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Theology => Prophecy - Current Events => Topic started by: Soldier4Christ on October 26, 2006, 10:11:23 PM



Title: Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on October 26, 2006, 10:11:23 PM
 Volcano's activity increases on Russia's Kamchatka peninsula

The Karymsky volcano on the Kamchatka peninsula in Russia's Far East has increased its activity, spewing ash emissions up to an altitude of around 5,000 meters (16,400 feet), a local seismology official said Thursday.

Experts said a total of 450 minor quakes have been registered over the past 24 hours near Karymsky, Kamchatka's most active volcano, in the southeast of the peninsular, which rises to 1,536 metres (5,039 feet) above sea level.

Satellite images show an ash plume 12 kilometers long and four kilometers wide, with a 100-km ash tail stretching southeastwards at a height of 3,500 meters (11,500 feet).

The volcano erupted in February following an 11-year period of normal activity. Ash emissions and about 230 minor tremors were reported last week. Experts say the volcano's activity has been accelerating.

This year more than 1,200 people, including 542 children, were evacuated from the north of the Kamchatka peninsula after a series of earthquakes. The first 7.8-magnitude quake, the strongest in the Koryak Autonomous Area in the north of the peninsular since 1900, injured 31 people on April 21. It also damaged about 380 houses and 25 administrative facilities in four other towns.


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on October 26, 2006, 10:12:43 PM
Etna springs back to life

Catania, October 26 - Experts swooped on Mount Etna on Thursday after the volcano sprang back into life .

The volcanologists examined a fresh lava flow on the south side of the volcano, coming out of a fissure that opened up at the weekend at a height of 2,000 metres .

Lava is now flowing from three craters on the mountain accompanied by blasts, black smoke and ash .

The new craters, however, are far from any inhabited areas, experts stressed .

Etna is Europe's most active volcano .

Earlier this month the European Space Agency presented a 3D simulation of the volcano's seismic movements .

"Seen from above, Etna looks like a huge creature breathing fitfully," ESA said, reporting a 15cm-high ripple "as the mountain's lungs fill up and convulsively disgorge lava and gas". In October 2002, it was rocked by a series of tremors and minor eruptions which damaged buildings and left 1,000 people temporarily homeless .

More serious volcanic activity occurred in the summer of 2001 .

The eruptions made international headlines as parts of an important ski resort, the Rifugio Sapienza, were engulfed and the town of Nicolosi was threatened with a similar fate .

Viewers around the world were also held spellbound by the beauty of the spectacle, which experts said was one of the most unusual and complex eruptions in three centuries .

But the volcano's last major eruption was in 1992, when the Italian military had to use controlled explosions to divert lava away from the town of Zafferana on the mountain's lower slopes .


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on October 26, 2006, 10:13:49 PM
 Fourpeaked Volcano still steaming

Fourpeaked Volcano is still giving off steam and gas. A volcano near Mount Douglas and about 100 miles south of Homer, Fourpeaked became active in late September. The Alaska Volcano Observatory level of concern for Fourpeaked remains at “advisory” in its simplified four-level advisory system.

Scientists from the Alaska Volcano Observatory have spent the end of the field season installing seismometers and pressure centers on the volcano.

“We’re watching it closely,” said Peter Cevelli, a research geophysicist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Anchorage.

An overflight Monday measured gases emitted by Fourpeaked. Levels of sulfur dioxide remain high, although earthquake activity is below background levels.

“That’s a bit of a puzzle because of the amount of gas,” Cevelli said.

A Web camera 10 miles away now broadcasts images of Fourpeaked. A link to the Web camera is on the Fourpeaked Volcano Web page at www.avo.alaska.edu/ activity/Fourpeaked.php.

Scientists have also walked the volcano area looking for signs of recent activity before September. Fourpeaked had previously been classified as extinct and last thought to have erupted in the Holocene geological period, about 10,000 years ago.

“The big puzzle is this volcano has no sign of recent eruption,” Cevelli said.


Title: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on March 19, 2007, 06:36:27 PM
Mud, rocks rush from New Zealand volcano

By RAY LILLEY, Associated Press Writer Mon Mar 19, 7:11 AM ET

WELLINGTON, New Zealand - A mix of mud, acidic water and rocks tore down the slope of a volcano in New Zealand on Sunday, bursting through a 23-foot wall of volcanic ash and sand built up in an eruption 12 years ago.

The mud flow — also known as a lahar — broke through the rubble wall atop Mount Ruapehu's crater lake Sunday morning, triggering an early warning alarm, local authorities said.

Police and civil defense workers immediately closed roads and the nation's main trunk rail near the southern base of the mountain on New Zealand's North Island.

The island's main north-south highway, some 30 miles from the mountain's base, also was closed and two passenger trains with 200 people on board were halted some distance from the mountain.

A lahar that tore down the same volcano in 1953 killed 151 people when it washed away a rail bridge, plunging a passenger train into the raging torrent of liquid mud.

On Sunday, millions of gallons of acidic water breached the naturally occurring wall of volcanic ash and sand known as tephra, regional council chairman Gary Murfitt said.

More than 130 feet of the tephra's wall was washed away — a dozen years after it had built up in Ruapehu's 1995 eruption, said Dr. Harry Keys, a lahar expert with the Conservation Department.

Farmer Josh Wallace said the lahar carried rocks, mud and trees down the Whangaehu River that runs through his property.

"The water was a concrete color ... it was so gray. You could feel the rocks in the water hitting the bank," he told National Radio.

There were no immediate reports of damage, apart from flooding on some farmland near the base of the mountain.

There was also no threat to human life. Scientists had been able to predict the lahar's passage and the early warning system had worked as planned, Conservation Minister Chris Carter said.

In the 1953 lahar, the bodies of some of the dead were washed high into trees as the torrent spewed down river valleys to the sea, some 125 miles away. Many of the victims were never found.

Mud, rocks rush from New Zealand volcano  (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070319/ap_on_re_au_an/new_zealand_mud_flow;_ylt=Ar9RCDBQHKrdhholWmzpr4tvaA8F)


Title: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 04, 2007, 02:36:01 PM
Water-level drop prompts volcano fear
By Jonathan Yeung (China Daily)
Updated: 2007-04-03 07:05

A record decline in the water level at Huguangyan's volcanic lake in Guangdong has raised concern that the sleeping volcano is about to have a wake-up call.

At 2.3 square kilometers, Huguangyan is the world's largest volcanic lake. It is located in the southwest city of Zhanjiang.

It has recorded its lowest water level in 10 years and during the second half of 2006, the level dropped 5 meters.

The phenomenon, however, should not be a cause for worry, said Chen Quan, the director of Zhanjiang's seismology bureau. He ruled out the possibility of an eruption.

"Our observation has not shown any abnormal sign indicating that a re-eruption will occur at Huguangyan," said Chen.

Evolved from an extinct volcano centuries ago, the lake experienced a dramatic reduction in water during the second half of 2006 when the level fell 5 meters to reach 13 meters.

Luo Shuwen, senior engineer from Guangdong geological prospecting bureau, said Huguangyan's water level drop was due mainly to a decline in rainfall last year.

Luo said that between September and December alone, precipitation around Huguangyan was just 231.0 millimeters while the evaporation was as high as 445.3 millimeters.

"Water supply therefore lagged far behind water loss," Luo said.

He added that there were other reasons for the problem.

"Working entities around Huguangyan kept pumping water from the lake which also caused Huguangyan's water level to decline," Luo said.

Scientists with Zhanjiang meteorological bureau agreed that there was no need for people to worry.

Officials at the scenic spot have been trying to deal with the issue. They have submitted proposals to Zhanjiang's municipal government to preserve Asia's only Maar lake.

The first idea seeks to pump water from a well into the lake while another calls for a restriction on pumping water out of Huguangyan.

Experts who have been doing research on Huguangyan Maar lake for many years agreed that working entities that use water from Huguangyan should be restricted. They also say that pumping in water from other lakes was not feasible.

The lake's deposits can provide thousands of years of information about the earth and it is commonly referred to as "earth's yearbook."

Water-level drop prompts volcano fear (http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2007-04/03/content_842126.htm)


Title: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 20, 2007, 04:28:24 PM
Colombia volcano erupts, thousands flee

By FERNANDO VERGARA, Associated Press Writer Wed Apr 18, 7:07 PM ET

NEIVA, Colombia - Thousands of people were evacuated after a long-dormant volcano erupted late Tuesday and again early Wednesday, provoking avalanches and floods that swept away houses and bridges.

The Nevado del Huila volcano's eruptions were its first on record since Colombia was colonized by the Spanish 500 years ago.

There are about 10,000 people living in the area around the volcano, and about 3,500 had been evacuated, Luz Amanda Pulido, director of the national disaster office, told The Associated Press after flying over the volcano in southwest Colombia.

There were no reports of deaths or injuries.

The eruption sent an avalanche of rocks down the volcano's sides and into the Paez and Simbola rivers, causing them to flood.

"The bridges were swept away, the highway used by the indigenous in the zone was destroyed for various kilometers (miles) and the problem we have now is the lack of a route to deliver goods and medicines to the population," Police Gen. Orlando Paez said.

Experts were not ruling out more eruptions.

"The seismic activity remains light but permanent, and we can't rule out another bigger event in the next hours or days," said Mario Ballesteros, director of the government's Institute for Geology and Mining.

The Nevado del Huila, which is topped with a crown of ice, is Colombia's third-highest peak at 18,484 feet. Located 170 miles southwest of Bogota, it became active again in March with a series of internal rumblings.

In 1985, the town of Armero was wiped from the map and 25,000 people were killed when another volcano, the Nevado del Ruiz, exploded and set off a series of mudslides. It was Colombia's worst natural disaster.

Colombia volcano erupts, thousands flee (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070418/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/colombia_volcano;_ylt=AlVVA4TmEHnxSH4NfPTH6YAUewgF)


Title: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 26, 2007, 06:00:56 AM
I haven't done this in a while.  So I'm going to try, and keep y'all updated.  At least once a week on the volcanoes around the world. For the past week..............

Green is low, to no eruption (Don't count on seeing this one posted.)
Yellow, chance of eruption (Don't count on seeing this one posted very often.)
Orange is high level of erupting still, danger Will Robinson
Red is the highest level

In orange, and red there are 4 different levels.  The higher the level the worse the eruption...
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Vanuatu,  LOPEVI

As of the 22nd of April, colleague John Seach of Australia has reported that Lopevi volcano in Vanuatu erupted on teh 22nd of April. Ash emissions of unknown height were reported at 1133 local time, and were observed by pilots and visible on satellite images. Ash drifted eastwards away from inhabited islands. A change in wind direction may send ash over populated areas. Lopevi is one of the most active volcanoes in Vanuatu.

The small 7-km-wide conical island of Lopevi, known locally as Vanei Vollohulu, is one of Vanuatu's most active volcanoes. A small summit crater containing a cinder cone is breached to the NW and tops an older cone that is rimmed by the remnant of a larger crater. The basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has been active during historical time at both summit and flank vents, primarily along a NW-SE-trending fissure that cuts across the island, producing moderate explosive eruptions and lava flows that reached the coast. Historical eruptions at the 1413-m-high volcano date back to the mid-19th century. The island was evacuated following major eruptions in 1939 and 1960. The latter eruption, from a NW-flank fissure vent, produced a pyroclastic flow that swept to the sea and a lava flow that formed a new peninsula on the western coast.

The Current Colour Code for Lopevi is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

COLOMBIA,  HUILA

As of the 24th of April, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that yesterday, a fly over was made by personnel of INGEOMINAS with the support of the Colombian Air Force, and emphasize the following aspects:
* With respect to fissure formed the past 19 of February, this one extends from the low part of the Tip the Crest to the South part of the Central Tip, where an increase in its dimensions is appraised, with a present length of 2.3 km and a wide one of approximately 200 m; on the outline of the fissure a constant fumarolic activity is demonstrated and the gas column reaches an approximated height of 5000 m, white colouration perceiving a strong scent of sulfur.
* The appearance of a new fissure is emphasised on the Central Tip, which initiates in the low part of its suroccidental end and it extends until the northeastern sector of the Central Tip, with an approximated extension of 2 km Also strong fumarolic activity through this fissure is appraised.
* By the affluents of the rivers Páez and Símbola that are born in the Central Tip, evidences of the formation of mud flows were observed, which mainly descended in the Eastern flank by the gorge the Bear and in the western flank by the broken Bellavista.
* Of the seismic activity local time is emphasised the occurrence of an event to the 1144, of superficial character and with an associated magnitude of 3.0 to fracturing of rock, located under the Central Tip.
* According to the analysis of the parameters of pursuit of the volcanic activity, it is emphasised that the instability of the system continues, and the possibility of occurrence of new eruptions does not discard.
INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the presented/displayed phenomenon and will inform INTLVRC in an opportune way the changes that can be presented/displayed.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from the central peak, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

NICARAGUA, CONCEPCION

As of the 24th of April, the Nicaraguan institute of Territorial Studies (INETER) reported that on the 22nd of April of 2007, at 2043 there were two explosions in the crater of the volcano Concepcion that threw gases and volcanic ash. The ashes can be transported by the wind according to the direction that takes, in this case towards the Southwestern West of the Island, this explosion happened between the 2043 ~ 2046, followed by tremor that even stays, this the phenomenon was registered by the seismic station in the volcano in the Island of Ometepe. To observe the event, see the seismogram shown above that registered the seismic volcano station Concepcion. INETER continues monitoring the volcano and will inform INTLVRC on any important event.

Volcán Concepción is one of Nicaragua's highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua and is connected to neighboring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. A steep-walled summit crater is 250 m deep and has a higher western rim. N-S-trending fractures on the flanks of the volcano have produced chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars located on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides extending in some cases down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepción was constructed above a basement of lake sediments, and the modern cone grew above a largely buried caldera, a small remnant of which forms a break in slope about halfway up the north flank. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past half century have increased the height of the summit significantly above that shown on current topographic maps and have kept the upper part of the volcano unvegetated.

The Current Colour Code for Concepcion is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 26, 2007, 06:06:05 AM
KAMCHATKA, (Russia)  KARYMSKY

As of the 21st of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that an eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels. According to seismic data, weak local shallow earthquakes all week and possibly, ash explosions up to 4.0 km (13,100 ft) ASL on April 15-16, and weak ash explosions in the other days occurred at the volcano. According to visual data by volcanologists who work now at the volcano a gas-steam rose up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) ASL on April 19. The crater of the volcano have changes. Possibly a small new lava flow lie at the south-western flank of the volcano. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly over the volcano was noted on April 14-16. An ash plume extended about 20 km to the east from the volcano on April 16.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

KAMCHATKA, (Russia)  BEZYMIANNY

As of the 21st of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Strong seismicity at nearby Klyuchevskoy volcano makes it difficult to determine seismicity at Bezymianny, and KB GS RAS' staff is unable to accurately determine the state of the volcano from 15 April. Seismic activity did not exceed background levels on April 13-14. According to visual and video data, gas-steam plumes rose up to 3.8 km (12,500 ft) ASL and extended mainly to the southern directions from the volcano last week. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly over the lava dome was noted on April 13-18.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~

KAMCHATKA, (Russia) SHEVELUCH

As of the 21st of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that seismic activity was above background levels, a lot of shallow volcanic earthquakes and volcanic tremor were registered. According to seismic data, probably ash plumes up to 6.5 km (21,300 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano. According to visual and video data, ash plumes rose up to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) last week. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended 25-280 km (16-174 mi) mainly to the east, south-east and south from the volcano each day of this week. A big thermal anomaly was noted all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 26, 2007, 06:09:44 AM
KAMCHATKA, (Russia) KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 25th of April, the Kamchatka Volcano Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. According to visual data by Y. Demyanchuk, lava flows and mud flows moved downslope on the north-western flank of the volcano on April 24. Phreatic activity is observed on the front of the lava flows. An ash plume extended from the lava flow's front. Seismic activity of the volcano continues.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is now at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

KURILE IS.,  CHIKURACHKI

As of the 21st of April, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that explosive eruption of the volcano continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. Explosive activity of the volcano began on March 04. According to visual data, there are bursts of volcanic bombs were noted by hunters near the volcano on April 15. An ash plume rose up to 3.8 km (12,500 ft) ASL and extended to the north from the volcano on April 18. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended about 9-20 km (5.6-12.4 mi) from the volcano to the south-east on April 14, and to the west-northwest on April 15-16.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidized basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red color. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centers is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

WEST INDIES, (Montserrat) SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 25th of April, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity has remained low over the last 24 hours. Dome growth is ongoing and appears focused primarily on the eastern shear lobe, although at a much reduced rates in comparison with earlier in the year. As the dome stands, a significant proportion of the dome material remains in the sector above Tyres Ghaut to the NW. The amount of material here is sufficient to generate pyroclastic flows and surges capable of impacting on the lower Belham Valley. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ALERT LEVEL 4


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 26, 2007, 06:13:23 AM
UNITED STATES, Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 25th of April, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift northeastward throughout the day.

The clouds are currently at crater rim level and from the remote camera at the USFS' Johnston Ridge Observatory one can clearly see the termini of the two arms of the Crater Glacier. Disruption of the glacier by the eruption has caused dramatic movement of the glacier northward and termini appear to be encircling the older 1980s lava dome. Deformation rates and seismicity remain very low as the extrusion of the lava dome continues. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

MEXICO, POPOCATEPETL

As of the 25th of April, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 11 small exhalations accompanied by steam and gas. At the moment of this report there is partial visibility to the volcano due to the clouds. This morning CENAPRED could see the volcano with a steam and gas emission.

The activity in the last days has been related in the past with movements of material inside the volcano, so there is a probability that the lava dome inside the crater of the volcano is still growing. From high to low probability, the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions, occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~

GUATEMALA,  PACAYA

As of the 24th of April, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that incandescent lava reflection is observed in the peak of the volcano and the lava flow continues leaving in the lateral crater level 2450 m on the northeast flank. This lava flow descends and it is deposited on the piled up lava promontory in the base of the volcano. Fumarolic emission elevates a white cloud of ~150 m of alt., soon transported to the south.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 26, 2007, 06:16:45 AM
GUATEMALA,  FUEGO

As of the 24th of April, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the eruption during the last 4 days, finalized last night at 2100 hours. The eruption was of Stromboliana type with incandescent a lava source maintained of 65-75 m of alt., causing wild incandescent avalanches by it and some pyroclastic flows towards ravines the Lajas and Taniluyá. The ash that was expelled fell mainly in the south direction and the west up to 8 km distance with fine granular ash on the average and the gases and aerosols could be transported to the atmosphere until reaching the Pacific Ocean. The volcano overall has grown ~40 m by accumulation of material. Now single it has fumarolic emission and sporadic gaseous expulsions to 200 m of alt..

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

GUATEMALA, SANTA MARIA

As of the 25th of April, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that early morning visible images showed a narrow plume extending approximately 10.35 mi to the southwest of the summit at 1245Z. Little change to the direction of motion is anticipated for the next 6 hours. this activity is ordinary for Santa Maria.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

ECUADOR, REVENTADOR

As of the 25th of April, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reports that in the last 24 hours the volcano maintains high seismicity. The sector has partially remained in a storm cloud, there are no rain reports from afternoon of yesterday and emissions have not been reported.

There were 433 hybrid events (HBs), 20 have been entered volcano tectonic (VTs), 1 episodes of monochrome tremor of short duration, 6 spasmodic episodes of tremor of short duration. The hybrid events and volcano tectonics are related to fracturing of rocks due to pressures of internal fluids (magma or gases). The number of these events is high putting in evidence the continuity of the eruptive process.

Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption at Reventador took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light for Reventador is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 26, 2007, 06:20:33 AM
ECUADOR, TUNGURAHUA

As of the 25th of April, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reports that in the last 24 hours the seismic activity of last the 24 hours is characterised by events of flowed movements of (tremors and of long period). Ash falls have been reported in Choglontus, Manzano and Bilbao, by the presence of continuous emissions during today that did not surpass 3 km of height at the moments that had visibility. Most of the time the volcano has remained dimmed and afternoon of today it reported drizzles in the high part of the volcano, without they register still new lahars. The present activity of the volcano considers it as low.

A total of 67 events of long period (LPs) and 74 episodes of tremor of continuous emission have been entered a total of. Practically from 0947 (local time) of today the tremor signals, associated to emissions, are continuous making occasionally saturate the station nearest the crater (RETU). The continuity of this signal remains until the moment for sending this report. While they were visible the emission columns were under 3 km with moderate ash contents. From Choglontus it was reported that the ash fall is strong. From Manzano they listened to bearing of blocks.

Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major volcanic edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1995 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

INDIAN OCEAN (Réunion Is.)  PITON de la FOURNAISE

As of the 25th of April the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, IPGP, Réunion, France reported that the eruption is still in progress in the Grand Brûlé: The tremor remains constant, the intensity of lava flow varies from one day to another. Seismics under the summit are always recorded, the walls of Dolomieu continue to be exhausted.

An important seismicity is always observed with the balance of the summit and a one kilometre depth to the lower part of the sea level. On the other hand no seismics in the area of Tremblet was observed. The magmatic chamber continues to be emptied. The gases "pistons" are in reduction at the summit but appear on the level of the eruption which explains the recrudescence of the noted fountains of lava this morning. Many inhabitants of Tremblet came as neighbours Saturday evening in summit from the slopes which dominate the enclosure of the volcano to be filled with wonder in front of the spectacle of lava flows. Work consisting in arranging a point of view of observation is in the course of security. Consequently, the access to the public remains prohibited.

The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its >530,000 year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.

The volcano Piton de la Fournaise is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

HAWAII,  KILAUEA

As of the 25th of April, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that Kilauea volcano continues to erupt from the Pu`u `O`o vent on the East Rift Zone. The eruption is stable and there have been no significant changes in the last 24 hours. In the last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o: Incandescence from vents in the crater floor lit gas plumes when fog permited views. Only East Pond, January, and Drainhole vents appeared active. POC tiltmeter recorded the usual oscillations. Seismic tremor levels remained at moderate levels. Lava continues to flow through the PKK lava tube to the top of Pulama pali then continues in surface flows down the pali. The Campout lava tube provides lava to the coast at the Kamokuna ocean entry, an eastward branch to the base of Royal Gardens subdivision, and westward branch to the coastal plain inland of the East Lae`apuki sea cliff. Lava continues to enter the ocean at Kamokuna within the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

The last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tilt network recorded no change. Tremor continued at low levels. A few shallow earthquakes were located beneath the summit caldera; a small flurry of shallow earthquakes is now occurring beneath the west edge of Makaopuhi crater. Air quality was good.

NPS eruption crew report from the coast for Monday evening: Signs of activity on the pali and coastal plain seemed to be at a very low level. Incandescence was visible reflected in clouds above the pali at two locations - possibly Pu`u `O`o and the area where the Campout flow branches off the PKK tube. On the pali, no incandescence. At the Kamokuna ocean entry, two small steam plumes were again visible by day.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Volcano Eruption
Post by: Shammu on May 09, 2007, 11:54:22 PM
For those of us who are watching the earth changes and the movements of
the earths' core to bring changes to our earth with volcano's esp. here are
some links to bookmark for updates and activity.

Volcano Eruption ~ Mt Etna ~ Sicily, Italy ~ Erupting (this was yesterday which is why I came on so late.)

Volcano Ubinas ~ Location: Peru ~ currently Eruption

New Activity/Unrest: | Bezymianny, Russia | Lopevi, Vanuatu | Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island

Ongoing Activity: | Ambrym, Vanuatu | Batu Tara, Indonesia | Chikurachki, Russia | Colima, México | Karymsky, Russia | Kilauea, USA | Kliuchevskoi, Russia | Manam, Papua New Guinea | Masaya, Nicaragua | Rabaul, Papua New Guinea | Reventador, Ecuador | Santa María, Guatemala | Shiveluch, Russia | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat | St. Helens, USA | Talang, Indonesia | Tungurahua, Ecuador | Ubinas, Perú | Ulawun, Papua New Guinea

http://www.volcano.si.edu/reports/usgs/

Satellite data reveals seismic link to volcanoes

http://www.scidev.net/content/news/eng/satellite-data-reveals-seismic-link-to-volcanoes.cfm

http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/index.php?smp=&lang=eng


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on May 13, 2007, 10:57:30 PM
Volcano: LOPEVI

As of the 10th of May, based on a pilot report, the Wellington VAAC reported that based on a pilot report, the Wellington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Lopevi rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 3 May.

The small 7-km-wide conical island of Lopevi, known locally as Vanei Vollohulu, is one of Vanuatu's most active volcanoes. A small summit crater containing a cinder cone is breached to the NW and tops an older cone that is rimmed by the remnant of a larger crater. The basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has been active during historical time at both summit and flank vents, primarily along a NW-SE-trending fissure that cuts across the island, producing moderate explosive eruptions and lava flows that reached the coast. Historical eruptions at the 1413-m-high volcano date back to the mid-19th century. The island was evacuated following major eruptions in 1939 and 1960. The latter eruption, from a NW-flank fissure vent, produced a pyroclastic flow that swept to the sea and a lava flow that formed a new peninsula on the western coast.

The Current Colour Code for Lopevi is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2 .
~~~~~~~

Volcano: HUILA

As of the 9th of May, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that:
* The seismic activity from the emission of the last official notice was characterised to present/display a diminution in the number of events and associate energy; from the 1 of May and to date 520 associated events to fracturing of rocks were registered, which were located in the Central Tip to superficial depths and 315 associated events to movement of fluids.
* Within the registered seismicity an associated earthquake to fracturing of rocks stands out, it happened on this 6th of May at 0155 of the dawn local time, whose magnitude was of 3.2, located in the Central Tip to a superficial depth.
* On the 5th of May terrestrial measurements were made in the passage Popayán - Calibration of the dioxide flow of Sulfur associated to the gas column of the volcano, which is transported according to the wind regime, calculating a total flow of 3000 tonnes per day.
* In a fly over today made to the Snow-covered volcano of the Huila, it was not possible to be observed the volcanic due to the cloud concentration in the high part of the same one, also the gas column could not be sighted.
* It is emphasised that the instability of the system continues, and the possibility of occurrence of new eruptions does not discard.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from the central peak, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE.
~~~~~~~

Volcano: BULUSAN

As of the 13th of May, the Philippine Volcano Observatory (PHIVOLCS) has reported that PHIVOLCS reported that another ash explosion occurred at Bulusan Volcano at 1030 today. The eruption column reached a maximum height of 4 km above the summit before drifting to the west-southwest and west-northwest directions. The activity was accompanied by rumbling sounds and was recorded by the seismic network as an explosion type quake that lasted for about 35 minutes. Three days prior to the explosion, an increase in the daily number of volcanic earthquakes was noticed, with 42, 65 and 97 events recorded from 09 – 12 May 2007. Areas affected by trace amount to 2 mm of ash fall as a result of the explosion were Cogon, Gulang-Gulang, Tinampo, Bolos of Irosin; Bura-buran, Caladgao, Sangkayon, Bacolod, Puting Sapa, Aniog and Sitio Cawayan (Bgy. Guruyan) of Juban.

Today’s ash explosion indicates Bulusan Volcano’s continuous unrest, hence, Alert Level 1 remains in effect. The public is reminded not to enter the 4-kilometre radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) because this area is at risk from sudden steam/ash explosions. Furthermore, residents of areas beyond the PDZ that are downwind of the crater are likely to be affected by ash falls during explosions. Residents near river/stream channels around the volcano should also be on alert against life-threatening volcanic flows during heavy rains which might remobilize ash and loose deposits from the upper slopes.

Luzon's southernmost volcano, Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 35,000-40,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century.

The Current Colour Code for Bulusan is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2.
~~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: UBINAS

As of the 10th of May, the INGEMMET via GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, reported that based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-9.1 km (18,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. during 2-5 May. Plumes drifted NE, S, SE, and SW.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE.


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on May 13, 2007, 11:02:05 PM
Volcano: KARYMSKY

As of the 4th of May, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that an eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was at background levels last week. According to satellite data, no ash plumes and thermal anomaly were noted at the area of the volcano.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE.
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: BEZYMIANNY

As of the 12th of May, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and local aircraft. According to satellite data on May 10, a large thermal anomaly with a temperature about 51 degrees of Celsius is noting at the area of lava dome of Bezymianny volcano. This anomaly can reflection a strong extrusive proses at the dome or a strong gas-steam emission from the dome. These data indicate that probably an explosive eruption of the volcano can occur in rapid time. Strong seismicity at nearby Kliuchevskoi volcano makes it difficult to determine seismicity at Bezymianny, and KB GS RAS' staff is unable to accurately determine the state of the volcano from 15 April.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: SHEVELUCH

As of the 4th of May, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. A hot lava extrudes at the top of the dome. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and local aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels, a lot of shallow volcanic earthquakes and volcanic tremor were registered. According to seismic data, probably ash plumes up to 7.0-10.0 km (23,000-33,000 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano on May 02-03. Also probably ash plumes rose up to 4.0-6.5 km (13,300-21,700 ft) ASL at the volcano all week. According to visual and video data, hot avalanches from a top of the dome were noted on April 30. Ash plumes rose up to 4.0 km (13,300 ft) ASL this day. Gas-steam activity of the volcano observed on April 29 and May 01. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended about 60 km (38 mi) mainly to the south and south-west from the volcano on April 28-29. A big thermal anomaly was noted all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE.
~~~~~~

Volcano: KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 4th of May, the Kamchatka Volcano Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity was above background levels last week: volcanic earthquakes and a volcanic tremor were registered. According to video data and visual observations, Strombolian activity at the volcanic crater was observed last week. Lava flows and mud flows moved downslope on the north western flank of the volcano. Phreatic bursts and ash plumes were observed on the front of the lava flows. Gas-steam plumes containing ash rose up to 6.2 km (20,400 ft) ASL last week. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended about 80 km (50 mi) mainly to the south and south-east from the volcano this week. A large thermal anomaly over the volcanic crater was noted all days.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is now at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on May 13, 2007, 11:05:28 PM
Volcano: MANAM

As of the 10th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that the Rabau Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that Manam's Main Crater and South Crater occasionally released white vapour plumes during 1-5 May. Weak incandescence was visible from Main Crater on 2 and 4 May. Seismicity was at low levels. Based on information from RVO and satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse plume drifted W on 6 May.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centres are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded at Manam since 1616. A major eruption in 1919 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the coast, and in 1957-58 pyroclastic flows descended all four radial valleys. Lava flows reached the sea in 1946-47 and 1958.

The Current Colour Code for Manam is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~

Volcano: CHIKURACHKI

As of the 4th of May, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that KVERT reported that eruptive activity of the volcano was noted on April 18 last time. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano. No eruption activity of this volcano was noted last week.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidized basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red color. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centers is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: BATU TARA

As of the 10th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that based on satellite imagery and CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume from Batu Tara drifted W on 5 May.

At this time the Batu Tara volcano was not equipped the observer's implement kegempaan, because: a. There was No volcano Observation Post in the Komba Island because not have inhabitants, because of that Batu Tara was not monitored. b. Far from the mainland/the closest island that is P. Lembata around 50 Km. So as technically was difficult to be installed monitoring equipment in P. Komba in Batu Tara. c. Since the occurrence of the eruption, the Centre of Vulcanology and Mitigasi the planned geological Disaster installed monitoring equipment kegempaan in Batu Tara that will be generated to the closest volcano Observation Post/G. Lewotolo but terkendala because the existence of the wave of big sea endangered the crossing activity.

The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lomblen Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The only confirmed historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow. There was a pilot report of an ash eruption in 2006, although ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: TALANG

As of the 9th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Talang (West Sumatra) The andesitic stratovolcano, Talang or Salasi or Sulasih volcano is one of active volcanoes in West Sumatra, Indonesia. It is located at the district of Kota Anau, Solok Regency. The volcano reaches 2597 m high, with two craters at summit area, Danau Talang and Danau Kecil. Based on visual and observation data, the alert level of the volcano declined to level 2 on the 27th of April after several weeks had been kept on level 3.

Thin-white-ash reaching 50-75 m high above the craters had been observed. The sulfuric occasionally smelled during night time. Compared with the previous activity, number of volcanic earthquakes has not significantly changed, except the tectonic one, increased from 40 to 62. Tremor still continues on April, 26, 28, and 29, 2007 with amplitude ranging 0.5 - 3 mm.

Talang, which forms a twin volcano with the extinct Pasar Arbaa volcano, lies ESE of the major city of Padang and rises NW of Dibawah Lake. Talang has two crater lakes on its flanks; the largest of these is 1 x 2 km wide Danau Talang. Most historical eruptions have not occurred from the summit of the volcano, which lacks a crater. Historical eruptions from Gunung Talang volcano have mostly involved small-to-moderate explosive activity first documented in the 19th century that originated from a series of small craters in a valley on the upper NE flank.

The Current Colour Code for Talang currently at ALERT LEVEL 2


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on May 13, 2007, 11:09:25 PM
Volcano: SUWANOSE-JIMA

As of the 10th of May, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-Jima on 8 May. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-Jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the E flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take (also called Otake), the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.

The Current Colour Code for Suwanose-Jima currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

Volcano: SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 12th of May, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that visual observations revealed very little change to the overall dome structure during the period, and lava extrusion appears to have ceased. Nevertheless, the amount of material here is sufficient to generate pyroclastic flows and surges capable of impacting on the lower Belham Valley and lower lying areas up to lower Happy Hill and the Old Towne ridge. Recorded seismic activity remained very low throughout the period. The seismic network recorded 4 rockfall and 2 long-period rockfall signals. The sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux rate during the reporting period was low, ranging between a minimum of 48 tonnes per day (t/d) to a maximum of 179 t/d. The average of 125 t/d is significantly below the long-term average for the eruption (550 t/d). The alert level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ALERT LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~

Volcano: Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 13th of May, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift north-northeast.

A lava dome continues to grow within the crater accompanied by small earthquakes and rockfall activity. An earthquake of magnitude 3.0 and ensuing rockfall on Friday late morning sent dust up to the rim briefly. Two other smaller earthquakes (M1.1 and M2.2) have occurred in the past 24 hours. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: COLIMA

As of the 3rd of May, that the Universidad de Colima reported that based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes from Colima drifted NW on 26 April. On 28 and 30 April, incandescent material was ejected 100 m above the summit.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: POPOCATEPETL

As of the 13th of May, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 3 low exhalations accompanied by steam and gas. Also a volcano-tectonic earthquake occurred, with magnitude 2.4. Due to dense clouds the visibility towards the volcano has been rather poor. However, at earlier hours it was possible to distinguish a small steam and gas emission.

The activity in the last days has been related in the past with movements of material inside the volcano, so there is a probability that the lava dome inside the crater of the volcano is still growing. From high to low probability, the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions, occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on May 13, 2007, 11:13:01 PM
Volcano: PACAYA

As of the 12th of May, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that from this past Wednesday, the lava flow migrates again to the part superior of the fracture aligned of the base to the top of the northeast flank and it is located near the central crater. The flow of lava descends and when reaching the base of the promontory in several although short deposits to environs of the area that ocuppy the Monument of the Andinista. Fumarolic emission in the summit, forms a white cloud of ~200 m of alt., soon displaced to the south.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: FUEGO

As of the 12th of May, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that nine weak rumblings have been heard in last the 20 hours and single an explosion observed 0627 hours, elevates a white cloud to ~150 displaced m of alt. and to the east. The lava flow that is left assets after a Strombolian eruption of the 18-22 of April 2007, now is ~150 m long, leaving the south edge of the crater and causes loosening of incandescent blocks towards the source Taniluyá.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: SANTA MARIA

As of the 12th of May, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that 2 explosions characterised as weak and a moderate one were observed. Both explosions were accompanied and characterised as the sound of an airplane turbine, while it conformed white and grayish cloud of 0.6 and 1 km of alt., respectively. The clouds are transported to the east. The lava flow does not present/display activity.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: REVENTADOR

As of the 13th of May, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reports that in the last 24 hours, the seismic activity of the volcano presents/displays conditions similar to those of previous days, characterised yesterday mainly by events of fractures caused by the movement of flowed to the interior of the volcanic (Hybrids). At night yesterday in the sector of the volcano it remained in a storm cloud, and during the morning of today one slight drizzle was registered that until the closing of this report it does not have report of lahars. At the moment that the sector of the volcano is totally cloudy. A total of 111 hybrid events (HBs), 18 volcano tectonic (VTs) and 6 harmonic tremors of low amplitude and frequency have been entered.

Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption at Reventador took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light for Reventador is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: TUNGURAHUA

As of the 13th of May, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reports that in the last 24 hours, the activity of the volcano has been characterised mainly by the generation of columns of emission with average ash content and that has reached like peak altitude 100 m on the level of the crater, and also the little presence of events caused by movement of flowed to the interior of the volcanic (LPs). During afternoon reports of red ash fall were received yesterday of colouration in the sector of Choglontus.

A total of 28 tremors of emission and 5 LPs has been entered. During the night of yesterday, the watches of the sectors of Cotaló, Pillate, Bilbao, Choglontus, at dawn reported ash fall of red colour of the 11th of May and in the evening from 1500 (local time) of the same day in Choglontus with the same red tonality. During the night of of today the sector of the volcano it has remained storm cloud yesterday and at 1300 (local time) of today the watch of the sector of Bilbao reports that by the gorge of that sector low muddy water but the presence of rain did not exist. Until the closing of this report one has reports on the part of the watches that ash falls do not exist nor rain presence around the volcano.

Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major volcanic edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1995 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on May 13, 2007, 11:16:31 PM
Volcano: RABAUL

As of the 10th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that during 29-30 April, ash emissions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone generated plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. During 1-2 May, ash plumes drifted NNW; ashfall was reported from Rabaul town and surrounding areas. Occasional roaring noises were heard and incandescence was observed at night.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~

Volcano: Mt. ETNA

As of the 12th of May it has been reported to INTLVRC by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) reported that today teh crew spent one day quiet with observations and search for volcanic bombs at the base and until semi height of the Southern crater East. For three days the temperatures have been in rise since this morning it makes approximately 15c° with 3000 metres. At the top of the Southern crater East there is little condensation, on the other hand slightly bluish gases are emitted, indicating the proximity of the magma. For two days the measuring apparatus recorded at the end of the evening an earth tremor of 3 on the scale of Richter to 2 kilometres of depth, the epicentre is located between Nicolosi and Ragalna. With the guides the bets are open to determine the next eruption, 2-3 days, 1 week... nature will even decide by it.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater. Flank eruptions, typically with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna's summit craters began in 1995. The active volcano is monitored by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Volcanologia (INGV) in Catania.

The volcano Mt. Etna is currently at the ORANGE alert level
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Volcano: KILAUEA

As of the 13th of May, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that Kilauea volcano continues to erupt from the Pu`u `O`o vent on the East Rift Zone. The eruption is stable - there have been no significant changes in the last 24 hours relating directly to the eruption. Starting at 1625 HST, the East Lae`apuki bench, which has not been active for several weeks, started collapsing into the ocean. Some details are reported below; more will be known today after an HVO geologist maps the changes and reviews time lapse images of the event. Over the past several months, Kilauea caldera has been widening at a rate of 1.5 cm/month indicating minimal magma storage there. Pu`u `O`o cone is slowly collapsing as shown by widening cracks on its south flank and about 1 cm/month subsidence of its north flank.

The PKK lava tube, the primary tube from Pu`u `O`o, is active and only feeding breakouts well above the top of the pali. The Campout lava tube, which branches from the PKK tube about 2 km from the vent, provides lava to the coast at the Kamokuna ocean entry, an eastward branch to the base of Royal Gardens subdivision, and westward branch to the coastal plain inland of the East Lae`apuki sea cliff. Lava continues to enter the ocean at Kamokuna within the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

In the last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o: The tiltmeter network recorded no to slow inflation until 0230 when UWE tiltmeter recorded an abrupt 0.1 microradian drop. Seismic tremor levels remain at low levels except for about 2.5 hours of slightly increased tremor around the UWE deflation event. About double the normal number of small earthquakes were located beneath Kilauea and concentrated in two areas: about 2 km south of Halema`uma`u and the upper east rift zone between Puhimau and Pauahi craters. Air quality was good.

NPS eruption crew report from the coast for Friday evening: Intermittent incandescence was visible above the pali. Campout surface flows were visible on the pali as incandescent spots at the 1300' elevation and at the base of the pali. The Kamokuna ocean entry remains active; incandescence was visible at night. On Thursday morning, HVO staff mapped the easternmost extent of the Campout flow which, at that time, was between 600-700 m from the coastline. The flows are advancing slowly. On Friday morning, an HVO crew surveyed the May 10 East Lae`apuki bench collapse and found that only about 16 acres had slid into the ocean. The lost portion amounted to about one-third of the full bench; the collapse took a chunk of the eastern side back to the old sea cliff. New cracks were mapped inland of the sea cliff. The series of explosions tossed rock fragments into the area producing about 3 acres of rock debris. Most of the largest rock bits landed within the NPS ropeline, underscoring the importance of staying behind it.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 02, 2007, 12:24:10 AM
Volcano: LLAIMA

As of the 1st of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has notified INTLVRC that based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory and satellite image observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Llaima rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26 May. The plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting E. On 28 May, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Llaima, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, contains two historically active craters, one at the summit and the other, Pichillaima, to the SE. The massive 3125-m-high, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano has a volume of 400 cu km. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 cu km Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterized by strombolian, hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.

The Current Colour Code for Llaima is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: UBINAS

As of the 31st of May, INGEMMET reported that based on pilot reports, observations from satellite imagery, and Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 22-28 May ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.3 km (18,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted NE, E, and ESE.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: HUILA

As of the 31st of May, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that:
* At 1155 local time, a seismic signal of tremor possibly associated with an emission of ashes, comparativily of smaller magnitude was registered than those registered in days 14, 21 and 27 of May of 2007.
* It is emphasised that the instability of the system continues, and the possibility of occurrence of new eruptions does not discard.
INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the presented/displayed phenomenon and will inform into opportune way the changes that can be presented/displayed.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 02, 2007, 12:25:53 AM
Volcano: BULUSAN

As of the 31st of May, the Philippine Volcano Observatory (PHIVOLCS) has reported that according to news articles, scientists from PHIVOLCS conducted an aerial investigation of Bulusan and discovered lahar deposits and three steaming fissures. Lahars were previously reported from the municipalities of Irosin and Juban on 22 May. Scientists also observed steam plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.6-1.7 km (5,200-5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and NE. PHIVOLCS reported that the S flank inflated 3 mm.

In summary, the high level of seismic activity and the observed inflation indicate increasing volcanic unrest. Hence, PHIVOLCS is now raising the status of Bulusan Volcano from Alert Level 1 to Alert Level 2. The current activity may lead to more explosive eruptions. Hence, PHIVOLCS strongly reiterates no entry within the four (4) kilometre Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). Furthermore, residents of areas beyond the PDZ that are downwind of the crater are likely to be affected by ash falls during explosions. Residents near river/stream channels around the volcano should also be on alert against life-threatening lahars and flashfloods during heavy rains, which might remobilise ash and loose deposits from the upper slopes. PHIVOLCS is conducting close monitoring of the volcano and any new development will be reported to all concerned. Disaster Coordinating Councils should review their contingency plan and implement appropriate measures.

Luzon's southernmost volcano, Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 35,000-40,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century.

The Current Colour Code for Bulusan is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: KARYMSKY

As of the 1st of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that an eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was slightly above background levels last week. According to seismic data, weak local shallow earthquakes occurred at the area of the volcano. According to satellite data, volcano was obscured by clouds all week.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: BEZYMIANNY

As of the 1st of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Strong seismicity at nearby Kliuchevskoi volcano makes it difficult to determine seismicity at Bezymianny, and the staff of KB GS RAS cannot determine accurately the volcano activity since 15 April. According to visual data, gas-steam plume up to 3,5 km (11,500 ft) ASL was observed on May 27, clouds obscured the volcano in the other days. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly over the lava dome was noted on May 26-29.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 02, 2007, 12:27:21 AM
Volcano: SHEVELUCH

As of the 1st of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that gowth of the lava dome continues. A hot lava extrudes at the top of the dome. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and local aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels, a lot of shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered. According to seismic data, probably ash plumes up to 9,5 km (31,200 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano last week. Accoding to visual and video data, gas-steam plumes up to 5 km (16,000ft) ASL were observed on May 27-28 and 30-31, ash plume rose up to 6 km (19,700ft) ASL. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended for 13-47 km (8-29 mi) to the south-west from the volcano on May 27-28. A big thermal anomaly was noted all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
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Volcano: KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 1st of June, the Kamchatka Volcano Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that the explosive-effusive eruption of Kliuchevskoi continues but activity has decreased slightly in intensity of events. Ash explosions up to 8 km (26,250 ft.) ASL are still possible. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity was above background levels: volcanic earthquakes and a strong volcanic tremor were registered. According to video data and visual observations, a height of ash plumes decreased from 8.0-9.0 km (26,250-29,500 ft) ASL on May 27-28 till 5.0-7.0 km (16,000-23,000 ft) ASL on May 29-31. Ash plumes extended to the different directions on May 27-29 and 31. Strombolian and Vulcanian activity of the terminal crater, lava flows and phreatic bursts at the north-western flank of the volcano were observed on May 27 and 31. A new lava flow was noted on the eastern flank of the volcano on May 31. Strong phreatic bursts were observed on the front of this lava flow. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended for about 600 km (370 mi) to different directions from the volcano all week. A large thermal anomaly was noted all days.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is now at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: RITTER IS.

As of the 31st of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has notified INTLVRC that on 30 May, RVO reported observations of Ritter Island following reports of a possible eruption and "sea surges" that destroyed homes on 19 May. On the S part of the island, scorched vegetation was observed and dead marine life (mainly reef fish) was seen around the coast line at heights of 4-6 m a.s.l. There was no evidence of fresh volcanic material, but a new landslide scar extended from the upper most part of the island down to sea level. Several more landslide scars were seen on the W wall. The estimated wave surge height resulting from the 19 May event reached 4-10 m, particularly around the S part of the island. Rockfalls continued to produce plumes that could be seen from a distance.

The Ritter Island volcano is a stratovolcano with at least five historic eruptions since 1700. The first historic eruption was at least moderate-large (VEI=3) in size. The most recent two eruptions (1972 and 1974) were submarine and generated tsunamis but no fatalities. The 1888 eruption was phreatic. This eruption produced a debris avalanche that generated a tsunami. The tsunami was 12-15 m above sea level and killed as many as 3,000 people on nearby islands, including Umboi and New Britain. Prior to 1888, Ritter Island was a steep-sided, nearly circular island about 780 m high. The current small, 140-m-high island is a topographically insignificant, 1900-m-long arcuate feature between Umboi and Sakar Islands. Several historical explosive eruptions had been recorded prior to 1888, when large-scale slope failure destroyed the summit of the conical basaltic-andesitic volcano, leaving the arcuate 140-m-high island remnant with a steep west-facing scarp that descends below sea level. Devastating tsunamis were produced by the collapse and swept the coast of Papua New Guinea and offshore islands. Two minor post-collapse explosive eruptions, during 1972 and 1974, occurred offshore within the largely submarine 3.5 x 4.5 km breached depression formed by the collapse.

The Current Colour Code for Ritter is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 02, 2007, 12:28:52 AM
Volcano: MANAM

As of the 31st of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that the Rabau Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that based on satellite image observations and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 May and drifted SW and W.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centres are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded at Manam since 1616. A major eruption in 1919 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the coast, and in 1957-58 pyroclastic flows descended all four radial valleys. Lava flows reached the sea in 1946-47 and 1958.

The Current Colour Code for Manam is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: MERAPI

As of the 31st of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that according to a news article, "hot clouds" and incandescent material from Merapi traveled a distance of 1 km SE down the Gendol River on 23 May. People in the nearby village of Muntilan, about 16 km W, reported "hot clouds" and ashfall.

Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. Merapi is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi volcano beginning during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory.

The Current Colour Code for Merapi currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
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Volcano: SAKURA-JIMA

As of the 31st of May, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), has reported that based on information from JMA and a pilot report, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Sakura-Jima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. during 23-24 and 26-28 May. Plumes drifted E and SE and rose straight up.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flows was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 02, 2007, 12:31:25 AM
Volcano: SUWANOSE-JIMA

As of the 15th of May, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-Jima on 8 May. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-Jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the E flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take (also called Otake), the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.

The Current Colour Code for Suwanose-Jima currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 1st of June, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that there have been no significant changes over the last 24 hours. Measurable activity has remained low, although low-level rockfall [and pyroclastic] activity is ongoing. Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding. The amount of material above Tyres Ghaut to the NW is sufficient to generate pyroclastic flows and surges capable of impacting on the lower Belham Valley and lower lying areas up to lower Happy Hill and the Old Towne ridge. The alert level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ALERT LEVEL 4
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Volcano: Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 1st of June, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift to the east-northeast.

Mt. St. Helens is clear today, and a diffuse plume drifts upward from the active part of the dome. Seismicity in the form of small earthquakes every few minutes indicates steady slow extrusion of lava. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 02, 2007, 12:33:46 AM
Volcano: COLIMA

As of the 1st of June, that the Universidad de Colima reported that in the morning visible imagery a faint line of ash can be seen drifting away from the volcano and extending south around 28.75 mi. It appears that the volcano is no longer emitting a plume so the forecast is that the cloud will dissipate over the next 6 hours. The previous cloud from 0815Z can no longer be detected. Later, the plume has dissipated and can no longer be tracked and there have been no further emissions.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: POPOCATEPETL

As of the 1st of June, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 3 low intensity exhalations accompanied by steam and gas. Also a volcano-tectonic earthquake with magnitude 2.9, was located 2.0 km south from the crater, with depth of 5.5 km. During the last hours the volcano has shown some steam and gas emissions.

The activity in the last days has been related in the past with movements of material inside the volcano, so there is a probability that the lava dome inside the crater of the volcano is still growing. From high to low probability, the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions, occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
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Volcano: PACAYA

As of the 1st of June, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that during the night the reflection of incandescent lava in the North part of the volcano was observed and it is associated to the lava effusion that from the northeast flank descends and it deposits to environs of the base and the plateau.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 02, 2007, 12:37:34 AM
Volcano: FUEGO

As of the 1st of June, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that twenty-three weak rumblings sounds characterised like that of a locomotive engine of 38 minutes 4 secondfs-duration, were heard to in the last 24 hours. The lava flow is ~200 m long arising from the south edge of the central crater. From the front of the deposit of lava, a landslide of blocks took place, many of such blocks descended to the proximity of the vegetation in the Taniluyá ravine.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
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Volcano: SANTA MARIA

As of the 1st of June, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that twenty-two explosions are registered in the last 24 hours and they were characterised as eight moderate and fourteen weak ones. The moderate explosions expelled grayish clouds from 0.8 to 1.2 km of alt., transported to the southwest and very fine fall of particulates happened in lands of the property Florida and Monte Claro.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
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Volcano: REVENTADOR

As of the 1st of June, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that in the last 24 hours, the seismic activity of the volcano is characterised by the movement of fluid (hybrid events and tremor) and by events of fracture (VT), and there is no visibility in the zone to correlate with the occurrence of these events with some superficial manifestation. Reports from the zone do not indicate some newness. A total of 26 hybrid events (HBs), 19 volcano-tectonic (VTs), 31 episodes of spasmodic tremor and 2 episodes of harmonic tremor have been entered. Strong rains were registered yesterday from the night at 1000h DES this morning, nevertheless the seismic stations did not register the occurrence of any swelling or lahar. The guardian of the SOTE in the Reventador informed that he did not have any observation of the volcano nor any other newness.

Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption at Reventador took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light for Reventador is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 02, 2007, 12:40:27 AM
Volcano: TUNGURAHUA

As of the 1st of June, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that in the last 24 hours, the seismic activity of the volcano in these last 24 hours is characterised by the movement of fluid to the interior of the crater and signals of emissions. The emissions with ash continue and follow the reports of ash fall in sectors of the west and the southwest of the volcano. Rains have generated muddy water flows but they have not been registered inconvenience in the routes. The volcanic activity is described as stable with a slight tendency raising.

A total of 29 events of long period (LPs) and 39 episodes of tremor of emission have been entered. In the afternoon of yesterday, the volcano presented/displayed emissions with moderate to low contents of ash that reached a height of 1 km and went to the west; slight ash fall was reported in Choglontus and Manzano. At night a lahar was registered in Choglontus. This morning reported the ash fall, during the night in the sector of Bilbao and Cotaló; the volcano has remained in a storm cloud, but in satelite images a plume was observed the direction to the west-northwest; light rains were registered that caused the muddy water reduction but any disadvantage did not take place.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: KILAUEA

As of the 1st of June, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that Kilauea volcano continues to erupt from the Pu`u `O`o vent on the East Rift Zone. The eruption is stable - the Poupou ocean entry continues to build a delta. The long story that won't change daily: Over the past several months, Kilauea caldera has been expanding at a rate of 1.5 cm/month indicating minimal magma storage there; most of the magma supply continues to feed the Pu`u `O`o vent. Pu`u `O`o cone is slowly collapsing as shown by cracks spreading on its south flank and about 1 cm/month subsidence of its north flank.

The last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o: No big changes. Through the fog, incandescence can be seen reflected in the gas plumes at East Pond, January, South Wall Complex, and Drainhole vents. When visible, the intensity of the incandescence seemed weaker than typical. POC tiltmeter recorded the usual oscillations. Seismic tremor remains at moderate levels. The PKK lava tube, the primary tube from Pu`u `O`o, is active but only to feed the Campout tube which starts about 1 km from the vent. The Campout tube provides lava to the coast toward the base of Royal Gardens subdivision and into the ocean on May 16 at Poupou. The Kamokuna and East Lae`apuki ocean entries are no longer active. Lava continues to enter the ocean at the Poupou location within the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

In the last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o: There was again a more-than-typical number of earthquakes recorded and most were located south of Halema`uma`u and in the upper east rift zone. The tiltmeter network recorded slow deflation after midnight. Seismic tremor remains at low levels. Air quality was good.

The NPS eruption crew report from the coast for Wednesday evening: Incandescence was intermittently visible above the pali, possibly from the surface flows issuing from the uppermost part of the tube system. Surface flow activity has shifted to the east side of the flow field between Royal Gardens subdivision and the Poupou entry. Incandescence was seen from the Poupou ocean entry.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: ARENAL

As of the 1st June, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that Crater C, continues with permanent emission of taps of lava, gases, sporadic estrombolianas eruptions and occasional avalanches of the tap front. The lava tap that began to be emitted the previous month towards the southwestern flank, is activated. Sporadically, avalanches of the front of the tap take place and some blocks manage to reach the vegetation producing small fires. The eruptive activity continues being low, as much by the number of eruptions, like by the amount of ejected pyroclastic material. The eruptions are few that produce ash columns which exceed the 500 m on crater C. Crater D presents/displays fumarolic activity. The flanks northeast and southeast continue being affected by the fall of pyroclastic material and acid rain. Due to the loss of vegetation, pending strong, little consolidated of the materials and the high amounts of precipitation that they cause and continue presenting/displaying small avalanches in broken the Street of Sands, Manolo, Guillermina and Hot Agua river.

The eruptive activity continues being low, as much by the number of eruptions, like by the amount of ejected pyroclastic material. The eruptions are few that produce ash columns which they exceed the 500 m on crater C. Crater D presents/displays fumarolic activity. The flanks northeast, this and Southeastern one continue being affected by the fall of pyroclastic material and acid rain. Due to the loss of vegetation, pending strong, little consolidated of the materials and the high amounts of precipitation cause that they are continued presenting/displaying small, cold avalanches in Calle de Arenas, Manolo, Guillermina and river Agua Caliente.

Conical volcano Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7,000 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 02, 2007, 12:43:22 AM
Volcano: YASUR

As of the 1st of June, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, he reports that since the 16th of May, activity has been almost continuous at the Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. His report indicated that ongoing eruptions are occurring at Yasur volcano on Tanna Island. Stromolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions are ejecting lava up to 300 m high. Several molten lava fragments have fallen close to observers on the crater rim, who are often unaware of potential risks at the volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~

Volcano: STROMBOLI

As of the 1st of June, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that Stromboli volcano has been active for thousands of years. Normally it erupts several times per hour. In each eruption red-hot pyroclastics and clouds of ash are thrown dozens of metres into the air. The lava flow from Stromboli volcano stopped on the 5th of April. Whether this is the end of the effusive eruption that had started 5 weeks ago and heralds the beginning of a new cycle of summit activity is still unclear. INTLVRC will report further developments as they occur.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of June, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that there is no basic change at this time for volcano Mt. Erebus. Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica, is currently the most active volcano in Antarctica. The summit of Mt. Erebus contains a persistent convecting lava lake which undergoes several strombolian style eruptions daily. Within the past year, small ash eruptions and even a small lava flow have also been observed coming from vents near the lava lake.

Mt. Erebus (3794 metres above sea level) is classified as a polygenetic stratovolcano. The composition of the current eruptive activity on Mt. Erebus is anorthoclase-phyric tephriphonolite and phonolite, which constitute the bulk of exposed lava flow on the volcano. The oldest eruptive products from Mt. Erebus consist of relatively undifferentiated and non-viscous basanitic lavas that form the low, broad platform shield of the Erebus edifice. Slightly younger basanites and phonotephrite lavas crop out on Fang Ridge, an eroded remnant of an early Erebus volcano and at other isolated locations on the flanks of the Mt. Erebus edifice.

Lava flows of more viscous phonotephrite, tephriphonolite and trachyte are erupted after the basanites. The upper slopes of Mt. Erebus are dominated by steeply dipping (~30°) tephriphonolite lava flows with large scale flow levees. A conspicuous break in slope at approximately 3200 meters is a summit plateau representing a caldera. The summit caldera itself is filled with small volume tephriphonolite and phonolite lava flows. In the center of the of the summit caldera is a small, steep-sided cone composed primarily of decomposed lava bombs and a lag deposit of anorthoclase crystals. It is within this summit cone that the active lava lake continuously degasses and periodically erupts.

CAVEAT: Despite the database of information on the geology of Mt. Erebus, there is still much to be learned about the volcano. The relative lack of knowledge becomes apparent when Mt. Erebus is stacked up against other active volcanoes of the world. There are many reasons for this comparative lack of knowledge, including the scarcity of rock exposures due to snow and ice cover, the remoteness of the volcano, the extreme environment, the brief field season (<6 weeks per year) and its non-threatening nature (i.e. no large populations are in jeopardy because of Mt. Erebus, unlike Vesuvius in Italy or Popocatepetl in Mexico).

Despite the above factors limiting the Mt. Erebus knowledge base, clearly much has been learned about the volcano over the past 25+ years. Nearly all exposed lava flow sets on Mt. Erebus have been physically sampled. Nearly all of these have been examined petrographically and petrologically. The summit lava flows on Mt. Erebus have been extensively mapped and dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method. The flank flows have been mapped in less detail, but many have also been dated. Tephra from Mt. Erebus has been found in glaciers on the volcano, mapped, geochemically examined and dated. The morphological characteristics of the edifice have been combined with the geochronological data to provide an evolutionary history of Mt. Erebus. And the physical and eruptive characteristics of the summit lava lake has been observed nearly every year for the past 25 years.

Mt. Erebus located on Ross Island, Antarctica is the world’s southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970’s had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behaviour of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment. Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Technology.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 30, 2007, 10:44:42 PM
HUILA

As of the 25th of June, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that from the 14th to the 22nd of June, a total 310 events in the snow-covered volcano of the Huila was registered, of which 194 events are associated to fracturing of rock (VT) of low magnitude, 109 events related to the dynamics of flowed within volcanic conduits (LP), and 7 hybrid events type (HB) that mentioned origins involve both before. Events VT were located in environs of the central tip, to superficial depths. Of the seismic activity one stands out a slight increase in the occurrence of events VT on the 17th of June, with registry of 25 events in a lapse of 4 hours, and the 21st of June where 25 events in a lapse of 3 hours were registered, these events presented/displayed inferior magnitudes to 1. One stands out that the instability of the continuous system, and does not discard the possibility of occurrence of events related to the increase of dynamics within the volcano. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the presented/displayed phenomenon and will inform into opportune way the changes that can be presented/displayed.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 29th of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 4.7 km (~15,400 ft) ASL all days. According to satellite data, gas-steam plume was noted on June 27, volcano was obscured by clouds in other days.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 29th of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Strong seismicity at nearby Klyuchevskoy makes it difficult to characterize seismicity at Bezymianny. One volcanic earthquake was registered on June 25. According to visual and satellite data, clouds obscured the volcano all days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 30, 2007, 10:49:01 PM
SHEVELUCH

As of the 29th of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity remains above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 6.5 km (20800 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano last week. Clouds obscured the volcano all week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~

KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 30th of June, the Kamchatka Volcano Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that the strong explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions more than 10 km (32,000 ft.) ASL could occur at any time and could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of Kliuchevskoi was at the medium level (less than 4-7x10-6 mps) at 0000h UTC on June 29 and remains at this level to present time, 0100h UTC on June 30. According to visual and video data, continuous ash emission to more than 10 km (or 32,000 ft) and extended to the west began to observed from 2106h UTC on June 29 till present time. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended for 300 km (187 mi) to the east from Klyuchevskoy volcano. Approximate plume altitude: 9000 m (29,500 ft) ASL (by atmospheric profile). Based on past eruptions, this could continue for some hours or days probably. According to the puff prediction for potential eruption at Kluchevskoy a plume for about 10 km (or 32000 ft) will move to south-west from volcano. According to view from MTSAT the plume is moving to east and west for last 6 hours. All local aviation authorities have urgent information from KVERT. Strong terminal paroxysmal eruptions of the volcano occurred in 1945 (lasting for 1 month), 1984-1985 (18 months), 1987 (2), 1990 (7), 1994 (<1), 1998 (8) and 2005 (3). Ash plumes during these eruptions rose up to 7.0-8.0 km (23,000-26,200 ft) ASL but were briefly as high as 10.0-13.0 km (33,000-42,600 ft) ASL.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is now at RED
~~~~~

