29:00 PM »

SHEVELUCH

As of the 2nd of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 6.8 km (22,300 ft) ASL and small hot avalanches occurred at the volcano all week. According to video data, ash plumes rose up to 5.3 km (17,400 ft) ASL and gas-steam plumes up to 5.0 km (16,400 ft) ASL were noted on October 25-26 and 31 and November 01. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week. Ash plumes extended 70 km (43 mi) to the south-east from the volcano on October 27-31.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 2nd of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the volcano continues. A viscous lava flow is effusing from the summit dome at Bezymianny. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity did not exceed background levels this week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed on October 30-31. Clouds obscured the volcano all week.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 2nd of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels on October 25-28 and at background levels on the other days. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered at the volcano. According to seismic data, possibly small ash explosions occurred all week. According to satellite data, there wasn't noted thermal anomaly at the volcano this week probably because clouds mostly obscured the volcano this week.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #138 on: November 06, 2007, 02:31:26 PM »

CHIKURACHKI

As of the 2nd of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that possibly the explosive eruption of the volcano continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. According to satellite data, clouds obscured the volcano this week. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidised basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 31st of October, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that in the period between the 23rd and the 29th of October a total of 114 seismic events were registered. 33 of these are associated with the fracturing of rock, 75 events had relation with the dynamics of flows within the volcanic conduits, and three events were catalogued as pulses of tremor of low magnitude. During this period two volcano-tectonic events stand out: the first event registered the 25th of October at 0634hrs local time, which had a magnitude of 1.6 and it was located to the south of the volcanic proper. The second event today registered at 0123hrs local time, had a magnitude of 1.0 and it was located in the top of the Central Tip. Of the previous, it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, with slight excitations of the system. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic phenomenon and will inform in an opportune way the changes that can be presented/displayed.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 4th of November, INGEMMET reported that based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory, pilot reports, and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-8.5 km (18,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and NE during 23-27 October.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #139 on: November 06, 2007, 02:34:27 PM »

KARANGETANG

As of the 1st of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that in connection with the development of this volcano's activity, VSI recommended as follows:
1. The inhabitants from the Village Dame I and Hekang that including in Kel. Tatahadeng, that beforehand was done by the evacuation, could come back back to the house each with continued to pay attention to the guidance and the suggestion of SATLAK PB local if from time to time the re-increase in the G. Karangetang eruption activity happened.
2. The regional government continued to alert all the inhabitant that was in the area of the danger, because lava was still happening and from time to time the hot cloud and the rain mudflow could happen, especially for: Penduduk of the Dompase territory that was dipinggiran the Batang Time (the Siau Tengah Subdistrict), Kinali and Mini that live in close to time outskirts (the Siau Barat Subdistrict), Bolo and Coffee that including in the Tarorane District, Kampung Kola - Cola (the Bebali Village). Masyarakat that live in along the Batuawang Time current, Kali Kahetang, Kali Keting, Kali Batang, Kali Beha Timur, Kali Pangi and the Nanitu Time in order to guard against the secondary danger of taking the form of the threat of the mudflow current in the rain season.
3. In the ALERT status, G. Karangetang still potential the eruption happened strombolian, glowing lava and lava that was followed the hot cloud. The series of this incident was the Karangetang type that did not endanger for the inhabitants around it, but continue to: Penduduk did not climb Karangetang exceeded the height ± 500 m. from sea level. Masyarakat was around Karangetang hoped for calm, was not provoked by rumours about the Karangetang eruption. The centre of Vulcanology and Mitigasi Bencana Geologi always coordinated with the Government of the North Sulawesi province (as SATKORLAK PB) and Regional Government Sitaro (Siau Tagulandang Biaro) (sela I SATLAK PB) about the Karangetang activity. Masyarakat hoped always followed the directive from SATLAK PB and SATKORLAK PB.
4. In the condition for the emergency, the Observer of the Karangetang volcano could take strategic steps coordinated with SATLAK PB on the Head agreement of the Centre of Vulcanology and Mitigasi Bencana Geologi for the rescue action/the evacuation.

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

The Current Colour Code for Karangetang is currently at ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 6th of November, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that a very weak thermal anomaly was observed in satellite images today. AVO continues to monitor Cleveland Volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

SOPUTAN

As of the 4th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that based on visual observations during clear weather, CVGHM reported that white and gray plumes from Soputan on 25, 26, 30 and 31 October rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.3 km. A lava flow traveled between 500-600 m down the W flank on 25 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 and villagers and tourists are advised not to go within a 6 km radius of the summit.