MANAM

As of the 28th of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that the Rabau Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that based on satellite image observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 June and drifted WNW.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centres are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded at Manam since 1616. A major eruption in 1919 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the coast, and in 1957-58 pyroclastic flows descended all four radial valleys. Lava flows reached the sea in 1946-47 and 1958.

The Current Colour Code for Manam is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 30, 2007, 10:54:53 PM
BATU TARA

As of the28th of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that based on visual observations, CVGHM reported that on 19 June an ash plume from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. Clouds inhibited visual observations on the other days during 18-25 June. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lomblen Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The only confirmed historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow. There was a pilot report of an ash eruption in 2006, although ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~

TALANG

As of the 28th of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that the andesitic stratovolcano, Talang or Salasi or Sulasih volcano is one of active volcanoes in West Sumatra, Indonesia. It is located at the district of Kota Anau, Solok Regency. The volcano reaches 2597 m high, with two craters at summit area. The alert level of the volcano is still on level 2. Visual observation showed thick-brownish-ash came out 200 m high from the Main Crater. Thin-white-ash came out 100 m high from the South Crater, while no ash observed on Kapundan Panjang (Panjang crater) and Gabuo Bawah. The seismicity on this week relatively no significant change compare with the previous one

Talang, which forms a twin volcano with the extinct Pasar Arbaa volcano, lies ESE of the major city of Padang and rises NW of Dibawah Lake. Talang has two crater lakes on its flanks; the largest of these is 1 x 2 km wide Danau Talang. Most historical eruptions have not occurred from the summit of the volcano, which lacks a crater. Historical eruptions from Gunung Talang volcano have mostly involved small-to-moderate explosive activity first documented in the 19th century that originated from a series of small craters in a valley on the upper NE flank.

The Current Colour Code for Talang currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~

SAKURA-JIMA

As of the 28th of June, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Sakura-Jima rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N during 20-21 June. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flows was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 30, 2007, 11:01:20 PM
SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 30th of June, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that visual observations revealed no significant changes to the dome structure during the period and the pause in lava extrusion [and dome growth] is ongoing. The dome volume remains at 208 Mm3, and this was reconfirmed using data from of a recent LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) survey. Low-level rockfall and pyroclastic activity has been ongoing, predominantly affecting the Tar River Valley to the east. Nonetheless, whilst lava extrusion may have ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding. The amount of material above Tyres Ghaut to the NW is sufficient to generate pyroclastic flows and surges capable of impacting on the lower Belham Valley and lower lying areas up to lower Happy Hill and the Old Towne ridge. Recorded seismic activity remained low throughout the period. The seismic network recorded 3 rockfall signals and 1 volcano-tectonic earthquake. The sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux varied between a minimum of 153 tonnes per day (t/d) and a maximum of 343 t/d. The average flux of 203 t/d remains well below the long-term average for the eruption (550 t/d). The alert level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4 (After this Montserrat moves to Orange.)
~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 29th of June, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift north-northeastward this morning and northeastward later in the day.

Rockfall signals dominate the seismic records on crater stations as lava dome growth continues. No significant changes in eruptive activity have been detected during the past day. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 30th of June, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 18 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas emissions and occasionally small amounts of ash . The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report there is no visibility to the volcano due to the clouds. However, this morning CENAPRED could observe it with steam and gas emissions.

The activity of the Popocatépetl volcano remained steady and in low levels. There were recorded only 5 small exhalations accompanied mainly by steam and gas emissions. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 30, 2007, 11:07:54 PM
PACAYA

As of the 30th of June, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that incandescent lava expulsion by two active mouths in the central crater (north side and centre), reaches ~30 m of alt. to each 3 to 30 second and a heavy gaseous cloud leaving all the contour of the crater reaches ~300 m of alt. and is displaced to the west. Lava effusion in the superior part of the northeast flank, respectively forms two flows to the oriented northeast and north to Los Llanos and the Cerro Chino with ~300 m and 150 m long.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE
~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 30th of June, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that constant weak sound characterised like that of a locomotive engine in the central crater and pyroclastic expulsions to ~75 m of alt.. The main lava flow leaving the secondary hole, is ~250 m long in the direction of the head of the ravine of the Taniluyá River and the other that leaves from the south edge of the crater follows in direction the west towards Barranca Seca. 7 explosions that formed whitish clouds of ~200 m of alt., transported to the south have taken place at least.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
~~~~~~

SANTA MARIA

As of the 30th of June, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that weak and moderate explosions, formed whitish clouds and grayish of ~0.4 to 0.9 km/ of alt., these completed, expelled fine gray ash particles that after ~20 minutes, fell land of the Property San Jose Patzulín, located ~3.5 km of the Domo Caliente. Desgasification by the cupola of the Dome Claiente, formed a white, thin of ~200 m of alt. and transported cloud to the southeastern.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 30, 2007, 11:12:51 PM
REVENTADOR

As of the 30th of June, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the registered seismicity is similar to the last days and is related to fracture events. The sector of the volcano has remained storm cloud, have not appeared rains, lahars nor heard of volcanic origin. In last the 24 hours, has entered a total of 45 hybrid events (HBs), 13 volcano-tectonic (VTs) and 1 events of tremor.

Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption at Reventador took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light for Reventador is YELLOW
~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 30th of June, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that seismic activity in general of the volcano is moderate and stable. The sector of the volcano has remained dimmed with light rain presence afternoon of yesterday and today. They have not registered lahars. Ash falls have not been reported nor have noises of volcanic origin been heard.

A total of 24 events of long period (LP) and 28 signals of tremors of emission has been entered. In afternoon rains yesterday, appeared and the generation of a small lahar in Juive. Also rains at dawn and today were reported without generating lahars. The sector has varied between partially dimmed to dimmed (late of yesterday) being cleared by noon of today. At 1600h (local time) an emission with moderate ash content was appraised yesterday that reached 2.5 km on the crater. Possibly emissions of steam were observed the height of the crater. The wind direction has remained to the west. Yesterday afternoon reported ash falls from Manzano and Choglontus. From these sites and the OVT roars were heard.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 28th of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that during 20-26 June, emissions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone consisted of white vapour plumes containing little ash occasionally accompanied by blue vapour. The plumes rose to an altitude less than 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, N, and SSE. Fine ash fell in areas downwind, including Rabaul Town. A mild smell of hydrogen sulfide gas was reported from Rabaul Town. Weak roaring noises were heard and incandescence was visible at night.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on June 30, 2007, 11:18:09 PM
KILAUEA

As of the 30th of June, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the eruptive pause of Kilauea continues, with no active lava anywhere on the surface of the volcano. Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o vent: The tiltmeter on the northwest side of Pu`u `O`o vent has turned around and appears to show inflation; however, it may be responding to the recent rains. Webcam images of Pu`u `O`o crater are still obscured by steam. Last 24 hours at June 18/19 eruption site: The Mauna Ulu webcam has some misty views this morning, but the fuming area at the west base of Kane Nui o Hamo is still visible, along with other diffuse patches of rain-induced steaming. Seismic tremor levels continues to be at or below pre-June 17 levels; several earthquakes were located beneath the upper east rift zone and the south flank with 3 beneath Pauahi crater. Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: Inflation is continuing at a rate of about 1-2 microradians per day (measured in a borehole near HVO). Sulfur Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide levels in the summit areas have returned to pre-June 17 levels. Most planned field activities were cancelled yesterday by the wet weather and are being rescheduled today.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the YELLOW
~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 28th June, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica via the Global Vlocanism Network (GVN) reported that in May, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling SW, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Blocks from the lava-flow fronts periodically reached vegetation and started small fires. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Small amounts of pyroclastic material were ejected and affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Ash and acid rain fell on the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

Conical volcano Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7,000 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE



Title: Thousand of new volcanoes revealed beneath the waves
Post by: Shammu on July 11, 2007, 08:26:55 PM
Thousand of new volcanoes revealed beneath the waves
10:04 09 July 2007

The true extent to which the ocean bed is dotted with volcanoes has been revealed by researchers who have counted 201,055 underwater cones. This is over 10 times more than have been found before.

The team estimates that in total there could be about 3 million submarine volcanoes, 39,000 of which rise more than 1000 metres over the sea bed.

"The distribution of underwater volcanoes tells us something about what is happening in the centre of the Earth," says John Hillier of the University of Cambridge in the UK. That is because they give information about the flows of hot rock in the mantle beneath. "But the problem is that we cannot see through the water to count them," he says.

Satellites can detect volcanoes that are more than 1500 m high because the mass of the submerged mountains causes gravity to pull the water in around them. This creates domes on the ocean's surface that can be several metres high and can be detected from space.
Data overload

But there is a multitude of small volcanoes that have gone undetected. The only way of identifying them is to manually find their outline on sonar measurements taken from ships.

Since the late 1960s, research vessels have been criss-crossing the oceans using sonar instruments to measure the depth of the ocean floor. They have generated 40 million kilometres of linear profiles showing the topography of the ocean bed between 60° North – the latitude of southern Alaska – and 60° South – corresponding to the tip of Patagonia.

But until now, no one had been able to sift through them all. So, Hillier and a colleague designed a computer programme that was able to analyse the huge amount of data and identify volcano-like shapes in the sonar lines.

The programme found 201,055 volcanoes over 100m tall. Previously, satellite data had identified 14,164 volcanoes over 1500 m high.

Hillier then extrapolated the data to estimate how many volcanoes exist beyond the areas the research vessels sounded out. He estimates there are about 39,000 volcanoes that are higher than 1000 m, leaving nearly 25,000 yet to be directly discovered.
Surprising distribution

Hiller says he was surprised to find that the density of small volcanoes dropped in the area around Iceland, as Iceland is known to be a hotspot for volcanic activity.

Another surprise was that he found fewer volcanoes on the seabed around Hawaii, another volcanic hotspot. He says his findings may mean that researchers need to re-assess their understanding of how submarine volcanoes are formed.

In 2006, a team of researchers from Japan discovered a new type of volcano which also defied conventional theories of volcanism. The "petit-spot" volcanoes, aged between one to eight million years old, did not sit at tectonic plate boundaries or over volcanic hotspots.

Thousand of new volcanoes revealed beneath the waves (http://environment.newscientist.com/article/dn12218-thousand-of-new-volcanoes-revealed-beneath-the-waves.html)


Title: Re: Thousand of new volcanoes revealed beneath the waves
Post by: Shammu on July 11, 2007, 08:27:54 PM
The true cause of global warming, though try telling that to Al Gore.


Title: Thousands flee Indonesia volcano
Post by: Shammu on July 11, 2007, 08:31:36 PM
Thousands flee Indonesia volcano
Thousands of Indonesians have been evacuated from the slopes of a volcano that is spewing out hot ash and smoke in the east of the country.

(http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/42484000/jpg/_42484078_volcano203bbafp.jpg)
Mount Gamkonora is one of 129
active volcanoes in Indonesia

The alert around Mount Gamkonora, in North Maluku province, has been raised to its highest level amid fears a major eruption could be imminent.

Scientists have reported seeing fire and ash clouds rising as high as 4,000m (13,100ft) since Monday.

Some 8,400 villagers have been moved to special camps away from the volcano.

However, scientists are warning that lava could still reach the camps if there is a large eruption - and have advised residents to wear face masks to protect themselves from the ash clouds.

Some 2,000 people are reported to have chosen to remain within the 8km (five mile) danger zone marked out by officials.

'Ring of Fire'

Activity at the 1,635m mountain rose sharply on Monday, prompting scientists to raise the alert level.

Saut Simatupang of Indonesia's Vulcanological Survey told Reuters news agency that the volcano was spitting out volcanic ash as high as 4,000m at its peak on Monday.

He said there had been less smoke and ash on Tuesday "but that does not mean the volcano is safe".

Mt Gamkonora is the highest peak on the island of Halmahera in North Maluku province, some 2,400km east of the Indonesian capital Jakarta.

It is one of at least 120 active volcanoes in Indonesia, which is part of the Asia-Pacific "Ring of Fire", a series of volcanoes and fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and South East Asia.

Thousands flee Indonesia volcano (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6286946.stm)


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on July 17, 2007, 04:42:46 PM
UBINAS

As of the 12th of July, INGEMMET reported that based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude between 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 4 July. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 14th of July, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 2.5 and 3.8 km (8,200-12,460 ft) ASL on July 07 and 10 respectively. A spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered at volcano all week. According to satellite data, thermal anomaly was noted on July 10-11, volcano was obscured by clouds in other days.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 14th of July, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was slightly above background levels on July 05-06 and 08. According to satellite data a thermal anomaly was noted on July 08 and 10-11, clouds obscured the volcano all days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on July 17, 2007, 04:45:59 PM
SHEVELUCH

As of the 14th of July, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity remains above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 6.5 km (20800 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano last week. Gas-steam plumes up to 4.0-5.0 km (13,100-16,400 ft) ASL were observed on July 09-11. Clouds obscured the volcano in other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~

KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 14th of July, the Kamchatka Volcano Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that the explosive-effusive eruption of Kliuchevskoi continues but activity has decreased. Ash explosions up to 8 km (26,250 ft.) ASL are still possible. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of Kliuchevskoi is decreasing generally from June 28, but remained above background levels last week. Many shallow earthquakes were registered. According to video data, ash plumes up to 7.0 km (22,960 ft) ASL on July 09-11. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended for about 20-350 km (or 12-218 mi) to the north-east and north-west from the volcano on July 05-11. Approximate plume altitude: 5000-6500 m (16,000-21,320 ft) ASL (by atmospheric profile). Clouds obscured the volcano in other days.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is now at ORANGE
~~~~~~

LANGILA

As of the 12th of July, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has notified INTLVRC that RVO reported that RVO reported that emission of ash plumes from Langila's Crater 2 continued during 10 June-3 July and were occasionally forceful. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.3-3.3 km (7,500-10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. Crater 3 was quiet.

Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the N and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

The Current Colour Code for Langila is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on July 17, 2007, 04:49:46 PM
GAMKONORA

As of the 14th of July, the RSOE Emergency and Disaster Information Service has reported that ashfall at volcano Gamkonora in Indonesia covered the ground to to depth of 30 cm up to 7.5 km from the crater. There were 5 small eruptions in the past 24 hours. The volcano remains at maimum level 4 alert, and 9758 people have evacuated.

On 8 July, a phreatic eruption from Gamkonora produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted N and ashfall was reported from villages as far as 7 km downwind. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). On 9 July, seismic activity increased and eruption plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.6 km (7,000-8,500 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level was raised to 3. Later that day, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.6 km (18,400 ft) a.s.l. and the Alert Level was raised to 4. During 9-10 July, incandescent material was propelled 5-50 m above the crater. On 10 July, booming noises were followed by ash plumes that rose to 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. About 8,400 people evacuated from villages within an 8 km radius of the volcano.

The shifting of eruption centres on Gamkonora, at 1635 m the highest peak of Halmahera, has produced an elongated series of summit craters along a N-S trending rift. Youthful-looking lava flows originate near the cones of Gunung Alon and Popolojo, south of Gamkonora. Since its first recorded eruption in the 16th century, Gamkonora has typically produced small-to-moderate explosive eruptions. Its largest historical eruption, in 1673, was accompanied by tsunamis that inundated villages.

The Current Colour Code for Gamkonora is currently at ALERT LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS (Montserrat)

As of the 14th of July, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that visual observations revealed no significant changes to the dome structure during the period, and the pause in lava extrusion [and dome growth] continues. Nonetheless, whilst lava extrusion may have ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding. The amount of material above Tyres Ghaut to the NW is sufficient to generate pyroclastic flows and surges capable of impacting on the lower Belham Valley and lower lying areas up to lower Happy Hill and the Old Towne ridge. Recorded seismic activity remained very low throughout the period. The seismic network recorded 4 rockfall signals and 1 volcano-tectonic earthquake. No sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux data is available for the period. The Alert level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 15th of July, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift northerly in the morning, shifting to north-northeasterly by afternoon.

The slow growth of the lava dome likely continues, on the basis of sparse volcanic-related seismicity and the time-lapse sequence of fixed-camera images this past week. Waveforms from in-crater seismometers are chiefly emergent in aspect, characteristic of rockfall and glacially induced seismic noise. The daily cyclic variation in real-time seismic amplitude measurements is also glaciogenic. The dome this morning sports its characteristic whitish weak steam and fume plume from the east summit of the active spine 7.The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on July 17, 2007, 04:55:18 PM
POPOCATEPETL

As of the 15th of July, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 20 low intensity exhalations accompanied by steam, gas and some times small amounts of ash. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. Since this morning CENAPRED has been able to observe the volcano with steam and gas emissions.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~

PACAYA
Latest NOAA satellite image of the Pacaya eruption. (http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/data/volcano/pacaya.gif)

As of the 14th of July, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that three lava flows that are branched off closely together of the orifice of exit of the peak of the this-northeast flank, have approximately 200 m (E), 300 100 m (NE) and 100 m long to the N. Very weak incandescent lava reflection is associated to the mouth of a hornito within the crater of the Mackenney Cone. Desgasification formed a white cloud that is mixed with meteorological clouds.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE
~~~~~~

FUEGO

Latest NOAA satellite image of volcano Fuego. (http://www.osei.noaa.gov/Events/Current/VSHfuego080_G12.jpg)

As of the 14th of July, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the wind is raising dust from the average part to the peak of the volcano. Desgasification formed a white cloud in the top and it transported it to the southwest. The wind does not let one listen to any type of activity, nevertheless, it is considered that the weak rumblings and explosions, are present. From the eruption of 1 July, in course, the lava flow disappeared.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on July 17, 2007, 04:58:59 PM
SANTA MARIA

As of the 14th of July, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the explosions persist characterised as weak (~0.5 km of alt.) and moderate (~1.5 km of alt.) and few lava avalanches in blocks from the peak of the Domo Caliente. The moderate explosions contributed very fine ash that the wind transported to the southwest causing, after 12 to 15 minutes, slight fall of particles in the lands of the property Florida until Village San Marcos Palajunoj, and Quetzaltenango.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

REVENTADOR

As of the 10th of July, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the seismicity continues related to events of fracture due to the internal pressure of flowed (HB and VT) but is not observed much movement of these fluids (under number of events LP and absence of tremor). There are no observations due to the cloudiness nor reports of no new features. By the characteristics of the seismicity, as far as the type of events and in general to that these have diminished in magnitude, superficial manifestations of importance in the short term are not expected (like explosions, emissions of ash or lava flows). Therefore, the daily information are suspended and will be emitted solely if the the situation merits.

Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption at Reventador took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light for Reventador is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA
View latest NOAA satellite image of Tungurahua (Updated every 30 minutes) (http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/guag-img.html)

As of the 14th of July, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the seismic activity is characterised by the occurrence of emissions with moderate contents to low of ash. Roars have reported themselves and the ash fall in Manzano, Choglontus and Bilbao. The activity level is moderate to stop with stable tendency.

A total of 16 events of long period (LP), 21 signals of tremor, 2 moderate signals of harmonic tremor and 3 explosions has been entered. In the afternoon a slight ash fall was reported yesterday in Choglontus and Manzano. During the night, with the slight increase of the amplitude of the tremor, This morning could be heard roars, the watch of Juive reported to have listened to the registered explosion of 0622h (YOUR). At 1304h (TU) an accompanied strong cannon shot with bearing of blocks in the OVT was heards and from Runtún, Pondoa, Ulba, Bilbao and Pillate, they reported to have heard the explosion of 1317h (YOUR) and that this one produced the vibration of the large windows of the houses. In the afternoon of today, the sector was a little cleared and a water steam column could be observed without ash with a height of 100 - 200 metres and in the direction of the west. Until this moment there are no reports of ash fall during today.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on July 17, 2007, 05:02:03 PM
KILAUEA
Continuous"Live-Cam" of Pu`u `O`o. (http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/cam/index.htm)

As of the 15th of July, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that much has changed. The lake level dropped and is now only active nearest the east vent. The east vent is active. The west vent is dead. A new vent opened up high on the south wall of West Gap Pit yesterday afternoon, but may no longer be active this morning. Earthquakes continue to occur beneath the upper east rift zone. Kilauea summit continues to inflate.

In the last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o vent: The lava lake level is no longer rising and started falling at 1521h, exposing the levee walls. In addition, the flow from east vent was not sufficient to get all the way to the west end of the lake. The west vent and the western portion of the lake were not active. Yesterday before the level dropped, the lava lake surface was measured to be 31 m below the east crater rim. Overall, it appears that the supply of lava to the lake is dwindling. At about 1615h, a new set of vents oriented east-west opened high on the south wall of the West Gap pit. The new vent area was visible in the webcam at night to the far right of the lava lake. The last incandescence from the West Gap pit was at 0445h and there was no longer any steam or fume visible by morning light so the vent may no longer be active. The tiltmeter on the north side of Pu`u `O`o cone recorded about 2 microradians of inflation. Seismic tremor continues at low levels. The radiometer levels are decreasing; the last spike was at 1546h in the instrument pointing to the eastern portion of the lava lake. The one pointing toward the western portion showed significant cooling.

In the last 24 hours at June 18/19 eruption site: No significant changes. Small earthquakes continue to occur beneath the upper east rift zone and the south flank; a few deeper earthquakes were located near Hi`iaka and Pauahi craters. A couple of earthquakes were located farther east beneath Pua`i-`alua crater, immediately south of Napau crater. Seismic tremor levels continue to be below pre-June 17 levels. GPS receivers indicate that the rift zone here continues to expand at a rate of 2 cm/week.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The tiltmeter near HVO is recording continued northward tilt at a rate of about 0.6 microradian per day; the direction is away from Halema`uma`u and therefore indicates summit inflation. Seismic tremor levels continue to be below pre-June 17 levels. GPS receivers on opposite sides of the caldera are moving apart at a rate of about 1.5 cm/week, also indicating summit inflation.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on July 17, 2007, 08:03:31 PM
WOW! - Am I right in assuming this is a LOT of volcanic activity all at once? I had heard some about several - maybe three. My older brother lives just South of Mt. St. Helens, and he was there for the eruption in the 80s. I think they are about 60 miles away, and that was still close enough for the air  to be almost ruined. I can't remember how large an area was covered by ash, but it was huge. I think that I remember reading that all we've had in recent memory were very small percentages of what each volcano could have been, and that includes the last eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Realistically, I understand that one major eruption could impact the entire earth.


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on July 17, 2007, 09:46:59 PM
WOW! - Am I right in assuming this is a LOT of volcanic activity all at once? I had heard some about several - maybe three. My older brother lives just South of Mt. St. Helens, and he was there for the eruption in the 80s. I think they are about 60 miles away, and that was still close enough for the air  to be almost ruined. I can't remember how large an area was covered by ash, but it was huge. I think that I remember reading that all we've had in recent memory were very small percentages of what each volcano could have been, and that includes the last eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Realistically, I understand that one major eruption could impact the entire earth.
Brother,

Normally there are 29 active volcanic eruptions per year. These posts, for today, is just the last week.  Yes one major eruption will impact the entire earth. 

Pinatubo volcano, (1991) the effects of the eruption were felt worldwide. Global temperatures dropped by about 0.5 °C (0.9 °F), and ozone destruction increased substantially.  Hence the cause of global warming?? ;)

Edited to add;  So far this year, there has been 28 volcanic eruptions.


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on July 17, 2007, 09:59:17 PM
And that doesn't include all the underwater volcanoes that they have just recently found. There are 1,000s of them and many of them are currently active. Such activity is bound to increase the temperatures of the oceans.

A major volcanic eruption above water could cause a significant cooling, perhaps an ice age as the debris and gases could block out the sun's heating capability.



Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on July 17, 2007, 10:06:46 PM

A major volcanic eruption above water could cause a significant cooling, perhaps an ice age as the debris and gases could block out the sun's heating capability.


Then the global warming people will be crying.  :'(  "The ICE AGE is coming, the ICE AGE is coming"........... :D :D :D


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on July 17, 2007, 10:22:37 PM
Yep, all they will have to do is to turn their global warming charts upside down.   :D :D



Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on July 17, 2007, 10:31:25 PM
Yep, all they will have to do is to turn their global warming charts upside down.   :D :D



 ;D ;D ;D ;D ;D


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on July 19, 2007, 08:50:35 PM
Guys, it's too late, I've already thrown the global warming charts out.   ;)

I think we just need to send Al Gore to the sun and let him run things from there.


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on July 19, 2007, 09:05:33 PM
I think that he needs to be sent to the Son and see who really controls things.



Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on July 19, 2007, 09:36:21 PM
I think that he needs to be sent to the Son and see who really controls things.



Brother,

All politicians used to do that. Now - who knows? - some do - some act like the do - and some obviously don't know the SON at all.

Politicians who pretend to know JESUS to manipulate Christians really are sickening. I understand that many will be play acting to manipulate Christians on the next election. I would prefer to remain on their write-off list because I don't think that I can stomach the play acting.


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 03, 2007, 11:59:20 PM
Well here is a major up date...................

BULUSAN

As of the 3rd of August, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) has reported Bulusan Volcano continues to be in a state of unrest as evidenced by swarms of small to moderate sized earthquakes and the ash explosion this morning. Therefore, Alert Level 1 remains in effect over the volcano. The public is reminded not to enter the 4-kilometre radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) because this area is at risk from sudden steam/ash explosions. Residents near river/stream channels around the volcano should also be on alert against life-threatening volcanic mudflows (lahars) during heavy rains which might remobilise ash and loose deposits from the upper slopes.

Luzon's southernmost volcano, Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 35,000-40,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century.

The Current Colour Code for Bulusan is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~~~

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 3rd of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) via the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that a small thermal anomaly was visible this morning at Cleveland indicating that low-level eruptive activity may be continuing. Low cloud cover obscured the rest of the volcano. There was no indication of ash or steam emission. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 2nd of August, INGEMMET reported that based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 and 25 July. The plumes drifted SE and S, respectively. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery. On 24 July, a diffuse plume was visible on satellite imagery at an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 04, 2007, 12:01:40 AM
HUILA

As of the 2nd of August, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that between 25 and 31 of July of 2007 a total of 234 events were registered; of which, 170 events are associate to fracturing of rock, 58 events associated to the fluid movement and transit of and gases within the internal conduits of the volcano, and 6 events that as much contain compound mechanisms of fracture as of transit of fluids. Between the 2000hrs of the 28th of July and the 1500hrs of the 29th, a slight increase in the associated seismic activity to fracturing of rock appeared, with registry of 50 events in a lapse of 19 hours. One stands out that, the events are located in a located seismic source to 4.0 km to of the Cerro Negro station, to depths between 6.47 and 7.85 km, and with a maximum magnitude of 1.99. Of the previous, it is emphasised that the system continues presenting/displaying small levels of excitation, associated with the internal dynamics of the volcano. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic phenomenon and will inform INTLVRC in an opportune way any changes that can be presented/displayed.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 3rd of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week, 150-600 shallow volcanic earthquakes and a spasmodic volcanic tremor were registered at volcano all days. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 3.0 km (9,850 ft) ASL. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was noted on July 31 and August 02, gas-steam plume extended 23 km (14 mi) to the south-west on August 02, the volcano was obscured by clouds on the other days.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 3rd of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was slightly above background levels on July 27-29, 31 and August 01 and at background levels on the other days. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered during the weak. According to satellite data a thermal anomaly was noted on July 28 and August 02, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 04, 2007, 12:04:10 AM
SHEVELUCH

As of the 3rd of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was slightly above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and weak intermittent volcanic tremor were registered. According to seismic data, weak ash plumes and avalanches occurred at the volcano last week. Strong gas-steam plume, extending to the south, was observed on July 31, clouds obscured the volcano in other days. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was noted all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 3rd of August, the Kamchatka Volcano Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that seismic activity was at background levels. But sudden ash explosions up to 6 km (19,700 ft.) ASL could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was at background levels last week, weak continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor and a few shallow earthquakes were registered. According to video and visual data, gas-steam activity was noted on July 31 and the volcano was obscured by clouds on the other days. According to satellite data, thermal anomaly was noted on July 27-28 and August 01.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is now at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

MANAM

As of the 28th of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that the Rabau Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that based on satellite image observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 June and drifted WNW.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centres are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded at Manam since 1616. A major eruption in 1919 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the coast, and in 1957-58 pyroclastic flows descended all four radial valleys. Lava flows reached the sea in 1946-47 and 1958.

The Current Colour Code for Manam is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 04, 2007, 12:06:20 AM
GAMKONORA

As of the 2nd of August, the RSOE Emergency and Disaster Information Service has reported that CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Gamkonora from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 24 July based on visual observations and a decrease in seismicity. That followed a sharp drop in seismicity during 8-23 July, a decline both in terms of the number of events and their energy. Later, during 16-23 July, when breaks in inclement weather took place, observers saw white plumes rising to altitudes of 5.6 km (18,400 ft) a.s.l. Available CVGHM reports issued through the 26th did not disclose more recent events.

On 8 July, a phreatic eruption from Gamkonora produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted N and ashfall was reported from villages as far as 7 km downwind. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). On 9 July, seismic activity increased and eruption plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.6 km (7,000-8,500 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level was raised to 3. Later that day, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.6 km (18,400 ft) a.s.l. and the Alert Level was raised to 4. During 9-10 July, incandescent material was propelled 5-50 m above the crater. On 10 July, booming noises were followed by ash plumes that rose to 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. About 8,400 people evacuated from villages within an 8 km radius of the volcano.

The shifting of eruption centres on Gamkonora, at 1635 m the highest peak of Halmahera, has produced an elongated series of summit craters along a N-S trending rift. Youthful-looking lava flows originate near the cones of Gunung Alon and Popolojo, south of Gamkonora. Since its first recorded eruption in the 16th century, Gamkonora has typically produced small-to-moderate explosive eruptions. Its largest historical eruption, in 1673, was accompanied by tsunamis that inundated villages.

The Current Colour Code for Gamkonora is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~

TALANG

As of the 5th of July, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that the andesitic stratovolcano, Talang or Salasi or Sulasih volcano is one of active volcanoes in West Sumatra, Indonesia. It is located at the district of Kota Anau, Solok Regency. The volcano reaches 2597 m high, with two craters at summit area. The alert level of the volcano is still on level 2. Visual observation showed thick-brownish-ash came out 200 m high from the Main Crater. Thin-white-ash came out 100 m high from the South Crater, while no ash observed on Kapundan Panjang (Panjang crater) and Gabuo Bawah. The seismicity on this week relatively no significant change compare with the previous one.

Talang, which forms a twin volcano with the extinct Pasar Arbaa volcano, lies ESE of the major city of Padang and rises NW of Dibawah Lake. Talang has two crater lakes on its flanks; the largest of these is 1 x 2 km wide Danau Talang. Most historical eruptions have not occurred from the summit of the volcano, which lacks a crater. Historical eruptions from Gunung Talang volcano have mostly involved small-to-moderate explosive activity first documented in the 19th century that originated from a series of small craters in a valley on the upper NE flank.

The Current Colour Code for Talang currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~

SAKURA-JIMA

As of the 28th of June, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Sakura-Jima rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N during 20-21 June. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flows was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 04, 2007, 12:10:07 AM
SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 3rd of August, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity has remained low with no significant change over the last 24 hours, although low level rockfall activity continues to affect all sides of the lava dome. Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding. The amount of material above Tyres Ghaut to the NW is sufficient to generate pyroclastic flows and surges capable of impacting on the lower Belham Valley and lower lying areas up to lower Happy Hill and the Old Towne ridge. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 3rd of August, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift primarily to the northeast.

The clear weather continues to offer a good view into the crater today. Seismic activity continues at a low level. Many of the events recorded by crater seismic monitors are due to rockfalls and glacier activity associated with continued slow dome growth. Yesterday was a successful field day for working on monitoring sites, making field investigations, and placing two GPS spiders. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 3rd of August, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 6 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas emissions and occasionally small amounts of ash. At the moment of this report CENAPRED can observe the volcano with steam and gas emissions.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 04, 2007, 12:12:18 AM
PACAYA

As of the 2nd of August, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that four hornitos in the crater of the Mackenney Cone are alternated expelling incandescent lava to ~10 and ~25 m of alt., constantly. The hornito of the centre expelled to the greater mentioned height, whereas the others in the Southeastern, the south and the northwest in its expulsions the material slightly excels of the surface. Lava effusion in the peak (~2550 m) of the lava promontory in the northeast flank, formed two short incandescent lava taps that occasionally produced landslide of blocks. Desgasification formed a white cloud of ~50 m of alt., transported to the south.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 2nd of August, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that twenty-three explosions characterised as: 18 weak and 5 moderate ones. All the explosions created rumbling, expelled incandescent lava to ~50 and ~75 m of alt. and incandescent avalanches in the south flanks and the west with passages from ~500 to ~700 m long. Some moderate rumblings generated weakly sensible shock wave in OVGO.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

SANTA MARIA

As of the 2nd of August, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the volcano maintains fumaroles of white colour of 200 m of height that moves to the west and southwest of the volcano. Possibly heard is the sound of a train with variable durations between 1 to 8 min. The feeding of material in the lava flow of the ravine of the Taniluyá river stays, with a length approximated of 300 m. Weak avalanches in the ravine of the Cenizas river were observed.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 04, 2007, 12:14:59 AM
TUNGURAHUA

As of the 3rd of August, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that a diminution in the emissions is observed and during today the volcano it has shown mainly roars. The activity like moderate stays to discharge. There was one slight ash fall in Ambato, during the night of today, associated possibly to the emission column that appeared afternoon of yesterday.

The registery has registered a total of 62 events of long period (LP), 19 signals of tremor of emission and 1 small explosion. In the afternoon, the volcano showed a column of constant emission yesterday, with content under ash but that during the night, due to winds and to the direction of the column generated one slight ash fall in the city of Ambato. In hours of the dawn and tomorrow of today the activity of the volcano changed, did not appear ash emissions but if constant roars took place, reported by the watches that are in the environs of the volcano. The roars varied of small to moderate.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 3rd of August, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the 7/21 fissure segments C and D continued to be active; C is barely so but D continued unchanged. The front of the active lava flow had advanced 3.5 km to the northeast as of yesterday afternoon. A deflation-inflation tilt event occurred at Kilauea summit yesterday that mirrored a similar and larger tilt event at Pu`u `O`o suggesting that the hydraulic connection between the two has improved.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: The perched pond fed by fissure segment B drained sometime overnight between 7/30 and 7/31; this segment was inactive during yesterday's overflight. Fissure segment C was barely active yesterday producing only sluggish overflows. Fissure segment D was again dominant in activity and continued to feed an `a`a flow advancing to the northeast. The flow front has advanced at an average rate of 19 m/hr since Monday and is now 3.5 km from fissure segment D. Vent areas are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: No incandescence was visible inside Pu`u `O`o crater. The tiltmeter on the north flank of the crater recorded 5 microradians of deflation of the crater between about 0800hrs on the 1st and 0200hrs on the 2nd of August. Seismic tremor levels dropped a little at Pu`u `O`o during the tilt event but no other coincident change in activity was witnessed.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The tiltmeter network at the summit recorded an event very similar to a deflation-inflation (DI) tilt event between 0800hrs on 8/1 to 0046hrs on 8/2 amounting to 2 microradians of deflation. Seismic tremor levels, which generally increase during a DI event, remained low. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema`uma`u crater and the South Flank but their timing was not related to the tilt event. This tilt event is the first to be recorded at both the summit and Pu`u `O`o since early 2005 and may suggest that the events of the past several weeks have improved the hydraulic connection between vent and summit magma storage.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 1st of August, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica via the Global Vlocanism Network (GVN) reported that activity continues from Arenal's Crater C consisting of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling SW, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Blocks from the lava-flow fronts periodically reached vegetation and started small fires. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Small amounts of pyroclastic material were ejected and affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Ash and acid rain fell on the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D continues to show only fumarolic activity.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 04, 2007, 12:19:45 AM
YASUR

As of the 1st of August, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, he reports that Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano has erupted many times per hour for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 2nd of August, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that as Andrea Ercolani reports from Stromboli, the "normal" Strombolian activity seems to be returning to the summit craters since early July. After the effusive eruption which ended on 4th of April this year and a powerful vent-clearing explosion on 15 March, there have been deep-seated explosions ejecting black ash clouds since May. In July, these have beomce more regular and it seems that the magma level inside the vents has been rising and there could soon be visible lava ejections again. Access to the summit is still restricted and visitors may only climb up to 400m elevation accompanied by an authorised mountain guide, but it is being discussed wether new rules to allow access to the summit will be established. This will be communicated here as soon as it happens. Stromboli is a continuously active stratovolcano. The summit is at 924 m.a.s.l. However, the base of the volcano is between 1500 and 2000 m below the sea. The surface area of the island is only 12.6 square kilometres.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of August, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that Mt. Erebus has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activity. One of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes. Most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring of the seismic and seismoacoustic activity of the volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

with in the past week this is 21 volcanoes in some stage of eruption.  Thats ALOT of activity, normally I can only post 14-16  volcanoes in some stage of eruption.


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 04, 2007, 12:22:02 AM
And that doesn't include all the underwater volcanoes that they have just recently found. There are 1,000s of them and many of them are currently active. Such activity is bound to increase the temperatures of the oceans.


I posted about this back in July 11. Link, Thousand of new volcanoes revealed beneath the waves (http://forums.christiansunite.com/index.php?topic=18053.0)


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on August 05, 2007, 11:58:00 AM
 ;D

I'm going to guess that Al Gore has been loose in the ocean also. There's global warming wherever that guy goes. I think that Al Gore should be locked up for the good of the planet.   ;D


Title: Ethiopia volcano erupts, 2 missing
Post by: Shammu on August 18, 2007, 12:49:11 AM
 Ethiopia volcano erupts, 2 missing

Fri Aug 17, 6:33 AM ET

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia - A volcano erupted in the remote desert of northern Ethiopia, and two people were missing, the state-run news agency said.

The volcano spewed lava for about two hours Sunday in the Afar region, a spectacular yet barren expanse of volcanoes and ancient salt mines where bandits and rebels operate.

The area is inhabited mostly by nomads.

The eruption was reported to government officials via telegram and they sent a team to investigate, the Ethiopian News Agency reported Wednesday.

The area is one of the hottest and most inhospitable in the world, with an average annual temperature of 95 degrees, although it often gets much hotter.

 Ethiopia volcano erupts, 2 missing (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070817/ap_on_re_af/ethiopia_volcano;_ylt=ApO5mzztIArqwsTNFfzmCAi96Q8F)


Title: Alaska's Pavlof Volcano Erupting Molten Lava
Post by: Shammu on August 18, 2007, 12:50:34 AM
Alaska's Pavlof Volcano Erupting Molten Lava

Friday , August 17, 2007

AP
ADVERTISEMENT

ANCHORAGE, Alaska —
One of Alaska's most active volcanoes could be working toward a massive eruption that could affect air travel but was not expected to threaten any of the towns in the area, scientists said Thursday.

Satellite images of Pavlof Volcano taken Thursday showed strong thermal readings, consistent with what the Alaska Volcano Observatory is calling a "vigorous eruption of lava" at the volcano about 590 miles southwest of Anchorage on the Alaska Peninsula.

The volcano is below the path of hundreds of daily international flight paths, and an explosive eruption could interrupt those operations, said Steve McNutt, a volcano seismologist with the observatory. Volcanic ash can enter an engine and make it seize up, he said.

The Federal Aviation Administration sent advisories to airlines that might be operating in the area and is monitoring the situation, said spokesman Allen Kenitzer. If there is a severe eruption, flights would have to be diverted, possibly resulting in delays, he said.

McNutt said seismic activity is high at the 8,262-foot volcano, with about one tremor recorded every minute. Lahars — mudslides caused when lava melts snow on the peak — have triggered some seismic activity, as well, he said.

The mudslides took place on the southeast side of the volcano, an area he said is inhabited by few, if any, people. Pavlof is about nine miles from Pavlof Bay, a popular fishing ground, but at the moment it isn't posing an immediate threat, McNutt said.

He said hazards the volcano could present included light ash fall on nearby communities, mud flows, lava flows and hot debris avalanching on the volcano's flanks.

Several small towns are in the area, including King Cove, which is about 35 miles to the southwest with a population of roughly 800, and Cold Bay, nearly 40 miles southwest with a population of about 90. But they're too far to be affected by lava, and McNutt said an eruption probably would coat the towns with no more than a 2- or 3-millimeter-thick blanket of ash.

Josh Gould, co-owner of King Cove grocer John Gould & Sons Co. Inc., said people in town were preparing for the worst while hoping for the best. Sales of basic staples are up, he said, but there's no danger of running out of products like water, bread and milk.

He said that an ash plume was visible from town, but that none was falling on it yet.

Seismic activity was first picked up at the volcano Tuesday. Eyewitnesses aboard a fishing boat in the area Wednesday reported glowing lava on the volcano's southeast flank. Pilots have reported a weak plume of ash drifting 5 miles to the southwest and likely below 20,000 feet.

"What we think we're in for is several months of low-level eruptions punctuated by a few large and explosive events," McNutt said.

Pavlof, which has had about 40 eruptions since record keeping began in the area in the 1760s, is among the most closely monitored volcanoes in the state, with permanent monitoring equipment installed nearby.

Its last eruption was in 1996; that 11-year span is the longest Pavlof has gone without an event, McNutt said. A string of eruptions took place during the 1970s and 1980s.

A series of ash explosions and lava eruptions took place for several months after the last eruption. Ash clouds reached as high as 30,000 feet at the time. During a 1986 eruption, Pavlof spewed ash as high as 49,000 feet.

Alaska's Pavlof Volcano Erupting Molten Lava (http://www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_story/0,3566,293552,00.html)


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 18, 2007, 12:53:45 AM
PAVLOF

As of the 17th of August, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that the intensity of earthquake activity at Pavlof Volcano has increased this morning. Satellite images of the volcano overnight and this morning show continuous strong thermal anomalies at Pavlof. Residents of both Cold Bay and Sand Point observed incandescence at the summit. These observations are consistent with vigorous eruption of lava at the surface.

The primary hazard from this eruption is airborne ash. If activity continues to increase in intensity, larger ash clouds that could affect aircraft may be produced. The most immediate ground hazard in the vicinity of the volcano includes light ash fall on nearby communities. Previous historical eruptions from Pavlof caused only a few millimeters (about 1/10th of an inch) of ash to fall on King Cove, Nelson Lagoon, and Sand Point. Mudflows in drainages from the flanks of the volcano, and lava flows and avalanching of hot debris on the upper reaches of the volcano are also of concern in the uninhabited areas around the volcano. Satellite data and eyewitness observations suggest most of the surface lava activity is occurring on the southeast sector of the steep-sided volcano; this suggests that the Pacific Ocean side of the volcano is at most risk from avalanching hot debris. AVO continues to monitor the activity closely; satellite and seismic data are checked frequently around the clock. AVO is planning the installation of additional monitoring equipment including a web camera.

The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavolf, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing strombolian to vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption of Pavlof took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode; a fissure opened on the northern flank of the volcano, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Pavlof is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 17th of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) via the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that no activity was observed in partly cloudy satellite views last night. Fog and clouds obscured webcam views. AVO continues to monitor the volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 16th of August, INGEMMET reported that based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 9 August.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 18, 2007, 12:56:48 AM
HUILA

As of the 15th of August, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that in the month of August of 2007 a total of 356 events were registered; of which, 220 events are associate to fracturing of rock, 136 events associated to the fluid movement and transit of and gases within the internal conduits of the volcano, and 18 events that as much contain compound mechanisms of fracture as of transit of fluids.

One stands out that the associated events to fracturing of rock are located so much in the Central Tip as in Eastern and South the flanks of the volcano, the depths oscillated between 1.5 and 7.5 km and with smaller magnitudes of 1.0. A happened earthquake is emphasised within this activity day 11 of August to the 1633hrs local time, which was located to 2 km in south-western direction of the South Tip, its calculated magnitude was of 2.65 and depth of 6 km. Of the previous item it is emphasised that the system continues presenting/displaying low levels of excitation, associated with the internal dynamics of the volcano. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic phenomenon and will inform INTLVRC in an opportune way any changes that can be presented/displayed.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 17th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week, 350-600 shallow volcanic earthquakes and a spasmodic volcanic tremor were registered at volcano all days. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 3.0 km (9,850 ft) ASL . According to satellite data, the volcano was obscured by clouds all week.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 17th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was slightly above background levels on August 09-10 and 12-13 and did not exceed level of registration on the other days. Several shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered during the week. According to satellite data a thermal anomaly was noted on August 11, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 18, 2007, 01:00:51 AM
SHEVELUCH

As of the 17th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and intermittent volcanic tremor were registered. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 10 km (32800 ft) ASL and avalanches occurred at the volcano last week. According to visual data from Kluchi, intensive growth of the eastern part of the lava dome, incandescence of the dome and hot avalanches were noted on August 11-12. Two avalanches, accompanied with ash plumes up to 4.5 km (14800 ft) ASL extending to the north-west, were observed on August 14, clouds obscured the volcano in other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week, diffused ash plume extended about 90 km (56 mi) to the south-east on August 11.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 17th of August, the Kamchatka Volcano Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that activity of Klyuchevskoy has decreased and KVERT is now assigning level of concern color code GREEN to the volcano: seismic activity was at background levels during the past five weeks, and ash plumes were not noted for the last four weeks. Seismic activity was at background levels last week, weak continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor and a few weak shallow earthquakes were registered. According to video and visual data, no activity was observed on August 11 and the volcano was obscured by clouds on the other days. According to satellite data, thermal anomaly was noted on August 11.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is now at GREEN
~~~~~~~

SAKURA-JIMA

As of the 9th of August, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Sakura-jima on 4 August. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flows was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima currently at ORANGE



Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 18, 2007, 01:05:19 AM
SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 17th of August, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity has remained low with no significant changes over the last 24 hours, although low level rockfall activity continues. Lava extrusion has ceased and the dome is now in a passive state. Nevetheless, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding, although the likelihood of this decreases with time as no further lava extrusion occurs. The amount of material above Tyres Ghaut to the NW is sufficient to generate pyroclastic flows and surges capable of impacting on the lower Belham Valley and lower lying areas up to lower Happy Hill and the Old Towne ridge. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

"Live-Cam" of Mt. St. Helens. (http://www.fs.fed.us/gpnf/volcanocams/msh/)

As of the 17th of August, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift to the northeast.

The day dawns with yet another cloudless, scintillating day at Mt. St. Helens. Seismicity continues to be low with no unusual activity. USGS field crews had a productive day in the field yesterday. Projects included working on telemetry for one tiltmeter and removing a second that had filled with water, mapping geology on the north flank, surveying river channels, and performing various maintenance and upgrade tasks on several remote camera sites. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 17th of August, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 8 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas emissions, and occasionally small amounts of ash. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report CENAPRED can observe the volcano with steam and gas emissions.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 18, 2007, 01:07:30 AM
PACAYA

As of the 15th of August, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that little it has been changed in observation due to the atmospheric conditions, and small explosions of 15 and 25 metres of height; continuous flow of lava in front of the Cerro Chino with lengths of 150 to 200 metres. Crater degassing continues with a plumein the north direction.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 15th of August, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that with weak and moderate explosions, expelling gray ash to 300 and 500 metres from the crater with direction the west. Some of these explosions generated rumblings and some with weak shock waves.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

SANTA MARIA

As of the 15th of August, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that in the last 24 hours the volcano carried out 20 weak and moderate explosions, expulsion of gray ash 300 and 500 metres of height dispersing the column towards the southwest. Avalanches in the lava flow of the southwest were observed.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 18, 2007, 01:09:51 AM
TUNGURAHUA

As of the 17th of August, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the seismic activity of the volcano presents/displays a moderate-high level with ascending tendency. In these last hours 3 volcanic explosions have been registered.

The registery has registered a total of 16 events of long period (LP) and 29 signals of tremor related to gas discharges and ash. Additionally 3 volcanic explosions of small size were registered, greatest of which happened yesterday at 1904hrs (local time) and had a reduced displacement of 2.2cm2. The volcano remains cloudy from the afternoon of yesterday with slight rains in the morning of today. The occurrence of lahars (mud flows) has not been reported. At night yesterdsay it was reported that slight roars generated by the volcano were heard in the population of Manzano (southwestern flank of the volcano) and Juive (northwestern flank).

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~

ERTA ALE

As of the 17th of August, the Ethiopian News Agency reported a possible new flank eruption from Erta Ale volcano in the Danakil desert. From the Ethiopian News Agency, according to the agency, two people are reported missing and several hundreds of villagers were forced to flee from their area by a lava flow.

Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield volcano that is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide volcano rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The 613-m-high volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep-sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located to the SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906. Recent fissure eruptions have occurred on the northern flank of Erta Ale.

The Current Colour Code for Erta Ale is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 16th of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that during 7-13 August, ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. On 8 August, ashfall greater than 5 mm thickness was reported in Rabaul Town. During 10-13 August, ashfall was reported from areas downwind, including Rabaul Town. Rumbling and jet-like noises were heard and incandescence was seen at the crater during the reporting period.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 18, 2007, 01:13:12 AM
KILAUEA

"Live-Cam" of Pu`u `O`o. (http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/cam/index.htm)

As of the 16th of August, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the effects of Tropical Storm Flossie are decreasing. The 7/21 fissure eruption continues to feed a channel and lava flow. A magnitude-4.2 earthquake occurred at 0223hrs and was located 2.5 miles south of Mauna Ulu beneath the south flank at a depth of 9 km (5 miles).

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: Weather has made webcam viewing difficult but the active was seen last night. The webcam has been blocked by wet weather since the M4.2 earthquake. Vent areas are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: The webcam is still down. The tiltmeter on the north flank of Pu`u `O`o cone flattened out and maybe recording inflation, possibly due to rainfall. Seismic tremor levels at Pu`u `O`o and nearby areas decreased as Tropical Storm Flossie passes to the south.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The tiltmeter network continued to record slow deflation. Seismic tremor levels were low. A few small shallow earthquakes were again located beneath Halema`uma`u crater.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 16th of August, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica via the Global Vlocanism Network (GVN) reported that in July, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling SW and S, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Blocks from the lava-flow fronts periodically reached vegetation and started small fires. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Small amounts of pyroclastic material were ejected and affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Ash and acid rain fell on the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 10th of August, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that as colleague Andrea Ercolani reports from Stromboli, access to the summit area of Stromboli has been reopened for guided tours under certain restrictions. In brief, small groups accompanied with authorised guides can now reach the ridge east of the crater terrace between 750 and around 850 m elevation where a few shelters are located, but the maximum stay is now limited to 30 minutes. Access to the Pizzo summit itself is limited to the time necessary for passing along the trail.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~


Well that is another 21 volcanoes again. :o


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on August 18, 2007, 05:57:24 AM
WOW!

I have quite a few meteor helmets left that didn't sell. I wonder if I could sell the remaining inventory by calling them "volcano helmets"?

I wanted to repeat something that many of our readers and guests might not know. Natural disasters are one of the signs in Bible Prophecy of the end days of this Age of Grace. However, natural disasters are just one piece of the puzzle. There are other pieces of this Big Bible Prophecy Puzzle that are beginning to fall into place, and the pieces fit. The question becomes - how long might it take for the rest of the pieces to fall into place?

People who study Bible Prophecy are beginning to think that it might not take much to finish the picture in the "puzzle". Most know better than to try setting dates and times, but "soon" is a word that is often used these days.

There are all kinds of people in this dying world, and it's interesting to consider some of the possible reactions to information like this. As examples:

"There goes the religious nuts again." - from the lost and worldly.

"What are they talking about?" - from those without a clue?

"What's Bible Prophecy?" - from those who are interested but don't understand.


One could easily use the imagination and come up with tons of additional examples. The truth of the matter is that very few people understand what we're talking about. Sadly, that includes many Christians who haven't studied their Bibles often enough. So maybe this is a good opportunity to make some very general statements about things that will happen soon:

JESUS  CHRIST will catch up Christians, living and dead, to meet HIM in the air - forever to remain with HIM. This is called the Rapture.

The world will suffer a horrible 7 year period of time called the Tribulation Period. This will be a time of horror, terror, and blood-shed like the world has never known. Israel will be the central focus of this time period.

JESUS CHRIST HIMSELF will come again at the end of the Tribulation Period, and it will be in GREAT, HOLY WRATH. Most of the peoples of the world will die, and JESUS CHRIST will defeat evil.

JESUS CHRIST will restore Israel and claim HIS Throne as Israel's Anointed KING. JESUS CHRIST will rule and reign over the earth from the Throne of David in Jerusalem for 1,000 years. This period of time is known as the Millennial Kingdom. Please note this is separate and distinct from GOD'S Heavenly Kingdom that is already in place.


So, what is so important about all of this? Mankind has been forewarned of it for thousands of years from the pages of the Holy Bible. Bible Prophecy is Promises made by GOD through HIS WORD, the Holy Bible, that will happen in the future. The First Coming of JESUS CHRIST and the CROSS was one such example, and that Bible Prophecy was fulfilled about 2,000 years ago. The time is growing short for people to accept JESUS CHRIST as Lord and Saviour. The time is also growing short for Christians to witness to their family, friends, and neighbors. Those who reject CHRIST will pay a horrible and eternal price.

We aren't talking about the end of the world, rather the start of a new age in GOD'S Plan for mankind. It will be a time for GOD to fulfill many Promises. It will involve a wonderful time for Christians and a horrible time for the lost. Christians will go on to their rewards in Heaven, and the lost will await their judgment for eternal punishment. In the age we are living now, ALMIGHTY GOD is still displaying HIS patience and love for disobedient and sinful man. GOD told us in the Holy Bible that this period of time would end, and HE will pour out HIS RIGHTEOUS WRATH on evil men. This is the TIME that is coming soon! Sadly, great hosts will reject JESUS CHRIST and hurry on their present course to the ETERNAL FIRES OF HELL!

If you haven't accepted JESUS CHRIST as your LORD and SAVIOUR, please read the following post. If you have questions or need help in making your decision, please ask. Many Christians will be most happy to help you.


Love In Christ,
Tom

(http://i71.photobucket.com/albums/i160/tlr10/357/ro10_910.gif)

 



Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on August 18, 2007, 06:03:54 AM

GOOD NEWS!

1:  Romans 3:10 NASB  as it is written, "THERE IS NONE RIGHTEOUS, NOT EVEN ONE; THERE IS NONE WHO UNDERSTANDS, THERE IS NONE WHO SEEKS FOR GOD; ALL HAVE TURNED ASIDE, TOGETHER THEY HAVE BECOME USELESS; THERE IS NONE WHO DOES GOOD, THERE IS NOT EVEN ONE."

2:  Romans 3:23  NASB  for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

3:  Romans 5:12  NASB  Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned--

4:  Romans 6:23  NASB  For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

5:  Romans 1:18  NASB  For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness,

6:  Romans 3:20  NASB  because by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.

7:  Romans 3:27  NASB  Where then is boasting? It is excluded. By what kind of law? Of works? No, but by a law of faith.

8:  Romans 5:8-9  NASB  But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from the wrath of God through Him.

9:  Romans 2:4  NASB  Or do you think lightly of the riches of His kindness and tolerance and patience, not knowing that the kindness of God leads you to repentance?

10:  Romans 3:22  NASB  even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction;

11:  Romans 3:28  NASB  For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from works of the Law.

12:  Romans 10:9  NASB  that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved;

13:  Romans 4:21  NASB  and being fully assured that what God had promised, He was able also to perform.

14:  Romans 4:24 NASB  but for our sake also, to whom it will be credited, as those who believe in Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead,

15:  Romans 5:1  NASB  Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,

16:  Romans 10:10  NASB  for with the heart a person believes, resulting in righteousness, and with the mouth he confesses, resulting in salvation.

17:  Romans 10:13  NASB  for "WHOEVER WILL CALL ON THE NAME OF THE LORD WILL BE SAVED."

Thanks be unto GOD for HIS unspeakable GIFT!, JESUS CHRIST, our Lord and Saviour forever!


Title: Volcano in Eastern Indonesia Spews Lava, Hot Ash
Post by: Shammu on August 20, 2007, 08:43:27 PM
Volcano in Eastern Indonesia Spews Lava, Hot Ash

Monday , August 20, 2007

AP

JAKARTA, Indonesia —
A volcano in eastern Indonesia spewed hot lava and clouds of ash high into the air early Monday, a vulcanologist said, hours after hundreds of villagers living on its rumbling slopes were evacuated.

There were no reports of injuries or damage, said Yudi Satipang, a vulcanologist who has been monitoring Mount Karangetang on Siau island since it was placed on high alert over the weekend.

"It sounds like huge thunderclaps," he said of the booming gas blasts from the crater, adding that villages, farms and trees on the 5,577-foot -tall mountain were covered in thick gray ash.

Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active mountains, and it has been rumbling for days.

Nearly 600 residents living within the danger zone have fled to safety, and many were seeking shelter in government buildings, schools and mosques.

Indonesia, the world's largest archipelago, is prone to seismic upheaval due to its location on the so-called Pacific "Ring of Fire," an arc of volcanos and fault lines encircling the Pacific Basin.

Siau, a popular diving island, is part of the Sulawesi island chain. It lies some 1,444 miles northeast of the country's capital, Jakarta.

Volcano in Eastern Indonesia Spews Lava, Hot Ash (http://www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_story/0,3566,293768,00.html)


Title: Five killed in Ethiopian volcanic eruption
Post by: Shammu on August 23, 2007, 12:18:58 AM
Five killed in Ethiopian volcanic eruption

Wed Aug 22, 12:11 PM ET

ADDIS ABABA (AFP) - A volcanic eruption in northeastern Ethiopia killed five people and displaced more than 2,000 others, state media reported Wednesday.

The volcano in the Afar region started spewing lava on August 12 and the eruption lasted for three days. Although the activity has since subsided, locals are still advised to leave the area.

"The volcano has dried and polluted local rivers that has displaced over 2,000 people along with their cattle," said Hassan Mohammed, head of the region's disaster prevention agency, cited by the Ethiopian News Agency.

The eruption site is located south of Mount Arteale -- which was believed to be Ethiopia's only active volcano -- according to the UN humanitarian agency which had sent a team to the region.

Mount Arteale's eruption two years ago caused the displacement of more than 5,0000 Afar nomads and deaths of hundreds of livestock.

Five killed in Ethiopian volcanic eruption (http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20070822/wl_africa_afp/ethiopiavolcano;_ylt=AjNyM9K1HMxaIa1oCjWAbTC96Q8F)


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 06, 2007, 01:10:22 AM
KARANGETANG

As of the 30th of August, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that after a gradual increase in activity, Karangetang volcano on Siau island started a more violent phase of activity. Lava flows and pyroclastic flows from the growing lava dome have been reported. According to the Jakarta Post, several hundred people have been evacuated from villages on the slopes of the volcano. A major explosive eruption could happen in the near future, volcanologist estimate.

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

The Current Colour Code for Karangetang is currently at ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~

PAVLOF

As of the 5th of September, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that the eruption of Pavlof continues. Seismic activity continues to fluctuate. Web camera and satellite views were cloudy today. No reports of plumes or plume height have been received.

If activity continues to increase, larger ash clouds that could affect higher-flying aircraft may be produced. The most immediate ground hazard in the vicinity of the volcano includes light ash fall on nearby communities. Previous historical eruptions from Pavlof caused only a few millimeters (about 1/10th of an inch) of ash to fall on King Cove, Nelson Lagoon, Cold Bay, and Sand Point. Mudflows in drainages from the flanks of the volcano, and lava flows and avalanching of hot debris on the upper reaches of the volcano are also of concern in the uninhabited areas around the volcano. Satellite and seismic data and eyewitness observations suggest most of the surface lava activity is occurring on the southeast sector of the steep-sided volcano; this suggests that the Pacific Ocean side of the volcano is at most risk from avalanching hot debris.

At this time, AVO expects this eruption to follow the pattern of previous eruptions. The last eruption of Pavlof began in September 1996 and consisted of a several-month-long series of ash explosions, lava-fountaining, and lava-flow production. Ash clouds reached as high as 30,000 ft asl on one occasion. However, most ash clouds were below 20,000 ft asl. Prior to 1996, Pavlof erupted in 1986 sending ash as high as 49,000 ft asl on at least one occasion.

The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavolf, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing strombolian to vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption of Pavlof took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode; a fissure opened on the northern flank of the volcano, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Pavlof is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

DABBAHU

As of the 29th of August, the Ethiopian News Agency reported that the new fissure eruption in the Danakil near Erta Ale earlier this month, on 14-15 August, is reported to have killed five people, hundreds of camels and and drove more than 2 000 people from their homes. According to Ethiopian news sources, the "eruption also opened a 10km crack in the ground and spewed lava 300m in the air." It is likely this is in fact not an eruption related to Erta Ale volcano. A more likely candidate could be nearby Dabbahu volcano, a new fissure which had its first historic eruption in late Sept (26) - early Oct 2005. It could also be even a new volcano born from a new fissure: a new episode in the dramatic chapter of Earth's History called the "Splitting apart of East Africa".

The occurrence of fissures and fissure eruptions in the area is not surprising, given the very geologic nature of the Afar triangle. Here, the two segments of the African plate and the adjacient Arabian plate are being pulled apart from each other, as East Africa is slowly moving away from the rest of the continent. At the same time, the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden are widening and those movements are combined in the triple junction, which is the Afar triangle. Here, the crust is continuing to thin and the ground is sinking, until until one day, in geologically near future, the land will be flooded by the Red Sea to mark the initial stage of a new ocean.

Dabbahu, also known as Boina, Boyna, or Moina, is a Holocene volcanic massif forming an axial range of the Afar depression SSW of the Alayta massif. Pantelleritic obsidian flows, lava domes, and pumice cones form the summit and upper flanks of the volcano, which rises above the Teru Plain and was built over a base of basaltic-to-trachytic lava flows of a shield volcano. Late-stage basaltic fissure eruptions occurred at the NW base of the volcano. Abundant fumaroles are located along the crest of the volcano and extend NE towards Alayta volcano. The first historical eruption of Dabbahu took place from a fissure vent on the NE flank of the volcano in September 2005 and produced ashfall deposits and a small pumice dome. More than 6000 persons were evacuated from neighbouring villages.

The Current Colour Code for Dabbahu is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 06, 2007, 01:12:53 AM
Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 5th of September, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) via the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that satellite views were mostly cloudy today. Web camera views were cloudy. AVO continues to monitor the volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 5th of September, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that in the period passed between days 22 of August and 3 of September of 2007 a total of 335 seismic events was registered; of which, 133 events are associate to fracturing of rock, 185 events associated to the fluid movement and transit of and gases within the internal conduits of the volcano, 15 event that as much contain compound mechanisms of fracture as of transit of fluid and 2 pulse of tremor of low magnitude. One stands out that the associated events to fracturing of rock are located in the Central Tip, the Eastern flank and to the south of the volcanic flanks, the depths oscillated between 1.5 and 11 km, with smaller magnitudes of 2.0. Of this activity day the occurrence of an event of fracture of September stands out, located to the south of volcanic ediface which presented/displayed a magnitude of 2.4, and depth of 6,35 km. On the 1st of September a fly over was made around the volcano, due to the climatic conditions could not be made pursuit to the superficial activity of the volcano. Of the previous, it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, although they are continued presenting/displaying small excitations of the system.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

CHIKURACHKI

As of the 1st of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. According to visual information, ash explosions up to 0,1-1 km (300-3,280 ft) ASL were observed on August 21-26. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended 150-300 km (93-186 mi) to the north-east on August 28-30, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidised basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 06, 2007, 01:15:07 AM
KARYMSKY

As of the 1st of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week, 100-280 shallow volcanic earthquakes and a spasmodic volcanic tremor were registered at volcano all days. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 5.9 km (19,350 ft) ASL . According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was noted on August 24 and 30, ash clouds were observed to the south-east on August 24 and north-east from volcano on August 28-30, the volcano was obscured by clouds on the other days.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 1st of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was at background levels on August 25, 27-29 and did not exceed level of registration on the other days. A few shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered during the week. According to visual data, no activity was observed on August 25. According to satellite data a thermal anomaly was noted on August 28, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 1st of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and intermittent volcanic tremor were registered. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 9.0 km (29,500 ft) ASL and avalanches occurred at the volcano last week. According to visual and video data, ash plumes up to 4.5 km (14,760 ft) ASL were observed on August 25, clouds obscured the volcano in other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 06, 2007, 01:17:55 AM
BAGANA

As of the 30th of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has notified INTLVRC that RVO reported that an effusive lava flow from Bagana's summit crater began travelling down the SE flank on 6 August and continued flowing through 23 August. Continuous incandescence was visible down the SE flank during 6-10 August. During 6-23 August, white vapour plumes were occasionally accompanied by ash plumes that were generated by rockfalls from lava-flow edges. Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 August.

Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. Bagana is a massive symmetrical lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides.

The Current Colour Code for Bagana is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~

RAUNG

As of the 30th of August, the Darwin VAAC origianlly reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Raung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. during 26-27 August and drifted E.

Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The 3332-m-high, unvegetated summit of Gunung Raung is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the west flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km from the volcano, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and west, respectively.

The Current Colour Code for Raung is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 4th of September, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity of the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant change over the last 72 hours. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 06, 2007, 01:21:05 AM
Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 5th of September, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift northeast early in the day and south-southeast later in the day.

The crater is partly obscured by low clouds this morning. Volcano activity continues with on-going seismicity, deformation, and rockfalls from the crater walls and growing dome. There have been no significant changes in conditions over the last 24 hours. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 4th of September, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 6 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas emissions. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. At this moment there is no visibility towards the volcano due to dense clouds. However, this morning CENAPRED could observe the volcano with steam and gas emissions.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

PACAYA

As of the 5th of September, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that moderate fumaroles of white and blue colour, moving to the southwest of the volcanic complex. Continuous being observed reflected of incandescence in the evening and night, in the Mackenney crater. In the flank the west of their skirts, in front of the Cerro Chino, continues the lava flows with south direction with lengths approximated at 100 and 150 metres.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 06, 2007, 01:24:36 AM
FUEGO

As of the 5th of September, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that from last night moderate degassing sounds were heard to these similar to airplane turbines, due to the pressure of magmatic gases. By another one part has been registered and observed weak explosions and some moderate ones which expelled ash to 300 and 700 kilometres of height dispersing to the southwest.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

SANTA MARIA

As of the 5th of September, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the seismic network of Santa Maria volcano registered in the last 24 hours, 20 explosions, 3 moderate and 17 weak ones, which were expelling gray ash to 300 and 600 metres of height, dispersing the column towards the west, on the zone of the Palajunoj Rosary. Few avalanches of blocks in the lava flows of the southwestern flank.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 5th of September, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the index of seismic activity of the volcano remains high. One does not have visual observations due to the bad climatic conditions.

The registery has registered a total of 18 events of long period (LP), 35 volcanic signals of tremor related to emissions and 2 explosions has been entered. Ash-gray Wind// Emissions: There was report of ash no fall today. Climate/Rains/Lahars: The volcano has remained dimmed. In the morning, rains appeared you take that they did not generate lahars. Noises/Superficial Observations: The explosion of 2024hrs (local time) generated a strong cannon shot in the observatory and also heard in the sectors of Great Juive, Chonglontus and Runtún. With the nocturnal viewfinder incandescence in eastern the north flank and rolling of blocks could be observed. The second explosion did not generate any noise.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 06, 2007, 01:27:30 AM
RABAUL

As of the 30th of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 0.9-2.4 km (3,000-7,900 ft) a.s.l. during 22-29 August and drifted NW. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul Town and surrounding areas during 23-29 August. Seismic activity increased to a high level on 25 through 29 August. The ash emissions were accompanied by roaring noises. Incandescence at the summit was observed during the reporting period.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~`

Mt. ETNA

As of the 5th of September it has been reported to INTLVRC by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) reported that Mt. Etna is back to its glory once more. Last night, a sudden increase in tremor accompanied the start of a powerful so-called paroxysmal eruption, during which the vent on the E flank of the SE crater, which had been in intermittend mild strombolian activity since mid August, erupted tall lava fountains - several hundres of meters high - and some lava flows. The tall ash columns generated by the intense explosive activity dispersed to the southeast and forced the temporary closure of Catania's airpoirt. The eruption lasted around 7 hrs and ended around 0430hrs this morning.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater. Flank eruptions, typically with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna's summit craters began in 1995. The active volcano is monitored by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Volcanologia (INGV) in Catania.

The volcano Mt. Etna is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 5th of September, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the 7/21 fissure eruption continued to supply an open channel which, in turn, fed two `a`a flows - one advancing to the northeast over previous flows and the other advancing along the southern margin of previous flows. The summit and Pu`u `O`o recorded the inflation portion of a DI (deflation-inflation) tilt event starting mid-afternoon yesterday. Hazard Summary: There are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: The vent continues to supply an active lava channel about 1 km long. Two flows issue from the lower end of that channel: a spillover fed an `a`a flow moving northeast and 2-3 seeps on the south side fed an `a`a flow advancing along the southern margin of previous flows. The lower section of channel overflowed infrequently.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: The webcam again showed lots of fume but no incandescence. The tiltmeter on the north flank of Pu`u `O`o cone turned around and recorded slow inflation about 1.5 hours after an abrupt tilt reversal at Kilauea summit. Seismic tremor levels are at low values except beneath Pu`u `O`o where the levels are at moderate values. Rockfall seismic signals have decreased in frequency since yesterday afternoon.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The tilt network recorded the expected abrupt inflation starting at 1510hrs. Seismic tremor levels have returned to low values. A few small deeper earthquakes were located beneath the southwest rift zone and the south flank.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 06, 2007, 01:32:33 AM
ARENAL

As of the 1st of September, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica via the Global Vlocanism Network (GVN) reported that activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling SW and S, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts continues. Blocks from the lava-flow fronts periodically reached vegetation and started small fires. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Small amounts of pyroclastic material were ejected and affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Ash and acid rain fell on the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

YASUR

As of the 1st of September, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, he reports that Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano has erupted many times per hour for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Projectile ejection Yasur volcano has not produced a large destructive eruption historically. There is no indication that a large eruption will occur in the near future at Yasur volcano. Magma chamber inflation is currently being accommodated by the volcano. The largest reasonable level of activity expected is the ejection of bombs 3-4 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows threatening low lying areas near the volcano. This type of activity would pose a danger to nearby villages. Ground deformation Yasur volcano has the second greatest level of ground uplift in the world. Since 1000 AD there has been a yearly average uplift of 149 mm. This is only beaten by Iwo Jima volcano in Japan with 200 mm uplift per year since 1200 AD. Tsunami Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes, and landslides may result in the production of tsunamis which may threaten coastal populations. Flooding Lake Siwi broke through its natural dam in 2002 flooding Sulphur Bay Village and destroying houses. Landslides Landslide and debris flow pose significant risks to the surrounding population. Uplift of the caldera creates unstable ground, combined with the deposition of unstable ash and cinders. Ashfall Periods of strong volcanic activity may cause ashfall over large areas of Tanna Island. Ashfall can damage crops, cause roofs to collapse, and result in mudflows after rain. Gas Gas samples collected from the plume crossing Yasur crater rim in 1988 contained SO2 and HCl gases at concentrations between 3 and 9 ppm. This is a hazardous level of gas. This level of SO2 causes a decrease in lung function and immediate irritation of eyes nose and throat. Lava Flow Lava flows occur infrequently at Yasur volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 1st of September, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that the Strombolian activity continues since the depression located on the side East of the Southern crater East. Projections at the time of the most important explosions reach a score of metres height and its always accompanied by emissions by black ashes.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 06, 2007, 01:34:09 AM
Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of September, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that Mt. Erebus has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activity. One of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes. Most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring of the seismic and seismoacoustic activity of the volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Since the beginning of 2007, there have been 30 eruptions of volcanoes over the world.


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on September 06, 2007, 06:59:40 AM
This could easily result in global warming, so I think that Al Gore should respond immediately with his helmet and garden hose.   :o

(Small Print:  Al Gore - Politician turned scientist - what a success story.)
_______________________________

Back on a serious note, I hope that everyone realizes that a dramatic change in natural disasters is another sign of the end days of the Age of Grace. This is another part of the puzzle that's beginning to fit, right along with many other parts.


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 26, 2007, 04:03:11 PM
Mt. RUAPEHU

As of the 26th of September, the GeoNet Data Centre (CNDC) reported that an eruption at Mt. Ruapehu has occured at approximately 2023hrs, 25 September 2007. An eruption earthquake of magnitude 2.9 of seven minutes duration was recorded. Pilot reports of an eruption cloud below 15,000 feet and developing have been received. Reports of a lahar down the Whakapapa skifield have been received from ski field operators. The ERLAWS warning system indicates a possible lahar in the Whangaehu catchment. It is possible that lahars have occured in other catchments also. This eruption is similar to, but larger than, the October 4 2006 eruption, and is more reminiscent to the 1969 and 1975 eruptions.

Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Ruapehu is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~

PAVLOF

As of the 26th of September, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that seismic activity at Pavlof Volcano remains low. Cloudy conditions obscure the volcano from satellite and web camera views today. The decrease in seismicity and cessation of eruptive activity may be a lull in the current eruption. Other historical eruptions of Pavlof have been characterised by periods of diminished activity followed by periods of low-level eruption and occasional explosive events. Renewed eruptive activity can begin at any time with little precursory seismicity. AVO continues to monitor the volcano closely.

The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavolf, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing strombolian to vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption of Pavlof took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode; a fissure opened on the northern flank of the volcano, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Pavlof is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 26th of September, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) via the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that mostly cloudy conditions have obscured views of the Cleveland Volcano by satellite. AVO continues to monitor the volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 26, 2007, 04:06:24 PM
UBINAS

As of the 20th of September, INGEMMET reported that based on observations of satellite imagery and a pilot report, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 12 and 14 September.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 25th of September, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that between days 18 and 24 of September of 2007, 158 seismic events were registered that are associate to fracturing of rock, 80 flowed earthquakes related to the dynamics of within the volcanic conduits, 9 hybrid events and 1 pulse of tremor of low magnitude. The volcano-tectonic events in this period were located in the Central Tip, their magnitudes were inferior to 1.65 and they were located in an interval of depths between 1 and 4 km. Between days 18 and 22 of the present month, it was made a commission of maintenance to the seismic stations located in the north sector and the northwest of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila; from it was managed there to make visual appreciations of the superficial activity of the volcano, a gas column was observed in the Central Tip that did not exceed 100 metres of height and presented/displayed a white colouration. Of the previous thing it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, although they are continued presenting/displaying excitations of the system.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: CHIKURACHKI

As of the 23rd of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended >110 km (>68 mi) from the volcano to the south-east on September 18-19, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidised basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 26, 2007, 04:09:20 PM
KARYMSKY

As of the 23rd of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week, many shallow volcanic earthquakes and a spasmodic volcanic tremor were registered at the volcano all days. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 3.3 km (10,800 ft) ASL on September 15-16 and 20; and weak ash bursts occurred all week. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was noted on September 13-15 and 17-19, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Ash plumes and clouds extended >90 km (>56 mi) to the south-east from the volcano on September 15.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 23rd of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was slightly above background levels on September 14 and 20 (some shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered), and did not exceed this level on the other days. According to visual data, a weak fumarolic activity was noted at the dome on September 15 and 18-19, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly over the lava dome was noted on September 13, 15, 17-18 and 20.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 23rd of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 3.5-5.5 km (11,500-18,000 ft) ASL and avalanches occurred at the volcano on September 14-15 and 17-20. According to video data, gas-steam plumes containing ash raising up to 3.3 km (10,800 ft) ASL and extending to the north-east and east were noted on September 14-15. Gas-steam activity of the volcano was registered on September 13 and 18-19, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week. Ash plumes extended >35 km to the south-east from the volcano on September 15.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 26, 2007, 04:12:26 PM
MANAM

As of the 20th of September, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. on 17 September and drifted W.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centres are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded at Manam since 1616. A major eruption in 1919 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the coast, and in 1957-58 pyroclastic flows descended all four radial valleys. Lava flows reached the sea in 1946-47 and 1958.

The Current Colour Code for Manam is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 26th of September, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity of the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant change over the last 24 hours. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 26th of September, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift to the south-southeastward.

The volcano is obscured by a low cloud cover today. Seismicity and deformation remain unchanged over the last 24 hours, and indicate that lava extrusion continues. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 26, 2007, 04:15:23 PM
POPOCATEPETL

As of the 26th of September, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system of the Popocatepetl volcano again recorded 2 small exhalations, composed of steam and gas. During this morning steam and gas emissions have been observed.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

PACAYA

As of the 25th of September, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that moderate fumaroles on the crater of white and blue colour, moving to low height to the south of the volcano. In the evening and night continues being observed the reflection of incandescente in the Mackenney crater. The lava flows continue moving to the south, fed by a same conduit located in the west of the base of the volcano.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 25th of September, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that since one has inquired in previous volcanological bulletins, the volcano with moderate and strong weak explosions, generated constant degassing sounds with periods of up to 20 minutes. Also with weak and moderate rumblings generating some shock waves, sensible in neighbourhoods of the volcano. The ash that it expels reached the 300, 600 and 900 metres on the crater, remaining in the atmosphere by lapses of 20 to 30 minutes, forming ash columns of 5 kilometres in length remaining in the atmosphere by lapses of 20 minutes.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 26, 2007, 04:18:55 PM
SANTA MARIA

As of the 25th of September, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that weak explosions and moderate, expelled gray ash to 300, 900 metres of height on the crater, dispersing to the southwest, with lapses of 20 minutes, depositing fine ash particles on mountains of Property Florida, Monte Claro with degassing sounds. There were lahars in the rivers, solely with water swellings.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 26th of September, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that seismic activity of the volcano stays in a moderate-high level with tendency to diminish. The seismic activity stays similar with small variations in the amplitude and duration of the tremor, which is related as well to emissions with a greater ash content. One reported ash fall in Manzano, Pillate, Bilbao and Choglontus.