The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

The Current Colour Code for Soputan at ALERT LEVEL 3
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« Reply #140 on: November 06, 2007, 02:36:53 PM »

KELUT

As of the 6th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the Meteorology and Geophysics Agency has reported that a deadly Indonesian volcano is spewing clouds of white smoke as the temperature of its crater lake soars, but thousands of residents are defying warnings of a major eruption, choosing to tend crops and livestock on its slopes. The top scientist monitoring Mt. Kelut said Sunday the temperature of its crater lake had reached 76 degrees Celsius - a rise of more than 25 C over the last 24hours, indicating a blast could be imminent. The spike indicated magma within the volcano was close to breaking through to the surface, possibly sending a torrent of mud, ash and rock known as lahar down the mountain, said Surono, who uses a single name. Despite the threat, authorities said 25,000 people were ignoring evacuation orders and remained in the danger zone around Kelut in the heart of densely populated Java island. There was no attempt made to stop people from traveling inside a 10-kilometre zone around the peak that officials said is off-limits.

The relatively inconspicuous, 1731-m-high Kelut stratovolcano contains a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of Indonesia's most deadly eruptions. A cluster of summit lava domes cut by numerous craters has given the summit a very irregular profile. Satellitic cones and lava domes are also located low on the eastern, western, and SSW flanks. Eruptive activity has in general migrated in a clockwise direction around the summit vent complex. More than 30 eruptions have been recorded from Gunung Kelut since 1000 AD. The ejection of water from the crater lake during Kelut's typically short, but violent eruptions has created pyroclastic flows and lahars that have caused widespread fatalities and destruction. After more than 5000 persons were killed during an eruption in 1919, an ambitious engineering project sought to drain the crater lake. This initial effort lowered the lake by more than 50 m, but the 1951 eruption deepened the crater by 70 m, leaving 50 million cubic meters of water after repair of the damaged drainage tunnels. After more than 200 deaths in the 1966 eruption, a new deeper tunnel was constructed, and the lake's volume before the 1990 eruption was only about 1 million cubic metres.

The Current Colour Code for Kelut at ALERT LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~

KRAKATAU

As of the 2nd of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported and confirmed to INTLVRC that a new eruption at Anak Krakatau and that there are new craters on that volcano island. GAK published a series of photos showing the new activity at Anak Krakatau. A vent located on the S flank of the summit cone formed as pit crater (see red ring in photo) around 23 October; on around 25 October, phreatic (?) and probably phreatomagmatic ash eruptions started from this location, producing clouds of ash 200-300 m high, and occurring at intervals of 3-6 minutes.

The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

The Current Colour Code for Krakatau at ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~~

SEMERU

As of the 2nd of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that Mt. Semeru volcano in the district of Lumajang in the province of east Java is in eruption since a few hours ago. The volcano showed the eruption with a dust storm and an explosion which could be heard up to one kilometre away from the crater. "The tourist track to hike to the peak of the volcano is obviously closed down immediately until further notice," said Suparno, the head of the observation station Sawur in the district of Lumajang.

According to information at the observation post, the Mt. Semeru volcano erupted with a fairly loud bang. However there was only one explosion, Suparno told that that one was strong enough to be heard up to one kilometre away. He made clear that until this moment the status of the volcano was still a level 'one' warning. It just caused three small tremors and exhausts clouds of ash and volcanic stones. "This all means that the volcano is still quite normal, however we advice the people on the slopes of the volcano to be careful," he said. Because of rainy weather, there is a chance of a cold lahar - mud flow, even worse, around the peak of the Mt. Semeru volcano the weather is really bad at the moment. This caused ash rains to be quite large. There are currently some areas at risk for a natural disaster; they are Ranupani, Ranukumbolo, Ngadas and Senduro amongst others. People there should be alert at all times. "Outside that, the path to the summit of the volcano is closed for those who should not be here at the moment," he said.

The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

The Current Colour Code for Soputan at ALERT LEVEL 1
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« Reply #141 on: November 09, 2007, 02:20:20 PM »

Indonesian Volcano Erupts, Another Quiets Down
Thursday, November 08, 2007

JAKARTA, Indonesia —  Anak Krakatau, built on the same lava plume as the Krakatoa volcano that killed tens of thousands in 1883, continued to spew lava, hot gas and rocks Thursday into the Sunda Strait between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra.