The seismic registery has registered a total of 15 events of long period (LP), 33 signals of tremor related to emissions and 5 explosions has been entered. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: During the night, with the registered tremor it is presumed that the emissions continued; in Bilbao they listened to roll blocks and from Pillate and Manzano was reported to have listened to 2 cannon shots, in addition ash fall in Choglontus, Manzano was reported, Pillate and Bilbao. During the morning the volcano remained cloudy and with rains from 0700hrs (local time). Clima/Rains/Lahars: Rains were registered from 0700hrs (local time) and to 1105hrs (local time) muddy water by the gorge descended from Motilones. From Pillate rain with ash was reported at 1632hrs (local time). Noises: Roars have not reported themselves. The listened to noises are related to the registered explosions.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 20th of September, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that white vapour plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 10-18 September. On 16, 18, and 19 September, occasional ash plumes rose to an altitude of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W or NW. Slight ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul town.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 26, 2007, 04:22:47 PM
KILAUEA

As of the 26th of September, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the 7/21 eruption continued to supply a mostly-full lava channel that is now 1.5 km (0.95 miles) long. Two `a`a flows are active; one was slowly advancing along the southern margin and the other was fed from the end of the channel. Hazard Summary: There are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: The vent continued to supply lava to an open channel 1.5 km (0.95 miles) long. Lava level was below the rim and there were no overflows. The webcam again showed three areas of activity outside the channel: a barely active seep on the north side of the channel, an `a`a flow that is fed directly and continued to advance to the east and northeast, and an `a`a flow fed by a seep on the south side of the channel that advanced slowly along the southern margin of previous flows.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: The webcam showed lots of fume by day; no incandescence has been seen in the crater since 8/30. The tiltmeter on the north flank of Pu`u `O`o recorded deflation from a source to the southeast. Seismic tremor levels continued at low values.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: Kilauea's summit tiltmeter network recorded slow deflation, although the signal is not coherent across the network. Seismic tremor levels continued at low values. A few earthquakes were located beneath the south flank.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 19th of September, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica via the Global Vlocanism Network (GVN) reported that Arenal volcano continues to be mildly active. Over the past weeks, activity at crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling down the SW and S flanks, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Blocks from the lava-flow fronts periodically reached vegetation and started small fires. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Pyroclastic cones on the NE and SW flanks continued to grow. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

As of the 24th of September, the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) informs that on Friday, 21 of September of 2007, began a seismic cluster in Apoyeque Volcano, located to about 8 kilometers to the Northwest of Managua in Nicaraugua. This activity has intensified and yestday, the 23rd of September, the seismic network has located 10 earthquakes with Richter magnitudes up to 2.8. In addition, tens of earthquakes smaller were registered than they are only detected in the located seismic station in the crater of the volcano. This activity can continue by several days and the occurrence of greater earthquakes with magnitudes from 4 to 5 does not discard.

For seismic clusters in the volcanic chain, the is characteristic is that the greater earthquake appears after an amount of smaller earthquakes. In addition they happen with several greater earthquakes with similar magnitudes. In the case of the calls for tectonic earthquakes, for example by the shock of plates in the Pacific Ocean, a strong earthquake happens, normally, at the beginning of the activity and later it follows a series to retorts with magnitudes very underneath the greater one.

Apoyeque volcano has not presented/displayed volcanic activity in historical times and at the present time it is not considered like imminent a volcanic danger. But, occasionally seismic clusters in the volcano and its environs are registered. In January of 2001, a very intense cluster with an earthquake greater than it had the magnitude 5.2 Richter and that it was strongly felt in Managua and Sandino City, without causing damages. INETER continues watching the seismic activity and will inform on any important event.

The Apoyeque volcanic complex occupies the broad Chiltepe Peninsula, which extends into south-central Lake Managua. The peninsula is part of the Chiltepe pyroclastic shield volcano, one of three large ignimbrite shields on the Nicaraguan volcanic front. A 2.8-km wide, 400-m-deep, lake-filled caldera whose floor lies near sea level truncates the low Apoyeque volcano, which rises only about 500 m above the lake shore. The caldera was the source of a thick mantle of dacitic pumice that blankets the surrounding area. The 2.5 x 3 km wide lake-filled Xiloá (Jiloá) maar, is located immediately SE of Apoyeque. The Talpetatl lava dome was constructed between Laguna Xiloá and Lake Managua. Pumiceous pyroclastic flows from Laguna Xiloá were erupted about 6100 years ago and overlie deposits of comparable age from the Masaya plinian eruption.

The colour code at Apoyeque is currently at YELLOW


Title: Re: Current Erupting Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on September 26, 2007, 04:26:28 PM
Mt. AUGUSTINE

As of the 26th of September, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that shallow seismic activity at Augustine volcano continues. A cloud cap over the volcano has obscured the summit from satellite and web camera views. The earthquakes that have been occurring are small and shallow. However, some disruption of the summit dome may be occurring as a result of this activity and this could cause rock fall and rock avalanche events on the flanks of the volcano.

Mt. Augustine volcano, rising above Kamishak Bay in the southern Cook Inlet about 290 km SW of Anchorage, is the most active volcano of the eastern Aleutian arc. It consists of a complex of overlapping summit lava domes surrounded by an apron of volcaniclastic debris that descends to the sea on all sides. Few lava flows are exposed; the flanks consist mainly of debris-avalanche and pyroclastic-flow deposits formed by repeated collapse and regrowth of the volcano's summit. The latest episode of edifice collapse occurred during Augustine's largest historical eruption in 1883; subsequent dome growth has restored the volcano to a height comparable to that prior to 1883. The oldest dated volcanic rocks on Augustine are more than 40,000 years old. At least 11 large debris avalanches have reached the sea during the past 1800-2000 years, and five major pumiceous tephras have been erupted during this interval. Historical eruptions have typically consisted of explosive activity with emplacement of pumiceous pyroclastic-flow deposits followed by lava dome extrusion with associated block-and-ash flows.

The colour code at Mt. Augustine is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

TURRIALBA

As of the 20th of September, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) via the OVSICORI-UNA has reported that unrest at Turrialba volcano continues. Increased fumarolic activity had started in August 2006 and is concentrated mainly to the W of Turrialba's central crater. In a field report from 16 August, staff from OVSICORI-UNA reports that new points of gas discharge, small landslides, and accelerated vegetation die-off were noted from various locations within and around the crater. Fumaroles were active in almost all directions in the central crater; many exhibited sulfur deposits and those in the S, SE, and SW reached a temperature of 91 degrees C. Fumaroles at the bottom of the W crater reached 176 degrees C on 16 August. Small sulfur flows from a few of the fumaroles descended about 2 m from the emission point. Steam plumes from fumaroles on the W wall rose to an altitude of 3.8 km (12,500 ft) a.s.l. New fumaroles appeared on the SW flank and N and NW of the central crater. Some of the fumaroles corresponded to two widening cracks, to the SW and NW of the W crater. Vegetation affected from gas and steam discharge and sulfur deposits were noted. People living on the N flank and from areas to the NW and W reported constant gas emissions from cracks in an area of about 20 by 50 metres, NW of the W crater.

Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.

The colour code at Turrialba is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~

GALERAS

As of the 25th of September, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (OVSP) has reported that the activity of the volcano stays in: Level III (Changes in the behaviour of the volcanic activity). From the permanent pursuit and analysis that the Vulcanológico Observatory of the INGEOMINAS makes in Grass, one stands out: It continues the registry of seismic events related to dynamics of the magmatic fluids and events hybrid (mixture of fractures and flowed), with small power level and that happen at superficial levels. During the last weeks a slight diminution in the occurrence as in the energy of seismic events is observed as much. In the previous week the Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 measurement, had a value of 780 Tonnes/day, with preferential dispersion of the gas column towards the northwest flank by action of winds. On day 22 of September from the 1739hrs, a pulse of spasmodic tremor was registered which was correlated with ash emission. The column reached an approximated height of 1100 m and by action of the wind it dispersed towards the north-northwest flank. Ash fall was observed in the high part of the volcano.

Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

The colour code at Galeras is currently at ALERT LEVEL III


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on October 01, 2007, 04:17:30 AM
I was reading this thread and thinking about the POWER of GOD in nature. Mankind hasn't made any bombs that begin to compare. All of mankind will be humbled before GOD one day, but it will be too late for most of them. In making comparisons, let's make a big one:  physical death is nothing in comparison to eternal punishment for disobeying GOD and rejecting JESUS CHRIST as LORD and SAVIOUR.

A rainbow is a beautiful sign from GOD about HIS covenant with mankind that HE will never again destroy nearly all of mankind with a flood. Only Noah and a few others were spared. This speaks nothing about FIRE, and the Bible tells us that eternal FIRE will be the final punishment for disobeying GOD and rejecting JESUS CHRIST as LORD and SAVIOUR. Evil men will laugh about this, but it will be their final reality. They won't be laughing about it then.

If you are lost and reading on the forum, won't you consider accepting JESUS CHRIST as your LORD and SAVIOUR today!


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on October 01, 2007, 10:11:39 AM
Volcano erupts in Red Sea – 9 people missing
Entire 2-mile-long island aglow with magma

Sanaa: At least eight Yemeni soldiers were killed in a volcanic eruption on an island off the the country's Red Sea Coast, a government official said on Monday.

The eruption occurred on Jazirt Mount Al Tair, an island about 140 km from Yemen.

A Defence Ministry official said the western part of the island had "collapsed" following the eruption. He said naval ships were searching the surrounding waters for nine missing Yemeni soldiers who were stationed on the island.

Yemen's Oil Minister Khaled Mahfoudh Bahah said several earthquakes felt on Sunday had triggered the eruption.

"Three earthquakes struck the island around 1127 GMT on Sunday, and were ranging between 4.3 and 4 on the Richter scale," Jamal Al Shalaan, head of the Yemeni Earthquake Centre told state news agency Saba.

President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who flew to nearby Hudaidah port late on Sunday to observe the situation, told the Yemeni navy to send rescue teams, Saba reported.

A Canadian frigate, HMCS Toronto, was conducting a search and rescue operation for the missing people at the request of the Yemen coast guard.

Navy spokesman Ken Allen told the Canadian Press news agency that lava was spewing hundreds of yards into the air, with volcanic ash also rising over 300 metres.

A Yemeni geologist said the volcano had previously erupted in the 19th and 18th centuries, and is regarded as one of the Red Sea's more recent volcanic islands, Saba said.


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on October 01, 2007, 11:00:40 AM
Hello Pastor Roger,

Brother, I just saw a video of this volcano on Fox News. I'm almost sure this volcano would be considered tiny in comparison to others that could erupt around the world. Regardless, I'll have to say that the sight of this volcano was awesome. I know that people have lost their lives, so some will wonder why I say that volcanoes have unique beauty. I've seen many tornadoes fairly close, and I would have to say the same thing about them. They are almost like art, but they kill people. The same could be said about many beautiful and living things in nature (i.e. lion, shark, etc.). Regardless, all beauty is part of GOD'S CREATION.

By the way, there is more news expected about this specific volcano in Yemen in connection to other volcanoes in this general area of the earth that either are active now or expected to become active. Could much of the recent and increasing volcanic activity around the world be another sign of the end of this Age of Grace? YES! - it could be. If so, the frequency of natural disasters of many different kinds will continue to escalate.


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on October 01, 2007, 11:25:58 AM
One volcano or earthquake does have the capability to set off a chain of events and I do believe that chain has been loosed. As you said I do believe that we will be seeing many more before long.



Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 02, 2007, 10:31:26 PM
RESTLESS VOLCANOES THAT MAY ERUPT

Mt. AUGUSTINE

As of the 2nd of October, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that shallow, low-level seismic activity at Augustine volcano continues. Steam/clouds obscure the summit in web camera images. The earthquakes that have been occurring are small and shallow and could cause some disruption of the summit lava dome. As a result of this activity small rock fall and rock avalanche events could develop on the flanks of the volcano. AVO continues to monitor Augustine Volcano closely.

Mt. Augustine volcano, rising above Kamishak Bay in the southern Cook Inlet about 290 km SW of Anchorage, is the most active volcano of the eastern Aleutian arc. It consists of a complex of overlapping summit lava domes surrounded by an apron of volcaniclastic debris that descends to the sea on all sides. Few lava flows are exposed; the flanks consist mainly of debris-avalanche and pyroclastic-flow deposits formed by repeated collapse and regrowth of the volcano's summit. The latest episode of edifice collapse occurred during Augustine's largest historical eruption in 1883; subsequent dome growth has restored the volcano to a height comparable to that prior to 1883. The oldest dated volcanic rocks on Augustine are more than 40,000 years old. At least 11 large debris avalanches have reached the sea during the past 1800-2000 years, and five major pumiceous tephras have been erupted during this interval. Historical eruptions have typically consisted of explosive activity with emplacement of pumiceous pyroclastic-flow deposits followed by lava dome extrusion with associated block-and-ash flows.

The colour code at Mt. Augustine is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

YELLOWSTONE CALDERA

As of the 2nd of October, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), reported that during the month of September 2007, 54 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone Region. The largest of these shocks was a magnitude 2.3 on September 10, 2007 at 1630hrs MDT, located about 13 miles north northwest of Madison Junction, Wyoming. No earthquakes were reported felt during September. Earthquake activity in the Yellowstone region is at relatively low background levels.

Ground Deformation Summary: Through September 2007, continuous GPS data show that most of the Yellowstone caldera continued moving upward at similar to slightly lower rates as the past year. The maximum measured ground uplift over the past 36 months is ~17 cm at the White Lake GPS station. The general uplift of the Yellowstone caldera is scientifically interesting and will continue to be monitored closely.

There is no classification for Yellowstone, scientist don't know when it may erupt.
~~~~~~~~~

Current Eruptions Year 2007

JEBEL AL-TAIR

As of the 1st of October, The Global Volcanism Network (GVN) via various news sources has reported that a volcanic explosion rocked a tiny Yemeni island in the Red Sea, spewing lava and ash hundreds of feet into the air and forcing Yemeni authorities to evacuate a military base. NATO and Yemeni ships Monday were searching for eight missing soldiers.

The eruption Sunday evening caused a landslide that collapsed the western part of Jebel al-Tair island, the Yemeni news agency SABA reported. There were no immediate reports of deaths. The tiny oval island, about two miles wide, lacks a settled population but includes military installations used for naval control and observation because large cargo ships pass nearby. It was not clear how many people were stationed on the island, and SABA reported that Yemeni ships had evacuated all personnel and were searching for eight missing military personnel.

A NATO fleet passing nearby reported seeing a "catastrophic volcanic eruption" at 7 p.m. local time Sunday on the island, about 70 miles off the Yemeni coast, said Ken Allan, a Navy Public Affairs with the Canadian Armed Forces. "At this time, the entire island is aglow with lava and magma as it pours down into the sea." Allan said in an e-mail Sunday evening. "The lava is spewing hundreds of feet into the air, with the volcanic ash also (rising) a thousand feet in the air."

The NATO fleet was sailing toward the Suez Canal when it spotted the eruption. The government of Yemen asked NATO to assist in the search for survivors and the closet ship, the HMCS Toronto, was heading toward the island. The Canadian Armed Forces said they are trying to locate nine people believed to be at sea after the Yemen coast guard requested help. It is unclear why there was a discrepancy with the SABA report on the number of missing. Jabal al-Tair -- meaning "Bird Mountain" -- is one of a number of volcanos at the southern end of the Red Sea in the narrows betwen Yemen and Sudan. The island last saw an explosive eruption in 1883, according to the Washington-based Smithsonian Institute's Global Volcanism Program.

Over the past two weeks, the area around the island had seen light earthquakes between magnitude 2-3.6, with three larger ones Sunday afternoon reaching magnitude 4.3, the Yemen Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources said, according to SABA. Fishermen and other boats had been warned from approaching the area, it said. Yemen is a poor tribal Sunni Muslim country at the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula.

The basaltic Jebel al-Tair stratovolcano rises from a 1200 m depth in the south-central Red Sea, forming an oval-shaped island about 3 km long. Jebel at Tair is the northernmost known Holocene volcano in the Red Sea and lies SW of the Farisan Islands. Youthful basaltic pahoehoe lava flows from the steep-sided central vent, Jebel Duchan, cover most of the island. They drape a circular cliff cut by wave erosion of an older edifice and extend beyond it to form a flat coastal plain. Pyroclastic cones are located along the NW and southern coasts, and fumarolic activity occurs from two uneroded scoria cones at the summit. Radial fissures extend from the summit, some of which were the sources of lava flows. The island is of Holocene age, and explosive eruptions were reported in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The Current Colour Code for Jebel al-Tair is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 02, 2007, 10:33:54 PM
Mt. RUAPEHU

As of the 2nd of October, the GeoNet Data Centre (CNDC) reported that a volcanic earthquake was recorded last Saturday night at 2305hrs. The earthquake lasted around 3 minutes and was significantly smaller than the one associated with Tuesday’s eruption. Similar to Tuesday, two periods of weak volcanic tremor of 5-10 minutes duration have followed the earthquake recorded last night. This is the first significant seismic activity to be recorded at Mt. Ruapehu since Tuesday’s eruption. GNS Science Duty Volcanologist, Craig Miller said that this type of activity has been expected following Tuesday’s eruption and that further activity could not be ruled out. The CNDC advises people to follow Department of Conservation guidelines for access to the mountain.

Also, an eruption of Ruapehu occurred at September 27 and it produced small lahars. Bombs were ejected and injured some people around. The explosive activity lasted a few minutes and after it only a low seismic activity was measured. The summit area is covered by ashfall and mud reaching to about 2 km from the Crater Lake. The summit area was also peppered by craters caused by large blocks ejected from the bottom of the lake. It was most likely an "blue sky" eruption like the events of 1969, 1975, 1988 and 2006. There ís still a possibility of more activities in the next days or weeks. The alert level remains at 2 (Minor eruptive activity) and will be re-assessed on a daily basis.

Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Ruapehu is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~

PAVLOF

As of the 2nd of October, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that a pause in eruptive activity at Pavlof continues. Seismicity remains at low levels and has been relatively unchanged since about September 13. Mostly cloudy conditions obscure the volcano from satellite and web camera views today. AVO continues to monitor Pavlof Volcano closely.

If activity continues to increase, larger ash clouds that could affect higher-flying aircraft may be produced. The most immediate ground hazard in the vicinity of the volcano includes light ash fall on nearby communities. Previous historical eruptions from Pavlof caused only a few millimeters (about 1/10th of an inch) of ash to fall on King Cove, Nelson Lagoon, Cold Bay, and Sand Point. Mudflows in drainages from the flanks of the volcano, and lava flows and avalanching of hot debris on the upper reaches of the volcano are also of concern in the uninhabited areas around the volcano. Satellite and seismic data and eyewitness observations suggest most of the surface lava activity is occurring on the southeast sector of the steep-sided volcano; this suggests that the Pacific Ocean side of the volcano is at most risk from avalanching hot debris.

At this time, AVO expects this eruption to follow the pattern of previous eruptions. The last eruption of Pavlof began in September 1996 and consisted of a several-month-long series of ash explosions, lava-fountaining, and lava-flow production. Ash clouds reached as high as 30,000 ft asl on one occasion. However, most ash clouds were below 20,000 ft asl. Prior to 1996, Pavlof erupted in 1986 sending ash as high as 49,000 ft asl on at least one occasion.

The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavolf, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing strombolian to vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption of Pavlof took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode; a fissure opened on the northern flank of the volcano, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Pavlof is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 2nd of October, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that mostly conditions have obscured views of the Cleveland volcano by satellite. AVO continues to monitor the volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 02, 2007, 10:36:42 PM
UBINAS

As of the 27th of September, INGEMMET reported that based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 12 and 20 September. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 2nd of October, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that on the 1st of October of 2007 at 1037hrs, local time, an earthquake of magnitude 2.4 on the Richter scale with epicentre was registered at 5.62 km from of the Central Tip of the made snow-white volcano of the Huila.

The first outstanding seismic event happened the 5 of September to the 2032hrs local time, with a magnitude of duration of 3.3, to a depth of 6.93 km and one distance of 7.2 km in direction S of the volcanic ediface; later, day 7 of September an earthquake at the 1100hrs ( local time) was registered, the magnitude of duration calculated for this event went of 2.92, to a depth of 21.18 km and one distance of 26.93 km to the NNE of the volcano. Of the previous thing it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, although they are continued presenting/displaying excitations of the system.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

CHIKURACHKI

As of the 28th of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. According to visual data by observers, ash plume extended >250 km (155 mi) to the east from the volcano on September 19-20. According to satellite data, gas-steam plume containing ash extended >75 km (>47 mi) from the volcano to the east-south-east on September 21, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidised basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 02, 2007, 10:39:09 PM
KARYMSKY

As of the 28th of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week, many shallow volcanic earthquakes and a spasmodic volcanic tremor were registered at the volcano all days. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) ASL on September 20, 22 and 24-26; and weak ash bursts occurred all week. According to data from AMC Yelizovo, ash plume raising up to 2.5-3.0 km (8,200-9,800 ft) ASL and extending to the north-east from the volcano was observed by pilots of AN-28 at 0455hrs UTC on September 21. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was noted on September 20-21 and 24-26, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Ash plumes extended >450 km (>280 mi) to the east from the volcano on September 24-27.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 28th of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano increased. Ash explosions up to 10 km (or 32,800 ft.) ASL are possible during next weeks. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Growth of the lava dome continues. According to satellite data, an intensity of a thermal anomaly over the lava dome increased last several days. Seismic activity was above background levels on September 25 (series of shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered that a hot avalanche probably indicated), and did not exceed this level on the other days. According to visual data, a weak fumarolic activity was noted at the dome on September 21 and 24-26, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a size of thermal anomaly over the lava dome a little increased this week. Ash plume >35 km (>22 mi) extended to the east was noted on September 25. All data indicate that probably a danger of a strong explosive eruption of the volcano increased.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 28th of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 4.3 km (14,100 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano on September 20 and 25. There were hot avalanches all week. According to video data, gas-steam plumes raising up to 6.0 km (19,700 ft) ASL were noted on September 21, and 24-26. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week. Ash plumes extended >60 km (37 mi) to the east from the volcano on September 24-25.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 02, 2007, 10:41:29 PM
SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 2nd of Ocotber, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity of the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant change over the last 72 hours. Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding, although the likelihood of this decreases with time as no further lava extrusion occurs. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 2nd of October, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift north-eastward.

A low cloud ceiling obscures the crater this morning. Seismicity and deformation levels are low and steady as lava extrusion continues. No significant changes have occurred in the last 24 hours.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 2nd of October, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that reported were 2 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas emissions. At the moment of this report the volcano cannot be seen due to dense clouds.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 02, 2007, 10:44:06 PM
TUNGURAHUA

As of the 2nd of October, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that of a way similar to the observed phenomena in the last week, the activity of the volcano stays in a moderate-high level with tendency to the reduction. Seismic it is characterised by the generation of events related to the mobilisation of flowed (LPs and tremor of emission) that in some cases produces columns of emission with moderate ash content. Additionally sporadic explosions are registered that by their characteristics are considered as small. Reports of slight ash fall have been received in the zone of Pillate, Cotaló and Bilbao.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 27th of September, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW on 20 September. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind, including Rabaul Town. White vapour plumes containing a small amount of ash were emitted during 20-24 September. On 25 September, ash plumes rose to an altitude less than 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Roaring noises were heard. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind, including Namanula Hill.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 2nd of October, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the 7/21 eruption continued to supply an open lava channel that probably continued to directly or indirectly feed three `a`a flows. The webcam has been blocked by wet weather with only a few glimpses that confirmed the continued activity of the channel but flow activity could not be seen. It is unlikely that any flows have advanced very far since HVO's overflight Sunday morning. Hazard Summary: There are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: The webcam was again blocked by weather and only allowed a few hours view of the flow field. In that time, it appears that no significant changes have occurred since our overflight Sunday morning. The channel is still fed from the fissure D vent and wisps of smoke still float up from the nearest kipuka to the east into which a small `a`a front advanced. No incandescence could be seen along either the northern or southern margins of the flow field because of the inclement weather. An overflight is planned for Tuesday.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: Only fume and darkness were viewable in the crater. The tiltmeter on the north flank of Pu`u `O`o recorded deflation from the usual source to the southeast. Seismic tremor levels continued at low values.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: Kilauea's summit tiltmeter network recorded slow deflation strongly influenced by rain. Since 7/21, the GPS receiver network showed continued extension across the caldera consistent with deflation. Seismic tremor levels continued at low values. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema`uma`u crater and the south flank.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 02, 2007, 10:46:27 PM
ARENAL

As of the 1st of October, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica via the Global Vlocanism Network (GVN) reported that there have been observations of pyroclastic flows that traveled W of Arenal on September 18. Also ash was produced and avalanches have been reported.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

YASUR

As of the 1st of October, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, he reports that Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano has erupted many times per hour for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Projectile ejection Yasur volcano has not produced a large destructive eruption historically. There is no indication that a large eruption will occur in the near future at Yasur volcano. Magma chamber inflation is currently being accommodated by the volcano. The largest reasonable level of activity expected is the ejection of bombs 3-4 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows threatening low lying areas near the volcano. This type of activity would pose a danger to nearby villages. Ground deformation Yasur volcano has the second greatest level of ground uplift in the world. Since 1000 AD there has been a yearly average uplift of 149 mm. This is only beaten by Iwo Jima volcano in Japan with 200 mm uplift per year since 1200 AD. Tsunami Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes, and landslides may result in the production of tsunamis which may threaten coastal populations. Flooding Lake Siwi broke through its natural dam in 2002 flooding Sulphur Bay Village and destroying houses. Landslides Landslide and debris flow pose significant risks to the surrounding population. Uplift of the caldera creates unstable ground, combined with the deposition of unstable ash and cinders. Ashfall Periods of strong volcanic activity may cause ashfall over large areas of Tanna Island. Ashfall can damage crops, cause roofs to collapse, and result in mudflows after rain. Gas Gas samples collected from the plume crossing Yasur crater rim in 1988 contained SO2 and HCl gases at concentrations between 3 and 9 ppm. This is a hazardous level of gas. This level of SO2 causes a decrease in lung function and immediate irritation of eyes nose and throat. Lava Flow Lava flows occur infrequently at Yasur volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 1st of October, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that the Strombolian activity still continues since the depression located on the side East of the Southern crater East. Projections at the time of the most important explosions reach a score of metres height and its always accompanied by emissions by black ashes.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 02, 2007, 11:19:59 PM
Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of October, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that Mt. Erebus has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activity. One of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes. Most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring of the seismic and seismoacoustic activity of the volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

So far this year these volcanoes have erupted.

1. LOPEVI
2. HUILA
3. CONCEPCION
3. KARYMSKY
4. BEZYMIANNY
5. SHEVELUCH
6. KLIUCHEVSKOI
7. CHIKURACHKI
8. SOUFRIERE HILLS
9. Mt. St. HELENS
10. POPOCATEPETL
11. PACAYA
12. FUEGO
13. SANTA MARIA
14. REVENTADOR
15. TUNGURAHUA
16. PITON de la FOURNAISE
17. KILAUEA
18. BULUSAN
19. UBINAS
20. MANAM
21. BATU TARA
22. TALANG
23. SUWANOSE-JIMA
24. COLIMA
25. RABAUL
26. Mt. ETNA
27. LLAIMA
28. UBINAS
29. RITTER ISLAND
30. MERAPI
31. SAKURA-JIMA
32. ARENAL
33. YASUR
34. STROMBOLI
35. Mt. EREBUS
36. LANGILA
37. GAMKONORA
38. Mt. CLEVELAND
39. PAVLOF
40. ERTA ALE
41. KARANGETANG
42. DABBAHU
43. BAGANA
44. RAUNG
45. Mt. RUAPEHU
46. TURRIALBA
47. GALERAS
48. JEBEL AL-TAIR

Durning a normal year there are only 29 active volcanoes. As you can see, this is far more then a normal year.

And that doesn't include all the underwater volcanoes that they have just recently found. There are 1,000s of them and many of them are currently active. So much activity is bound to increase the temperatures of the oceans. So much about mans theory about making the oceans warmer.


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on October 03, 2007, 05:37:18 AM
WOW! - That's a ton of volcanoes on land and in the sea. UM? - That could have an effect on GLOBAL WARMING!

Calling

Al Gore!

You and your supporters need to start an ice brigade and start dropping ice cubes in the ocean and the volcanoes. If you get that 6 billion dollars you're after, you're going to have to work for it. Just hold your breath that the sun doesn't become more active with solar flares. Keep your boots on just in case.

I'll try to do my part in undoing JUST what Al Gore is doing, but it will take a bunch of us. His private jet, limo, and 30,000 square foot house does at least 5,000 times what the average person does. SO, 5,000 of us would have to quit using energy of any kind just to undo the damage that Al Gore is doing with his personal lifestyle. BUT remember folks, this is a pressing emergency that must be dealt with. Some of the numbers above are a guess that could be higher or lower. Regardless, it's an emergency. Al Gore wants us to ride bicycles to work while he flies his private jet. Al Gore - turn your house into a hospital, park your jet and limo, and let's see you ride your bicycle FIRST! What a hypocritical BLOW-HARD!

(http://i71.photobucket.com/albums/i160/tlr10/favor/favor030.gif)

Back to a serious note:  if the rapidly escalating natural disasters are another sign of the end days of this Age of Grace, it will definitely get HOT! There are BIG peace talks with Israel in this coming November. If the world hears about a 7 year peace treaty, that's another sign of the end days of this Age of Grace.

Does anyone realize how rapid that evil is spreading? Surely most Christians have wondered about morals eroding by almost the minute now. GUESS - this is another sign of the end days of this Age of Grace.

UM? - There is almost constant talk of annihilating Israel by many countries. At the same time, Russia and China are in a time of huge military build-up. There will still be an army of 200 million left that will go against Israel right before the SECOND COMING OF CHRIST. Who can field an army much larger than 200 million?  China!  GUESS WHAT ELSE! - Roads that would accommodate a massive army are being built now from China on a logical land route to where? I'll give you a hint - the nation starts with "I" - ISRAEL!

UM? - Is there more? YES! - Much more, but I'll only mention one more right now. There is war talk right now between Syria and Israel. Preliminary reports indicate that Israel struck nuclear targets in Syria, AND there was a chemical weapon related accident in Syria shortly after the strike. Bible Prophecy clearly states that Damascus in Syria will cease to exist in the last days. Everything is falling into place. I lied - I have to mention one more. There was a recent error reported about nuclear missiles being flown over the heartland of America by a U.S. plane. You really don't believe that was a mistake - do you? I lied - one more. Russian heavy bombers are getting too close to the U.S. on a regular basis now. UM? - I wonder if that's an error of some kind? ABSOLUTELY NOT!

I lied again - one more. Do we already have many thousands of terrorists living among us and no idea what kinds of weapons they will use when the time is right? YES! Our government left our borders wide open during a time of war, and that was extremely STUPID! How many nuclear devices are missing from Russia? SURELY, North Korea wouldn't dare give weapons to terrorists - would they? YES THEY WOULD, and the Russian nuclear devices aren't missing. They know exactly where they are - right here on our soil RIGHT NOW!

I lied again - one more. Did Saddam have weapons of mass destruction?  YES!  Where did they go? They had all kinds of help from Russia in moving them to Syria, and Syria will use them against Israel.

Brothers and Sisters, the above isn't all facts, but it's PROBABLY TRUE. I don't claim a single thing except limited common sense and possibly some logic in connecting dots. NO! - I don't think that all of these things happening at nearly the same time are a coincidence. They look like the events in Bible Prophecy! There's much more, but this is more than enough to think about and pray about right now.

Thanks be unto God for His unspeakable GIFT, Jesus Christ, our Lord and Saviour Forever!


Title: Jabal al-Tair volcano continues to erupt, search for survivors called off
Post by: Shammu on October 06, 2007, 02:26:07 PM
Jabal al-Tair volcano continues to erupt, search for survivors called off
Posted in: Front Page
Written By: Zaid al-Alaya’a
Article Date: Oct 6, 2007 - 1:48:53 AM

The active volcano on the Red Sea island, Jabal al-Tair, in the Hodieda Governorate erupted again last Wednesday at 6:00 p.m., said Chairman of the Public Authority of Geological Survey Ismail al-Janad. 

The lava started to rise in the western part of the island near the naval fleet stationed in that area. “This is a common occurrence for active volcanoes and doesn’t call for any concern that the eruption might reach other islands,” said al-Janad.

The lava will continue to flow until the magma-well is finished. The volcano will only erupt again with further seismic pressure.

Dr. Khalid al-Salwi, a professor of rocks and minerals at Sana’a University, expects that the volcano will remain active for ten days or more as some craters are still smoking. Al-Salwi advised officials to form a team of experts to monitor activity from the island. 

Dr. Mohammed al-Qadesi, a biology professor at Sana’a University, told Saba news agency that the volcano in Jabal al-Tair is a category four volcano and is not considered to be very dangerous. “From an ecological side, the lava thrown in the sea is a good sign for new marine life because of the minerals that are carried with the lava,” al-Qadesi said.

Soldiers stationed on the island said they could not believe they were witnessing lava spews reaching the sky. Security reports from the island describe how soldiers jumped into the sea and swam away. They said they were “saved only by God’s merciful hand.” The weather helped the situation too—as it rained and blew with a cold wind.
 
The soldiers who fled the lava by jumping into the sea swam a long distance before they were rescued by a Canadian ship, and ships from the Yemeni Navy.

A soldier named Ali Ali Sareea told the September 26 newspaper, the mouthpiece of the Yemeni Army, that he swam for 21 hours before he was rescued by the Canadian ship. Sareea said that he felt an earthquake on Sunday at 2 p.m., which was then followed by big explosions. The panic-stricken soldiers jumped into the sea. After a short period, most of the soldiers got back on the island except for nine, including Sareea, who continued swimming. He was rescued by the Canadian naval ship at 10 a.m. Monday.   

Sareea and his nine colleagues tried to stop commercial ships, but the captains of the ships refused to stop and save them. He said he was bitten by fish during his swim.

The two who were saved were Sareea and Ahmed Abdullah Mohammed al-Jalal. Three people were reported dead after their bodies were identified. They are Mohammed Ahmed Nassar al-Tam, ahmed Abdul-Aziz Ghalib and Salim Ahmed Nassar.

The search by Canadian and other NATO ships for survivors from the eruption has been called off, the Canadian Press reported.

Ken Allen, a spokesman for the Canadian Navy said that the search ended shortly after noon local time Tuesday October 2. But Allen says a vigorous search of an area north of the island of Jabal al-Tair found no other bodies. HMCS Toronto, based in Halifax, was in the area with a NATO fleet when the eruption began Sunday evening. It has since sailed on with the NATO fleet toward the Mediterranean Sea.

The soldiers are: Abdullah Ali Muhsen Ahmed al-Mutwakel, Hussien Muhsen Mohammed al-Azab al-Wenani, Ali Ali hamoud Saleh al-Jadoom and Mohammed Ahmed Ali Abdullah Dhaiban.   

Geologists in Yemen said that the volcano on Jabal al-Tair erupted twice before in the 18th and 19th centuries and the last eruption was in 1883. They said that the eruption is connected to seismic activity. The Earthquake Observation Centre said it had recorded tremors in the Red Sea from 22 September until the volcano’s eruption. They measured 2.0-3.6 degrees on the Richter scale, with five of the larger ones recorded on 30 September. 

Jabal al-Tair (Bird Mountain) island is about 3km long and rises to a height of about 1,200 meters. It lies about 100km off the Yemeni coast and, according to geologists, is in a volcanically active part of the Red Sea.   

Yemen has had a military base on the island since 1996 after a dispute with Eritrea over two islands.   

Authorities in Hodeida have warned fishermen not to approach the island.

Jabal al-Tair volcano continues to erupt, search for survivors called off (http://www.yobserver.com/front-page/printer-10013054.html)


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 06, 2007, 02:28:43 PM
Matthew 24:7-8 For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and there will be famines and earthquakes in place after place; 8 All this is but the beginning [the early pains] of the birth pangs [of the intolerable anguish].

Keep your eyes towards the heavens, for our Lord may call us home in the blink of an eye.


Title: Tents, vehicles readied for feared Indonesian volcanic eruption
Post by: Shammu on October 06, 2007, 02:32:17 PM
Tents, vehicles readied for feared Indonesian volcanic eruption

Fri Oct 5, 1:34 PM ET

JAKARTA (AFP) - Indonesian officials and volunteers pitched tents and assembled evacuation vehicles Friday amid fears that a volcano in densely populated East Java could soon erupt, local officials there said.

"We are setting up a number of tents in Karang Rejo village located some 10 kilometres (six miles) from the crater in case of eruption," local official Tri Setyoko told AFP.

Setyoko added that more than 30 off-road vehicles were also ready to evacuate residents if activity at simmering Mount Kelut escalated further.

Residents were advised last Sunday to maintain a five-kilometre safety zone around the 1,731-metre (5,712-feet) peak and told to prepare to evacuate at the first sign of any eruption.

Evacuation drills were held in the area on Thursday.

Agung Budianto, a volcanologist monitoring Mount Kelut, said a minor volcanic tremor early Friday indicated that magma was starting to push towards the crater's surface, but it was not a significant shift yet, he said.

Based on current conditions, the volcanology office would maintain its current alert at the third of a four-tier system, he added.

A fourth tier alert means an eruption could be imminent.

Mount Kelut last blew in 1990. The volcano has claimed more than 15,000 lives since 1500, including around 10,000 when it erupted in 1568.

Although its immediate slopes are sparsely inhabited, the peak is a popular domestic tourist destination and it is located on a heavily populated plain.

Tents, vehicles readied for feared Indonesian volcanic eruption (http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20071005/sc_afp/indonesiavolcano_071005173425)


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 17, 2007, 09:17:39 AM
Indonesian Villagers Defy Volcano Warnings

Tuesday , October 16, 2007

AP
MOUNT KELUD, Indonesia —
Hundreds of villagers defied warnings of a major eruption at one of Indonesia's deadliest volcanos, leaving refugee centers Wednesday and returning to homes along its slopes to tend to crops and animals.

Mount Kelud, which has been showing signs of increased activity for several weeks, was placed on the highest alert level late Tuesday, meaning scientists believe an eruption may be imminent.

The 5,679-foot volcano last erupted in 1990, killing dozens. In 1919, a powerful explosion destroyed a hundred villages and claimed 5,160 lives.

Local authorities began mandatory evacuations of around 30,000 people living within six miles of the peak late Tuesday, mostly women, children and the elderly. Many men refused to leave, according to an Associated Press reporter on the mountain.

On Wednesday morning, hundreds of people left temporary evacuation camps in rented trucks and returned to their villages, complaining they had received no food and saying they must tend crops.

"There was no food at all," said Darmiashiah, a 33-year-old woman who returned to the village of Sukiwaras, well within in the evacuation zone. "If I get told to leave again, I will not go," said Darmiashiah, who goes by a single name.

Unlike some volcanos, Mount Kelud does not smoke or rumble.

"It never shows its true nature," said government volcanologist Surono, who goes by a single name. "It is better to raise the status than see people killed."

Kelud, on Java island about 385 miles east of the capital, Jakarta, is one of the most active of Indonesia's estimated 150 active volcanoes. The country sits on the so-called Pacific Ring of Fire — a series of volcanos and fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and Southeast Asia.

Indonesian Villagers Defy Volcano Warnings (http://www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_story/0,3566,302511,00.html)
~~~~~~~~

Well this brings eruptions up 49 for this years when MT. KELUD erupts.

Guess I need to update this tonight.


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on October 17, 2007, 11:11:57 AM
Hello Dreamweaver,

Brother, it's been some time since I thanked you for sharing this information with us, so THANKS!

Some people don't know that greatly increasing numbers of natural disasters is one of the SIGNS of the end days of this Age of Grace. We are most definitely seeing many more natural disasters and it has nothing at all to do with "Al Gore's so-called global warming." ONLY the CREATOR is in charge of the powers of nature. I must add that many single things in nature are hundreds or thousands of times as devastating as any bomb man has created.

We can read in this thread that a single volcano has the destructive power to effect the entire earth. This is just a small example of the power locked up in ALMIGHTY GOD'S CREATION. If someone wants a larger example, consider what small changes in the sun would be capable of doing. It wouldn't take much of a change in the sun for us to fry or freeze. ONLY GOD can hold such intricate and complex things in balance. In spite of these facts, much of mankind disobeys and rejects GOD. In fact, much of mankind mocks GOD and have turned their backs on THE CREATOR. One of the reasons HE is called ALMIGHTY GOD refers to POWER without any limits, and ALMIGHTY GOD certainly has that kind of power. HIS patience will run out one day with evil men who have rejected HIM. One of the SIGNS of HIS RIGHTEOUS WRATH to come will be larger numbers of natural disasters.


Love In Christ,
Tom

Thanks be unto God for His unspeakable GIFT, Jesus Christ, our Lord and Saviour Forever!


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 17, 2007, 06:06:37 PM
Brother Tom your welcome as you know this is a part of Biblical Prophecy.
~~~~~~~~~

KELUT

As of the 17th of October, the Volcanological Society opf Indonesia (VSI) has reported that based on results of observation and the analysis, deformation, visual and the grating of the temperature of water of the crater lake, then the Kelut activity had the potential to have an eruption. Because of that on October 16th, 2007 at 1725hrs WIB, the status of the Kelut activity was raised from Alert Level III to IV level).

The development of the Kelut activity in the Kediri Regency, Kabupaten Blitar and the Malang Regency, Provinsi East Java as follows:
I. Since October 16th, 2007, at 1000hrs WIB through to 1700hrs WIB printed 306 volcanic shallow earthquake incidents that was the process of the occurrence of the rock crack progressively by the fluid (magma, gas or vapour) headed the surface.
II. Visual: On September 15th, 2007 was observed by the existence of gas in the middle of the crater lake and until this had the trend increasingly spread. On September 28th, 2007 gas reached the radius 5 m. with the colour of white water of the crater lake spread everywhere.
III. Deformation: Results of the grating of period deformation 13th till October 16th, 2007 also showed the existence of the process of inflation around the Kelut peak.
IV. Water Temperature: Results of the grating of the temperature of water of the crater lake on October 16th, 2007 at 1200hrs WIB reached 37.8 oC.

The colour code at Kelut is currently at ALERT LEVEL IV
~~~~~~~~~~

GALERAS

As of the 16th of October, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (OVSP) has reported that activity of the volcano stays in: Level III (Changes in the behaviour of the volcanic activity) Of the permanent pursuit and analysis that the Vulcanológico Observatory of the INGEOMINAS makes in Grass, one stands out that:

1. It continues predominating the registry of seismic events related to dynamics of the magmatic fluids, with low power levels and that happen at superficial levels.
2. In recognition of field conducted the 5 of October from the top, could be verified that the emissions as much continue appearing from the main crater as from other craters and fumarolic fields of the active cone; there are variations in the rates of gas discharge and sometimes the gases produce sounds (similar to a jet) when they are expelled to the atmosphere. Several of these processes correlated themselves with the registry of seismic events.
3. When the climatic conditions have allowed it, the observation has been possible from Grass and other populations bordering to the volcano, of columns of emission mainly conformed by water steam, that sometimes drag small volumes of solid particles (so large ash and finer). These columns have reached peak altitudes of 1000 metres on the top of the volcanic edifface. Predominant dispersion of the columns of emission by action of the wind has been towards the north flank. On Saturday, the 13th of October in times of the night, the wind dispersed the column towards the eastern flank, thus was possible to perceive scents to sulphured gases in sectors of the city of Grass. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic activity and will opportunely inform the changes that can be detected.

The colour code at Galeras is currently at ALERT LEVEL III
~~~~~~~~

BULUSAN

Bulusan
Bulusan photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

As of the 16th of October, The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) has reported that heavy rain caused lahars at Bulusan volcano in the Philippines last night. Nearly 200 residents in Irosin and Cogon were evacuated. Eruptions of Bulusan earlier this month created six new vents. Three vents were created on southeast slope and three on northwest slope. Residents are advised to stay away from the 4 km permanent exclusion zone. A press release from PHIVOLCS advises "Residents of areas beyond the (four-km permanent danger zone) that are downwind of the crater are likely to be affected by ashfalls during explosions. Furthermore, residents near river/ stream channels around the volcano should also be on alert against life-threatening volcanic mudflows (lahars) during heavy rains which might remobilise ash and loose deposits from the upper slopes."

Luzon's southernmost volcano, Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 35,000-40,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century.

The Current Colour Code for Bulusan at ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 17, 2007, 06:09:17 PM
JEBEL AL TAIR

As of the 11th of October, the Earth Observatory About the Earth Observatory has reported to INTLVRC that according to news reports, the eruption from the Jebel at Tair that began on 30 September continued on 3 October with lava flows noted on the W part of the island.

ASTER measures not only light visible to human eyes, but also near infrared light, enabling the sensor to detect thermal anomalies caused by substantial temperature differences. The bright red spot at the summit is such an anomaly, and it suggests hot lava associated with ongoing volcanic activity. Immediately to the north of the summit is a small faint red streak, another thermal anomaly that appears to flow down the volcano’s slope. At the same time, a nearly transparent plume emanates from the summit up toward a cloud. Water content of the volcanic plume could be responsible for this cloud, although clouds do routinely form over summits.

On September 30, 2007, NATO ships in the region reported a spectacular “light show” complete with fountains of lava. Dark rivulets of rock in this image indicate an apparent lava flow in the northeast quadrant of the island, moving in the same direction as the faint thermal anomaly near the summit. These dark deposits likely resulted from the recent eruption, and contrast with the paler shades of older lava flows. Jebel at Tair is a stratovolcano—a steep-sloped cone composed of alternating layers of ash, lava, and rocks produced by earlier eruptions. The latest eruption is a continuation of activity on this island, where explosive eruptions were recorded in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Jebel at Tair is known by multiple names and spellings. It has alternately been referred to as Jabal al-Tair, Jabal al-Tayr, Tair Island, Al-Tair Island, Djebel Teyr, and Jibbel Tir.

The basaltic Jebel al Tair stratovolcano rises from a 1200 m depth in the south-central Red Sea, forming an oval-shaped island about 3 km long. Jebel al Tair is the northernmost known Holocene volcano in the Red Sea and lies SW of the Farisan Islands. Youthful basaltic pahoehoe lava flows from the steep-sided central vent, Jebel Duchan, cover most of the island. They drape a circular cliff cut by wave erosion of an older edifice and extend beyond it to form a flat coastal plain. Pyroclastic cones are located along the NW and southern coasts, and fumarolic activity occurs from two uneroded scoria cones at the summit. Radial fissures extend from the summit, some of which were the sources of lava flows. The island is of Holocene age, and explosive eruptions were reported in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The Current Colour Code for Jebel al Tair is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Mt. RUAPEHU

As of the 10th of October, the GeoNet Data Centre (CNDC) via the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that GNS scientists have continued to monitor the activity at Ruapehu since the eruption on September 25. As no further eruptions have occurred since then the Alert Level is now being lowered to Level 1, said Brad Scott. Mr Scott commented that data from Crater Lake sampling and airborne surveys to analyse gases in the volcanic plume have shown a response to the eruption on September 25, as has the seismic activity recorded by the GeoNet equipment, but no further eruptions have occurred. The Alert Level is now reduced to Level 1 (departure from typical background surface activity, signs of unrest) from Level 2 (minor eruptive activity) and will continue to be re-assessed regularly.

The Crater Lake temperature has risen slightly (13 to 19 °C), the SO2 flux has shown no change, while the CO2 flux has increased slightly. The lake chemistry shows a slight increase in magnesium, while there is little change in chloride concentrations. There has been a small increase in the background level of volcanic tremor, but almost no volcanic earthquakes. These observations are consistent with the volcano's hydrothermal system responding to an eruption through it. The hydrothermal system has not stabilised as yet and the possibility of further activity remains at the volcano. Any further eruptions may also occur without warning. The Department of Conservation in conjunction with GNS Science has developed guidelines for access to the mountain and maps showing areas at risk from volcanic activity. Visitors are encouraged to follow these.

Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Ruapehu is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

KARANGETANG

As of the 11th of September, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the Karangetang volcano alert level has been lowered now to ORANGE due to the on-going and but slightly decreased activity. After a gradual increase in activity, Karangetang volcano on Siau island started a more violent phase of activity. Lava flows and pyroclastic flows from the growing lava dome have been reported. According to the Jakarta Post, several hundred people have been evacuated from villages on the slopes of the volcano. A major explosive eruption could happen in the near future, volcanologist estimate.

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

The Current Colour Code for Karangetang is currently at ALERT LEVEL 3


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 17, 2007, 06:12:59 PM
Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 17th of October, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that today's satellite views of Cleveland were mostly cloudy today. No reports of activity have been received. AVO continues to monitor Cleveland Volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 11th of October, INGEMMET reported that based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 12 and 20 September. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 9th of October, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that:
In the period between the 2nd and the 8th of October a total of 161 seismic events was registered. Among them, 73 events are associate to fracturing of rock, 83 flowed earthquakes related to the dynamics of within the volcanic conduits, 3 hybrid events and 2 pulses of tremor of low magnitude.
The volcano-tectonic events in this period were located to the east of the Central Tip, with inferior magnitudes of coda to 1.5. These events were registered to inferior depths to 6 km Between these events, excel happened the 6th of October to 2040hrs local time, with a magnitude of 1.3, and happened at 1520hrs and at 1900hrs local time, with magnitude of 1.5.
Of the previous thing it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, with slight excitations of the system. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic phenomenon and will inform into opportune way the changes that can be presented/displayed.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 17, 2007, 06:15:46 PM
CHIKURACHKI

As of the 13th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. According to satellite data, gas-steam plume containing small amount of ash extended >50 km (>31 mi) from the volcano to the north-east on October 07 and 10, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidised basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 13th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week, many shallow volcanic earthquakes and a spasmodic volcanic tremor were registered at the volcano all days. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 5.2 km (17,100 ft) ASL all week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly at the volcano was noted on October 04-08 and 10-11. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Ash plumes extended >350 km (>217 mi) mainly to the eastern directions from the volcano on October 04-08 and 10-11.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 17th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the activity of the volcano gradually decreases. According to satellite data, there was no ash plumes near the volcano last several hours. But ash plumes continue to take up position over Kronotsky bay and this may affect low-flying aircraft. According to seismic data, seismicity was slightly above background levels from 0001hrs UTC on October 16. Volcanic tremor has not been registered from 1400hrs UTC on October 15. Probably small hot avalanches continue to occur at the volcano. Clouds obscured the volcano at this time.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 17, 2007, 06:17:57 PM
SHEVELUCH

As of the 13th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 6.5 km (21,300 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano on October 04-06 and 09-11. There were small hot avalanches all week. According to video data, gas-steam plumes (sometimes containing ash) raising up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) ASL were noted on October 04, 06-07 and 11. There was a weak fumarolic activity on October 08. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week. Ash plumes extended > 250 km (155 mi) mainly to the eastern directions from the volcano on October 04-08.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~

MANAM

As of the 11th of October, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that incandescence was visible at the summit of Manam on 29 September and 1 October. The Main Crater occasionally released diffuse ash plumes during 1-5 October. Plumes drifted SW. White vapour plumes were emitted from South Crater.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centres are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded at Manam since 1616. A major eruption in 1919 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the coast, and in 1957-58 pyroclastic flows descended all four radial valleys. Lava flows reached the sea in 1946-47 and 1958.

The Current Colour Code for Manam is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 17th of Ocotber, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant change over the last 24 hours. Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding, although the likelihood of this is thought to decrease with time as no further lava extrusion occurs. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 17, 2007, 06:20:10 PM
Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 17th of October, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift ENE.

Clouds obscure the crater this morning, with the prospect of even worse visibility as the day progresses. Seismicity and deformation continue at levels and rates typical of the last days and weeks. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 17th of October, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano registered 2 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas emissions and occsionally small amounts of ash (see image #1). The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report CEANPRED can see the volcano with a steam and gas emissions (see image #2).

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~

PACAYA

As of the 11th of October, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the volcano has moderate fumaroles of white and blue colour, that moves to the north. They are on the west flank of the edges and the lava flows continue and in the evening and night reflection of incandescence in minimum. It was observed the seismic activity which was registered by PCG and was of continuous explosions with little material on the Mackenney crater.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 17, 2007, 06:22:24 PM
FUEGO

As of the 11th of October, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that weak, moderate and strong explosions, expulsions have been observed with ash to 350 and 1200m of height on the crater, moving to the north and northwest, of their base. In their majority, these explosions are accompanied by rumblings and degassing sounds similar to turbines of an airplane of 3, 5, 15, 30 minutes duration. Expulsion of pyroclastic material was observed that this reconstructing the cone to the íntercrater, causing constant avalanches in the ravines Taniluya and Santa Teresa.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

SANTA MARIA

As of the 11th of October, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that there is little visibility in the volcanic complex. Some explosions in their majority have been observed expelling weak gray ash 300 and 600 metres of height, dispersing the column towards the southeast. Constant avalanches of blocks in the lava flows of the southwestern flank. The lahars in the rivers are with cloudy water.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 17th of October, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that activity activity stays in a moderate-high level, characterised in last the 24 hours by the generation continuous explosions, tremors and a deformation registered in the north flank.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: 34 episodes of tremor of emission have been registered, 21 events of long period and 2 explosions. The greatest explosions happened at 2132hrs (Universal Time) of yesterday and at 1720hrs (UT) of today with measures of seismic displacement of 2.5 and 3.9 cm2, which describes them as signals of small size. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: In afternoon and night of observations due to the presence of cloudiness in the zone of the volcano were not made yesterday. Today a column of emission with moderate ash content was observed. The explosion of 1720hrs generated a steam column with little ash content that reached 3 km of height on the summit of the volcano. Climate/Rains/Lahars: At night yesterday they reported the presence of light rain that did not generate lahars. Deformation: From the 07th of October, the clinometer of RETU, located in the superior part of the northern flank, registered a noticeable deformation in the radial axis (180 urad).

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 17, 2007, 06:24:30 PM
RABAUL

As of the 11th of October, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of approximately 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW on 3 October. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind, including Rabaul Town. Ash plumes on 4 October drifted W and resulted in ashfall in Matupit Island, Malaguna. Incandescent fragments were ejected from the summit. On 5 October, vapor plumes with minor ash content were noted. Rumbling noises occasionally accompanied the ash emissions.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 17th of October, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the 7/21 eruption continued to supply a long, deep lava channel that is feeding pahoehoe overflows from the area where the bend in the channel was located. These flows are covering older lavas, and are currently the main form of activity, although seep-fed flows on both the northeast and southwest sides of the upper channel were especially active in the past 24 hours.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: The lava level in the channel was just below the rim throughout Monday afternoon and night. Seep-fed flows were present on both the northeast and southwest sides of the upper channel. Pahoehoe overflows are active in the downstream portion of the channel where the bend was located, and represent the bulk of the activity on the flow field. The overflows are covering older lava flows.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: Heavy fume obscures views in to the crater. Tilt has been flat since 1500hrs Sunday afternoon, and seismic tremor levels are low.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeter network continues to indicate inflation of the caldera, which has accumulated a magnitude of almost 1 microradian since Saturday. Only one earthquake occurred beneath Kilauea caldera and seismic tremor levels remain low, following trends of the past week.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Indonesian volcano eruption imminent: scientist
Post by: Shammu on October 24, 2007, 10:36:33 PM
Indonesian volcano eruption imminent: scientist

by Staff Writers
Blitar, Indonesia (AFP) Oct 24, 2007

A scientist warned on Wednesday that all indications pointed to the imminent eruption of a volcano on the Indonesian island of Java, despite it showing few obvious signs of activity.

Mount Kelut, a 1,731-metre (5,712-foot) volcano with a history of deadly eruptions, was put on high alert on October 16, triggering efforts to evacuate some 130,000 people living within 10 kilometres (six miles) of its crater.

But the mountain and its fertile farmed slopes have been quiet for the past few days with no drastic changes in the frequency and magnitude of volcanic and tectonic quakes affecting the area.

Most residents are spending the nights at temporary shelters further down the slopes but they are returning to work the fields during the day.

"The trend is that the centres of the shallow volcanic quakes are moving closer and closer to the surface, and this is the normal pattern prior to an eruption," said Kristianto, a geologist monitoring Kelut.

"They (the quake centres) are now less than one kilometre beneath the crater's floor but the mountain will only erupt when these are accompanied by shallow quakes of large amplitude and long, continuous tremors," he told AFP.

Although he said that an eruption was impossible to predict accurately, the signs leading to an eruption usually followed the same pattern.

President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono was to tour the area later Tuesday.

"We are making preparations for the visit but our priority remains on those displaced," said local official Sigit Raharjo.

Geologists have said they expect an eruption of Kelut would comprise of "heat clouds", searing gases and volcanic debris rushing down the slopes, similar to the most recent eruption in 1990 that left 34 dead.

Indonesia sits on the Pacific "Ring of Fire," where continental plates collide causing frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The archipelago nation is home to 129 active volcanoes, including 21 on Java.

Indonesian volcano eruption imminent: scientist (http://www.terradaily.com/reports/Indonesian_volcano_eruption_imminent_scientist_999.html)


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 24, 2007, 10:45:43 PM
KELUT

As of the 24th of October, the Volcanological Society opf Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the monitoring the active condition reamins normal, at Kelut. In general, recorded were approximately 2 volcanic earthquakes each month. On October 10th, 2007, the seismograph printed 13 earthquakes volcanic, whereas on October 11th, 2007 recorded 3 volcanic earthquakes at Kelut. The distribution epientre of the source of the volcanic earthquake in the status report was at a depth of 3 km under Kelut.

In the period from September 29th – October 16th, 2007, recorded by the Volcanic-Dalam earthquake as during before being on the alert and before Alert, was the number less than 20 incidents daily. On October 16th, 2007, at 1000hrs WIB began to be recorded and the Volcanic-Dangkal earthquake, at 1700hrs WIB recorded 306 earthquakes at VulkanikDangkal. After consultations with the Tanggap team of the Emergency Kelut, on October 16th, 2007 at 1725hrs WIB, Kelut the depth wa around 1 kilometre from the foundation of the crater.

The colour code at Kelut is currently at ALERT LEVEL IV
~~~~~~~~~~

GALERAS

As of the 24th of October, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (OVSP) has reported that activity of the volcano stays in: Level III (Changes in the behaviour of the volcanic activity) Of the permanent pursuit and analysis that the Vulcanológico Observatory of the INGEOMINAS makes in Pasto, one stands out that:
1. The volcanmo continues predominating the registry of seismic events related to the dynamics of the magmatic fluids, with low power levels, that happen at superficial levels and that in this week showed increase in their occurrence (mainly of episodes of spasmodic tremor).
2. When the climatic conditions have allowed it, the observation has been possible from Pasto and other populations bordering to the volcano, of columns of emission mainly conformed by water steam, that sometimes drag small volumes of solid particles (so large ash and finer). These columns have reached peak altitudes between about 500 and 1700 metres on the top of the volcanic proper. In this week, the dispersion of those columns of emission by action of the wind, has been random, going as much to the north flank as to the south (particularly in the last days).

Personnel of the Observatory the past verified a report of the Local Committee of the municipality of Nariño on fall of fine ashes and in little amount in the high part of this municipality on the 16th of October. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic activity and will opportunely inform the changes that can be detected.

The colour code at Galeras is currently at ALERT LEVEL III
~~~~~~~~

Mt. RUAPEHU

As of the 19th of October, the GeoNet Data Centre (CNDC) has reported that the Alert Level at Ruapehu was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) on 9 October because no further eruptions have occurred since the activity on 25 September.

Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Ruapehu is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 24, 2007, 10:48:41 PM
KARANGETANG

As of the 18th of October, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 1.9 km (6,200 ft) a.s.l. on 13 October.

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

The Current Colour Code for Karangetang is currently at ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~

OL DOINYO LENGAI

As of the 20th of October, coleague John Seach of Australia has reported that a pilot report indicated an eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania occurred at 0830hrs local time today. An ash plume reached 25,000 ft. altitude, and was visible from a distance of 50 miles. The eruption lasted 30 minutes.

The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage of the volcano ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra eruptions and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

The Current Colour Code for Ol Doinyo Lengai is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 24th of October, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that again clouds obscured satellite views over Cleveland volcano last night. No reports of activity have been received. AVO continues to monitor Cleveland Volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 24, 2007, 10:51:03 PM
UBINAS

As of the 18th of October, INGEMMET reported that based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.6 km (18,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NNE, SE, and ESE during 11-13 and 15 October.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 24th of October, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that in the passed period days the 16th thru the 22nd of October, a total of 125 seismic events was registered; of which, 10 events are associate to fracturing of rock, 112 events had relation with the dynamics of flowed within the volcanic conduits, and three pulses of tremor of low magnitude. During this period a volcano-tectonic event happened the 19th of October at 1155hrs local time stood out, which was located to 6 km to the E of the Central Tip, with a magnitude of 2.07 and depth of 5.87 km. Of the previous thing it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, with slight excitations of the system. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic phenomenon and will inform into opportune way the changes that can be presented/displayed.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~

CHIKURACHKI

As of the 19th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended >180 km (>110 mi) from the volcano to the north-east on October 17-18, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidised basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 24, 2007, 10:53:20 PM
KARYMSKY

As of the 19th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week, many shallow volcanic earthquakes and a spasmodic volcanic tremor were registered at the volcano all days. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 4.3 km (14,100 ft) ASL all week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly at the volcano was noted on October 14-18. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Ash plumes extended >190 km (>353 mi) mainly to the eastern directions from the volcano on October 15-18.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 20th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano gradually decreases. No ash emissions or explosive activity has been noted on October 18-20. Seismicity at the volcano is at background levels from 0001hrs UTC on October 19 till now. Clouds obscured the volcano on October 18-20. An intense thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed at satellite images on October 18-20. It is likely that viscous lava is effusing from the summit dome at Bezymianny. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 19th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 6.5 km (21,300 ft) ASL and small hot avalanches occurred at the volcano all week. According to video data, ash plumes raising up to 5.5 km (18,040 ft) ASL were noted on October 14-15. Gas-steam plumes containing small amount of ash rose up to 5.0 km (16,400 ft) ASL on October 11-12 and 14-15. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week. Ash plumes extended 30-120 km (155 mi) mainly to the eastern directions from the volcano on October 12, 14 and 16.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 24, 2007, 10:55:50 PM
MANAM

As of the 18th of October, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that RVO reported that Manam's Main Crater and South Crater occasionally released white vapour plumes during 6-15 October. During 10-11 October, weak incandescence and occasional ash plumes from Main Crater were visible.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centres are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded at Manam since 1616. A major eruption in 1919 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the coast, and in 1957-58 pyroclastic flows descended all four radial valleys. Lava flows reached the sea in 1946-47 and 1958.

The Current Colour Code for Manam is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 24th of Ocotber, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable volcanic activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant change over the last 24 hours. Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding, although the likelihood of this is thought to decrease with time as no further lava extrusion occurs. Nevertheless, overnight, in response to heavy rainfall there was a period of lahar activity lasting around two hours between 0230hrs and 0430hrs ECT detected by the MVO seismic network. This affected drainages on all sides of the volcano including the Belham Valley to the northwest. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 24th of October, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift northeast.

Halcyon weather provides clear views of MSH this morning. The dome-building eruption continues with no change in ground deformation or earthquake activity that remains at or near levels typical of recent months. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 24, 2007, 10:58:29 PM
POPOCATEPETL

As of the 24th of October, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano registered 4 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. At this moment there is no visibility towards the volcano due to dense clouds.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 24th of October, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that during the last 24 hours, the volcano presents/displays a high level of activity, characterised by the generation of explosions, tremors of emission and LP earthquakes, generated by the vibration of flowed in the interior of the volcano. In addition for two weeks slight deformation in the north flank has been registered.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: 76 events of long period have been registered (LPs), a volcano-tectonic event (VTs), 29 episodes of tremor of emission and 6 explosions. Four of these explosions have values of Displacement Reduced greater than 4 cm2, which is the reason why it is considered of moderate size. These explosions happened at 1641hrs, 2256hrs of and 0102hrs and 1302hrs of today and yesterday caused waves of infrasound of 95, 216, 104 and 148 Pascales in a sensor located at 6 km of distance from the crater. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: In the afternoon of today, observations of the eruptive columns due to the cloud presence were not made yesterday in the area. At noon today, a column of steam and ash of 4 km of height was observed on the summit. Later a column of 1500 m with direction NW and a small ash content was observed. Reports of ash fall are not had. Climate/Rains/Lahars: Slight rains of yesterday were reported at night, but any report of the occurrence of mud flows is not had (lahars). Deformation: From the 07th of October, clinometer of RETU, located in the superior part of the northern flank, it continues registering a noticeable deformation of radial axis (190 urad).

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 18th of October, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that white vapour plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 8-16 October. Occasional explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted NNE and S. Ashfall was reported downwind, including Namanula Hill and surrounding areas. The ash emissions were intermittently accompanied by roaring noises, and incandescence at the summit was observed during the reporting period.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on October 24, 2007, 11:00:11 PM
KILAUEA

As of the 24th of October, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the 7/21 eruption continued to supply lava to a channel that fed flows that seeped from its base and issued from its distant end. That latter flow has advanced nearly a mile and has entered a forested kipuka along the northern margin of the flow field. Hazard Summary: There are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: Lava in the channel is a few metres below the rim; there were no overflows. Scattered incandescence on the northern and southern margins suggest that the seep-fed flows continued to be active. As of yesterday morning, a lava flow, issued from the channel end, advanced about 1.5 km (0.9 miles),and entered the remains of a forested kipuka along the northern margin of the flow field.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: Fume and dark - no incandescence has been seen since the end of August. No significant tilt changes were recorded; GPS receivers continued to record slow contraction across the cone. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeters recorded no significant tilt changes. GPS receivers recorded slowed contraction across the caldera consistent with deflation of a summit source. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the south flank faults. A magnitude-3.2 earthquake was located 7.5 km (4.7 miles south of Halema`uma`u crater beneath the Koa`e fault system at a depth of 33 km (20 miles). Seismic tremor levels remained at low values.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Indonesian volcano spews white smoke
Post by: Shammu on October 25, 2007, 10:30:18 PM
Indonesian volcano spews white smoke

Thu Oct 25, 12:30 AM ET

JAKARTA, Indonesia - A volcano erupted in central Indonesia on Thursday, shooting plumes of white smoke and sand nearly 5,000 feet into the air and covering nearby villages in ash, officials said.

Residents living near the crater of Mount Soputan, located on Sulawesi island, were evacuated before the blast and there were no immediate reports of injuries or serious damage, said Sandy Manengke, a local monitoring official.

The heat could be felt as far as 12 miles away, he said, and some residents living in villages near the base of the 5,800-foot mountain wore face masks to protect themselves from the smoke and ash.

Abandoned homes along the volcano's fertile slopes were covered in soot, Manengke said.

Indonesia has more active volcanoes than any other nation because of its location on the Pacific "Ring of Fire" — a series of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and Southeast Asia.

Mount Soputan, 1,350 miles northeast of the capital, Jakarta, is one of its most active. It rarely spews lava, however, instead spitting out smoke, ash and sand, Manengke said.

Indonesian volcano spews white smoke (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20071025/ap_on_re_as/indonesia_volcano;_ylt=AgHlNDXsYS7BthjgG_aD0h0Bxg8F)


Title: Indonesia's 'Child of Krakatoa' Volcano Near Eruption
Post by: Shammu on October 27, 2007, 11:54:36 PM
Indonesia's 'Child of Krakatoa' Volcano Near Eruption

Saturday, October 27, 2007

JAKARTA, Indonesia —  The Indonesian volcano known as the "Child of Krakatoa" spewed ash and smoke, prompting warnings of a possible eruption, a government volcanologist said Saturday.

The mountain in the Sunda Strait, 80 miles west of Jakarta, formed after the giant Krakatoa eruption of 1883 that killed tens of thousands of people and was the largest explosion in recorded history.

"Activity at Anak Krakatoa increased yesterday and there were several small eruptions," said Surono, a leading government volcanologist who, like many Indonesians, uses one name. "We have upgraded the alert level to the second highest."
(Orange 4, next is Red..... D.W.)

Anak Krakatoa, which means "Child of Krakatoa," is the third volcano to become active in recent weeks in Indonesia, a sprawling nation of more than 17,000 islands. The country has about 150 volcanos along an arc of fault lines called the Pacific "Ring of Fire."

Krakatoa's massive 1883 blast, heard nearly 2,000 miles away in Australia, sent pyroclastic surges of gas and burning ash which, combined with a tsunami, wiped out 165 villages and killed at least 36,417 people. It destroyed two thirds of the island of Krakatoa between Java and Sumatra.

Indonesia's 'Child of Krakatoa' Volcano Near Eruption (http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,305681,00.html?sPage=fnc.specialsections/naturaldisaster)


Title: Indonesian eruption report creates panic
Post by: Shammu on November 03, 2007, 03:47:54 PM
Indonesian eruption report creates panic

By INDRA HARSAPUTRA, Associated Press Writer 1 hour, 19 minutes ago

MOUNT KELUD, Indonesia - Villagers fled the slopes of one of Indonesia's deadliest volcanos Saturday after seismic readings indicated that an eruption had started after weeks of heightened activity.

But Surono, a senior government volcanologist who goes by a single name, told el-Shinta radio station late Saturday that monitoring equipment close to the crater of Mount Kelud was still working, indicating that there had been no eruption.

"In reality Kelud did not erupt", Surono said.

The volcano in the heart of densely populated Java island was shrouded in fog and no visual confirmation of the eruption reports was possible before night fell, government seismologist Umar Rosadi said.

Scores of people, including women hauling babies in slings, descended from the mountain in police trucks and on bicycles and motorcycles. Some were in tears, and many wore masks to protect against volcanic ash.

"I am afraid because the authorities say this eruption will be worse than the ones that have come before," said Marsini, resident of a village three miles from the crater. "They say there may be poisonous gas. I am leaving now."

Rosadi and another government scientist said official monitors had left their posts after detecting continuous tremors.

For weeks, authorities have warned of an impending eruption and pleaded with villagers to move to tent camps or government buildings.

Thousands have evacuated villages closest to the crater but many people have insisted on staying behind to tend to crops or look after their houses.

Some apparently believe a local myth stating if they stayed at home without switching indoor lights on or speaking in a loud voice then the mountain would not erupt.

In 1990, Mount Kelud killed more than 30 people and injured hundreds. In 1919, a powerful explosion that could be heard hundreds of miles away destroyed dozens of villages and killed at least 5,160.

Scientists fear a buildup of magma under Kelud's crater lake could trigger a violent blast, sending a torrent of mud, ash and rock careering down the side of the 5,679-foot mountain.

The mountain has been on its highest alert status for more than two weeks, but in the last 48 hours the intensity of the quakes and the temperature of its lake have exceeding those in the days preceding the 1990 blast, scientists say.

Indonesia has about 100 active volcanos, more than any nation.

The country is spread across 17,500 islands and is prone to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes because of its location on the so-called "Ring of Fire" — a series of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and Southeast Asia.

At least three are currently erupting elsewhere in the country, including Mount Anak Krakatau, which lies of the northern tip of Java island. The mountain was formed after the famous Krakatau volcano erupted in 1883 killing thousands, but it is not seen as at risk of a major blast.

Indonesian eruption report creates panic (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20071103/ap_on_re_as/indonesia_volcano;_ylt=AtnvQ8GIQDH5e0442KoPQSRvaA8F)


Title: Indonesian volcanos spit lava, dark ash
Post by: Shammu on November 06, 2007, 02:04:31 PM
Indonesian volcanos spit lava, dark ash

By IRWAN FIRDAUS, Associated Press Writer Mon Nov 5, 1:14 PM ET

MOUNT KELUD, Indonesia - Several Indonesian volcanos spewed hot ash, molten rock and clouds of dark smoke Monday, and scientists warned a violent eruption could come at any moment.

(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071105/capt.6571859b4d764d2d924e1fb572dd1dd8.indonesia_volcano_jak103.jpg?x=380&y=253&sig=NCrulg61PvY1UNdh1dqBkA--)
Steam and hot gasses rise above the Mt. Kelud volcano early
Monday Nov. 5, 2007, in East Java, Indonesia. The killer
Indonesian volcano on high alert spat out fresh clouds of
smoke on Monday as scientists warned any eruption
would likely be much larger than the last time it blew its top.
(AP Photo/Trisnadi)

The most threatening was the deadly Mount Kelud on densely populated Java island, where a dome of magma was forming under a crater lake and soaring temperatures overheated monitoring equipment.

A few hundred miles away, Anak Krakatao, or the "Child of Krakatoa" in English, fired pumice and lava onto its slopes.

At least one other of Indonesia's approximately 100 active volcanoes sent bursts of ash showering down on nearby villages.

Experts said there was no connection between the heightened activity at the different volcanos along the tropical archipelago.

Authorities monitoring the peaks were most concerned about Kelud because of its deadly history, including a 1919 explosion that killed thousands.

The temperature of the crater lake on Mount Kelud was so great that nearby monitoring equipment stopped working, said Surono, one of 16 volcanologists watching over the peak 24 hours a day. Like many Indonesians, he uses only one name.

Despite the threat, there was little sense of panic on Kelud's slopes, witnesses said.

While several thousand people have fled to government shelters, authorities said Sunday that around 25,000 others were ignoring evacuation orders and remained in the danger zone around Kelud.

Officials have made no attempts to prevent people from traveling inside a six-mile zone around the peak that the local government says is off-limits.

"I feel it is OK to stay here," said Sukirno, who was tending papaya plants four miles from the peak. "No one can guarantee our safety apart from ourselves."

Kelud has been on the highest alert level for more than two weeks. But since Friday, scientists have been warning an eruption was imminent based on the frequency of tremors shaking and its intense heat.

In 1990, Mount Kelud spat out red-hot gases, mud and lava that killed more than 30 people and injured hundreds. In 1919, a powerful explosion that reportedly could be heard hundreds of miles away killed at least 5,160.

"If it goes this time, it will be much larger than in 1990," said Surono, basing his prediction on the number of tremors and the lake temperature — both of which have been much higher than in the days preceding the earlier blast.

The team monitoring the volcano has also said an eruption may be small or gradual — or might not happen at all given the unpredictable nature of the 5,679-foot mountain.

Images of Mt. Kelud's crater lake showed a dome had formed, but thick steam made it difficult to estimate its size, volcanologist Umar Rosadi said.

Around 40 miles southeast of Kelud, Mount Semeru was also putting on a display, sending out clouds high into the air that coated buildings in nearby villages and the town of Blitar with a fine layer of ash, witnesses said.

Ash rain from Semeru is common in the town, and Rosadi said people had no need to worry. No evacuations were ordered.

Anak Krakatoa was formed off the northern tip of Java island after a massive eruption at the giant Krakatoa volcano in 1883. That blast was heard nearly 2,000 miles away in Australia and sent surges of gas and burning ash which, combined with a tsunami, killed at least 36,000 people.

Indonesia is spread across 17,500 islands and is prone to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes because of its location within the so-called "Ring of Fire" — a series of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and Southeast Asia.

Indonesian volcanos spit lava, dark ash (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20071105/ap_on_re_as/indonesia_volcano;_ylt=Agfw1_RnCXUL.Rs7KfgsiY4Bxg8F)


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 06, 2007, 02:13:29 PM
GALERAS

As of the 6th of November, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (OVSP) has reported that the activity of the volcano continues in: Level III (Changes in the behaviour of the volcanic activity). The registry of seismic events related to the dynamics of the magmatic fluids predominates, that happen preferential at superficial levels, standing out among them the events of spasmodic Tremor type that are associated with gas discharges and fine ash. Some of these tremors showed low frequencies that stay in the time. When the climatic conditions were favourable could be observed columns of emission mainly conformed by steam of water and in some occasions to small volumes of fine ash. These columns reached peak altitudes between 500 and 2900 metres on the top of the volcanic ediface, like what happened today at 0927hrs. During this week the wind speed has shown low values, thus the emission columns gain altitude and its dispersion is variable, going as much to the north flank as to the south. The day first of November at 1810hrs stands out that the report of an explosion heard in the sector of San Cayetano was received and in the cabin of National Parks, in the route to the top of Galeras, which was associated with a signal of registered spasmodic tremor to the same hour, lamentably the surrounding fog did not allow the direct observation of the emission column. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic activity and will opportunely inform the changes that can be detected.

The colour code at Galeras is currently at ALERT LEVEL III
~~~~~~~

YELLOWSTONE CALDERA

As of the 2nd of November, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), reported that during the month of October 2007, 34 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone Region. The largest of these shocks was a magnitude 2.1 on October 17, 2007 at 0639hrs MDT, located about 26 miles southeast of West Thumb, WY. There were no swarms and no earthquakes were reported felt during October. Earthquake activity in the Yellowstone region is at low background levels.

Ground Deformation Summary: Through October 2007, continuous GPS data show that most of the Yellowstone caldera continued moving upward at similar to slightly lower rates as the past year. The maximum measured ground uplift over the past 36 months is ~17 cm at the White Lake GPS station. An example can be found at: http://pboweb.unavco.org/shared/scripts/stations/?checkkey=WLWY&sec=timeseries_plots&timeseries=raw . The general uplift of the Yellowstone caldera is scientifically interesting and will continue to be monitored closely by YVO staff.

The colour code at Yellowstone is currently at  ??
~~~~~~~~~

Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of November, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that explosives and a volcano may sound like a dangerous combination, but New Mexico Tech researchers with seismometers are aiming to use them to gather information about volcanoes that could help people. The scientists hope to use seismology to begin developing an image of the inside of the Antarctic volcano Mt. Erebus and fine-tune techniques to do so during a few months at the bottom of the world. The information would help show how the volcano works, said Professor of Geophysics Richard Aster. Kyle Jones, senior who plans to visit Antarctica for the third time, said the knowledge they gain from Mt. Erebus could apply to other volcanoes. Mt. Erebus has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activity. One of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes. Most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring of the seismic and seismoacoustic activity of the volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 06, 2007, 02:16:38 PM
STROMBOLI

As of the 1st November, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that during the recent tour "From Stromboli to Etna" a crew observed mild to moderate explosions from Stromboli volcano. The most active vent appears to be in the former central crater, with powerful explosions throwing glowing material up to 200m elevation above the crater and often outside on the N and NE flanks. Other vents in the eastern and western part of the crater erupt occasionally with loud bangs and loud hissing noises produced by strong gas jets.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

YASUR

As of the 1st of November, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano has erupted many times per hour for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Projectile ejection Yasur volcano has not produced a large destructive eruption historically. There is no indication that a large eruption will occur in the near future at Yasur volcano. Magma chamber inflation is currently being accommodated by the volcano. The largest reasonable level of activity expected is the ejection of bombs 3-4 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows threatening low lying areas near the volcano. This type of activity would pose a danger to nearby villages. Ground deformation Yasur volcano has the second greatest level of ground uplift in the world. Since 1000 AD there has been a yearly average uplift of 149 mm. This is only beaten by Iwo Jima volcano in Japan with 200 mm uplift per year since 1200 AD. Tsunami Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes, and landslides may result in the production of tsunamis which may threaten coastal populations. Flooding Lake Siwi broke through its natural dam in 2002 flooding Sulphur Bay Village and destroying houses. Landslides Landslide and debris flow pose significant risks to the surrounding population. Uplift of the caldera creates unstable ground, combined with the deposition of unstable ash and cinders. Ashfall Periods of strong volcanic activity may cause ashfall over large areas of Tanna Island. Ashfall can damage crops, cause roofs to collapse, and result in mudflows after rain. Gas Gas samples collected from the plume crossing Yasur crater rim in 1988 contained SO2 and HCl gases at concentrations between 3 and 9 ppm. This is a hazardous level of gas. This level of SO2 causes a decrease in lung function and immediate irritation of eyes nose and throat. Lava Flow Lava flows occur infrequently at Yasur volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 1st of November, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that the country's most active volcano, Arenal's eruptions are strombolian in type, being frequent but moderate and can be viewed without danger as long as the viewers are behind the safety perimeter. This constant activity and minimal endangerment makes Arenal a popular tourist destination, especially at night, because the lava and incandescent rocks make a spectacular sight.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 06, 2007, 02:20:52 PM
ARENAL

As of the 1st of November, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that the country's most active volcano, Arenal's eruptions are strombolian in type, being frequent but moderate and can be viewed without danger as long as the viewers are behind the safety perimeter. This constant activity and minimal endangerment makes Arenal a popular tourist destination, especially at night, because the lava and incandescent rocks make a spectacular sight.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 6th of November, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the 7/21 eruption continued to supply lava to a channel that distributed it into seeps, overflows, and tubes. Both lava tubes that have been active over the past week continued to be active and produced breakouts over their most distant sections. Flows from neither tube system have advanced beyond their Nov. 2 positions. Lava erupted from the 7/21 fissures is probably fed from a shallow magma storage area beneath Pu`u `O`o. Gas emissions continued to be high from Pu`u `O`o but not from the new fissures suggesting that the 7/21 magma first degasses beneath Pu`u `O`o before being erupted. The channel and tube system continue to produce shorter lava flows than were erupted during August causing the area covered by 7/21 flows to get wider in the northwest-southeast direction but not longer in the northeastern direction. Hazard Summary: There are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Wao Kele o Puna is also closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: Changes in the weather just before dawn this morning have allowed good views from the webcam for the first time in several days. The channel was still full and produced a small overflow. The seep-fed flows north and south of the channel were still active. Both the north-going and east-going tubes were still active as shown by scattered incandescence and burning. Small breakouts from the north-going tube continued to slowly burn into a kipuka about 1.2 km (0.75 miles) north of the channel end. The east-going tube is feeding presumed pahoehoe flows that were burning into a small kipuka 0.6 km (0.4 miles) north of Pu`u Kia`i in addition to forested areas around Pu`u Kia`i. Tremor bursts recorded more intensely at the Kalalua seismometers than on the Pu`u `O`o instruments last night seem to be loosely correlated with rainfall and most likely originate from the 7/21 vents.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: The weather change yesterday allowed some views into the crater during the day; despite the improved visibility, no incandescence was seen in the crater overnight. The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter recorded more rain-induced changes. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values. GPS receivers continued to record contraction across the crater.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeters again recorded no coherent (in one direction) tilt changes and some rain-induced signal. GPS receivers recorded contraction that has slowed since mid-October. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values. A few earthquakes were located beneath the summit and south flank faults. Sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide concentrations were elevated yesterday, but not to as large values as the three days before. So far this morning, concentrations are at normal levels.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 4th of November, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 2.7-3.7 km (3,900-15,400 ft) a.s.l. at the time of 29-30 October. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town. Occasional incandescence at the summit was observed.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 06, 2007, 02:23:28 PM
TUNGURAHUA

As of the 6th of November, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that activity of the volcano stays discharge with a smooth descendent tendency. The heights of the emissions have not surpassed 3 km on the crater. Ash fall was reported from Runtún. The climate of the zone has varied between cleared and dimmed. It was registered to lahar that it temporarily closed the access road to Baños.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: 45 events of long period (LPs), 44 events of tremor of emission, 1 volcano-tectonic and 3 explosions were registered. The explosion of 1828hrs (DR=5.03 cm2) was accompanied with a cannon shot and the bearing of incandescent blocks that descended by the western flank. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: The wind direction has varied from north to the northwest. The observed emissions showed a moderate ash content. In the morning of today a continuous emission of 500 m of height was appraised on the crater. Only from Runtún one slight white ash fall was reported during the dawn. Climate/Rains/Lahars: The zone has varied between cleared, partially cloudy and cloudy. From 1640hrs (local time) of the afternoon yesterday registered a lahar. By prevention and disposition of the local authorities, the access road to Baños was closed until 2200hrs in the sector of Pampas. During the night a light rain appeared without registering new lahars. Noises: It is continued heard roars of slight and moderate intensity.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

SANTA MARIA

As of the 1st of November, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash-and-gas plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex rose to an altitude of (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 26 October.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 1st of November, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that multiple ash "puffs" from Fuego drifted SE on 26 October.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 06, 2007, 02:26:37 PM
SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 6th of November, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant change over the last 72 hours. Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding although the likelihood of this is thought to decrease with time as no further lava extrusion occurs. During heavy downpours, such during the passing of tropical depressions, lahar activity in drainages around the volcano (including the Belham Valley to the northwest), remains a potential hazard. The Alert Level remained elevated at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 6th of November, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift east to southeast.

Another clear day is dawning over the mountain, with a few wispy steam plumes visible over the lava dome at this hour from Johnston Ridge. Seismicity continues to be low and no other anomalous activity has been reported. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 6th of November, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours, the activity of Popocatepetl volcano showed a steady level. There was a small exhalation mainly composed of steam and gas. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report CENAPRED can see the volcano with a small steam and gas emission.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 06, 2007, 02:29:00 PM
SHEVELUCH

As of the 2nd of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 6.8 km (22,300 ft) ASL and small hot avalanches occurred at the volcano all week. According to video data, ash plumes rose up to 5.3 km (17,400 ft) ASL and gas-steam plumes up to 5.0 km (16,400 ft) ASL were noted on October 25-26 and 31 and November 01. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week. Ash plumes extended 70 km (43 mi) to the south-east from the volcano on October 27-31.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 2nd of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the volcano continues. A viscous lava flow is effusing from the summit dome at Bezymianny. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity did not exceed background levels this week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed on October 30-31. Clouds obscured the volcano all week.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 2nd of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels on October 25-28 and at background levels on the other days. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered at the volcano. According to seismic data, possibly small ash explosions occurred all week. According to satellite data, there wasn't noted thermal anomaly at the volcano this week probably because clouds mostly obscured the volcano this week.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 06, 2007, 02:31:26 PM
CHIKURACHKI

As of the 2nd of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that possibly the explosive eruption of the volcano continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. According to satellite data, clouds obscured the volcano this week. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidised basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 31st of October, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that in the period between the 23rd and the 29th of October a total of 114 seismic events were registered. 33 of these are associated with the fracturing of rock, 75 events had relation with the dynamics of flows within the volcanic conduits, and three events were catalogued as pulses of tremor of low magnitude. During this period two volcano-tectonic events stand out: the first event registered the 25th of October at 0634hrs local time, which had a magnitude of 1.6 and it was located to the south of the volcanic proper. The second event today registered at 0123hrs local time, had a magnitude of 1.0 and it was located in the top of the Central Tip. Of the previous, it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, with slight excitations of the system. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic phenomenon and will inform in an opportune way the changes that can be presented/displayed.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 4th of November, INGEMMET reported that based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory, pilot reports, and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-8.5 km (18,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and NE during 23-27 October.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 06, 2007, 02:34:27 PM
KARANGETANG

As of the 1st of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that in connection with the development of this volcano's activity, VSI recommended as follows:
1. The inhabitants from the Village Dame I and Hekang that including in Kel. Tatahadeng, that beforehand was done by the evacuation, could come back back to the house each with continued to pay attention to the guidance and the suggestion of SATLAK PB local if from time to time the re-increase in the G. Karangetang eruption activity happened.
2. The regional government continued to alert all the inhabitant that was in the area of the danger, because lava was still happening and from time to time the hot cloud and the rain mudflow could happen, especially for: Penduduk of the Dompase territory that was dipinggiran the Batang Time (the Siau Tengah Subdistrict), Kinali and Mini that live in close to time outskirts (the Siau Barat Subdistrict), Bolo and Coffee that including in the Tarorane District, Kampung Kola - Cola (the Bebali Village). Masyarakat that live in along the Batuawang Time current, Kali Kahetang, Kali Keting, Kali Batang, Kali Beha Timur, Kali Pangi and the Nanitu Time in order to guard against the secondary danger of taking the form of the threat of the mudflow current in the rain season.
3. In the ALERT status, G. Karangetang still potential the eruption happened strombolian, glowing lava and lava that was followed the hot cloud. The series of this incident was the Karangetang type that did not endanger for the inhabitants around it, but continue to: Penduduk did not climb Karangetang exceeded the height ± 500 m. from sea level. Masyarakat was around Karangetang hoped for calm, was not provoked by rumours about the Karangetang eruption. The centre of Vulcanology and Mitigasi Bencana Geologi always coordinated with the Government of the North Sulawesi province (as SATKORLAK PB) and Regional Government Sitaro (Siau Tagulandang Biaro) (sela I SATLAK PB) about the Karangetang activity. Masyarakat hoped always followed the directive from SATLAK PB and SATKORLAK PB.
4. In the condition for the emergency, the Observer of the Karangetang volcano could take strategic steps coordinated with SATLAK PB on the Head agreement of the Centre of Vulcanology and Mitigasi Bencana Geologi for the rescue action/the evacuation.

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

The Current Colour Code for Karangetang is currently at ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 6th of November, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that a very weak thermal anomaly was observed in satellite images today. AVO continues to monitor Cleveland Volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

SOPUTAN

As of the 4th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that based on visual observations during clear weather, CVGHM reported that white and gray plumes from Soputan on 25, 26, 30 and 31 October rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.3 km. A lava flow traveled between 500-600 m down the W flank on 25 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 and villagers and tourists are advised not to go within a 6 km radius of the summit.

The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

The Current Colour Code for Soputan at ALERT LEVEL 3


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 06, 2007, 02:36:53 PM
KELUT

As of the 6th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the Meteorology and Geophysics Agency has reported that a deadly Indonesian volcano is spewing clouds of white smoke as the temperature of its crater lake soars, but thousands of residents are defying warnings of a major eruption, choosing to tend crops and livestock on its slopes. The top scientist monitoring Mt. Kelut said Sunday the temperature of its crater lake had reached 76 degrees Celsius - a rise of more than 25 C over the last 24hours, indicating a blast could be imminent. The spike indicated magma within the volcano was close to breaking through to the surface, possibly sending a torrent of mud, ash and rock known as lahar down the mountain, said Surono, who uses a single name. Despite the threat, authorities said 25,000 people were ignoring evacuation orders and remained in the danger zone around Kelut in the heart of densely populated Java island. There was no attempt made to stop people from traveling inside a 10-kilometre zone around the peak that officials said is off-limits.

The relatively inconspicuous, 1731-m-high Kelut stratovolcano contains a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of Indonesia's most deadly eruptions. A cluster of summit lava domes cut by numerous craters has given the summit a very irregular profile. Satellitic cones and lava domes are also located low on the eastern, western, and SSW flanks. Eruptive activity has in general migrated in a clockwise direction around the summit vent complex. More than 30 eruptions have been recorded from Gunung Kelut since 1000 AD. The ejection of water from the crater lake during Kelut's typically short, but violent eruptions has created pyroclastic flows and lahars that have caused widespread fatalities and destruction. After more than 5000 persons were killed during an eruption in 1919, an ambitious engineering project sought to drain the crater lake. This initial effort lowered the lake by more than 50 m, but the 1951 eruption deepened the crater by 70 m, leaving 50 million cubic meters of water after repair of the damaged drainage tunnels. After more than 200 deaths in the 1966 eruption, a new deeper tunnel was constructed, and the lake's volume before the 1990 eruption was only about 1 million cubic metres.

The Current Colour Code for Kelut at ALERT LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~

KRAKATAU

As of the 2nd of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported and confirmed to INTLVRC that a new eruption at Anak Krakatau and that there are new craters on that volcano island. GAK published a series of photos showing the new activity at Anak Krakatau. A vent located on the S flank of the summit cone formed as pit crater (see red ring in photo) around 23 October; on around 25 October, phreatic (?) and probably phreatomagmatic ash eruptions started from this location, producing clouds of ash 200-300 m high, and occurring at intervals of 3-6 minutes.

The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

The Current Colour Code for Krakatau at ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~~

SEMERU

As of the 2nd of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that Mt. Semeru volcano in the district of Lumajang in the province of east Java is in eruption since a few hours ago. The volcano showed the eruption with a dust storm and an explosion which could be heard up to one kilometre away from the crater. "The tourist track to hike to the peak of the volcano is obviously closed down immediately until further notice," said Suparno, the head of the observation station Sawur in the district of Lumajang.

According to information at the observation post, the Mt. Semeru volcano erupted with a fairly loud bang. However there was only one explosion, Suparno told that that one was strong enough to be heard up to one kilometre away. He made clear that until this moment the status of the volcano was still a level 'one' warning. It just caused three small tremors and exhausts clouds of ash and volcanic stones. "This all means that the volcano is still quite normal, however we advice the people on the slopes of the volcano to be careful," he said. Because of rainy weather, there is a chance of a cold lahar - mud flow, even worse, around the peak of the Mt. Semeru volcano the weather is really bad at the moment. This caused ash rains to be quite large. There are currently some areas at risk for a natural disaster; they are Ranupani, Ranukumbolo, Ngadas and Senduro amongst others. People there should be alert at all times. "Outside that, the path to the summit of the volcano is closed for those who should not be here at the moment," he said.

The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

The Current Colour Code for Soputan at ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: One Indonesian Volcano Erupts, Another Quiets Down
Post by: Shammu on November 09, 2007, 02:20:20 PM
Indonesian Volcano Erupts, Another Quiets Down
Thursday, November 08, 2007

JAKARTA, Indonesia —  Anak Krakatau, built on the same lava plume as the Krakatoa volcano that killed tens of thousands in 1883, continued to spew lava, hot gas and rocks Thursday into the Sunda Strait between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra.

Anak Krakatua, or "Child of Krakatoa" in the official Indonesian language, rose from the water in 1930 at the same spot where Krakatoa had blown itself apart.

Elsewhere in Indonesia, the government lowered the alert status of the Kelud volcano, meaning that thousands of people who fled its slopes for government shelters can return home.

Mount Kelud on the densely populated island of Java had been on top alert for several weeks.

"The volcano no longer has the energy needed for an explosive eruption that would threaten the lives of people living nearby," Surono, the chief volcanologist at the government's volcano agency, said on the decision to downgrade Kelud's status.

Like many Javanese, Surono uses a single name.

In 1990, Kelud spewed searing fumes and lava that killed more than 30 people and injured hundreds. In 1919, a powerful explosion that reportedly could be heard hundreds of miles away killed at least 5,160.

Thousands of people from villages close to Kelud's crater lake had earlier heeded evacuation orders and moved to tent camps or government buildings, though many ignored the warnings and remained in the danger zone.

The government volcano agency said Kelud remained on the second-highest alert level and told villagers to remain vigilant because the mountain was very unpredictable. It said that villagers could return home, but should not venture close to the crater, which was still emitting smoke.

Indonesia is prone to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes because of its location on the so-called "Ring of Fire" — a series of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and Southeast Asia. It has around 100 active volcanoes.

One Indonesian Volcano Erupts, Another Quiets Down (http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,309396,00.html)


Title: Indonesian volcano roaring to life
Post by: Shammu on November 10, 2007, 05:16:32 AM
Indonesian volcano roaring to life

By CHRIS BRUMMITT, Associated Press Writer Fri Nov 9, 10:29 PM ET

ANAK KRAKATAU, Indonesia - Sending a boom across the bay, the offspring of the fabled Krakatau volcano unleashes another mighty eruption, blasting smoke and red-hot rocks hundreds of feet into the sky.

By the AP -  Raw Video: Volcano smokes in Indonesia (http://javascript:void(window.open('http://cosmos.bcst.yahoo.com/up/ynews;_ylt=AkCAEHRtjLQ0cHe4oOnpWTz9xg8F?ch=4226714&cl=4926722&lang=en','playerWindow','width=793,height=608,scrollbars=no'));)

ABC news - Volcanic Eruption in Indonesia (http://javascript:void(window.open('http://cosmos.bcst.yahoo.com/up/ynews;_ylt=Aj_KLn1UpffDftELqZb8KO79xg8F?ch=4226714&cl=4930442&lang=en','playerWindow','width=793,height=608,scrollbars=no'));)

(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071108/capt.2ea2bda1b0424bb49abf1a77a583558d.aptopix_indonesia_volcano_nation_ekw106.jpg?x=380&y=249&sig=0IYx.4zamXVY.ILWJgmmqA--)

The Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) volcano sends up
powerful clouds of hot gasses, rocks, and lava as a fishing
boat is moored offshore early Thursday Nov. 8, 2007, in
the Sunda Straits between Java and Sumatra, Indonesia.
Sending a boom echoing across the bay, the volcano
known as the 'Krakatau's Child' unleashes another
eruption, but while impressive, the eruption was nothing
compared to what took place in 1883 at this spot, when
Anak Krakatau's predecessor blew apart in one of the
most devastating eruption in recorded history.
(AP Photo/Ed Wray)

Even on its quiet side, the black sand on the now-forbidden island is so hot that a visitor can only briefly set foot on it.

This week's display by Anak Krakatau — or "Child of Krakatau" — is impressive, yet it is a mere sneeze when compared to the blast in August 1883 that obliterated its "father" in the most powerful explosion in recorded history.

That blast was heard as far away as 2,500 miles and choked the atmosphere with ash and dust, altering weather patterns for years. Some 36,000 people were killed in the eruptions and ensuing tsunamis.

Now the 985-foot peak growing from the ocean where Krakatau once stood is erupting, one of several Indonesian volcanoes that have roared to life in recent weeks.

They illustrate the awesome seismic forces at work deep below the surface of this island nation.

No lives have been lost in the latest round of activity, but thousands of villagers have been evacuated from the slopes of Mount Kelud on Java island. On Thursday, its alert status was dropped a level, meaning it is still dangerous, but residents can return home.

Indonesia's history is studded with seismic events. The 2004 Asian tsunami was spawned by a monster quake off the west coast, which sits at the intersection of three tectonic plates that form one border of the "Pacific Ring of Fire."

The plates — each moving at about the speed a fingernail grows each year — slide against or under each other, allowing molten rock from the Earth's mantle to break the surface via a volcano, or create energy released in an earthquake.

The country's 17,000 islands are home to about 70 active volcanoes, the most in the world.

Twenty of them are on Java, an island roughly the same size as Mississippi, and is home to more than half of the country's 235 million people. With demand for farmable land at a premium, many people choose to live within the shadow of the volcanoes because of the rich volcanic soil that is especially good for crops.

"We have lived here for generations. The land is my life," said Meseman, a 74-year-old papaya farmer on the slopes of Mount Kelud, who like many Indonesians uses only a single name and declined to heed the warnings to leave the area. "It is impossible for me leave. If anything, the volcanic ash will make my fields more fertile."

The cataclysmic eruption of Krakatau — which actually lies west of Java in the Sunda Strait, contrary to the title of the popular 1969 movie, "Krakatoa, East of Java" — followed several months of gradually increasing activity.

Anak Krakatau rose from the sea in 1930 and has been growing ever since.

Visitors can reach the island in about two hours by motor boat from the northern coast of Java, which is a 2 1/2-hour drive from Indonesia's capital, Jakarta. When it is quiet, it is a short, but steep walk to the top of the sandy peak.

When Anak began erupting last week, officials declared a no-go zone of about two miles. But the captain of a boat agreed to take an Associated Press reporter and photographer to Anak, briefly landing on the side of the volcano that was not erupting.

The ground was hot and appeared to vibrate beneath the pumice stone, a volcanic rock that floats on water.

Despite the history of its father, Anak is not considered especially dangerous — for now.

It has settled into a pattern of a gentle eruption every seven or eight years, scientists said.

"Maybe in hundreds of years it will blow, but I will be long gone by then," said Cahya Patria, among the scientists at the Center for Vulcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation who keep watch on the mountain from a hill on the mainland.

Krakatau is only just visible from their station, so the staff members monitor it with a seismograph and an array of other equipment installed on its slopes, including a camera that takes photos posted on the center's Web site.

As the volcano keeps up a steady stream of thunderous explosions, scientists at the station log each eruption and its intensity.

Visitors to Anak from Jakarta normally pass through the resort towns of Anyer and Carita, which were devastated by the series of tsunamis triggered by the 1883 eruption. There are few signs of that horror, aside from the foundations of a Dutch-built lighthouse that was scythed down by the sea.

The park where its replacement now stands is a popular meeting point for young lovers, who sit on benches straining to catch a glimpse of Anak Krakatau as it billows mushroom clouds of smoke into the sunset.

While most Indonesians are Muslims, many also follow pre-Islamic animist beliefs and worship ancient spirits. Often at full moons, people trek to crater rims and throw in rice, jewelry or live animals to appease the volcanoes.

"The Javanese see nature as a friend because it gives then food and life," said Bagong Suyanto, a professor of rural sociology at the University of Surabaya. "They trust it, they do not see it as a threat like volcanologists do."

Indonesian volcano roaring to life (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20071110/ap_on_re_as/indonesia_volcano_nation;_ylt=AthbiserM.xHjvuecPkb9l.s0NUE)
~~~~~~~~

If y'all want, I do have a webcam link for Anak Krakatau.