Anak Krakatua, or "Child of Krakatoa" in the official Indonesian language, rose from the water in 1930 at the same spot where Krakatoa had blown itself apart.

Elsewhere in Indonesia, the government lowered the alert status of the Kelud volcano, meaning that thousands of people who fled its slopes for government shelters can return home.

Mount Kelud on the densely populated island of Java had been on top alert for several weeks.

"The volcano no longer has the energy needed for an explosive eruption that would threaten the lives of people living nearby," Surono, the chief volcanologist at the government's volcano agency, said on the decision to downgrade Kelud's status.

Like many Javanese, Surono uses a single name.

In 1990, Kelud spewed searing fumes and lava that killed more than 30 people and injured hundreds. In 1919, a powerful explosion that reportedly could be heard hundreds of miles away killed at least 5,160.

Thousands of people from villages close to Kelud's crater lake had earlier heeded evacuation orders and moved to tent camps or government buildings, though many ignored the warnings and remained in the danger zone.

The government volcano agency said Kelud remained on the second-highest alert level and told villagers to remain vigilant because the mountain was very unpredictable. It said that villagers could return home, but should not venture close to the crater, which was still emitting smoke.

Indonesia is prone to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes because of its location on the so-called "Ring of Fire" — a series of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and Southeast Asia. It has around 100 active volcanoes.

One Indonesian Volcano Erupts, Another Quiets Down
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« Reply #142 on: November 10, 2007, 05:16:32 AM »

Indonesian volcano roaring to life

By CHRIS BRUMMITT, Associated Press Writer Fri Nov 9, 10:29 PM ET

ANAK KRAKATAU, Indonesia - Sending a boom across the bay, the offspring of the fabled Krakatau volcano unleashes another mighty eruption, blasting smoke and red-hot rocks hundreds of feet into the sky.

By the AP -  Raw Video: Volcano smokes in Indonesia

ABC news - Volcanic Eruption in Indonesia



The Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) volcano sends up
powerful clouds of hot gasses, rocks, and lava as a fishing
boat is moored offshore early Thursday Nov. 8, 2007, in
the Sunda Straits between Java and Sumatra, Indonesia.
Sending a boom echoing across the bay, the volcano
known as the 'Krakatau's Child' unleashes another
eruption, but while impressive, the eruption was nothing
compared to what took place in 1883 at this spot, when
Anak Krakatau's predecessor blew apart in one of the
most devastating eruption in recorded history.
(AP Photo/Ed Wray)

Even on its quiet side, the black sand on the now-forbidden island is so hot that a visitor can only briefly set foot on it.

This week's display by Anak Krakatau — or "Child of Krakatau" — is impressive, yet it is a mere sneeze when compared to the blast in August 1883 that obliterated its "father" in the most powerful explosion in recorded history.

That blast was heard as far away as 2,500 miles and choked the atmosphere with ash and dust, altering weather patterns for years. Some 36,000 people were killed in the eruptions and ensuing tsunamis.

Now the 985-foot peak growing from the ocean where Krakatau once stood is erupting, one of several Indonesian volcanoes that have roared to life in recent weeks.

They illustrate the awesome seismic forces at work deep below the surface of this island nation.

No lives have been lost in the latest round of activity, but thousands of villagers have been evacuated from the slopes of Mount Kelud on Java island. On Thursday, its alert status was dropped a level, meaning it is still dangerous, but residents can return home.

Indonesia's history is studded with seismic events. The 2004 Asian tsunami was spawned by a monster quake off the west coast, which sits at the intersection of three tectonic plates that form one border of the "Pacific Ring of Fire."

The plates — each moving at about the speed a fingernail grows each year — slide against or under each other, allowing molten rock from the Earth's mantle to break the surface via a volcano, or create energy released in an earthquake.

The country's 17,000 islands are home to about 70 active volcanoes, the most in the world.

Twenty of them are on Java, an island roughly the same size as Mississippi, and is home to more than half of the country's 235 million people. With demand for farmable land at a premium, many people choose to live within the shadow of the volcanoes because of the rich volcanic soil that is especially good for crops.