Title: Indonesia's Krakatau roars and dazzles with fireworks
Post by: Shammu on November 11, 2007, 08:48:10 PM
Indonesia's Krakatau roars and dazzles with fireworks
Sun Nov 11, 2007 5:52am EST

By Supriyatin

SUNDA STRAIT, Indonesia (Reuters) - Indonesia's Anak Krakatau volcano lets out a massive roar as it blasts a gigantic cloud of smoke and flaming red rocks hundreds of meters into the night sky.

Video: Volcano spits fire (http://www.reuters.com/news/video?videoId=70570&newsChannel=worldNews)

A few hours later, a river of lava and stones glowing like embers glide down the slopes of Mount Anak Krakatau as the muted light of the rising sun tries to break through thick clouds settled above the mountain.

The volcano, whose name means "Child of Krakatau", formed in the Sunda Strait close to Java island after Mount Krakatau's legendary eruption in 1883. It rumbled to life about two weeks ago and since then has been dazzling scientists and visitors with its amazing pyrotechnics.

Scientists monitoring the volcano say Anak Krakatau is not especially dangerous and will continue to rumble for some time, but warn people to stay out of a 1.9 miles zone around the mountain.

"We are a little worried sometimes when we heard the big boom and we see rocks that fall from, I don't know, half kilometer from the hole," Chad Bouchard, one of a group of eight tourists who spent the night in a boat in the ocean to watch the volcano.

"Sometimes we see the splash inside the ocean. That's a little scary but no, I think it might be stupid but I feel safe."

DEVASTATING DISASTER

Anak Krakatau, which lies 26 miles from the nearest observation post in Serang on the westernmost edge of Java, gradually formed after the volcanic island of Krakatau blew up in a massive eruption in 1883, triggering tsunamis and killing more than 36,000 people.

Ashes from that eruption, one of the most devastating natural disasters in recorded history, were carried by upper level winds as far away as New York City.

Krakatau, one of dozens of volcanoes in the sprawling Indonesian archipelago, last erupted in 1988, but its eruptions have never approached the ferocity of its parent.

Child of Krakatau is one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the Pacific "Ring of Fire", but authorities have not yet raised the alert level to the highest which would require the evacuation of people around the volcano.

A vulcanologist monitoring Anak Krakatau said the volcano was likely to rumble and roar for some time.

"It is still at the third level of alert. It is safe and there aren't any problems. There were approximately one hundred explosions yesterday," Saut Simatupang, head of volcano observation in Bandung, told Reuters.

"If the energy is the same as this, it is more likely it will stay at this level for quite some time as the tremors are frequent. Today only, there have been one hundred."

Visitors who had their morning coffee in a boat in the shadow of the volcano in the Sunda Strait's choppy waters about a one-and-a-half-hour ride from the mainland said they felt safe.

"It's spectacular, it's just amazing to be here," said Patricia Anderton, a tourist from New Haven in the United states.

"I feel incredibly lucky to be able to see it."

Indonesia's Krakatau roars and dazzles with fireworks (http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSJAK16067820071111?sp=true)


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 17, 2007, 02:37:57 PM
GALERAS

As of the 13th of November, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (OVSP) has reported that the activity of the volcano continues at: Level III (Changes in the behaviour of the volcanic activity) Of the permanent pursuit and the analysis that the Vulcanológico Observatory of the INGEOMINAS makes in Pasto, one stands out that: It continues the predominance of seismic events related so much to the dynamics of the magmatic fluids like with the hydrothermal system, that happen with a preferential at superficial levels, standing out among them the denominated episodes of spasmodic tremor, that are generally associated with gas discharges and fine ash. Some of those tremors continued showing contained low frequencies. When the climatic conditions have allowed it, it has been possible to observe columns of emission mainly conformed by water steam, that sometimes drag small volumes of solid particles. Those columns reached peak altitudes between 200 and 1000 metres on the top of the volcanic ediface, and by action of winds, the dispersion has been preferential towards the south and southwest flank. Personnel of the Observatory could the verify on the 8th of November, abouts 1100hrs, the fine ash fall in the Churupamba path, of the municipality of Consacá (western sector of the volcano). INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic activity and will opportunely inform the changes that can be detected.

The colour code at Galeras is currently at ALERT LEVEL III
~~~~~~~~~

KELUT

As of the 16th of November, the Center for Volcanology and Geology Disaster Mitigation (CVGDM) has reported that it lowered the Alert Status of Kelut on 8 November from 4 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4), due to a decrease in seismicity and deformation. Temperatures of the crater lake were measured at 75 deg C on 6 Nov, and 150-210 deg C on the surface of the new lava dome. According to a local news article, a volcanologist reported that the lava dome was 250 m in diameter and 120 m above the crater lake surface. On 11 November, a plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and ashfall was reported in several areas. CVGHM recommended that evacuees could return to their homes, but should stay clear of the mountain within a 3-km radius was restricted.

The relatively inconspicuous, 1731-m-high Kelut stratovolcano contains a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of Indonesia's most deadly eruptions. A cluster of summit lava domes cut by numerous craters has given the summit a very irregular profile. Satellitic cones and lava domes are also located low on the eastern, western, and SSW flanks. Eruptive activity has in general migrated in a clockwise direction around the summit vent complex. More than 30 eruptions have been recorded from Gunung Kelut since 1000 AD. The ejection of water from the crater lake during Kelut's typically short, but violent eruptions has created pyroclastic flows and lahars that have caused widespread fatalities and destruction. After more than 5000 persons were killed during an eruption in 1919, an ambitious engineering project sought to drain the crater lake. This initial effort lowered the lake by more than 50 m, but the 1951 eruption deepened the crater by 70 m, leaving 50 million cubic meters of water after repair of the damaged drainage tunnels. After more than 200 deaths in the 1966 eruption, a new deeper tunnel was constructed, and the lake's volume before the 1990 eruption was only about 1 million cubic metres.

The Current Colour Code for Kelut at ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~~

KRAKATAU

As of the 16th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that Anak Krakatau continues its new Strombolian activity from the new vent south of the summit crater. The eruptions are producing small ash plumes, ejections of incandescent spatter bombs as well as lava flows, as news reports and data from KRAKMON indicate. Seismicity was at elevated levels.

The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

The Current Colour Code for Krakatau at ALERT LEVEL 3


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 17, 2007, 02:41:35 PM
Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 17th of November, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that satellite views of Cleveland have been mostly cloudy today. No reports of activity have been received. AVO continues to monitor Cleveland Volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 15th of November, INGEMMET reported that based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. during 11-12 November. Plumes drifted NNE.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Per�. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 15th of November, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanol�gico and Sismol�gico de Popay�n, informed that during the period between 6 and 12 of November a total of 185 seismic events was registered. Of them, 108 events are associate to fracturing of rock, 74 are related to the dynamics of fluid within the volcanic conduits, 3 events present/display mechanisms composed of fracturing of rock and transit of fluids. In this period the registry of a volcano-tectonic event stands out that registered the 11 of November at 0415hrs local time, which had a magnitude of 2.75 and it was located to the SW of the volcanic ediface. Of the previous thing it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, with slight excitations of the system. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic phenomenon and will inform into opportune way the changes that can be presented/displayed.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 17, 2007, 02:44:15 PM
CHIKURACHKI

As of the 16th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that KVERT has not had any information about any ash plumes from the volcano last weeks. According to satellite data, clouds obscured the volcano this week. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidised basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 16th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was at background levels last week. Shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered at the volcano. According to seismic data, possibly weak ash explosions occurred on November 12-13. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 16th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the volcano continues. Strong eruption with ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL are possible next week. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels on November 12 and at background levels on the other days. According to visual and video data, weak gas-steam plumes from the volcano were noted to the north-east on November 09 and to the south on November 13. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed on November 09-13 and bright gas-steam plumes about 100 km (6 mi) on November 9-11 and 13. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 17, 2007, 02:46:43 PM
SHEVELUCH

As of the 16th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 8.0 km (26,200 ft) ASL and hot avalanches occurred at the volcano all week. According to visual and video data, ash plumes rose up to 5.0 km (16,400 ft) ASL on November 08 and 12-14. During an overflight on November 09 was noted that a new lava flow effused on the south-western dome�s flank. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week. Ash plumes extended 15-147 km (9-91 mi) to the south-east from the volcano on November 12-13. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 17th of November, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity at the Soufri�re Hills volcano has remained at low levels throughout the reporting period and the pause in lava extrusion [and dome growth] continues. Visual observations showed that fumarolic activity was concentrated on the northern and southern flanks of the dome. The vent located behind Gages Wall remains active, and appears to tap deeper, hotter regions of the dome than other fumaroles, emitting bluish sulphur dioxide gas. Deep erosion of the talus slope, due to heavy rainfall, was observed on the eastern sector of the dome resulting in the formation of two prominent channels. There also appears to have been minor erosion in the region of the Gages Wall.

Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding although the likelihood of this is thought to decrease with time as no further lava extrusion occurs. During heavy downpours, such during the passing of tropical depressions, lahar activity in drainages around the volcano (including the Belham Valley to the northwest), remains a potential hazard. Recorded seismic activity remained low throughout the period.The seismic network recorded 11 rockfall signals and 2 volcano-tectonic earthquakes.

The recorded sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux rate for the period was variable, ranging from a maximum of a 1167 tonnes per day (t/d) to a minimum of to 457 t/d. This gave an average flux rate for the period of 698 t/d, slightly above the long-term average for the eruption, of about 550 t/d. FTIR measurements on 15 November yielded a HCl:SO2 ratio of 0.67 , higher than previous measurements on 5 and 8 November of 0.31 and 0.36, respectively. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 17th of November, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift to the east-northeast.

Clouds obscure the volcano today. Seismic records show the low-level seismicity of ongoing lava-dome extrusion typical of the past many months. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 17, 2007, 02:49:17 PM
POPOCATEPETL

As of the 17th of November, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano only registered 2 low intensity exhalations accompanied by steam and gas. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report the volcano can be seen with a small steam and gas emission.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 17th of November, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that seismicity level stays as well as the characteristics of superficial phenomena. The index of Seismic Activity (IAS) continues in high level.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: 84 events of long period (LPs), 11 events of tremor of emission and 5 explosions were registered. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: The volcano in afternoon remained partially storm cloud, was observed an emission column that reached a height of 800 ms on the crater. At night from the observatory one saw incandescence and blocks that rolled by flanks of the volcano. Also a cannon shot was reported from Manzano and it was heard to roll blocks. In the morning he remained cloudy but the explosions and the bearing of blocks by flanks of the volcano were heard. Climate/Rains/Lahare: There were light drizzles in the zone of Ba�os but they did not generated lahars.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 8th of November, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that white plumes occasionally accompanied by ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. during 2-5 November. Plumes drifted N, NW, and W. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town and surrounding areas. A strong smell of hydrogen-sulfide gas were reported and occasional incandescence at the summit was observed.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on November 17, 2007, 02:52:09 PM
Mt. ETNA

As of the 8th of November it has been reported to INTLVRC by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) reported that Mt. Etna was quiet and without explosive activity since September 5. Snow covered the tops with its white coat. A light recovery was observed in the night of October 29th with the projections emitted since the depression in the East of the Southern crater East. The observations have was made since the images diffused by the cameras of the INGV. During the night and with intervals from 3 to 5 hours of the explosions occurred throughout one 15 to 30 minutes with incandescent material projections.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater. Flank eruptions, typically with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna's summit craters began in 1995. The active volcano is monitored by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Volcanologia (INGV) in Catania.

The volcano Mt. Etna is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 17th of November, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the Summary for last 24 hours: The perched channel continued to feed seeps on both sides of the channel and an east-going tube that was intermittently blocked yesterday. The most active area continued to be along the south flow field margin: Since Friday, an east-going flow advanced almost a mile in areas north of Pu`u Kia`i and southeast-going flows advanced almost one mile over Kupaianaha flows located southeast of Pu`u Kia`i. Activity Summary for the past few months: Lava erupted from the 7/21 fissures is probably fed from a shallow magma storage area beneath Pu`u `O`o where it degasses before being erupted. In September and October, the channel system produced `a`a lava flows that were shorter than those erupted during August causing the area covered by 7/21 flows to get wider in the northwest-southeast direction but not longer in the northeast direction. In late October, tube-fed pahoehoe flows developed and advanced along the north and south margins of the flow field. In the last few weeks, the east tube has produced pahoehoe flows along the south margin that advanced nearly as far to the east as the August flows before stalling. The east tube remains the most active. Hazard Summary: Based on the information summarised above, there are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Wao Kele o Puna is also closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: Lava levels were up to the rim in pond 4 (the northernmost segment of the channel) with small overflows yesterday morning. Lava levels in the other parts of the channel remained a few metres below the rim. The east tube inlet was submerged and a skylight, located about 75 m (250 ft) away from the channel, was dark suggesting that the east tube had clogged. Just after noon, the blockage apparently cleared, the lava level in pond 4 dropped several metres exposing the east tube inlet, and flowing lava could be seen in the nearby skylight. Late yesterday, a pilot report suggested that the tube had clogged again. The north seep was minimally active with only scattered incandescence visible overnight. The south seeps were more active and continued to push flows eastward within the vicinity of the channel. The east tube continued to issue mostly pahoehoe flows eastward and southeastward in the vicinity of Pu`u Kia`i. These flows advance about 1.3 km (0.8 miles) since last Friday.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: Fume and dark again. The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter recorded slight deflation from a source to the east before this morning's rain added its own contribution. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values except for tremor bursts thought to be related to crust overturns of the 7/21 channel. Our nearest seismometer to the July 21 fissure was moved away from Kalalua and the path of the south seep-fed flows to higher ground at Kupaianaha. GPS receivers continued to record slowing contraction across the crater.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeters recorded no significant signal. GPS receivers recorded slowing contraction across the caldera. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values; as noted yesterday, these values have doubled over the past week and are nearly at pre-6/17 levels. Several small earthquakes were located beneath Halema`uma`u crater and the south flank faults.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 15th November, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that observers reported that on 5 November five active vents at Stromboli were visible at the bottom of the crater terrace, which subsided about 100 m since March 2007. Lava fountains from a vent in the SW crater were sustained for over one minute and spattering was observed from two vents in the central crater. The vents erupted about every five to ten minutes to one hour.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE


Title: Mexican Volcano Spews Ash, Steam During Six Eruptions
Post by: Shammu on December 02, 2007, 03:54:21 PM
Mexican Volcano Spews Ash, Steam During Six Eruptions

Sunday , December 02, 2007


MEXICO CITY  —
Mexico's Popocatepetl volcano rumbled to life with six eruptions Friday and Saturday, spewing steam and columns of ash more than a mile into the air.

There were reports of ash raining down on parts of Mexico state and in the capital 40 miles to the northwest, the National Disaster Prevention Center said in a statement.

There appeared to be no injuries or damages and the eruptions were in line with the 17,886-foot volcano's normal activity, said Teofilo Hernandez, a researcher at the center.

Authorities said people in the surrounding areas should clean ash from their cars and homes immediately and cover their mouths to avoid inhaling it.

Referred to affectionately as "Popo," the volcano has been erupting intermittently since December 1994.

Mexican Volcano Spews Ash, Steam During Six Eruptions (http://www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_story/0,3566,314529,00.html)


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 03, 2007, 11:40:37 PM
GALERAS

As of the 1st of December, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (OVSP) has reported that observed was the continuous exit of water steam and other volcanic gases, with some ash content; the emissions came as much from zones to the interior as in the periphery of the main crater. At 0558hrs, a small ash emission was observed that rose of 100 to 150 metres on the active cone, before being tended towards the nor-western sector by action of the winds and that was associated to a signal of volcanic tremor. Thermal images were taken in which an increase in the temperature of several points of emission was observed with respect to a fly-over of this past 2nd of October. Towards the interior of the main crater the main thermal anomalies appeared, getting itself to register until near 400°C.

The colour code at Galeras is currently at ALERT LEVEL III
~~~~~~~~

November 9, 2007 issue of Science Magazine features an article, Accelerated uplift and magmatic intrusion of the Yellowstone Caldera, 2004 to 2006, by YVO scientists from the University of Utah and USGS. The lead author, Wu-Lung Chang is a Post-doctoral associate with Dr. Robert B. Smith, YVO Coordinating Scientist at the University of Utah. Chang specialises in use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to measure very small movements of the Earth's crust. Using GPS and another satellite-based technique (InSAR), the authors find that parts of the Yellowstone Caldera rose as much as 7 cm (~3") per year during the period 2004-2006. The uplift is most noticeable at the White Lake GPS station, as has been discussed in YVO's monthly YVO updates during the past year. As of late October 2007, the total uplift since 2004 at that location is about 17 cm (~7"). Chang and his colleagues credit the relatively rapid rise to recharge of magma into the giant magma chamber that underlies the Yellowstone Caldera. They also used numerical modeling to infer that the magma intruded about 10 km (6 miles) beneath the surface.

North of this region of uplift, another area at Yellowstone has moved downward over the past three years. This north rim uplift anomaly (NUA) had risen during the period 1996-2003, when the rest of the caldera had subsided. The activity was featured in a 2006 article in Nature Magazine with lead author Charles Wicks, one of the co-authors on the new article in Science Magazine. Chang and others hypothesise that magma input after 2004 caused fracturing of the crust that resulted in release of hydrothermal fluids from the north rim area. The loss of fluid pressure then resulted in deflation, or subsidence of the ground surface.

Interestingly, the Yellowstone caldera has remained seismically quiet during the past three years of uplift. An earlier article on the YVO website, Satellite Technologies Detect Uplift in the Yellowstone Caldera, provides context on the techniques used to study these movements. The new activity, though more rapid than those previously measured at Yellowstone, is not unprecedented at large calderas around the globe. Given the absence of large earthquakes, earthquake swarms and anomalous behaviour of Yellowstone's hydrothermal system (its geysers, mud pots and fumaroles), all of us find little indication that the volcano is moving towards an eruption. At this time, volcanic eruptions and hydrothermal explosions remain an unlikely possibility. Given the geologic history of the area, it is likely that the current period of uplift will cease, to be followed by another cycle of subsidence. When this might happen, though, is unknown.
~~~~~~~~~~

NYIRAGONGO

As of the 29th of November, the Global Volcanism Network reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that an eruption from Nyiragongo occurred before 0600hrs on 21 November.

One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighbouring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. Extremely fluid, fast-moving lava flows draining from the summit lava lake in 1977 caused many fatalities, as did lava flows inundating portions of the city of Goma in January 2002.

The Current Colour Code for Nyiragongo at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 03, 2007, 11:42:48 PM
CONCEPCION

As of the 3rd of December, the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) informs that on afternoon of, 24 of November, began a new episode of volcanic activity in the volcano Concepcion, Island of Ometepe. After some smaller exits of gases than they were observed as of the noon, they happened at 0331hrs and 1432hrs, local time, with two moderate explosions in the main crater. After these explosions a strong exit of gases began to the 1600hrs that threw volcanic ash in small amounts. This process had a strong phase, until the 1630hrs, approximately, and continued later with smaller intensity. The thrown ash was taken by the wind and it was deposited in small amounts in the Island of Ometepe and Bethlehem, Potosí and Buenos Aires, Department of Rivas. At the time of sending this official notice this activity has diminished considerably. INETER continues monitor volcano Concepcion and will inform on any new event of importance.

The volcano Concepción is one of Nicaragua's highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua and is connected to neighbouring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. A steep-walled summit crater is 250 m deep and has a higher western rim. N-S-trending fractures on the flanks of the volcano have produced chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars located on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides extending in some cases down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepción was constructed above a basement of lake sediments, and the modern cone grew above a largely buried caldera, a small remnant of which forms a break in slope about halfway up the north flank. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past half century have increased the height of the summit significantly above that shown on current topographic maps and have kept the upper part of the volcano unvegetated.

The Current Colour Code for Concepcion at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~

VILLARRICA

As of the 21st of November, based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Villarrica rose to an altitude of 3.8 km (12,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 14 November. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

The Glacier-clad Villarrica, is one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot Villarrica's flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano have been produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 sq km of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Villarrica at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~
Volcano: KELUT

As of the 2nd of December, the Center for Volcanology and Geology Disaster Mitigation (CVGDM) has reported that volcano Kelut expected to stay calm, to be not provoked by rumours that were unclear about the Kelut eruption and to hope always followed the directive from the local SATLAK PB and SATKORLAK PB. The smoke bellowing high had the potential to contain poisonous gases that were dangerous for the life. Then the community was forbidden to enter the territory in a radius of 1.5 km from the crater lake because of the threat of the danger of smoke bellows and the high temperature, inhaled poisonous gas as well as was threatened by the eruption danger. The instability of the crater lake resulting from the existence of the growth of the lava turret, then in this rainy season the settling community is alarmed with respect to the river, the potential to be threatened the overflow of Kelut water of the crater lake.

The relatively inconspicuous, 1731-m-high Kelut stratovolcano contains a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of Indonesia's most deadly eruptions. A cluster of summit lava domes cut by numerous craters has given the summit a very irregular profile. Satellitic cones and lava domes are also located low on the eastern, western, and SSW flanks. Eruptive activity has in general migrated in a clockwise direction around the summit vent complex. More than 30 eruptions have been recorded from Gunung Kelut since 1000 AD. The ejection of water from the crater lake during Kelut's typically short, but violent eruptions has created pyroclastic flows and lahars that have caused widespread fatalities and destruction. After more than 5000 persons were killed during an eruption in 1919, an ambitious engineering project sought to drain the crater lake. This initial effort lowered the lake by more than 50 m, but the 1951 eruption deepened the crater by 70 m, leaving 50 million cubic meters of water after repair of the damaged drainage tunnels. After more than 200 deaths in the 1966 eruption, a new deeper tunnel was constructed, and the lake's volume before the 1990 eruption was only about 1 million cubic metres.

The Current Colour Code for Kelut at ALERT LEVEL 2


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 03, 2007, 11:45:53 PM
KRAKATAU

As of the 29th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that according to a news article on 22 November, seismicity from Anak Krakatau declined in frequency. Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 24 November. Visitors and tourists were advised not to go within a 3-km radius of the summit. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

The Current Colour Code for Krakatau at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~

SOPUTAN

As of the 29th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the Alert Status of Soputan was lowered on 23 November from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) based on a decrease in the number of earthquakes and seismic intensity, deformation measurements, and visual observations.

In connection with the decline in the Soputan status to was on the alert, VSI recommended as follows: Guguran the lava turret, the eruption of ash and smoke bellows, still potential happened, but small the possibility of causing the disaster threat for the settling community and beraktivitas to the territory outside the radius 3 km from the peak Soputan. Dilarang carried out the climb to the peak and did not carry out the activity to the radius 3 km from the Soputan peak. Jika happened the increase in the G. Soputan activity, the official of the Gunungapi Soputan Observation Post in Mali I or the Centre of Vulcanology and Mitigasi Bencana Geologi, will inform him to the local Regional Government in order to anticipates early the Soputan activity. Pemantauan G. Soputan was still being done intensively, if signs will happen the increase will be reported in detail.

The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

The Current Colour Code for Soputan at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~~~

KARANGETANG

As of the 29th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the Alert Status of Karangetang was lowered on 23 November from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) due to a decrease in seismicity and decrease of observed plume height and density.

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

The Current Colour Code for Karangetang is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 03, 2007, 11:50:59 PM
Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 3rd of December, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that cloud cover continues to obscure the volcano and observation by satellite has not been possible. AVO has received no new information about activity at Cleveland volcano over the past 24 hours. AVO continues to monitor Cleveland Volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 29th of November, INGEMMET reported that based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 20 November. During 24-27 November, ash plumes visible on satellite imagery rose to altitudes of 6.1-9.1 km (20,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SW.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 3rd of December, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that on the 2nd of December at 0628hrs (local time) an earthquake of magnitude 2.25 on the Richter scale with the epicentre registered 1 km NE of the Central Tip of the snow-white volcano of the Huila.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 03, 2007, 11:53:43 PM
KARYMSKY

As of the 30th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the activity of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was slightly above background levels on November 26 and at background levels on November 24-25. There were no seismic data on the other days this week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 30th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the volcano continues. A viscous lava flow is effusing from the summit dome at Bezymianny. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels on November 25 and at background levels on the other days. According to visual and video data, strong gas-steam plumes from the volcano were noted on November 27-29. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed on November 26 and 28-29. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 30th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels last week. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 6.0 km (19,700 ft) ASL and hot avalanches occurred at the volcano all week. According to visual and video data, strong gas-steam plumes rose up to 5.0 km (16,400 ft) ASL on November 22 and 26-29. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week. Ash plumes extended 15-66 km (9-41 mi) to the south-west, north-west, north and south-east from the volcano on November 26-28. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 03, 2007, 11:56:03 PM
SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 2nd of December, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant changes over the last 24 hours. Nevertheless, at 1500hrs (ECT) yesterday afternoon an earthquake was felt across Montserrat as two pulses of slight shaking/vibration. This was a regional tectonic, not volcanic, event. The USGS recorded a magnitude 7.4 and occurring at 149 km depth, located NNE of Martinique. A small pyroclastic flow was observed on the eastern side of the volcano minutes afterwards, followed by a further observed series of 3 small flows in the Tar River valley at 1530hrs. Nevertheless, there is no cause for concern and whilst the shaking may have loosened some surface material on the lava dome, no more significant (seismic or pyroclastic) events are expected to result from this earthquake activity.

Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding although the likelihood of this is thought to decrease with time as no further lava extrusion occurs. During heavy downpours, such during the passing of tropical depressions, lahar activity in drainages around the volcano (including the Belham Valley to the northwest), remains a potential hazard. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~~


Volcano: Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 3rd of December, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift northeast.

The active spine of the lava dome continues to extrude, according to our in-crater tiltmeter. This instrument, located adjacent to the new dome’s north flank, shows small inflation-deflation events every few hours, which CVO interprets as dome growth pulses. The wind from winter storms has increased the noise on seismometers close to or in the crater, saturating them relative to the sparse small earthquakes that have characterised the eruption as of late. No in-crater GPS results are available this morning. Views from all volcano cams in the past 24 hours have been useless for assessing eruptive activity, owing to poor weather. The discharge from streams exiting the crater has increased slightly, as measured by acoustic flow monitors. Stream discharge likely will increase slowly early Sunday. It may change abruptly at middle elevations by Sunday evening or Monday, when a rain-rich warm front is forecast for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

COLIMA

As of the 27th of November, a SIGMET from the Mexico Weather Office (MWO) stated an emission to 24000 ft. at 1613Z moving to the west at 11.5 mph. Visible imagery thru 1645Z does not show anything to the west but does show an emission at 1415Z to the NNE. RAOB and model data suggest the height would be 16,000 ft. The volcano cam shows another minor steam emission about 1645Z at summit level.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 03, 2007, 11:59:21 PM
POPOCATEPETL

As of the 2nd of December, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano registered 5 exhalations, accompanied by steam and gas emissions. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report CENAPRED can see the volcano with a steam and gas emission.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: PACAYA

As of the 21st of November, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from PACAYA's (Guatemala) MacKenney cone rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. on 17 November and drifted NW. A thermal anomaly was also identified on the imagery.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex volcano constructed on the southern rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the caldera floor. The Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1,100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent Strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion on the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 21st of November, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that ash can be seen in morning satellite imagery. INSIVUMEH confirms ash to 15,000 ft. Later, faint ash could be seen in earlier satellite imagery however currently no ash is seen. Current SIGMET places ash to 15,000 ft.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 04, 2007, 12:10:18 AM
SANTA MARIA

As of the 29th of November, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex was visible on 23 November. On 26 November, a steam-and-ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 3rd of December, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the style of the activity has changed again and now less explosions of small size are registered, but however the episodes of tremor and events of flowed movements were increased of long period (LP). In spite of this reduction of the volcanic activity, the state of the volcano is still considered in a high level and could stay more in this one by some days. The kind observation to inform into any important change of this activity, continues.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: 15 explosions, 42 episodes of tremor of emission and 40 events of long period (LP) have been registered. The explosions registered in the last hours are mainly small; those of moderate character they happened at 0011hrs and 0118hrs of this dawn. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: During the night and dawn of today, the volcano was storm cloud, but in satelite images a plume of emission in the direction of the northwest was observed. In the morning, the volcano was cleared and a continuous steam emission was reported that took course to the southwest; later, with the explosions registered between 1030hrs and 1253hrs (small), columns with a moderate content to under ash were generated, that reached about 2 km of height and from Runtún they reported the vibration of windows. There are no reports of ash fall. Climate/Rains/Lahars: In the afternoon of yesterday, the volcano was cloudy and during the night, between the 1800hrs and 2100 hours, the strong rain was registered but any disadvantage did not take place. In the afternoon of today, rains were also registered.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 29th of November, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that white plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE and NNW during 17-28 November. Plumes drifted N, NW, and W. Continuous incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises were occasionally heard. A lava dome on the crater floor was seen on video images on 25 November. The dome was an estimated 20 m high and 50 m across, and was strongly degassing.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 04, 2007, 12:12:41 AM
Mt. ETNA

As of the 27th of November it has been reported to INTLVRC by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) reported that from 0400hrs the tremor decreased and the explosive activity ceased. The flow of lava in direction of Valle dell Bove is now in the course of cooling. The important plumes of ashes emitted at the time of this new eruption moved and arrived as far as Calabria. The airport of Reggio Calabria was obliged to close its doors with the interruption of the air traffic because of the presence of volcanic ash on the tracks. In addition it is interesting to observe a correlation between the Northern crater Is and Southern Is, because as often the activity of the Northern crater East starts with a Strombolian activity before the eruptions from the Southern crater East does not begin. The strong explosion recorded by the seismograph (updated of the 23) occurred with the Northern crater Is. The cameras of the INGV actually observed plumes of gray and black ashes coming from this crater.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater. Flank eruptions, typically with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna's summit craters began in 1995. The active volcano is monitored by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Volcanologia (INGV) in Catania.

The volcano Mt. Etna is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 3rd of December, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout fed lava to the southeast but most active only in the upper 800 m (0.5 miles). Lava has re-entered perched pond 1. Activity Summary for the past few months: Lava from the 7/21 fissures is probably fed from a shallow magma storage area beneath Pu`u `O`o where it degasses before being erupted. Through August, `a`a flows advanced quickly to the northeast before stalling. In September and October, the channel system produced shorter `a`a lava flows that made the flow field wider. In late October, tube-fed pahoehoe flows developed and, in early November, the east tube produced pahoehoe flows along the south margin that advanced nearly as far to the east as the August flows before stalling. Starting on November 21, lava from fissure D bypassed the channel and built a shield over the fissure feeding a channelized lava flow to the southeast. Hazard Summary: Based on the information summarised above, there are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Wao Kele o Puna is also closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: The Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) fed lava to the southeast flow which remains most active within 800 m (0.5 miles) of fissure D. A new flow, probably a channel overflow, has advanced a few hundred metres (yards) southward from fissure D. In a few hazy views from the webcam this morning, lava has re-entered pond 1 and filled it to within a few metres (yards) of the rim. Incandescence indicated activity at the western base of pond 1, possibly a new seep.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter recorded inflation from a source to the southeast. GPS receivers recorded 1 cm (one-half inch) of contraction across the cone. Seismic tremor levels near fissure D remained at low levels.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeters recorded abrupt inflation starting at 0800hrs yesterday and continuing until 0300hrs this morning. Seismic tremor levels dropped one-third in value during the inflation. GPS receivers recorded 2 cm (almost one inch) of contraction in the past month. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the south flank faults. Southerly winds again pushed gas emissions northward. In Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, sulfur dioxide concentrations at the Visitor's Center peaked at 1,000 ppb at 0900hrs and 800 ppb at HVO at midnight last night. The State Department of Health air quality monitoring website has not updated their on-line data since yesterday morning.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 1st of December, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that the Arenal volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica, around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela, canton of San Carlos, and district of La Fortuna. Recognized as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

Once locally known as Cerro Arenal (i.e. Mount Arenal) it was presumed extinct until July 29, 1968 when an earthquake caused it to erupt, after approximately 400 years of dormancy. The eruption wiped out the town of Arenal and killed 87 people [1]. It lasted for several days, and during that time destroyed crops, property, livestock, and forests. 15 square kilometers were buried and the explosion affected over 232 square kilometers. The eruption caused three new and active craters to form. Before the eruption, there was a wide veriety of plant and wildlife on the mountain. It has been active since the explosion and can be reported to have minor eruptions every 5-10 minutes.

In October, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling down the SW and S flanks, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 04, 2007, 12:14:51 AM
YASUR

As of the 1st of December, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time ! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Projectile ejection Yasur volcano has not produced a large destructive eruption historically. There is no indication that a large eruption will occur in the near future at Yasur volcano. Magma chamber inflation is currently being accommodated by the volcano. The largest reasonable level of activity expected is the ejection of bombs 3-4 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows threatening low lying areas near the volcano. This type of activity would pose a danger to nearby villages. Ground deformation Yasur volcano has the second greatest level of ground uplift in the world. Since 1000 AD there has been a yearly average uplift of 149 mm. This is only beaten by Iwo Jima volcano in Japan with 200 mm uplift per year since 1200 AD. Tsunami Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes, and landslides may result in the production of tsunamis which may threaten coastal populations. Flooding Lake Siwi broke through its natural dam in 2002 flooding Sulphur Bay Village and destroying houses. Landslides Landslide and debris flow pose significant risks to the surrounding population. Uplift of the caldera creates unstable ground, combined with the deposition of unstable ash and cinders. Ashfall Periods of strong volcanic activity may cause ashfall over large areas of Tanna Island. Ashfall can damage crops, cause roofs to collapse, and result in mudflows after rain. Gas Gas samples collected from the plume crossing Yasur crater rim in 1988 contained SO2 and HCl gases at concentrations between 3 and 9 ppm. This is a hazardous level of gas. This level of SO2 causes a decrease in lung function and immediate irritation of eyes nose and throat. Lava Flow Lava flows occur infrequently at Yasur volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 1st of December, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that Stromboli continues its relentless eruptions. In November 2007, Marco Fulle and Tom Pfeiffer visited Pizzo with local Magmatrek guides. Mild NE wind made for good visibility of the collapsed crater terrace, on which five vents were erupting every five to ten minutes. The terrace subsided in March 2007: the western rim of SW crater gives a good indication of the amount of subsidence. The eastern part of the terrace is now approximately 100 metres lower than before.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of December, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that the volcano has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activity. One of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes. Most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring and interpretation of seismic and seismoacoustic activity volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on December 04, 2007, 12:39:45 AM
Hello Dreamweaver,

Brother Bob, my older Brother and his family live about 60 miles South of Mt. St. Helens. I remember him telling me about the last eruption. I don't think that most people living in this part of the world have a clue about the power unleashed in even a relatively small volcanic event. 60 Miles away, and everything was covered with a layer of ash. I don't know very much about volcanoes, but I would suspect the last eruption of Mt. St. Helens was tiny in comparison to the many other active volcanoes that you list. If I remember correctly, Yellowstone is a monster and might rank up their with the largest and potentially most dangerous volcanoes in the world.

If a tiny or small volcano can have such a dramatic effect on such a large area, can we even imagine the potential impact of a large, huge, or monster volcano. I'm sure there are studies done that estimate what the potential impact would be, but most of us never imagine things like this. As an example, I understand that Yellowstone could have a massive impact on the entire earth for an unknown period of time. I read once that Yellowstone had the destructive power to effect many fault lines that have been inactive for many years. I live within about 25 miles from an inactive fault line. One study I read indicated that an eruption of Yellowstone could trigger huge earthquakes many miles away, and the fault line near us was one that was mentioned. Here's a little grin for you and everyone else reading this. We have a tiny un-manned seismology station in a tiny town called Meers, Oklahoma. Meers really amounts to a cafe that's also the post office, and the seismology station is in a glass cabinet in the same cafe. The machine is logging information, but I don't know how much anyone pays attention to it. We have had small earthquakes here, but it's hard for us to tell since we live right on top of Fort Sill, the artillery center of the world, home to MRLS, home to Paladin, was home for Redstone, and was to be home for the new Crusader. We have huge booms and earth shaking from bombs and artillery all the time, so we wouldn't know anything was different unless houses started falling into the earth. We have had some fairly interesting sink-hole activity in this area, and one was just less than a block from us. So, if you hear an echo from my computer, it might be because I'm typing from underground.    ;D

I mainly wanted to make the point that volcanic activity can be deadly serious, and it's not just something that can happen thousands of miles away. I understand that one moderate volcano can have the destructive power of many nuclear weapons. This is a tiny example of the awesome power of GOD in HIS Creation. Man hangs pictures on the wall, and GOD hangs planets in place. Mankind will have to learn the proper reverence for ALMIGHTY GOD one day, and it won't be pleasant. I love GOD, but I also respect and fear HIM. ALMIGHTY GOD deserves respect, fear, love, praise, thanks, and worship. I think those days grow near when all men will learn the hard way that the CREATOR ALMIGHTY GOD is in CHARGE!

Love In Christ,
Tom

Thanks be unto God for His unspeakable GIFT, Jesus Christ, our Lord and Saviour Forever!


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 04, 2007, 12:59:53 AM
Brother, I was in Yakima, Washington when Mt. St Helens erupted back in 1980. That is east of Mt. St. Helens, I was on vacation from Sambos.  I wanting to see the eruption, from Mt. Adams. Which I never made it to watch. I can remember to this day the skies turning black. About 10:00 a.m., the skies turned black . Yakima is like 75-80 miles away, from Mt. St. Helens.

I still have a vial of ash, I scraped off my car. Never the less, I was late getting back to Show Low. :o

The reason for the seismology station in Meers, is for the the New Madrid Fault Zone. The earthquakes that have happened there in the past, are normally magnitude of 8+. The geography of the rock back there is old rock. In the west is new rock, which is more elastic.


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on December 04, 2007, 01:28:32 AM
Quote
Dreamweaver Said:

The reason for the seismology station in Meers, is for the the New Madrid Fault Zone. The earthquakes that have happened there in the past, are normally magnitude of 8+. The geography of the rock back there is old rock. In the west is new rock, which is more elastic.

 ;)  Thanks Brother - I feel a lot better now. I've always heard that the Wichita Mountains is one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world, but I didn't know this area was due for monster earthquakes. I really prefer tornadoes, but I don't guess we get to choose. I'll just pray that the Rapture is first.

Love in Christ,
Tom

(http://i71.photobucket.com/albums/i160/tlr10/mine/mine043.jpg)

(http://i71.photobucket.com/albums/i160/tlr10/mine/mine019.jpg)

1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 NASB
But we do not want you to be uninformed, brethren, about those who are asleep, so that you will not grieve as do the rest who have no hope. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so God will bring with Him those who have fallen asleep in Jesus. For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord. Therefore comfort one another with these words.

1 Corinthians 15:50-58 NASB
Now I say this, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. Behold, I tell you a mystery; we will not all sleep, but we will all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality. But when this perishable will have put on the imperishable, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, "DEATH IS SWALLOWED UP in victory. "O DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR VICTORY? O  DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR STING?" The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law; but thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your toil is not in vain in the Lord.


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 04, 2007, 01:42:08 AM
The epicenter of the New Madrid Fault Zone runs from just south of me to down just south of Memphis, TN  It is not uncommon for earthquakes of 3.8 to be felt from it very recently. There has been as high as 11 recorded from it in the past. Some of these quakes have been felt as far away as North Carolina to the east and the panhandle of Oklahoma to the west, causing significant damage even that far away. If Yellowstone caldera were to go it is believed that it would set off the New Madrid and perhaps many in Calif as well. The ash from it would cover an area at least 600 miles in radius from Yellowstone. Yes, even that is just a drop in comparison to the almighty power of God and will be nothing in comparison to when His wrath gets poured out on this world.



Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: bronzesnake on December 04, 2007, 04:04:26 AM
Hello Tom - Roger, and Bob!

Just to ponder God's power at causing every mountain, hill and building to be levelled is extreemly frightening, and yet this is peanuts compared with the awsome unbounded force it took to say create the Universe!
Our God is THE awsome God!

John


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on December 04, 2007, 09:10:38 AM
Hello Tom - Roger, and Bob!

Just to ponder God's power at causing every mountain, hill and building to be levelled is extreemly frightening, and yet this is peanuts compared with the awsome unbounded force it took to say create the Universe!
Our God is THE awsome God!

John

Here's a BIG Oklahoma HOWDY back at you Brother John. The Power of the "GREAT I AM", our HEAVENLY FATHER, is without limit or bounds. HE does as HE pleases in Heaven and on Earth.

Mankind is proud and boastful playing with tinker toys. ALMIGHTY GOD holds and controls all the forces of the universe in the palm of HIS HAND. We are just a tiny part of HIS Creation, so it would be impossible for us to comprehend HIS AWESOME POWER AND MIGHT. As Children of the KING OF KINGS, it's pleasant for us to imagine HIS POWER, but it's more pleasant for us to find out about HIS Love for us.

Love In Christ,
Tom

Ephesians 3:14-19 NASB
For this reason I bow my knees before the Father, from whom every family in heaven and on earth derives its name, that He would grant you, according to the riches of His glory, to be strengthened with power through His Spirit in the inner man, so that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; and that you, being rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth, and to know the love of Christ which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled up to all the fullness of God.


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 04, 2007, 09:49:07 AM
Amen and amen!

Hello Brother John. Good to see you.


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 28, 2007, 03:55:24 PM
TURRIALBA

As of the 16th of December, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica, OVSICORI-UNA, has reported that the volcanic unrest at Turrialba seems to intensify, and signs of a possible new eruption in the near to medium future are getting stronger: According to OVSICORI-UNA a gas-and-steam plume from Turrialba rose to an altitude greater than 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. on 5 December. Fieldwork confirmed an unusual output of gas from several fumaroles along the S outer wall. Areas burned by acute acidification have extended in the last month. Pastures turned yellowish near the upper areas, and native and exotic tree species were impacted as well as birch tree patches along most drainages. Within the W crater, temperatures of fumaroles reached 280 degrees Celsius and native sulfur was present.

Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.

The colour code at Turrialba is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~

GALERAS

As of the 25th of December, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (OVSP) has reported that continuous predominant of seismicity related to dynamics of flowed of magmatic and hydrothermal origin (episodes of spasmodic tremor) that happens at superficial levels, with characteristics similar to observed in the last the months. The registry of some events associated with fracturing of the rock material is also emphasised, that happened in a dispersed way in the volcanic complex, with low power levels (smaller local magnitudes of 2.0) and smaller depths of 10 km with respect to the top of the volcano. The prevailing cloudiness in the top of the volcano has prevented the observation of manifestations of the activity in surface.

The colour code at Galeras is currently at ALERT LEVEL III
~~~~~~~~

MAUNA LOA

As of the 22nd of December, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has reported that Mauna Loa is not erupting. There have been no significant changes except heavy snowfall in early December. A strong winter storm buried a critical radio repeater, its solar panels, and batteries preventing the webcam images and summit gas data from being telemetered to HVO. HVO is waiting for some snow melt to get the system running again. HVO's network of continuous GPS receivers showed slow inflation over the past 6 months, recording about 1 cm of extension across the caldera and the flanks in that time. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes. Mauna Loa remains seismically quiet with few earthquakes occurring beneath the summit. Since the beginning of January, 2005, HVO analysts have rarely located more than 10 earthquakes per week beneath Mauna Loa summit.