"We have lived here for generations. The land is my life," said Meseman, a 74-year-old papaya farmer on the slopes of Mount Kelud, who like many Indonesians uses only a single name and declined to heed the warnings to leave the area. "It is impossible for me leave. If anything, the volcanic ash will make my fields more fertile."

The cataclysmic eruption of Krakatau — which actually lies west of Java in the Sunda Strait, contrary to the title of the popular 1969 movie, "Krakatoa, East of Java" — followed several months of gradually increasing activity.

Anak Krakatau rose from the sea in 1930 and has been growing ever since.

Visitors can reach the island in about two hours by motor boat from the northern coast of Java, which is a 2 1/2-hour drive from Indonesia's capital, Jakarta. When it is quiet, it is a short, but steep walk to the top of the sandy peak.

When Anak began erupting last week, officials declared a no-go zone of about two miles. But the captain of a boat agreed to take an Associated Press reporter and photographer to Anak, briefly landing on the side of the volcano that was not erupting.

The ground was hot and appeared to vibrate beneath the pumice stone, a volcanic rock that floats on water.

Despite the history of its father, Anak is not considered especially dangerous — for now.

It has settled into a pattern of a gentle eruption every seven or eight years, scientists said.

"Maybe in hundreds of years it will blow, but I will be long gone by then," said Cahya Patria, among the scientists at the Center for Vulcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation who keep watch on the mountain from a hill on the mainland.

Krakatau is only just visible from their station, so the staff members monitor it with a seismograph and an array of other equipment installed on its slopes, including a camera that takes photos posted on the center's Web site.

As the volcano keeps up a steady stream of thunderous explosions, scientists at the station log each eruption and its intensity.

Visitors to Anak from Jakarta normally pass through the resort towns of Anyer and Carita, which were devastated by the series of tsunamis triggered by the 1883 eruption. There are few signs of that horror, aside from the foundations of a Dutch-built lighthouse that was scythed down by the sea.

The park where its replacement now stands is a popular meeting point for young lovers, who sit on benches straining to catch a glimpse of Anak Krakatau as it billows mushroom clouds of smoke into the sunset.

While most Indonesians are Muslims, many also follow pre-Islamic animist beliefs and worship ancient spirits. Often at full moons, people trek to crater rims and throw in rice, jewelry or live animals to appease the volcanoes.

"The Javanese see nature as a friend because it gives then food and life," said Bagong Suyanto, a professor of rural sociology at the University of Surabaya. "They trust it, they do not see it as a threat like volcanologists do."

Indonesian volcano roaring to life
~~~~~~~~

If y'all want, I do have a webcam link for Anak Krakatau.
« Last Edit: November 10, 2007, 05:18:26 AM by DreamWeaver » Logged

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« Reply #143 on: November 11, 2007, 08:48:10 PM »

Indonesia's Krakatau roars and dazzles with fireworks
Sun Nov 11, 2007 5:52am EST

By Supriyatin

SUNDA STRAIT, Indonesia (Reuters) - Indonesia's Anak Krakatau volcano lets out a massive roar as it blasts a gigantic cloud of smoke and flaming red rocks hundreds of meters into the night sky.

Video: Volcano spits fire

A few hours later, a river of lava and stones glowing like embers glide down the slopes of Mount Anak Krakatau as the muted light of the rising sun tries to break through thick clouds settled above the mountain.

The volcano, whose name means "Child of Krakatau", formed in the Sunda Strait close to Java island after Mount Krakatau's legendary eruption in 1883. It rumbled to life about two weeks ago and since then has been dazzling scientists and visitors with its amazing pyrotechnics.

Scientists monitoring the volcano say Anak Krakatau is not especially dangerous and will continue to rumble for some time, but warn people to stay out of a 1.9 miles zone around the mountain.

"We are a little worried sometimes when we heard the big boom and we see rocks that fall from, I don't know, half kilometer from the hole," Chad Bouchard, one of a group of eight tourists who spent the night in a boat in the ocean to watch the volcano.

"Sometimes we see the splash inside the ocean. That's a little scary but no, I think it might be stupid but I feel safe."

DEVASTATING DISASTER

Anak Krakatau, which lies 26 miles from the nearest observation post in Serang on the westernmost edge of Java, gradually formed after the volcanic island of Krakatau blew up in a massive eruption in 1883, triggering tsunamis and killing more than 36,000 people.

Ashes from that eruption, one of the most devastating natural disasters in recorded history, were carried by upper level winds as far away as New York City.

Krakatau, one of dozens of volcanoes in the sprawling Indonesian archipelago, last erupted in 1988, but its eruptions have never approached the ferocity of its parent.

Child of Krakatau is one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the Pacific "Ring of Fire", but authorities have not yet raised the alert level to the highest which would require the evacuation of people around the volcano.

A vulcanologist monitoring Anak Krakatau said the volcano was likely to rumble and roar for some time.

"It is still at the third level of alert. It is safe and there aren't any problems. There were approximately one hundred explosions yesterday," Saut Simatupang, head of volcano observation in Bandung, told Reuters.

"If the energy is the same as this, it is more likely it will stay at this level for quite some time as the tremors are frequent. Today only, there have been one hundred."

Visitors who had their morning coffee in a boat in the shadow of the volcano in the Sunda Strait's choppy waters about a one-and-a-half-hour ride from the mainland said they felt safe.

"It's spectacular, it's just amazing to be here," said Patricia Anderton, a tourist from New Haven in the United states.

"I feel incredibly lucky to be able to see it."

Indonesia's Krakatau roars and dazzles with fireworks
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« Reply #144 on: November 17, 2007, 02:37:57 PM »

GALERAS

As of the 13th of November, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (OVSP) has reported that the activity of the volcano continues at: Level III (Changes in the behaviour of the volcanic activity) Of the permanent pursuit and the analysis that the Vulcanológico Observatory of the INGEOMINAS makes in Pasto, one stands out that: It continues the predominance of seismic events related so much to the dynamics of the magmatic fluids like with the hydrothermal system, that happen with a preferential at superficial levels, standing out among them the denominated episodes of spasmodic tremor, that are generally associated with gas discharges and fine ash. Some of those tremors continued showing contained low frequencies. When the climatic conditions have allowed it, it has been possible to observe columns of emission mainly conformed by water steam, that sometimes drag small volumes of solid particles. Those columns reached peak altitudes between 200 and 1000 metres on the top of the volcanic ediface, and by action of winds, the dispersion has been preferential towards the south and southwest flank. Personnel of the Observatory could the verify on the 8th of November, abouts 1100hrs, the fine ash fall in the Churupamba path, of the municipality of Consacá (western sector of the volcano). INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic activity and will opportunely inform the changes that can be detected.

The colour code at Galeras is currently at ALERT LEVEL III
~~~~~~~~~

KELUT

As of the 16th of November, the Center for Volcanology and Geology Disaster Mitigation (CVGDM) has reported that it lowered the Alert Status of Kelut on 8 November from 4 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4), due to a decrease in seismicity and deformation. Temperatures of the crater lake were measured at 75 deg C on 6 Nov, and 150-210 deg C on the surface of the new lava dome. According to a local news article, a volcanologist reported that the lava dome was 250 m in diameter and 120 m above the crater lake surface. On 11 November, a plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and ashfall was reported in several areas. CVGHM recommended that evacuees could return to their homes, but should stay clear of the mountain within a 3-km radius was restricted.

The relatively inconspicuous, 1731-m-high Kelut stratovolcano contains a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of Indonesia's most deadly eruptions. A cluster of summit lava domes cut by numerous craters has given the summit a very irregular profile. Satellitic cones and lava domes are also located low on the eastern, western, and SSW flanks. Eruptive activity has in general migrated in a clockwise direction around the summit vent complex. More than 30 eruptions have been recorded from Gunung Kelut since 1000 AD. The ejection of water from the crater lake during Kelut's typically short, but violent eruptions has created pyroclastic flows and lahars that have caused widespread fatalities and destruction. After more than 5000 persons were killed during an eruption in 1919, an ambitious engineering project sought to drain the crater lake. This initial effort lowered the lake by more than 50 m, but the 1951 eruption deepened the crater by 70 m, leaving 50 million cubic meters of water after repair of the damaged drainage tunnels. After more than 200 deaths in the 1966 eruption, a new deeper tunnel was constructed, and the lake's volume before the 1990 eruption was only about 1 million cubic metres.