The colour code at Mauna Loa is currently at YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 28, 2007, 03:57:18 PM
NYIRAGONGO
01.52S 029.25E 3470m

Nyiragongo
Nyiragongo photo courtesy of NASA.

As of the 12th of December, the Global Volcanism Network reported that in central Africa, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, sit two volcanoes: Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira. Besides their proximity to Lake Kivu in the south, these volcanoes share the capacity for destruction, each having produced its share of catastrophic eruptions since the early twentieth century. Yet these volcanoes differ markedly from each other, one being a low-profiled structure rising subtly from the plain, and the other sporting steep slopes.

NASA’s Landsat 7 satellite captured this false-colour image of Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo on January 31, 2007, about a year after Nyiragongo sent a devastating lava flow through the town of Goma. Lava flows from neighbouring Nyamuragira, however, are more conspicuous in this picture, contrasting with the lush green vegetation with their somber shades of brown and purple-black. Nyiragongo shows evidence of its own activity. The deep pink dot at its summit is a hotspot where the sensor has detected unusually warm surface temperatures. The bright white dots are clouds, likely resulting from water vapour released by the volcano. Near the clouds is a small area of peacock blue, also part of the volcanic plume. Along the shores of Lake Kivu, areas of purple-brown indicate bare ground and human-made structures. On the 29th of November, the Global Volcanism Network reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that an eruption from Nyiragongo occurred before 0600hrs on 21 November.

One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighbouring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. Extremely fluid, fast-moving lava flows draining from the summit lava lake in 1977 caused many fatalities, as did lava flows inundating portions of the city of Goma in January 2002.

The Current Colour Code for Nyiragongo is at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

NICARAGUA

As of the 27th of December, the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) informs that according to a news article, INETER reported that an explosion from Concepción on 20 December was followed by gas-and-ash plumes. Ashfall was reported in nearby communities.

The volcano Concepción is one of Nicaragua's highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua and is connected to neighbouring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. A steep-walled summit crater is 250 m deep and has a higher western rim. N-S-trending fractures on the flanks of the volcano have produced chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars located on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides extending in some cases down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepción was constructed above a basement of lake sediments, and the modern cone grew above a largely buried caldera, a small remnant of which forms a break in slope about halfway up the north flank. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past half century have increased the height of the summit significantly above that shown on current topographic maps and have kept the upper part of the volcano unvegetated.

The Current Colour Code for Concepcion is at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

INDONESIA

As of the 6th of December, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that during Volcano Discovery's expedition, thanks to extraordinary good weather, they were able to observe Anak Krakatau's ongoing eruption during 21-26 November: overall, its activity was relatively constant and ranged from strong strombolian to weak vulcanian activity, probably according to various levels of phreatomagmatic and magmatic activity within the conduit. All activity occurred from the newly formed crater on the upper southern flank just below the old summit crater of Anak Kraktau. On 21 November, this crater had an oval shape and was approximately 50x70 m in diameter. Reports of lava flows earlier in the course of the eruption could not be verified and no deposits from lava flows were visible, only debris from ejected solid blocks and a few deformed fresh bombs.

Ash venting: The most frequent, typical type of acitivty that was present during most of the time consisted in ash venting. Dense, dark brown brown, billowing ash clouds escaped in pulses from the crater, rose typically 100-200 metres and occurred at near-constant intervals of about 2 minutes. At all times, the ash was drifting east due to near constant westerly winds. Only few or no blocks were observed being ejected along with such ash clouds. On 24 November, we observed phases where ash venting became continous over several minutes.

Vulcanian eruptions: At more irregular intervals, about 10-30 minutes apart, more violent, small vulcanian-type explosions interrupted the ash venting events. The explosions consisted in a sudden spray of mostly solid rocks and few incandescent scoria, followed by more powerful and turbulent ash plumes, which rose up to above 1 km. Generally, these vulcanian-type explosions tended to occur after slighly longer repose intervals with no or little visible activity in the crater and in most cases, the length of the repose interval was correlated with the force of the explosion. Several exceptionally powerful explosions occurred at intervals of approximately 16-24 hours: the strongest one occurred happened shortly after midnight on 21-22 November, and showered the whole of Anak Krakatau island with incandescent blocks, ignited bush fires and produced a very loud cannon-shot noise that rattled windows on the west coast 40 km away. Other unusually large blasts occurred at around 0200hrs on 21 Nov, at around 0900hrs and 1320hrs on 23 November.

Strombolian activity: Activity shifted temporarily towards more strombolian type explosions on the evening of 22 November: until about 0100hrs on 23 November, most activity then consisted in bright, scoria-rich strombolian explosions with lots of fresh incandescent bombs that produced only relatively little ash compared to the preivious activity. After some of the more powerful strombolian explosions, the team observed weak, near-continuous spattering from a vent in the crater.

Increasing activity after 23 Nov: Early on 23 November, activity returned to more ash-rich, probably phreatomagmatic in origin, activity. Ash production and the average violence of the individual events increased slighlty but visibly over the next two days, while a rythm of single events at near-constant intervals of about 2 minutes was maintained. During 24-25 November, ash plumes typically rose to >1 km above the crater and were well visible from the west coast.

The Current Colour Code for Krakatau is at ALERT LEVEL 2


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 28, 2007, 03:59:23 PM
Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 28th of December, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that partly cloudy satellite views showed nothing unusual today. No other reports of activity have been received. AVO continues to monitor Cleveland volcano with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 27th of December, INGEMMET reported that based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SW during 24-25 December.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

COLOMBIA

As of the 25th of December, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the Snow-covered Volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, informs that in the week between the 18 and the 24 of December a total of 97 seismic events was registered. Of them, 27 events are associate to fracturing of rock, 67 events are related to the dynamics of fluid within the volcanic conduits, 2 events hybrid type and a pulse of tremor of low magnitude. Of the previous, it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, with slight excitations of the system.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 28, 2007, 04:01:42 PM
KARYMSKY

As of the 28th of December, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that according to seismic and satellite data, an ash activity of the volcano was not registered last two months. However, activity of Karymsky can resume at any time and ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL could occur. The explosive activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was at background levels on December 23-26. There was no seismic data in the other days of last week (technical reasons). According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly was noted on December 26. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 28th of December, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the volcano continues. A viscous lava flow is effusing from the summit lava dome. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismicity of the volcano was above background levels on December 22-23, and at the background levels on December 20-21 and 26. According to visual and video data, a weak fumarolic activity was observed at the lava dome on December 26-27. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the dome was observing on December 22, 24 and 25-26. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 28th of December, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was slightly background levels last week. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor (on December 19-22) were registered all week. Strong gas-steam plumes up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) ASL were observed on December 23-24. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noting last week. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 28, 2007, 04:04:16 PM
SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 28th of December, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that the pause in activity continues and measurable activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant change over the last 72 hours. During heavy precipitation it must be remembered the potential hazard of lahar (or mudflow) in the drainage channels around the volcano remains. The alert level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 28th of December, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift to the southeast early in the day and to the northeast later in the day.

Another winter storm is hitting the area. The volcano is obscured from view, but our in-crater tiltmeters show small tilt events related to dome growth. There has been little earthquake activity over the past 24 hours. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

COLIMA

As of the 28th of December, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reports that in the last 24 hours there have been events of no importance with respect to the activity of the Colima volcano and the cloudiness has again prevented the visibility of exhalations or fumaroles; also, it is indicated that reports on damages or affectation in the adjacent populations are not had. At this time of the year the presence of cold fronts is common, which cause the cloud presence, light rains and sporadic electrical storms in the top of the volcano; it is for that reason that remembers to the population that avoids the permanence in bordering ravines, before the possibility that they register lahars (mud flows). On the other hand, it continues the restriction for the over-flights that do not have scientific aims or of civil defence, and is prohibited the permanence of people other people's to these activities in ravines of the volcano.

In permanent coordination with the State Unit of Civil Defence Jalisco, the Government of Colima is pending of monitoring the activity of the volcano in real time; this way, it counts on opportune information to be able to respond before any contingency and to guarantee the security of the population, as it is the interest of the governor Jesus Silverio Cavazos Ceballos. In addition, one works in the preventive programmes to maintain informed to the citizens on the evolution into the volcanic activity, and to avoid that alarm by rumors is generated.

Also constant communication with the communitarian brigade that has formed with inhabitants of the town of the Becerrera, to those who exists has become qualified in the self-protection with respect to the natural disasters. Also, permanent contact with the personnel of the military team of Yerbabuena, La Becerrera in Colima, El Jabalí, and Causentla, Cofradía de Tonila, Atenguillo, El Saucillo, El Fresnal, El Embudo, Juan Barragán, Los Machos, El Agostadero and El Borbollón in Jalisco.

They have been continuing the same recommendations established for months, in which it is indicated that who are or live in zone of risk, follow the indications that this organism transmits through mass media; it is necessary to emphasize that the zone of exclusion of activities for the states of Jalisco and Colima is of 7.5 kilometres from the top of the volcano on the channels of ravines. The radius of preventive alert remains in 11.5 kilometres from the top of the volcano, which includes the populations of La Becerrera in Colima, El Jabalí, and Causentla, Cofradía de Tonila, Atenguillo, El Saucillo, El Fresnal, El Embudo, Juan Barragán, Los Machos, El Agostadero and El Borbollón in Jalisco. The permanence in ravines must be avoided Colima, El Cordobán, San Antonio and Monte Grande, in Colima, and San Antonio and El Muerto, La Tuna, Santa Ana, El Cafecito, La Arena and Beltrán-Durazno in Jalisco.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 28, 2007, 04:06:19 PM
POPOCATEPETL

As of the 28th of December, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano again registered 8 exhalations, accompanied by steam and gas emissions. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report there are dense clouds around the cone. However, at earlier hours steam and gas emissions were observed.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

PACAYA

As of the 27th of December, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that according to CONRED, a 17 December INSIVUMEH report noted changes in Pacaya's behaviour. On 19 December, CONRED issued a bulletin noting that INSIVUMEH reported observations of white and blue "smoke" plumes. The plumes rose to an altitude of 2.8 km (9,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Lava flows were unchanged from previous days. Based on these reports, CONRED raised the Alert Level to Yellow in surrounding communities.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex volcano constructed on the southern rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the caldera floor. The Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1,100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent Strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion on the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is YELLOW
~~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 27th of December, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that early visible imagery shows a plume extending north around 17.25 mi and dissipating with time. Winds are forecast to move any visible ash more W with time. Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes from Fuego rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted SW on 21 December. Gas or ash plumes were seen on satellite imagery on 23 December and drifted W. According to CONRED, INSIVUMEH reported on 24 December that an ash plume drifted SW. CONRED reiterated that the Alert Level remained at Yellow.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 28, 2007, 04:08:55 PM
SANTA MARIA

As of the 22nd of December, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW on 21 December.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 28th of December, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that as in previous weeks the activity of the volcano stays in a high level, but showing a tendency of constant behaviour. Seismic the activity is characterised by the generation of events related to the mobilisation of flowed to the interior of the volcanic complex, whereas superficially it is continued reporting intense brightness in the zone of the crater, exit of incandescent material in form of blocks, roars of varied intensity and cannon shots. It is continued receiving reports of ash falls in populations located in the west, like Bilbao and Choglontus, and the southwest, like Palitahua.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: A total of 45 explosions of moderate size to small has been entered, 49 events of long period, 25 episodes of tremor of emission of little energy and 1 episode of harmonic tremor. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: At night the presence of intense brightness in the zone of the crater and the exit of incandescent material in form of blocks was reported yesterday that rolled by the superior part of flanks. Associated with this activity the generation of roars of moderate intensity was reported. Today constant observations due to the cloudiness presence have not been made in the zone of the volcano, nevertheless it has been managed to distinguish the presence of a column of emission with moderate ash content of approximately 1.5 km of height and direction of movement towards the west. Additionally strong cannon shots have been reported and to roll of blocks by flanks of the volcano with the explosive events registered at 1217hrs (local time) and 1340hrs (local time). Yesterday received were reports of slight ash falls in the zone of Palitahua, Bilbao and Choglontus. Climate/Rains/Lahars: The IG does not have rain reports in the sector of the volcano.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 20th of December, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that ash plumes from the new vent in the NE crater of Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. during 10-13 December. Plumes drifted SE, W, NW, and E. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul town on 11 December. Occasional incandescence at the summit was observed. During 13-18 December, white plumes were observed and a strong smell of hydrogen-sulfide gas was reported.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 28, 2007, 04:10:52 PM
KILAUEA

As of the 28th of December, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the Activity Summary for last 24 hours: Short lava flows from the TEB and its satellitic shields still dominated the action. Seeps east of pond 3, in the original 7/21 channel, were weakly active. SO2 emissions are increasing at the summit.

Activity Summary for the past few months: Lava from the 7/21 fissures is probably fed from a shallow magma storage area beneath Pu`u `O`o where it degasses before being erupted. For the first three months, mostly `a`a flows advanced from a 1.6 km (1 miles)-long channel to the northeast. In late October, tube-fed pahoehoe flows developed and, in early November, the east tube produced pahoehoe flows along the south margin that advanced nearly as far to the east as the earlier `a`a flows before stalling. Starting on November 21, Thanksgiving Eve, lava from fissure D bypassed the channel and built a shield over the fissure feeding a channelised lava flow to the southeast. Within weeks, lava had also refilled several ponds in the original 7/21 perched channel.

Hazard Summary: Based on the information summarised above, there are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Wao Kele o Puna is also closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: The TEB shield and the two satellitic shields to the southeast continued to be active issuing short flows to the southeast; the middle shield produced at least one flow to the north. Spots of intermittent incandescence suggested that the seep east of pond 3 in the original 7/21 perched channel was active but there were no signs of activity from the channel itself. An overflight is planned for this morning.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: No incandescence was seen in Pu`u `O`o crater last evening. The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter recorded deflation from a source to the southeast between rain squalls. GPS receivers continued to record contraction of the cone at a slightly increased rate since 12/6 Seismic tremor levels remained at low values.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeter network recorded deflation. GPS receivers recorded slow contraction across the caldera. Seismic tremor values were steady at the high end of low levels. One earthquake was located on south flank faults. Sulfur Dioxide emissions were measured at 290 tonnes/day yesterday, at least 150% of typical values.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 16th of December, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that Arenal, one of the few volcanoes with near-constant activity, continues to be in mild Strombolian-type activity. During the past weeks, activity was from Crater C and consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, small lava flows on the S flank, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Some of the stronger eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

Once locally known as Cerro Arenal (i.e. Mount Arenal) it was presumed extinct until July 29, 1968 when an earthquake caused it to erupt, after approximately 400 years of dormancy. The eruption wiped out the town of Arenal and killed 87 people [1]. It lasted for several days, and during that time destroyed crops, property, livestock, and forests. 15 square kilometers were buried and the explosion affected over 232 square kilometers. The eruption caused three new and active craters to form. Before the eruption, there was a wide veriety of plant and wildlife on the mountain. It has been active since the explosion and can be reported to have minor eruptions every 5-10 minutes.

In October, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling down the SW and S flanks, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on January 02, 2008, 05:29:05 PM
700 flee as volcano erupts in Chile 
Area rocked with explosions, spewing lava, ash

About 700 people were evacuated as a volcano erupted Wednesday in southern Chile, rocking the area with explosions and spewing lava and ash.

But the Llaima volcano's eruptions were slowing by Wednesday afternoon, so a larger evacuation did not appear necessary.

The evacuees included about 200 tourists, National Forest Service employees and others in the surrounding Conguillio National Park, about 400 miles south of Santiago.

Hundreds spent the night outside or in shelters in Melipeuco, a town of 5,000 near the Llaima volcano. Others fled to communities farther away, but most were returning Wednesday.

Chile's Emergency Bureau director, Carmen Fernandez, said a larger evacuation wasn't necessary despite television images showing thick smoke and lava flowing from the crater.

"There are no signs yet of an increased risk," Fernandez said. "There is some flow of lava, but not in a continued manner yet."

The bureau said the eruption was decreasing Wednesday and explosions were less frequent and milder, even as Argentina reported a heavy presence of gas and ash across the border.

The 9,400-foot high Llaima, one of the most active among some 60 active volcanos in Chile, has not had a major blast since 1994.



Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on January 17, 2008, 08:39:26 AM
Small quake reported
at Mount St. Helens
'We're just being cautious. It's not
that we're anticipating any activity'

Steam seeping from a fracture atop the lava dome in Mount St. Helens' crater and the mountain's first noteworthy seismic activity since 2004 have caught scientists' attention this week as signs that something is moving inside it.

While the likelihood of a major eruption seemed low, scientists have quit venturing into the volcano's crater and are checking the monitoring equipment along St. Helens' flanks.

"We're just being cautious. It's not that we're anticipating any activity," Cynthia A. Gardner, scientist in charge of the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory, said Wednesday.

Geologist John S. Pallister was flying over the volcano in southwestern Washington on Sunday when he spotted the steam.

"It was interesting enough to take some pictures," said Pallister, a private pilot who works in the hazards section of the volcano observatory.

After landing, he learned that a magnitude-2.9 earthquake had registered on seismographs at an observatory in Vancouver. That was followed by a small tremor that lasted nearly an hour and a half, an unusually long period, punctuated by a second quake of magnitude 2.7—all in the same period in which he saw the steam.

Tiltmeters also registered alternate ground swelling and deflation near the lava dome, which has been growing in the crater since fall 2004.

All are typical signs that magma, superheated gases or both are moving through conduits beneath St. Helens, which blew its top with devastating force on May 18, 1980, leveling 230 square miles of forest and killing 57 people.

The last noteworthy tremor at the volcano lasted 55 minutes on Oct. 2, and was much more powerful, registering on seismometers from Bend, Ore., to Bellingham and causing a hasty evacuation of the Johnston Ridge Observatory five miles north of the crater.

No evacuations had been ordered by Wednesday, because the seismic activity had slowed down.

The precise cause of the recent activity was not entirely clear, Gardner said.

"The settling of the growing lava dome might have caused some fracturing and might have changed the subsurface openings so that water was either being squeezed out of openings or opening new areas," he said Tuesday.

The last precise measurements, drawn from images in July, indicated the latest eruptive phase has pumped 123 million cubic yards of material into the crater. The rate has slowed considerably, but the episode Sunday showed that could change at any time, Pallister said.

"It's still got some surprises," he said.


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on January 18, 2008, 08:21:42 PM
I messed up, and forgot about posting............. :'(

NEVADO DEL RUIZ

As of the 4th of January, snow-covered volcano Nevado del Ruíz although showed a level under seismic activity, according to the evaluation scale that is had for this effect, demonstrated a change in the activity compared with previous months. 614 earthquakes of low magnitude were registered, located, mainly to the W of the crater, and in smaller proportion to the south of the same one, with depths that did not surpass 10 km. The Maxima magnitude registered during the month was of 2.52 in the Richter scale, corresponding to an earthquake happened on day 5 of December during a cluster seismic in that 42 events were registered, located to the W of the crater. Between days 6 and 7 and 9 and 10 of December, two small clusters appeared more, first of them between the 2007 and 0428hrs with a total of 20 located earthquakes N and W of the crater, and the second, happened between the 2000 and the 0244 in which 48 events located to NE and S of the crater were registered. A happened increase of energy is equally remarkable the 14th December, in which 16 earthquakes between the 1500hrs appeared and the 1800hrs, located to the W and of the crater. During the month, the steam column related to the fumarolic activity in the crater showed a white colour, with a peak altitude observed of 200 metres. The gas discharges Radón and the measures of deformation presented/displayed normal values. It is considered that the activity of the snow-covered volcano Nevado del Ruiz presents/displays a STABILITY (Yellow) state.

Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone is located on the SW flank, and may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

The colour code at Nevado del Ruiz is currently at YELLOW
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MAUNA LOA

As of the 9th of January, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has reported that Mauna Loa is not erupting. There have been no significant changes. A strong winter storm buried a critical radio repeater, its solar panels, and batteries preventing the webcam images and summit gas data from being telemetered to HVO. HVO is waiting for some snow melt to replace the batteries and get the system running again. HVO's network of continuous GPS receivers showed slow inflation over the past 6 months, recording about 1 cm of extension across the caldera and the flanks in that time. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes. Mauna Loa remains seismically quiet with few earthquakes occurring beneath the summit and several located within the Kao`iki seismic zone between Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanic summits. Since the beginning of January, 2005, HVO analysts have rarely located more than 10 earthquakes per week beneath Mauna Loa summit.

The colour code at Mauna Loa is currently at YELLOW
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GALERAS

As of the 18th of January, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto - INGEOMINAS, informs that an explosive eruption occurred at Galeras Volcano in Colombia on Thursday 17th January at 2006hrs, local time. Preceding the eruption, there were five tornillo earthquakes measured between 0805hrs on January 16 and 0914hrs on January 17, 2008. The earthquakes were located near the active cone, close to the surface. About 8000 people have been evacuated. This is the most severe eruption at the volcano since it reactivated in 1989. Ash was reported to reach 36,000 ft. altitude. Also, the registry of five events Tornillo type between the 0805hrs of the 16th of January and 0914hrs of the 17th of January, located in environs of the active cone and to superficial levels. The importance of the occurrence of this type of events in Galeras, that is in preceded the eruptions of 1992 and 1993, which they appeared after the location of a lava dome in 1991; as well as they preceded some of the registered eruptives episodes between 2004 and 2006. On the other hand, as it were mentioned in the official notice of the 14th of January of 2008, the activity of Galeras continues showing of alternate way, lapses of diminution of seismicity followed of episodes of more recurrent activity, maintaining power levels low. Which remembers that to the interior of the main crater it remains a surplus of the lava dome located from end of 2005, partially was destroyed with the eruption of the 12 of 2006 July. INGEOMINAS continues very kind to the evolution of the volcanic activity and will opportunely inform the changes that can be detected.

Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

The Current Colour Code for Galeras is currently at RED


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on January 18, 2008, 08:26:18 PM
UBINAS

As of the 15th of January, the Instituto Geofísico del Perú & the Buenos Aires VAAC has reported that volcanic ash was observed at 1828Z from 18,00 to 37,000 ft. moving SW. Also, varied and intermittent fumarolic activity, with temperatures from 90 to100 °C. Sporadically the gases rise to 100 to 500 m of height.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at RED
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PACAYA

As of the 18th of January, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported and confirmed that with regards to this volcano; Atmospheric Conditions: Cleared. Pluvial Precipitation: 0.0 mm. Wind speed: 11 k/h. Direction; Southwest. Activity: The effusion has not changed and stays in front of with lava effusion in the west of the Cerro Chino, the flows reach the 150 to 200 metres. There are moderate fumaroles at the Mackenny crater, 400 metres of height dispersing to the southwest. The registry of the seismic activity maintains events of type "B".

The eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is currently at ORANGE
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FUEGO

As of the 18th of January, the the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported and confirmed that with regards to this volcano; Atmospheric Conditions: Partially dimmed. Wind speed: in calm Direction; South & Southwest. Pluvial Precipitation: 0.0 mm. Activity: The volcano is with weak explosions and occasionally moderate explosions, expelling gray ash to 400 and 700 metres on the crater, dispersing to the south and southwest of the volcanic complex.

The Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta volcano may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango volcano, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on January 18, 2008, 08:33:42 PM
SANTA MARIA

As of the 18th of January, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported and confirmed that with regards to this volcano; Atmospheric Conditions: Cleared. Wind speed: in calm Direction: Southwest. Pluvial Precipitation: 0.0 mm. Activity: The volcano continues with constant avalanches of blocks, on the active lava flows. Explosions with ash have been observed that reach 300 and 700 metres on the Hot Cone, Some explosions generate Pyroclastic flows of short reach. At night it is possible to observe the incandescence.

The symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The 3772-m-high stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit of Volcán Santa María to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is currently at ORANGE
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SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 18th of January, the Monstserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) reported that the pause in activity continues and measurable activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant changes over the last 24 hours. During heavy precipitation it must be remembered the potential hazard of lahar (or mudflow) in the drainage channels around the volcano remains. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at YELLOW LEVEL 4
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SAKURA-JIMA

As of the 10th of January, The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) via the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (TVAAC) reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Sakura-Jima on 2 and 7 January. Details of possible resultant ash plumes were unknown. Sakura-Jima exploded at 1837UTC on the 6th of January but the ash cloud direction and height is unknown at this time. Officials are currently investigating satellite data. Later however, winds were found to be above the volcano at 1830UTC it was at 10,000ft and at 20,000ft@57.5 mph and at 40,000ft@150.65 mph. More details on this eruption will be listed as they are received.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on January 18, 2008, 08:36:59 PM
SHEVELUCH

As of the 18th of January, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported to INTLVRC that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels last week. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and sometimes volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 4.1 km (13,400 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano on January 12 and 16. Ash plume had raising up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) ASL was observed on Sheveluch web-cam on January 16. Strong fumarolic activity of the volcano was noted on January 15-17. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days. According to satellite data, an invariable thermal anomaly was noting all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskoi volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 18th of January, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift to the south at both low and high altitudes.

Crews were in the field at Mt. St. Helens yesterday, servicing seismic stations and remote cameras. Considerable steaming from the new lava dome was evident, as conditions were ideal for cloud formation. Occasional micro-earthquakes continue at the volcano today, consistent with the low-levels of eruptive activity. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
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COLIMA

As of the 18th of January, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reports that due to the cloud establishment at the Colima volcano during the last 24 hours, the monitoring of the Colima volcano registered three fumaroles and one exhalation, without generating a report on damages or affectation in the adjacent populations, according to informed the Government of the Colima State Unit of Civil Defence. According to the monitoring, the two first fumaroles happened at 1332 and 2346 hours of yesterday, which went at level of dome and with an east direction; the same course followed the happened fumarole today, at 0106 hours, that rose to 300 metres of height on the level of the dome, and also the white exhalation of the 0834 hours that went at dome level. Since they are at a time of the year in which the appearance of cold fronts is common, those that can cause from cloudy to light rains and sporadic electrical storms in the top of the volcano, it is necessary to remember to the population that they avoid the permanence in bordering ravines, before the possibility of lahars (mud flows). Also, it continues the restriction for the over-flights that do not have scientific aims or of civil defence, and is prohibited the permanence of people other people's to these activities in ravines of the volcano.

In permanent coordination with the State Unit of Civil Defence Jalisco, the Government of Colima is pending of monitoring the activity of the volcano in real time; this way, it counts on the opportune information to be able to respond before any contingency and to guarantee the security of the population, as it is the interest of the governor Jesus Silverio Cavazos Ceballos. Combined to previously exposed, one works in the preventive programmes to maintain informed to the citizens on the evolution into the volcanic activity, and to avoid that alarm by rumors is generated.

Also constant communication with the communitarian brigade that has formed with inhabitants of the town of the Becerrera, to those who exists has become qualified in the self-protection with respect to the natural disasters. Also, permanent contact with the personnel of the military team of Yerbabuena, La Becerrera in Colima, El Jabalí, and Causentla, Cofradía de Tonila, Atenguillo, El Saucillo, El Fresnal, El Embudo, Juan Barragán, Los Machos, El Agostadero and El Borbollón in Jalisco.

They have been continuing the same recommendations established for months, in which it is indicated that who are or live in zone of risk, follow the indications that this organism transmits through mass media; it is necessary to emphasize that the zone of exclusion of activities for the states of Jalisco and Colima is of 7.5 kilometres from the top of the volcano on the channels of ravines. The radius of preventive alert remains in 11.5 kilometres from the top of the volcano, which includes the populations of La Becerrera in Colima, El Jabalí, and Causentla, Cofradía de Tonila, Atenguillo, El Saucillo, El Fresnal, El Embudo, Juan Barragán, Los Machos, El Agostadero and El Borbollón in Jalisco. The permanence in ravines must be avoided Colima, El Cordobán, San Antonio and Monte Grande, in Colima, and San Antonio and El Muerto, La Tuna, Santa Ana, El Cafecito, La Arena and Beltrán-Durazno in Jalisco.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on January 18, 2008, 08:40:51 PM
POPOCATEPETL

As of the 18th of January, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system detected 20 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas emissions. Also, yesterday at 1650hrs (local time), a volcano-tectonic earthquake was detected with a magnitude of 2.3, a depth of 6 km and located below the crater. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report there is no visibility to the volcano due to the clouds. This morning CENAPRED could observe it with steam and gas emissions.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
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TUNGURAHUA

As of the 18th of January, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the seismic activity is similar in the last days maintaining a high dispersion volume. The populations of the western side are being affected considerably by ash falls. The emissions with variable ash content reached heights smaller to 4 km on the crater, in the direction of the west and the southwest. Strombolian activity has been observed, bearing of blocks and a small pyroclastic flow. Continued being heard are cannon shots and roars in general of moderate intensity. Lahars have not been registered.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: A total of 85 events of long period has been entered (LPs), 151 explosions, 15 episodes of tremor of emission, 1 episode of harmonic tremor. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: The observed emissions reached heights of 4 km on the crater. The populations more affected by the ash falls are Choglontus, Manzano, Penipe, and Palitahua. At night incandescence to the height of the crater was appraised, Strombolian activity that reached 200 m on the crater and bearing of blocks by flanks, up to 1000 m under the summit. With the explosions at 1823, 1849 and 1856hrs bearing of blocks was observed up to 2000 m under the summit. In the afternoon, a small pyroclastic flow of about 50 m of wide took place yesterday of 400 m of length, appreciable under the northwestern side of the crater. Noise: From Guadalupe (OVT) it was reported to have listened to roars and cannon shots of variable intensity. Climate/Rains/Lahars: The climate has varied between partially dimmed and dimmed. The wind direction has been towards the west & sothwest. Lahars have not been registered.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
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RABAUL

As of the 17th of January, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) has reported that intermittent ash and vapour plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone were observed during 8-15 January. On 11 January, a small explosion produced an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (3,900-4,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. During 11-15 January, ash and vapor plumes rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.2 km (3,000-3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, NE, N, and W. Slight ashfall was reported about 20 km SE in Tokua on 11 and 12 January. Data from deformation-monitoring instruments indicated no deformation. Incandescence from the lava dome on the crater floor was occasionally visible at night. Tokua airport has been temporarily closed after ash emissions resumed at Rabaul volcano in Papua New Guinea. Turvurvur crater began ashing at 0734hrs this morning, local time. Ash fell at Tokua at 1100hrs.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The Rabaul volcano is currently at the ORANGE LEVEL 2


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on January 18, 2008, 08:44:21 PM
KILAUEA

As of the 18th of January, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the Activity Summary for last 24 hours: The rootless shields continued to actively feed mostly short flows. The possibly longer flows to the south are out of webcam view.

Hazard Summary: Based on the information summarised above, there continues to be a threat from lava flows to residents of Royal Gardens subdivision. The rootless shields are a little more than 2 miles uphill of the subdivision and lava is capable of advancing similar distances in a week. Hawai`i County Civil Defence has been notified and is taking appropriate measures. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Wao Kele o Puna is also closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: The webcam showed continued activity from the rootless shields feeding generally short flows. The collapsed shield continued to feed a flow to the south whose progress is out of view. The TEB vent was incandescent approximately every hour. Seismic tremor levels were at generally low values with an increase whenever there was visible activity at the TEB vent. An overflight is planned for his morning.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: There was no incandescence within Pu`u `O`o crater overnight. The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter telemetry was repaired yesterday but recorded no significant change. GPS receivers spanning the crater continued to record slow contraction. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeter network recorded no significant change; however, over a week's time, there is slow deflation of a source in the southeast caldera. GPS receivers spanning the caldera continued to record slow contraction. Seismic tremor levels were at low-to-moderate values. Three quakes were located beneath Kilauea - 1 beneath Halema`uma`u and 2 on south flank faults.

Definitions of terms used in the update: Rootless shields: Shield vents are normally built directly over a lava-supplying fissure, as is the case for the TEB shield. Rootless shield vents are not built directly over a lava-supplying fissure and are, instead, fed horizontally from a fissure. Rootless shields have been built over lava tubes in the last few years. Perched ponds or channels: A lava pond or channel becomes perched above the surrounding terrain when repeated overflows build up their edges. The built-up edges are called levees. The perching continues as long as the overflows continue. The channel developed by the July 21, 2007 eruption perched itself more than 100 feet above the pre-eruption ground surface.

Public Lectures: The third of four talks on different aspects of the ongoing, 25-year-old eruption is scheduled for Tuesday, January 22, at the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park Visitor's Centre starting at 1900hrs. Mike Poland will present 'A Moving Experience: Surface Deformation of Kilauea Volcano during the Current Eruption.'

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
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YASUR

As of the 1st of January, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time ! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Projectile ejection Yasur volcano has not produced a large destructive eruption historically. There is no indication that a large eruption will occur in the near future at Yasur volcano. Magma chamber inflation is currently being accommodated by the volcano. The largest reasonable level of activity expected is the ejection of bombs 3-4 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows threatening low lying areas near the volcano. This type of activity would pose a danger to nearby villages. Ground deformation Yasur volcano has the second greatest level of ground uplift in the world. Since 1000 AD there has been a yearly average uplift of 149 mm. This is only beaten by Iwo Jima volcano in Japan with 200 mm uplift per year since 1200 AD. Tsunami Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes, and landslides may result in the production of tsunamis which may threaten coastal populations. Flooding Lake Siwi broke through its natural dam in 2002 flooding Sulphur Bay Village and destroying houses. Landslides Landslide and debris flow pose significant risks to the surrounding population. Uplift of the caldera creates unstable ground, combined with the deposition of unstable ash and cinders. Ashfall Periods of strong volcanic activity may cause ashfall over large areas of Tanna Island. Ashfall can damage crops, cause roofs to collapse, and result in mudflows after rain. Gas samples collected from the plume crossing Yasur crater rim in 1988 contained SO2 and HCl gases at concentrations between 3 and 9 ppm. This is a hazardous level of gas. This level of SO2 causes a decrease in lung function and immediate irritation of eyes nose and throat. Lava Flow Lava flows occur infrequently at Yasur volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ORANGE LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 1st of January, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that Stromboli continues, in the new year, with its relentless eruptions. In November 2007, Marco Fulle and Tom Pfeiffer visited Pizzo with local Magmatrek guides. Mild NE wind made for good visibility of the collapsed crater terrace, on which five vents were erupting every five to ten minutes. The terrace subsided in March 2007: the western rim of SW crater gives a good indication of the amount of subsidence. The eastern part of the terrace is now approximately 100 metres lower than before.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on January 18, 2008, 09:04:49 PM
Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of January, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that the volcano has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activity. One of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes. Most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring and interpretation of seismic and seismoacoustic activity volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the world's southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

As I post this, these volcanoes are being watched.
E = Erupting at this time.   I = Non-erupting at this time.

Akan                      I
Akutan                   I
Alaid                      I
Ambrym                 I
Anatahan               I
Aniakchak               I
Aoba                     I
Arenal                    E
Asama                    I
Aso                        I
Atka (Korovin)         I
Augustine               I
Avachinsky              I
Awu                      I
Azul                       I
Azuma                    I
Bagana                   I
Bamus                    I
Bandai                    I
Barren Is.                I
Batu Tara                I
Batur                      I
Bezymianny              I
Bulusan                   I
Cameroon                I
Cerro Negro             I
Chikurachki              I
Cleveland                I
Colima                    I
Concepcion             I
Copahue                 I
Cereme                   I
Dabbahu                 I
Dempo                   I
Dieng                     I
Dukono                  I
Ebeko                    I
Egmont                  I
Egon                      I
Erta Ale                  I
Fernandina              I
Fisher                     I
Fourpeaked             I
Fuego                    E
Galeras                   E
Galunggung             I
Gamalama                I
Gamkonora              I
Garbuna                  I
Gorely                    I
Great Sitkin             I
Guagua Pichincha     I
Guntur                   I
Hachijo-Jima            I
Hakone                  I
Heard Is.                I
Hekla                     I
Home Reef             I
Huila                      E
Ijen                       I
Iliamna                   I
Iliwerung                I
Inielika                   I
Isanotski                 I
Iwo Jima                 I
Jebel al Tair             I
Kaba                      I
Kanlaon                  I
Karai                       I
Karangetang            I
Karymsky                 I
Kavachi                   I
Karthala                  I
Kelut                      I
Kerinci                    I
Kick-'em-Jenny         I
Kikai                       I
Kilauea                    E
Kliuchevskoi             I
Komagatake            I
Krakatau                 E
Langila                    I
La Palma                  I
Lascar                      I
Lamington                I
Lereboleng               I
Lewotobi                 I
Llaima                      E
Lokon Empung          I
Lopevi                     I
Mageik                     I
Makian                     I
Makushin                  I
Manam                     I
Marapi                      I
Maroa                       I
Martin                       I
Masaya                      I
Mauna Loa                 I
Mayon                       I
McDonald Islands        I
Merapi                      I
Miyake-Jima               E
Mt. Belinda               I
Mt. Erebus               E
Mt. Etna                  E
Mt. Fuji                    I
Mt. Spurr                 I
Mt. St. Helens           E
Mutnovsky                I
Nevado Del Ruiz         I
Ngauruhoe                I
Nyamuragira              I
Nyiragongo               E
Okmok                     I
Ol Doinyo Lengai        I
Pagan                      I
Pacaya                    E
Pago                       I
Papandayan              I
Pavlof                      I
Piton dela Fournaise   I
Popocatepetl           E
Poas                       I
Peuet Sague           I
Rabaul                    E
Raoul Is.                 I
Raung                    I
Redoubt                 I
Rinjani                   I
Ritter Is.                I
Reventador            I
Ruang                   I
Ruapehu               I
Sakura-Jima           E
San Cristobal          I
Sangay                 I
San Miguel            I
Santa Ana            I
Santa Maria           E
Semeru                I
Sheveluch            E
Shishaldin             I
Sierra Negra         I
Slamet                I
Soputan              I
Soufriere Hills       E
Stromboli,            I
Suwanose-Jima,    I
Taal,                   E
Talang                I
Tanaga                I
Tangkuban Parahu     I
Tandikat                I
Taupo                   I
Telica                   I
Tengger (Bromo)       I
Tokachi                  I
Tongkoko               I
Torishima                   I
Trident                   I
Tungurahua              E
Turrialba                 I
Ubinas                     E
Ulawun                  I
Usu                     I
Veniaminof                 I
Villarrica             I
Westdahl               I
White Is.             I
Yasur                   E


Title: Few persuaded to flee Colombia volcano
Post by: Shammu on January 18, 2008, 09:42:17 PM
Few persuaded to flee Colombia volcano

Fri Jan 18, 12:53 PM ET

BOGOTA, Colombia - A volcano in southwestern Colombia spewed ash Friday after a violent eruption, while authorities fought to persuade thousands of living in the mountain's shadow to evacuate.

(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080118/capt.5d6aa5ebc9fe476f958ac4b17621e98a.aptopix_colombia_galeras_volcano_wfm112.jpg?x=400&y=300&sig=23cT44S7Ej4LU5AF23W12w--)

This video frame released by the Colombian Institute of
Geology and Mining, INGEOMINAS, shows the Galeras
volcano erupting in Pasto, southern Colombia, Thursday
Jan. 17, 2008. The volcano spread ashes for kilometers
prompting an evacuation order for thousands, in the
most serious eruption of the Galeras since its
reactivation in 1989.

(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/rids/20080118/i/r3378599017.jpg?x=400&y=200&sig=7lnxKJ1VXUOSssBBPkVJ8w--)

A combination picture shows the Galeras volcano
erupting in front of Pasto city January 17, 2008.

No damages or injuries were reported in the eruption of the 14,110-foot Galeras volcano, which began at 8:06 p.m. Thursday.

Although authorities ordered the 8,000 residents of the two towns nearest the volcano evacuated, few people abandoned their homes, fearing theft, the mayor of the nearby city of Pasto, Eduardo Alvarado, told The Associated Press.

"We ordered the evacuation of all the peasant population that lives near the volcano," Alvarado said, adding that only about 100 people had heeded the order.

Pasto is home to about a half million people and seismologists watching the eruption said the state capital, near the Ecuador border, did not appear to be in danger.

The director of Colombia's Seismological Network, Fernando Gil, said it was the most the most serious Galeras eruption since the volcano reactivated in 1989.

A 1993 eruption of the volcano killed nine people, including five scientists who had descended into the crater to sample gases. In November 2005, the volcano spewed ash that fell about 30 miles away.

Few persuaded to flee Colombia volcano (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080118/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/colombia_volcano;_ylt=AmFJcBA79c39d9LBuBwaaTC3IxIF)


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on January 19, 2008, 01:19:48 AM
I'll just say WOW!


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 11, 2008, 05:59:14 PM
I haven't really had time to catch this up, till today.

IBU

As of the 9th of April, the Volcano Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported to INTLVRC that there has been an increase in volcanic earthquakes and emissions at Ibu volcano in Indonesia. Ash emissions reached 150 m above the crater on the 17th of March, 300 m on 31st of March, and 700 m on the 5th of April. Ibu volcano has been on level II alert since 1999, and the alert level may be increased if unrest continues. The Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation has advised local residents to remain calm and not believe rumours about potential eruptions. Visitors and tourists are not permitted to climb Gunung Ibu. Local resudents should take precautions not to inhale volcanic ash because of the effects on the respiritory system.

The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the western flank. A group of maars is located below the northern and western flanks of the volcano. Only a few eruptions have been recorded from Ibu in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

The Current Colour Code for Ibu is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~

KERINCI

As of the 7th of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported and confirmed to INTLVRC that seismicity from Kerinci increased during 17-24 March. On 24 March, an ash-and-gas plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 (14,100 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Status remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 1 km of the summit.

The 3800-m-high Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. Kerinci is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. The volcano contains a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit of Kerinci. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. The frequently active Gunung Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

The Current Colour Code for Kerinci. is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~

GARBUNA GROUP

As of the 27th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) & the Rabaul VOlcano Observatory (RVO has reported and confirmed to INTLVRC that white plumes from two sources at the summit of Garbuna drifted SE during 19-21 March. Ashfall and a strong sulfur odor were reported in Kimbe Town (about 17 km SE) on 19 March.

Renewed eruptive activity from Garbuna started on 11 March and consisted of ash emissions accompanied by occasional booming noises. The resultant ash plumes rose to an altitude less that 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Fine ashfall was reported in areas downwind. Ash emissions continued during 12-13 March. During 14-15 March, steam-and-ash plumes again rose to an altitude less that 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Ashfall and a sulfur odor was reported from areas downwind. Occasional booming noises were heard. On 16 March, steam plumes rose to an altitude of 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l. Observers from KVO (15 km SE) reported that multiple steam plumes rose from numerous vents at the summit. Steam plumes were again noted on 17 and 18 March and a strong sulfur odor was noticed on 18 March.

The basaltic-to-dacitic Garbuna volcano group consists of three volcanic peaks, Krummel, Garbuna, and Welcker. They are located along a 7-km N-S line above a shield-like foundation at the southern end of the Willaumez Peninsula. The central and lower peaks of the centrally located 564-m-high Garbuna volcano contain a large vegetation-free area that is probably the most extensive thermal field in Papua New Guinea. A prominent lava dome and blocky lava flow in the center of thermal area have resisted destruction by thermal activity, and may be of Holocene age. The 854-m-high Krummel volcano at the south end of the group contains a summit crater, breached to the NW. The highest peak of the Garbuna group is 1005-m-high Welcker volcano, which has fed blocky lava flows that extend to the eastern coast of the peninsula. The last major eruption from both it and Garbuna volcanoes took place about 1800 years ago. The first historical eruption of the complex took place at Garbuna in October 2005.

The Current Colour Code for Garbuna. is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 11, 2008, 06:01:44 PM
BAGANA

As of the 8th of March, the Volcano Discovery has reported to INTLVRC that based on satellite imagery and information from RVO, Bagana volcano has been producing small ash explosions since the 3rd of March. Also, based on observations of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of less than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. Bagana is a massive symmetrical, roughly 1750-m-high lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is frequent and is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides.

The Current Colour Code for Bagana. is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~

VENIAMINOF

As of the 11th of April, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported to INTLVRC that low level volcanic unrest continues at Mt. Veniaminof volcano with little change from the past several days. Mostly clear satellite views this morning indicated nothing unusual. Clear internet camera views today show occasional low level steam emissions from the intracaldera cone. AVO has received no other information about activity at Mt. Veniaminof. AVO will continue to monitor activity at Mt. Veniaminof using seismic data, satellite images, internet camera data and observer reports.

Massive Mt. Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which reaches an elevation of 2156 m and rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface.