The Current Colour Code for Kelut at ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~~

KRAKATAU

As of the 16th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that Anak Krakatau continues its new Strombolian activity from the new vent south of the summit crater. The eruptions are producing small ash plumes, ejections of incandescent spatter bombs as well as lava flows, as news reports and data from KRAKMON indicate. Seismicity was at elevated levels.

The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

The Current Colour Code for Krakatau at ALERT LEVEL 3
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« Reply #145 on: November 17, 2007, 02:41:35 PM »

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 17th of November, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that satellite views of Cleveland have been mostly cloudy today. No reports of activity have been received. AVO continues to monitor Cleveland Volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 15th of November, INGEMMET reported that based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. during 11-12 November. Plumes drifted NNE.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Per�. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 15th of November, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanol�gico and Sismol�gico de Popay�n, informed that during the period between 6 and 12 of November a total of 185 seismic events was registered. Of them, 108 events are associate to fracturing of rock, 74 are related to the dynamics of fluid within the volcanic conduits, 3 events present/display mechanisms composed of fracturing of rock and transit of fluids. In this period the registry of a volcano-tectonic event stands out that registered the 11 of November at 0415hrs local time, which had a magnitude of 2.75 and it was located to the SW of the volcanic ediface. Of the previous thing it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, with slight excitations of the system. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic phenomenon and will inform into opportune way the changes that can be presented/displayed.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #146 on: November 17, 2007, 02:44:15 PM »

CHIKURACHKI

As of the 16th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that KVERT has not had any information about any ash plumes from the volcano last weeks. According to satellite data, clouds obscured the volcano this week. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidised basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 16th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was at background levels last week. Shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered at the volcano. According to seismic data, possibly weak ash explosions occurred on November 12-13. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 16th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the volcano continues. Strong eruption with ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL are possible next week. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels on November 12 and at background levels on the other days. According to visual and video data, weak gas-steam plumes from the volcano were noted to the north-east on November 09 and to the south on November 13. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed on November 09-13 and bright gas-steam plumes about 100 km (6 mi) on November 9-11 and 13. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #147 on: November 17, 2007, 02:46:43 PM »

SHEVELUCH

As of the 16th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 8.0 km (26,200 ft) ASL and hot avalanches occurred at the volcano all week. According to visual and video data, ash plumes rose up to 5.0 km (16,400 ft) ASL on November 08 and 12-14. During an overflight on November 09 was noted that a new lava flow effused on the south-western dome�s flank. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week. Ash plumes extended 15-147 km (9-91 mi) to the south-east from the volcano on November 12-13. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 17th of November, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity at the Soufri�re Hills volcano has remained at low levels throughout the reporting period and the pause in lava extrusion [and dome growth] continues. Visual observations showed that fumarolic activity was concentrated on the northern and southern flanks of the dome. The vent located behind Gages Wall remains active, and appears to tap deeper, hotter regions of the dome than other fumaroles, emitting bluish sulphur dioxide gas. Deep erosion of the talus slope, due to heavy rainfall, was observed on the eastern sector of the dome resulting in the formation of two prominent channels. There also appears to have been minor erosion in the region of the Gages Wall.

Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding although the likelihood of this is thought to decrease with time as no further lava extrusion occurs. During heavy downpours, such during the passing of tropical depressions, lahar activity in drainages around the volcano (including the Belham Valley to the northwest), remains a potential hazard. Recorded seismic activity remained low throughout the period.The seismic network recorded 11 rockfall signals and 2 volcano-tectonic earthquakes.

The recorded sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux rate for the period was variable, ranging from a maximum of a 1167 tonnes per day (t/d) to a minimum of to 457 t/d. This gave an average flux rate for the period of 698 t/d, slightly above the long-term average for the eruption, of about 550 t/d. FTIR measurements on 15 November yielded a HCl:SO2 ratio of 0.67 , higher than previous measurements on 5 and 8 November of 0.31 and 0.36, respectively. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 17th of November, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift to the east-northeast.

Clouds obscure the volcano today. Seismic records show the low-level seismicity of ongoing lava-dome extrusion typical of the past many months. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
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« Reply #148 on: November 17, 2007, 02:49:17 PM »

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 17th of November, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano only registered 2 low intensity exhalations accompanied by steam and gas. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report the volcano can be seen with a small steam and gas emission.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 17th of November, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that seismicity level stays as well as the characteristics of superficial phenomena. The index of Seismic Activity (IAS) continues in high level.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: 84 events of long period (LPs), 11 events of tremor of emission and 5 explosions were registered. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: The volcano in afternoon remained partially storm cloud, was observed an emission column that reached a height of 800 ms on the crater. At night from the observatory one saw incandescence and blocks that rolled by flanks of the volcano. Also a cannon shot was reported from Manzano and it was heard to roll blocks. In the morning he remained cloudy but the explosions and the bearing of blocks by flanks of the volcano were heard. Climate/Rains/Lahare: There were light drizzles in the zone of Ba�os but they did not generated lahars.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 8th of November, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that white plumes occasionally accompanied by ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. during 2-5 November. Plumes drifted N, NW, and W. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town and surrounding areas. A strong smell of hydrogen-sulfide gas were reported and occasional incandescence at the summit was observed.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1
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« Reply #149 on: November 17, 2007, 02:52:09 PM »

Mt. ETNA

As of the 8th of November it has been reported to INTLVRC by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) reported that Mt. Etna was quiet and without explosive activity since September 5. Snow covered the tops with its white coat. A light recovery was observed in the night of October 29th with the projections emitted since the depression in the East of the Southern crater East. The observations have was made since the images diffused by the cameras of the INGV. During the night and with intervals from 3 to 5 hours of the explosions occurred throughout one 15 to 30 minutes with incandescent material projections.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater. Flank eruptions, typically with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna's summit craters began in 1995. The active volcano is monitored by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Volcanologia (INGV) in Catania.

The volcano Mt. Etna is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 17th of November, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the Summary for last 24 hours: The perched channel continued to feed seeps on both sides of the channel and an east-going tube that was intermittently blocked yesterday. The most active area continued to be along the south flow field margin: Since Friday, an east-going flow advanced almost a mile in areas north of Pu`u Kia`i and southeast-going flows advanced almost one mile over Kupaianaha flows located southeast of Pu`u Kia`i. Activity Summary for the past few months: Lava erupted from the 7/21 fissures is probably fed from a shallow magma storage area beneath Pu`u `O`o where it degasses before being erupted. In September and October, the channel system produced `a`a lava flows that were shorter than those erupted during August causing the area covered by 7/21 flows to get wider in the northwest-southeast direction but not longer in the northeast direction. In late October, tube-fed pahoehoe flows developed and advanced along the north and south margins of the flow field. In the last few weeks, the east tube has produced pahoehoe flows along the south margin that advanced nearly as far to the east as the August flows before stalling. The east tube remains the most active. Hazard Summary: Based on the information summarised above, there are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Wao Kele o Puna is also closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: Lava levels were up to the rim in pond 4 (the northernmost segment of the channel) with small overflows yesterday morning. Lava levels in the other parts of the channel remained a few metres below the rim. The east tube inlet was submerged and a skylight, located about 75 m (250 ft) away from the channel, was dark suggesting that the east tube had clogged. Just after noon, the blockage apparently cleared, the lava level in pond 4 dropped several metres exposing the east tube inlet, and flowing lava could be seen in the nearby skylight. Late yesterday, a pilot report suggested that the tube had clogged again. The north seep was minimally active with only scattered incandescence visible overnight. The south seeps were more active and continued to push flows eastward within the vicinity of the channel. The east tube continued to issue mostly pahoehoe flows eastward and southeastward in the vicinity of Pu`u Kia`i. These flows advance about 1.3 km (0.8 miles) since last Friday.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: Fume and dark again. The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter recorded slight deflation from a source to the east before this morning's rain added its own contribution. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values except for tremor bursts thought to be related to crust overturns of the 7/21 channel. Our nearest seismometer to the July 21 fissure was moved away from Kalalua and the path of the south seep-fed flows to higher ground at Kupaianaha. GPS receivers continued to record slowing contraction across the crater.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeters recorded no significant signal. GPS receivers recorded slowing contraction across the caldera. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values; as noted yesterday, these values have doubled over the past week and are nearly at pre-6/17 levels. Several small earthquakes were located beneath Halema`uma`u crater and the south flank faults.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 15th November, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that observers reported that on 5 November five active vents at Stromboli were visible at the bottom of the crater terrace, which subsided about 100 m since March 2007. Lava fountains from a vent in the SW crater were sustained for over one minute and spattering was observed from two vents in the central crater. The vents erupted about every five to ten minutes to one hour.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
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