The Current Colour Code for Veniaminof is currently at the YELLOW 2
~~~~~~~~

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 11th of April, the Alaska Volcano Obsetrvatory (AVO) reported that satellite views of the volcano have again been obscured by clouds over the past 24 hours. AVO has received no new information about activity at Mt. Cleveland today. AVO monitors Mt. Cleveland volcano with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Mt. Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

Beautifully symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Cleveland is joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Mt. Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Mt. Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Cleveland is currently at the YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 11, 2008, 06:04:02 PM
ANATAHAN

As of the 3rd of April, the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (WVAAC) has reported that seismicity at Anatahan decreased during 26-31 March. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 31 March.

The elongate, 9-km-long island of Anatahan in the central Mariana Islands consists of a large stratovolcano with a 2.3 x 5 km, E-W-trending compound summit caldera. The larger western portion of the caldera is 2.3 x 3 km wide, and its western rim forms the island's 790-m high point. Ponded lava flows overlain by pyroclastic deposits fill the floor of the western caldera, whose SW side is cut by a fresh-looking smaller crater. The 2-km-wide eastern portion of the caldera contained a steep-walled inner crater whose floor prior to the 2003 eruption was only 68 m above sea level. A submarine volcano, NE Anatahan, rises to within 460 m of the sea surface on the NE flank of the volcano, and numerous other submarine vents are found on the NE-to-SE flanks. Sparseness of vegetation on the most recent lava flows on Anatahan had indicated that they were of Holocene age, but the first historical eruption of Anatahan did not occur until May 2003, when a large explosive eruption took place forming a new crater inside the eastern caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Anatahan is currently at Alert Level YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

OL DOINYO LENGAI

As of the 8th of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported to INTLVRC that over the past three weeks, Ol Doinyo Lengai has quietened down significantly. Observers report a complete pause in activity lasting about two weeks, and then resuming of relatively small ash eruptions. A thermal anomaly is still visibile on satellite date in the crater of the ash cone.

The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain S of Lake Natron. The cone-building stage of the volcano ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatite and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra eruptions and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater. Petrologists first observed the eruption of carbonatitic lava flows in the 1960s. Subsequent more frequent visits have documented long-term lava effusion in the summit crater that would not have been seen from the foot of the volcano.

The Current Colour Code for Ol Doinyo Lengai is currently at Alert Level YELLOW
~~~~~~~

GALERAS

As of the 9th of April, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto - INGEOMINAS, informs that the seismic activity of the volcano continues in low levels, in occurrence as in energy as much released. The predominant seismicity follows associate with flowed processes of dynamics of of hydrothermal and magmatic origin. Nevertheless, an earthquake associated with processes of fracturing of cortical material stands out, registered the 2nd of April at 1108hrs, with a magnitude of 3.2 on the Richter scale, located to 1 km to the northwest of the crater and with a depth of 3 km with respect to the top of the volcano, that was reported as sensed by people who were in the cabin of National Parks of the Urcunina sector (orients of the volcano). In a fly over carried out in the morning of today, with the support of the Colombian Air Force, stands out a significant gas discharge (mainly water steam), from different sectors from the active cone, including the main crater; with a column of little height (about 400 m on the top), directed towards the western flank; during the flight, scents of sulphured gases in some sectors near the volcanic complex were felt. From another side, thermal images were taken that showed maximum temperatures of 195°C of the main crater. In general, the regions with thermal anomalies are similar to the registered ones during the fly over of the 23rd of January, with slightly greater values for the measurements of today.

Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

The Current Colour Code for Galeras is currently at LEVEL III


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 11, 2008, 06:06:11 PM
NEVADO del HUILA

As of the 10th of April, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, INGEOMINAS reported that according to news articles, communities surrounding Nevado del Huila responded to the raised Alert Level of Orange, established by INGEOMINAS on 29 March. The Local Committee of Disaster Prevention ordered the closing of a school with a student population of 1,100, declared the maximum alert for a local hospital, and facilitated meetings of multiple groups. Residents bought supplies and repaired roads that were key evacuation routes, and sirens were tested each day. Several populations in high-risk areas did not have systems of communication. On 7 April, residents in high-risk areas near the Páez river were evacuated to shelters as a precautionary measure. On 8 April, INGEOMINAS lowered the Alert Level to Yellow due to decreased seismicity during 2-8 April. In addition, no superficial changes associated with the recent activity were observed during an overflight on 5 April.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Nevade del Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Nevado del Huila is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~

PACAYA

As of the 11th of April, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric Conditions: Cleared. Pluvial Precipitation: 12.6 mm. Wind speed: 14.0 km/hr. Direction: Southwest. Activity: Pacaya volcano in Guatemala remains active. On 9th April weak explosions were heard lasting up to 10 minutes. Lava flowed north east a distance of 400 m. Blue/white vapour was visible 300 m above the volcano.

The eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 10th of April, the the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric Conditions: Dimmed. Wind speed: 5.0 Km/h, Direction: South, southwest. Pluvial Precipitation: 1.5 mm. Activity: They continue rumblings and moderate explosions, being moderate in you complete 24 hours: 5 strong rumblings with shock waves, 3 moderate explosions that threw to the atmosphere ash columns, with duration average between 1 and 2 minutes reaching altitudes between 800 and 1.000 m on the crater with southwestern direction and the fine ash west, generating fallen in the neighbourhoods by lapses to of 10 minutes, maintaining gas plumes and ash of 7 kilometres in length, generate small avalanches in the neighbourhoods of the crater. Constant monitoring on the part of the INSIVUMEH stays.

The Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta volcano may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango volcano, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 11, 2008, 06:08:42 PM
SANTA MARIA

As of the 10th of April, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric Conditions: Partially dimmed. Wind speed: 5 km/hr. Direction: Southwest & west. Pluvial Precipitation: 2.6 mm. Activity: Presence of of column of white degassing to heights between 100 and 150 m. On the crater, originating two weak explosions in hours of the dawn, arriving to reach a height of 800 metres, being generated a gas cloud and pens and fine ash of up to 2 km of length with a southwestern direction.

The symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The 3772-m-high stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit of Volcán Santa María to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 5th of April, the Monstserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) reported that measureable activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano has remained low with no significant change throughout the period and the pause in dome growth continues. No good visual observations were possible during the period due to overcast conditions and the lack of helicoptor support. Recorded seismic activity remained low with only one rockfall signal. The recorded sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux rate for the period was lower than during the last reporting period, ranging from a minimum of 382 tonnes per day (t/d) on the 31st of March to a maximum of 905 t/d on the 29th . The average flux rate for the period was 688 t/d. Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains a large mass of mainly hot lava capable of collapsing or exploding. The likelihood of this should decrease with time as it slowly cools with no fresh lava extrusion. During heavy downpours lahar activity in river valleys around the volcano remains a potential hazard. Access to all areas on the southern flanks of the Belham Valley except Isles Bay Hill and the east of the Belham Bridge, is prohibited as is south of Jack Boy Hill to Bramble airport and beyond. The Maritime Exclusion Zone around the southern part of the island extends 4 km off shore from Spanish Point to Roches Yard on the east side of the volcano, 2 km offshore from O'Garras to Sturge Park on the southwest. The alert level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ALERT LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 10th of April, the El Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN) reported that based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 6 April.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 11, 2008, 06:10:43 PM
LLAIMA

As of the 10th of April, the El Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN) reported that during 28 March-4 April, fumarolic plumes from Llaima drifted several tens of kilometres mainly to the SE. Explosions produced ash and gas emissions. An overflight on 2 April of the main crater revealed that gas, pyroclastic material, and ash emissions, occasionally accompanied by small explosions, originated from three cones. On 4 April, several explosions were heard and incandescence was reflected in a gas-and-ash plume.

L laima, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, contains two historically active craters, one at the summit and the other, Pichillaima, to the SE. The massive 3125-m-high, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano has a volume of 400 cu km. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 cu km Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterized by strombolian, hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.

The Current Colour Code for Llaima is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 11th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The explosive activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week. The number of weak shallow earthquakes in the area of the volcano has increased from April 04 to the end of the week. According to seismic data, possible weak ash-gas explosions or hot avalanches occurred at the volcano all week. According to satellite data, a weak ash plume extending about 70-80 km (43-50 mi) to the east-south-east from the volcano was noted on April 8th. A thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano on April 4th-6th.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 11th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. A viscous lava flow is effusing at the lava dome. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was at background levels on April 3rd and 5th-7th, and didn`t exceed background levels in the other days. According to visual and video data, a weak or moderate fumarolic activity was noted on the lava dome all week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the lava dome was observing on April 4th-6th. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 11, 2008, 06:12:35 PM
SHEVELUCH

As of the 11th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported to INTLVRC that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity was slightly above background levels last week: a large number of weak seismic events and a weak volcanic tremor were registering all week. Seismic activity indicates that a growth of the lava dome continues and probably hot avalanches occur each day. According to visual and video data, a moderate fumarolic activity of the dome was observed all week. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered over lava dome all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskoi volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 6th of April, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that the pause in lava dome growth continues, and all CVO's monitoring instruments show trifling or nil volcanic-related activity. This pause, which began in late January 2008, was recognised by absence of measurable growth among successive fixed-camera images, nearly quiescent seismicity, and the absence of tilt signals that might characterise extrusion of lava from the conduit.

CVO continues to monitor closely for evidence of renewed extrusion or other activity. The new lava dome remains hot in places; thus, it is capable of producing hot avalanches or small steam explosions that could cause hazardous conditions in and around the crater. Sudden melting of snow and ice could send small lahars onto the Pumice Plain and perhaps down the Toutle River as far as the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS). Ash clouds from explosions could affect aircraft.

Recent observations: The crater area has been seismically quiet this week. No additional field work was carried out. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at YELLOW
~~~~~~~

COLIMA

As of the 11th of April, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reports that in the last 24 hours, the monitoring of the Colima volcano that the equipment of monitoring of the Colima volcano registered four exhalations during last the twenty-four hours, which has not caused the generation of reports on damages or affectation in the adjacent populations, according to information the Government into the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence Colima. Most of the time, the zone where is the volcano is cleared but due to cold fronts or humidity flows, originating of the Pacific Ocean, still the cloud establishment, light rains and electrical storms in its top is possible; of there the necessity to remind the population to avoid the permanence in bordering ravines, before the possibility of lahars (mud flows). On the other hand, it continues the restriction for the over-flights that do not have scientific aims or of civil defence, and is prohibited the permanence of people other people's to these activities in ravines of the volcano. According to the monitoring and soon after the last report, Wednesday, three white exhalations were detected yesterday, at 1223, 1616 and 1908 hours, with a northeast direction; the first one rose to 400 metres, on the level of the volcanic dome, whereas the two following ones had a height of 200 metres. Today, another white exhalation at 1008hrs has been only registered hours that, with hardly 50 metres of height, went towards the east.

Also constant communication with the communitarian brigade that has formed with inhabitants of the town of the Becerrera, to those who exists has become qualified in the self-protection with respect to the natural disasters. Also, permanent contact with the personnel of the military team of Yerbabuena, La Becerrera in Colima, El Jabalí, and Causentla, Cofradía de Tonila, Atenguillo, El Saucillo, El Fresnal, El Embudo, Juan Barragán, Los Machos, El Agostadero and El Borbollón in Jalisco.

They have been continuing the same recommendations established for months, in which it is indicated that who are or live in zone of risk, follow the indications that this organism transmits through mass media; it is necessary to emphasize that the zone of exclusion of activities for the states of Jalisco and Colima is of 7.5 kilometres from the top of the volcano on the channels of ravines. The radius of preventive alert remains in 11.5 kilometres from the top of the volcano, which includes the populations of La Becerrera in Colima, El Jabalí, and Causentla, Cofradía de Tonila, Atenguillo, El Saucillo, El Fresnal, El Embudo, Juan Barragán, Los Machos, El Agostadero and El Borbollón in Jalisco. The permanence in ravines must be avoided Colima, El Cordobán, San Antonio and Monte Grande, in Colima, and San Antonio and El Muerto, La Tuna, Santa Ana, El Cafecito, La Arena and Beltrán-Durazno in Jalisco.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 11, 2008, 06:15:38 PM
POPOCATEPETL

As of the 11th of April, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system again detected 12 exhalations acompanied by steam and gas. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report CENAPRED can see the volcano with a steam and gas emission. From high to low probability the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions; occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater. There is a permanent monitoring of the volcano to detect any change. The traffic light of volcanic alert remains in YELLOW Phase 2.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~

GUAGUA PICHINCHA

As of the 12th of March, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the activity of the volcano stays in a low level, nevertheless during this week registered a slight increase in the number of volcano-tectonic events, which are related to rupture of rock to the interior of the volcano. Possibly this activity must to a change in the field of efforts within the hydrothermal system of the volcano due to the entrance of a greater amount of fluids, specially from the surface (meteoric water or of rain).

Guagua Pichincha and the older Pleistocene Rucu Pichincha stratovolcanoes form a broad volcanic massif that rises immediately to the west of Ecuador's capital city, Quito. A lava dome is located at the head of a 6-km-wide breached caldera that formed during a late-Pleistocene slope failure of Guagua Pichincha about 50,000 years ago. Subsequent late-Pleistocene and Holocene eruptions from the central vent in the breached caldera consisted of explosive activity with pyroclastic flows accompanied by periodic growth and destruction of the central lava dome. Many minor eruptions have occurred since the beginning of the Spanish era at Guagua Pichincha, which is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. The largest historical eruption took place in 1660, when ash fell over a 1000 km radius, accumulating to 30 cm depth in Quito. Pyroclastic flows and surges also occurred, primarily to the west, and affected agricultural activity, causing great economic losses.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 11th of April, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the volcano continues the episodes of tremor of continuous emission and the presence of few explosions. The emissions, of low and moderate steam and with contents of ash, go to northwest. Ash fall was reported in the near populations. At night incandescent material to the height of the crater was appraised. The only reported noises are related to the explosions. Rains have not appeared nor registered lahars.

The IG reports that seismicity: A total of 18 events of long period (LP), 11 episodes of continuous tremor of emission and 5 explosions has been entered; at 0756hrs (DR = 3.37 cm2, 0926hrs (DR =7.75 cm2, 1307hrs (DR=4.65 cm2, 1358hrs (DR = 4.27 cm2, 1622hrs (DR =4.99 cm2. From noon from today the amplitude of the tremor it descended but it is continued observing steam emissions. Ash, emissions and observations: In last the 24 hours the climate has varied between cleared, to partially dimmed and dimmed. The observed emissions have not surpassed 3 km on the summit being of steam or with low and moderate content of ash. They have gone most of the time to the east and nor-orients. From Ambato fall of fine gray ash was reported and from Baños and heavy ash-gray Runtún. At night he was feasible to observe incandescence the height of the crater, Stromboliana activity and bearing of blocks by flanks up to 500 m under the crater. Rains and lahars: Rains were not reported nor registered lahars. Noises: The happened explosions were accompanied of cannon shots listened to clearly in the environs of the volcano. With the explosions also bearing of blocks was listened to. Roars have not been heard.

Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major volcanic edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 11, 2008, 06:20:26 PM
Mt. ETNA

As of the 3rd of April, it has been reported by Charles Rivière that a new day of bad weather yesterday with 10 cm of snow storm in Sapienza is this morning the sun is back. Work of clearing of the track to the top of the arrival of the cable car with 2500m was useless since once again it is necessary to start again. What corresponds to 2 days of inactivities, in this moment there is very little world on Mt. Etna, the Easter in advance on the calendar, the capricious weather and can be also the raising of prices of the Sapienza excursion - TDF which passed at 49.50 ?. The crew moved towards the refuge of TDF, Chartles has rackets for snow, but not need to use them snow is hard with the cold wind. The crew met a team of the Alpine Helps of Guardia di Finanza and discussed a little of the next voyage in May on the Elbrus Mount, an old inactive volcano in Russia which culminates with more 5600m. While arriving at the refuge of TDF, a rather strong wind coming from North folds back the Northern gas plumes of the craters Is and Central on the driving path towards Bocca Nuova, the crew moved towards the base of the Southern crater Am and pass by the effusive mouth of the activity of July 2001 and of Sudestino (activity of paroxysms of the South East April 2000) this zone is relatively hot with temperatures on the ground of more than 100° centigrade. the magma is not far ! Direction then towards the depression on the side East of the Southern crater Is, the whirling gases which escape from this mouth do not enable the crew to arrive at the edge. No noise of activity, nor of projection of ash.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Mt. Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

The Mt. Etna is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 11th of April, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) has reported that a large explosion occurred at Turvurvur crater, Rabaul Volcano last night at 2129hrs local time. The explosion rattled windows in Rabaul town and covered the cone with fragments of lava. This morning fine ash was falling on Matupit Island. A night glow was visible at the crater.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The Rabaul volcano is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 11th of April, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that Kilauea Volcano is active at two locations. At the summit, a small explosion occurred at 2308hrs. Ash production and elevated sulfur dioxide emissions continued from the Halema`uma`u vent (both assumed from the most recent measurements). Seismic tremor levels continued elevated to several times background levels. At the coast, lava continued to flow from the east rift zone through tubes into the ocean at the Waikupanaha and Ki ocean entries.

Hazard Summary: Hazardous conditions exist in the summit area and the area between the rift zone (Pu`u `O`o to Kupaianaha) downslope to the ocean between Kalapana and Kapa`ahu.

1. Summit: The current increase in sulfur dioxide emission rates at the summit means that SO2 concentrations in the air are likely to be at hazardous levels for areas downwind of emission sources in Halema`uma`u crater. The National Park Service has closed Crater Rim Drive through the south caldera area until further notice. Most people are sensitive to sulfur dioxide at these levels. Children and individuals with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or other breathing problems especially should avoid downwind areas. During tradewind conditions (brisk winds from the northeast), concentrations will be highest and most hazardous in the south caldera: southwest rift zone, south caldera pullouts, and the Halema`uma`u overlook parking lot - The National Park Service has closed this section of Crater Rim Drive. During weak or southerly winds, concentrations may be high and hazardous throughout the summit area of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and nearby communities. Stay informed about SO2 concentrations in continuously monitored areas at Jaggar Museum and Kilauea Visitor Centre. The gas plume also includes fine rock dust downwind of the source. During the past few days, several people have reported a fine grit on their car windshields while driving under or in the ash plume along highway 11. The possibility of future small explosions or eruption of lava from Halema`uma`u Crater cannot be ruled out.

2. Pu`u `O`o/July 21/TEB flow field: Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Pu`u `O`o are high and result in hazardous concentrations downwind. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Wao Kele o Puna is also closed.

Cont'd next post


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 11, 2008, 06:21:21 PM
3. There continues to be a threat from lava flows to anyone within Royal Gardens subdivision and the coastal plain. As long as lava flows are active south of fissure D, the subdivision is within likely paths of future flows. The rootless shields, which are now less than two miles from the subdivision, can collapse and release lava flows that advance that distance within a few days. Tube- or channel-fed lava flows established within the subdivision and on the coastal plain remain a threat due to tube ruptures which can produce new lava flows. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air. Hawai`i County Civil Defence has been notified and is taking appropriate measures.

4. Lava entering the ocean poses two additional hazards - potential collapse and laze. Lava entering the ocean builds a delta over its own rubble that is extremely unstable. That delta can collapse without warning and expose very hot surfaces to waves which can explode and throw rock debris up to one-quarter mile inland. For these reason, spectators should avoid the delta and the area one-quarter mile inland. The interaction between seawater and lava produces a steam plume laced with acids and fine particles of volcanic glass or 'laze' that is unhealthy if inhaled and can produce skin or eye irritation if contacted. Hawai`i County continues to open a public viewing area between 1400hrs and 2200hrs with the last car allowed in at 2000hrs.

TEB lava flows at the coast as of yesterday evening (from combined HVO and NPS eruption crew reports): Three Waikupanaha and one Ki ocean entries (total of 4) were active yesterday, although the Ki entry seemed to be foundering in the evening. No surface flows were found on the coastal plain during the day, but a breakout near the road was noted around 2200hrs.

Last 24 hours in the area of the east rift zone that includes Pu`u `O`o and the TEB vent: Lava continued to degas at shallow levels beneath Pu`u `O`o before entering the lava tube system under the TEB vent and the rootless shield complex and flowing southeast to the ocean. The lack of surface flow activity along the tube indicates that it continues to be stable. No incandescence was observed from the TEB vent, the rootless shields, or in Pu`u `O`o crater by webcam overnight. The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter recorded daily oscillations. GPS receivers on opposite sides of the crater have recorded no extension or contraction above measurement error since March 27. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values; episodic seismic tremor bursts continued. The SO2 emission rate was about 1,780 tonnes/day when last measured on April 8.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: HVO's data suggest that molten lava may reside at shallow depth within the new vent. A small explosion at 2308hrs ejected a few blocks up to the rim of Halema`uma`u crater, a little more than 70 m (230 ft) above the vent. By morning light, the vent appeared enlarged; the most obvious change was the removal of a lava rim that separated the vent from the crater floor. The April 9 explosion was smaller than the March 19 event. Preliminary data showed that the debris from last night's explosion differed from the March 19 debris in three important ways: 1) the size of the deposit was smaller, 2) the debris was deposited in a more southerly direction, and 3) the debris contained volcanic glass shards. Many of the ejected fragments were hot enough to melt through the plastic ash collectors. A white plume continued to issue from the vent; returned trade winds is blowing the plume to the west and southwest. HVO cannot confirm the production of ash because the collectors were, in a sense, contaminated by the explosion debris; no ash was detected falling from the plume this morning. Overnight, the base of the plume glowed between passing fog, but was dark briefly just after the explosion.

Seismic tremor levels continued to be elevated to several times background values. The summit tiltmeter network recorded the completion of Tuesday's DI tilt event and daily oscillations. GPS receivers on opposite sides of the summit caldera recorded slowed contraction since late March. Two earthquakes were located beneath the summit caldera and two on south flank faults. Wind speeds were not sufficient yesterday morning to get an SO2 emission rate; the most recent measurement was 800 tonnes/day on April 7, compared to a background rate of between 150-200 tonnes/day. Shifting winds yesterday included much of the summit in SO2 levels that peaked just over 0.6 ppm. With the return of trade winds, the SO2 concentrations are below detection limits this morning.

Definitions of terms used in the update: mauka, makai: Hawaiian terms for the direction toward the mountains and toward the ocean, respectively. incandescence: the production of visible light from a hot surface. The colour of the light is related to the temperature of the surface. Some surfaces can display dull red incandescence at temperatures as low as 430 degrees Centigrade (806 degrees Fahrenheit). By contrast, molten lava displays bright orange to orange-yellow light from surfaces that are hotter than 900 degrees C (1,650 degrees F). TEB: The most recent phase of activity started with a breakout from the perched channel/pond system on November 21, 2007 or Thanksgiving eve. TEB stands for Thanksgiving Eve Breakout. kipuka: a Hawaiian word which describes an area of vegetation that is completely surrounded by active or inactive lava flows. NPS eruption crew: a hardy band of experienced individuals who interpret active lava flow viewing for visitors while keeping them at a safe distance. The National Park Service (NPS) eruption crews normally work within the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park but have been supporting the Hawai`i County lava viewing effort since it opened on Saturday, March 8, 2008. rootless shields: Shield vents are normally built directly over a lava-supplying fissure, as is the case for the TEB shield. Rootless shield vents are not built directly over a lava-supplying fissure and are, instead, fed horizontally from a fissure via a lava tube. Rootless shields have been built over lava tubes in the last few years. perched ponds or channels: A lava pond or channel becomes perched above the surrounding terrain when repeated overflows build up their edges. The perching continues as long as the overflows continue. The channel developed by the July 21, 2007 eruption perched itself more than 100 feet above the pre-eruption ground surface. gas emission rates: usually in metric tonnes (= 1,000 kilograms)/day if measured at HVO, a gas emission rate is the rate at which gas is released by a volcanic vent. Typical background SO2 emission rates for Kilauea are 150-200 tonnes/day from sources in Halema`uma`u crater and 1,500-3,000 tonnes/day from Pu`u `O`o vent. Once the gas is released into the air, the hazard it poses to living things is directly related to its concentration. Higher concentrations are found downwind of sources so changes in wind direction and speed can bring gases at hazardous concentrations into different areas. LP earthquakes: Most volcanic earthquakes that occur in Hawai`i are short-period (SP) in nature, meaning that the shaking starts abruptly and contains relatively high frequency components; these quakes are usually associated with subsurface rock failure (breakage). Long-period (LP) earthquakes have lower frequency energy and emergent beginnings, meaning that their signals start with small amplitude and become stronger. LP earthquakes are usually associated with subsurface fluid movement. DI tilt event: DI is an abbreviation for 'deflation-inflation' and describes a volcanic event of uncertain significance. DI events are recorded by tiltmeters at Kilauea summit as an abrupt deflation of up to a few microradians in magnitude lasting several hours to 2-3 days followed by an abrupt inflation of approximately equal magnitude. The tilt events are usually accompanied by an increase in summit tremor during the deflation phase. A careful analysis of these events suggests that they may be related to changes in magma supply to a storage reservoir at less than 1 km depth, just east of Halema`uma`u crater. Usually, though not always, these changes propagate through the magma conduit from the summit to the eruption site, as many of the DI events at Kilauea summit are also recorded at a tiltmeter at Pu`u `O`o, delayed by 1-2 hours. DI events often correlate with pulses and/or pauses in the eruption at the Pu`u `O`o/July 21/TEB vents.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 11, 2008, 06:22:42 PM
ARENAL

As of the 1st of April, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that the volcano has been erupting almost every day since 1968. Recently, the lava is streaming down every 5 minutes or so but it could vary from 2 to 45 minutes depending if the volcano is in a quiet or active period. It's moody, just like some people.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

YASUR

As of the 9th of April, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that a major earthquake (magnitude 7.6) hit southern Vanuatu today at 2346hrs local time. The earthquake was located east of the South New Hebrides Trench and 97 km SW of Yasur volcano. The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre said there was no tsunami threat. The main earthquake was preceded by a large and two medium sized earthquakes; magnitude 6.5, 5.9, and 4.9. Yasur is the closest active volcano to the earthquake epicentre and is currently erupting.

Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time ! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Projectile ejection Yasur volcano has not produced a large destructive eruption historically. There is no indication that a large eruption will occur in the near future at Yasur volcano. Magma chamber inflation is currently being accommodated by the volcano. The largest reasonable level of activity expected is the ejection of bombs 3-4 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows threatening low lying areas near the volcano. This type of activity would pose a danger to nearby villages. Ground deformation Yasur volcano has the second greatest level of ground uplift in the world. Since 1000 AD there has been a yearly average uplift of 149 mm. This is only beaten by Iwo Jima volcano in Japan with 200 mm uplift per year since 1200 AD. Tsunami Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes, and landslides may result in the production of tsunamis which may threaten coastal populations. Flooding Lake Siwi broke through its natural dam in 2002 flooding Sulphur Bay Village and destroying houses. Landslides Landslide and debris flow pose significant risks to the surrounding population. Uplift of the caldera creates unstable ground, combined with the deposition of unstable ash and cinders. Ashfall Periods of strong volcanic activity may cause ashfall over large areas of Tanna Island. Ashfall can damage crops, cause roofs to collapse, and result in mudflows after rain. Gas samples collected from the plume crossing Yasur crater rim in 1988 contained SO2 and HCl gases at concentrations between 3 and 9 ppm. This is a hazardous level of gas. This level of SO2 causes a decrease in lung function and immediate irritation of eyes nose and throat. Lava Flow Lava flows occur infrequently at Yasur volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on April 11, 2008, 06:24:03 PM
STROMBOLI

As of the 1st of April, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that Stromboli continues with its relentless eruptions. The volcano is remarkable because of the length of time for which it has been in almost continuous eruption. For at least the last 2,000 years, the same pattern of eruption has been maintained, in which explosions occur at the summit craters with mild to moderate eruptions of incandescent volcanic bombs at intervals ranging from minutes to hours. This characteristic Strombolian eruption, as it is known, is also observed at other volcanoes worldwide. Eruptions from the summit craters typically result in few second-lasting mild energetic bursts emitting ash, incandescent lava fragments and lithic blocks up to a few hundred meters high. Stromboli's activity is almost exclusively explosive, but lava flows do occasionally occur - an effusive eruption in 2002 was its first in 17 years.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of April, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that the volcano continues to have frequent Strombolian eruptions with infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows are confined to inner crater. Some of the notable features of Mt. Erebus are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activity. One of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes. Thsi volcano is the most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring and interpretation of seismic and seismoacoustic activity volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the world's southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on April 11, 2008, 06:41:40 PM
WOW! - Thanks for the update Brother!

I wonder if anyone has reported any of this to Al Gore. After all, Any ONE of these volcanoes could GLOBALLY effect the climate. Maybe the countries of origins of these volcanoes should be paying Al Gore a tax for emissions. UM? - I wonder if CARBON could be involved? Al really needs to put on his helmet and go CORK those VOLCANOES.


Title: Thousands Evacuate as Colombian Volcano Erupts in Shower of Hot Ash
Post by: Shammu on April 15, 2008, 01:32:42 PM
Thousands Evacuate as Colombian Volcano Erupts in Shower of Hot Ash

Tuesday, April 15, 2008

Colombia's Nevado del Huila volcano erupted in a shower of hot ash, prompting authorities to evacuate thousands of people and declare a state of alert.

There were no reports of damage or injuries.

The volcano, 150 miles southwest of Bogata, erupted at 11:08 p.m. Monday (0508 GMT Tuesday), according to the Colombian Institute of Geology and Mining.

Martha Calvache, deputy director of the institute's seismic department, told Caracol Radio that authorities were unable to estimate the size of the eruption.

She said the volcano was expelling ash. "Other types of material could come, like lava, but we don't at the moment know the exact situation," she said.

Caracol Radio reported that between 13,000 and 15,000 people who live near the volcano were being evacuated.

Thousands Evacuate as Colombian Volcano Erupts in Shower of Hot Ash (http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,351294,00.html)


Title: Volcano Awakens After 10,000 Years
Post by: Shammu on May 10, 2008, 12:09:58 PM
Volcano Awakens After 10,000 Years <---- (I disagree with the time frame. DW)
Source: The Associated Press
Posted: 05/03/08 3:24PM

SANTIAGO, Chile (May 3) - Authorities evacuated hundreds of people from villages in southern Chile Friday after a snowcapped volcano considered dormant for thousands of years erupted. The blast sent minor earthquakes rippling through the region.

The 3,550-foot Chaiten volcano belched fire and ash Thursday night, causing more than 60 small tremors in the Los Lagos region, 750 miles south of the capital, Santiago, the government's Emergency Bureau said.

Mild seismic activity could continue for the next several days, said bureau director Carmen Fernandez.

Chile's government declared a state of emergency, evacuating as many as 1,500 people from nearby villages and the town of Chaiten, just over 6 miles from the volcano, the bureau said.

The amount of ash falling in Chaiten had dropped considerably by Friday afternoon, and the wind was moving it southeast, Emergency Bureau volcanologist Juan Cayupi told The Associated Press by telephone there.

Ash from the eruption was polluting water supplies and prompting officials to hand out more than 10,000 protective masks, said Interior Minister Edmundo Perez.

Military, police, doctors and seismologists traveled to the region by sea to avoid the area's remote mountain roads, Los Lagos Gov. Sergio Galilea said.

Winds also carried ash over the Andes mountains to neighboring Argentina, where the Education Ministry suspended classes in several towns, including Esquel and Trevelin -- two popular Patagonian tourist destinations.

Authorities there declared a state of alert on two major highways as falling ash reduced visibility.

The Chaiten volcano has "probably been dormant for about 9,000 or 10,000 years but that's not unusual," said Charles Stern, a professor of volcanology at the University of Colorado, who specializes in Andes volcanoes.

Stern, who has studied Chaiten specifically, said it is still considered "a potentially active volcano."

Chaiten last had "an explosive eruption that generated a very big ash cloud," he added. "I would really worry about the village of Chaiten. I think they would want to get everybody out of there really soon."

Volcano Awakens After 10,000 Years (http://news.aol.ca/article/Volcano-Awakens-After-10000-Years/216844/)


Title: Re: VolcanoesChile Llaima volcano revs up, evacuations considered
Post by: Shammu on July 11, 2008, 12:29:17 AM
Chile Llaima volcano revs up, evacuations considered

Thu Jul 10, 2008 7:28pm EDT

By Rodrigo Martinez

SANTIAGO (Reuters) - Chile's National Emergency Office (Onemi) said on Thursday it extended a red alert to additional locales near the Llaima volcano, even though the intensity of the volcanic activity had decreased.

 Play Video  (http://www.reuters.com/news/video?videoId=86218&newsChannel=scienceNews)

Llaima, one of the most active volcanoes in South America, spewed pyroclastic rock 1,300 feet into night skies early Thursday morning, spooking residents a week after lava shot down one of its sides.

Onemi said later in the day that 19 people were in the process of being evacuated from around the volcano's base, including six employees at the Las Araucarias ski resort.

The office said it decided to evacuate the areas even though the intensity of volcanic activity decreased in the day.

"It's a phenomenon that can undergo big fluctuations, so we think there is still a risk that the Calbuco and Lan Lan rivers could overflow," Onemi Director Carmen Fernandez told Reuters.

Llaima, about 435 miles south of the capital Santiago, belched fiery volcanic rocks into the sky above its crater at 3:20 a.m. and the images were caught on national television.

Onemi activated emergency committees in the villages of Vilcun, Melipeuco and Curacautin as a result, also putting local police and fire departments on alert.

Snow-capped Llaima, near Chile's picturesque lake region, erupted violently on New Year's Day, forcing the evacuation of some tourists and residents from the surrounding Conguillio National Park.

The 10,253-foot volcano then belched ash and lava in February and saw renewed activity last week that required the evacuation of about 50 people

Chile Llaima volcano revs up, evacuations considered (http://www.reuters.com/articlePrint?articleId=USN1019953020080710)


Title: Huge Volcanoes May Be Erupting Under Arctic Ice
Post by: Shammu on July 11, 2008, 07:07:07 PM
Huge Volcanoes May Be Erupting Under Arctic Ice

Wednesday, July 02, 2008
By Jeanna Bryner


New evidence deep beneath the Arctic ice suggests a series of underwater volcanoes have erupted in violent explosions in the past decade.

Hidden 2.5 miles (4,000 meters) beneath the Arctic surface, the volcanoes are up to a mile (2,000 meters) in diameter and a few hundred yards tall.

They formed along the Gakkel Ridge, a lengthy crack in the ocean crust where two rocky plates are spreading apart, pulling new melted rock to the surface.

Until now, scientists thought undersea volcanoes only dribbled lava from cracks in the seafloor. The extreme pressure from the overlying water makes it difficult for gas and magma to blast outward.

But the Gakkel Ridge, which is relatively unexplored and considered unique for its slow spreading rate, is just the place for surprises.

Robert Reeves-Sohn of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Massachusetts and his colleagues discovered jagged, glassy fragments of rock scattered around the volcanoes, suggesting explosive eruptions occurred between 1999 and 2001.

They hypothesize that the slow spreading could allow excess gas to build up in pockets of magma beneath the oceanic crust. When the gas pressure gets high enough, it pops like a champagne bottle being uncorked.

With news this week that polar ice is melting dramatically, underwater Arctic pyrotechnics might seem like a logical smoking gun.

Scientists don't see any significant connection, however.

"We don't believe the volcanoes had much effect on the overlying ice," Reeves-Sohn told LiveScience, "but they seem to have had a major impact on the overlying water column."

The eruptions discharge large amounts of carbon dioxide, helium, trace metals and heat into the water over long distances, he said.

The research, detailed in the June 26 issue of the journal Nature, was funded by NASA, the National Science Foundation and WHOI.

Huge Volcanoes May Be Erupting Under Arctic Ice (http://www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_story/0,3566,374542,00.html)


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Soldier4Christ on July 13, 2008, 01:13:21 AM
Remote Alaska volcano erupts, spewing rock and ash

A volcano erupted Saturday with little warning on a remote island in Alaska, sending residents of a nearby ranch fleeing from falling ash and volcanic rock.

The Okmok Caldera erupted late Saturday morning, just hours after seismologists at the Alaska Volcano Center began detecting a series of small tremors.

The explosion flung an ash cloud at least 50,000 feet high, said geophysicist Steve McNutt.

Nine people, including three children, were at Fort Glenn, a private cattle ranch six miles south of the volcano on Umnak Island, located in the western Aleutians. They managed to call authorities on a satellite phone before losing their connection.

A vessel responding to a Coast Guard request for emergency assistance managed to pick them up Saturday night, and the Coast Guard canceled plans to send its own cutter to the island, which is about 860 miles southwest of Anchorage.

Coast Guard Petty Officer Lee Goldsmith said those at the ranch reported rock and ash falling around them.

Okmok is 60 miles west of the busy fishing port of Dutch Harbor on Unalaska Island. Ash was reported falling in the region, McNutt said.

Two planned flights from Unalaska were canceled in response to the eruption, said Jerry Lucas, a spokesman for PenAir, the primary airliner serving the area.

The 3,500-foot volcano last erupted in 1997, according to McNutt. The volcano has shown signs of increased activity during the last few months, he said.

Previous eruptions have typically produced lava flows, but the volcano center could not immediately determine if that had occurred in Saturday's explosion, McNutt said.


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on July 14, 2008, 02:46:50 AM
Quote
New evidence deep beneath the Arctic ice suggests a series of underwater volcanoes have erupted in violent explosions in the past decade.

Hidden 2.5 miles (4,000 meters) beneath the Arctic surface, the volcanoes are up to a mile (2,000 meters) in diameter and a few hundred yards tall.

They formed along the Gakkel Ridge, a lengthy crack in the ocean crust where two rocky plates are spreading apart, pulling new melted rock to the surface.

I think this is just a tiny example of the massive POWER GOD has locked up in HIS CREATION! This is more than enough to make me say WOW! Our ALL POWERFUL CREATOR made this volcano. How many other things did HE make that we don't know anything about? Can man make anything that compares? NO! Our biggest nuclear weapons would be like toys. Is it a coincidence that we are learning about and seeing things like this during these specific times? I don't think so, but I don't claim to know anything special at all. We have been able to read Bible Prophecy recorded in the Holy Bible for thousands of years. Much of it is too horrible for men to even imagine, but the events are the Promises of the CREATOR! The events will happen at HIS chosen time that HE set before the current earth had any form.

GOD gave us HIS WORD, the Holy Bible, for many reasons, HIS Reasons. HE gave us Bible Prophecy to inform us of future events HE wants us to know about. We are HIS Children, so we know there is a reason for everything HE tells us in HIS WORD. HIS WORD will endure forever because HE said it would. Likewise, Bible Prophecy will happen because HE said it WILL! We don't understand everything GOD has told us in HIS WORD, but we must believe it because HE said it!

I've posted the two following messages before, but I want to post them again. They will give everyone an idea about where to read about what GOD said is about to happen!


Love In Christ,
Tom



Christian Quotes 99 -
But we see a more favored spot of grass
As the sheep of His pasture, He has allotted our portion
for us. But we see a more favored spot of grass on the
opposite valley. The sunbeams are playing upon it. We
imagine the herbage is greener and more luxuriant. We
cross to the other valley. The sun gets behind a cloud.
The bright patch is found to be in reality no better than
that which we had left!
What divine philosophy there is in the Apostle's injunction,
"Be content with such things as you have; for He has said,
I will never leave you nor forsake you." Hebrews 13:5
 -- John MacDuff  1895


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on July 14, 2008, 02:49:54 AM
Matthew 24:23-31 NASB  "Then if anyone says to you, 'Behold, here is the Christ,' or 'There He is,' do not believe him.  24  "For false Christs and false prophets will arise and will show great signs and wonders, so as to mislead, if possible, even the elect.  25  "Behold, I have told you in advance.  26  "So if they say to you, 'Behold, He is in the wilderness,' do not go out, or, 'Behold, He is in the inner rooms,' do not believe them.  27  "For just as the lightning comes from the east and flashes even to the west, so will the coming of the Son of Man be.  28  "Wherever the corpse is, there the vultures will gather.  29  "But immediately after the tribulation of those days THE SUN WILL BE DARKENED, AND THE MOON WILL NOT GIVE ITS LIGHT, AND THE STARS WILL FALL from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken.  30  "And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the SON OF MAN COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF THE SKY with power and great glory.  31  "And He will send forth His angels with A GREAT TRUMPET and THEY WILL GATHER TOGETHER His elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other.

Matthew 24:32-44 NASB  "Now learn the parable from the fig tree: when its branch has already become tender and puts forth its leaves, you know that summer is near;  33  so, you too, when you see all these things, recognize that He is near, right at the door.  34  "Truly I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place.  35  "Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will not pass away.  36  "But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone.  37  "For the coming of the Son of Man will be just like the days of Noah.  38  "For as in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark,  39  and they did not understand until the flood came and took them all away; so will the coming of the Son of Man be.  40  "Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken and one will be left.  41  "Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken and one will be left.  42  "Therefore be on the alert, for you do not know which day your Lord is coming.  43  "But be sure of this, that if the head of the house had known at what time of the night the thief was coming, he would have been on the alert and would not have allowed his house to be broken into.  44  "For this reason you also must be ready; for the Son of Man is coming at an hour when you do not think He will.

Revelation 11:1-13 NASB  Then there was given me a measuring rod like a staff; and someone said, "Get up and measure the temple of God and the altar, and those who worship in it.  2  "Leave out the court which is outside the temple and do not measure it, for it has been given to the nations; and they will tread under foot the holy city for forty-two months.  3  "And I will grant authority to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy for twelve hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth."  4  These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth.  5  And if anyone wants to harm them, fire flows out of their mouth and devours their enemies; so if anyone wants to harm them, he must be killed in this way.  6  These have the power to shut up the sky, so that rain will not fall during the days of their prophesying; and they have power over the waters to turn them into blood, and to strike the earth with every plague, as often as they desire.  7  When they have finished their testimony, the beast that comes up out of the abyss will make war with them, and overcome them and kill them.  8  And their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city which mystically is called Sodom and Egypt, where also their Lord was crucified.  9  Those from the peoples and tribes and tongues and nations will look at their dead bodies for three and a half days, and will not permit their dead bodies to be laid in a tomb.  10  And those who dwell on the earth will rejoice over them and celebrate; and they will send gifts to one another, because these two prophets tormented those who dwell on the earth.  11  But after the three and a half days, the breath of life from God came into them, and they stood on their feet; and great fear fell upon those who were watching them.  12  And they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, "Come up here." Then they went up into heaven in the cloud, and their enemies watched them.  13  And in that hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell; seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven.

Ezekiel 7:1-9 NASB  Moreover, the word of the LORD came to me saying,  2  "And you, son of man, thus says the Lord GOD to the land of Israel, 'An end! The end is coming on the four corners of the land.  3  'Now the end is upon you, and I will send My anger against you; I will judge you according to your ways and bring all your abominations upon you.  4  'For My eye will have no pity on you, nor will I spare you, but I will bring your ways upon you, and your abominations will be among you; then you will know that I am the LORD!'  5  "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'A disaster, unique disaster, behold it is coming!  6  'An end is coming; the end has come! It has awakened against you; behold, it has come!  7  'Your doom has come to you, O inhabitant of the land. The time has come, the day is near--tumult rather than joyful shouting on the mountains.  8  'Now I will shortly pour out My wrath on you and spend My anger against you; judge you according to your ways and bring on you all your abominations.  9  'My eye will show no pity nor will I spare. I will repay you according to your ways, while your abominations are in your midst; then you will know that I, the LORD, do the smiting.

Ezekiel 7:14-20 NASB  'They have blown the trumpet and made everything ready, but no one is going to the battle, for My wrath is against all their multitude.  15  'The sword is outside and the plague and the famine are within. He who is in the field will die by the sword; famine and the plague will also consume those in the city.  16  'Even when their survivors escape, they will be on the mountains like doves of the valleys, all of them mourning, each over his own iniquity.  17  'All hands will hang limp and all knees will become like water.  18  'They will gird themselves with sackcloth and shuddering will overwhelm them; and shame will be on all faces and baldness on all their heads.  19  'They will fling their silver into the streets and their gold will become an abhorrent thing; their silver and their gold will not be able to deliver them in the day of the wrath of the LORD. They cannot satisfy their appetite nor can they fill their stomachs, for their iniquity has become an occasion of stumbling.  20  'They transformed the beauty of His ornaments into pride, and they made the images of their abominations and their detestable things with it; therefore I will make it an abhorrent thing to them.

Ezekiel 7:25-27 NASB  'When anguish comes, they will seek peace, but there will be none.  26  'Disaster will come upon disaster and rumor will be added to rumor; then they will seek a vision from a prophet, but the law will be lost from the priest and counsel from the elders.  27  'The king will mourn, the prince will be clothed with horror, and the hands of the people of the land will tremble. According to their conduct I will deal with them, and by their judgments I will judge them. And they will know that I am the LORD.'"


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: nChrist on July 14, 2008, 02:51:04 AM
Ezekiel 38:14-23 NASB  "Therefore prophesy, son of man, and say to Gog, 'Thus says the Lord GOD, "On that day when My people Israel are living securely, will you not know it?  15  "You will come from your place out of the remote parts of the north, you and many peoples with you, all of them riding on horses, a great assembly and a mighty army;  16  and you will come up against My people Israel like a cloud to cover the land. It shall come about in the last days that I will bring you against My land, so that the nations may know Me when I am sanctified through you before their eyes, O Gog."  17  'Thus says the Lord GOD, "Are you the one of whom I spoke in former days through My servants the prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days for many years that I would bring you against them?  18  "It will come about on that day, when Gog comes against the land of Israel," declares the Lord GOD, "that My fury will mount up in My anger.  19  "In My zeal and in My blazing wrath I declare that on that day there will surely be a great earthquake in the land of Israel.  20  "The fish of the sea, the birds of the heavens, the beasts of the field, all the creeping things that creep on the earth, and all the men who are on the face of the earth will shake at My presence; the mountains also will be thrown down, the steep pathways will collapse and every wall will fall to the ground.  21  "I will call for a sword against him on all My mountains," declares the Lord GOD. "Every man's sword will be against his brother.  22  "With pestilence and with blood I will enter into judgment with him; and I will rain on him and on his troops, and on the many peoples who are with him, a torrential rain, with hailstones, fire and brimstone.  23  "I will magnify Myself, sanctify Myself, and make Myself known in the sight of many nations; and they will know that I am the LORD."'

Ezekiel 39:1-7 NASB  "And you, son of man, prophesy against Gog and say, 'Thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I am against you, O Gog, prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal;  2  and I will turn you around, drive you on, take you up from the remotest parts of the north and bring you against the mountains of Israel.  3  "I will strike your bow from your left hand and dash down your arrows from your right hand.  4  "You will fall on the mountains of Israel, you and all your troops and the peoples who are with you; I will give you as food to every kind of predatory bird and beast of the field.  5  "You will fall on the open field; for it is I who have spoken," declares the Lord GOD.  6  "And I will send fire upon Magog and those who inhabit the coastlands in safety; and they will know that I am the LORD.  7  "My holy name I will make known in the midst of My people Israel; and I will not let My holy name be profaned anymore. And the nations will know that I am the LORD, the Holy One in Israel.

Ezekiel 39:17-22 NASB  "As for you, son of man, thus says the Lord GOD, 'Speak to every kind of bird and to every beast of the field, "Assemble and come, gather from every side to My sacrifice which I am going to sacrifice for you, as a great sacrifice on the mountains of Israel, that you may eat flesh and drink blood.  18  "You will eat the flesh of mighty men and drink the blood of the princes of the earth, as though they were rams, lambs, goats and bulls, all of them fatlings of Bashan.  19  "So you will eat fat until you are glutted, and drink blood until you are drunk, from My sacrifice which I have sacrificed for you.  20  "You will be glutted at My table with horses and charioteers, with mighty men and all the men of war," declares the Lord GOD.  21  "And I will set My glory among the nations; and all the nations will see My judgment which I have executed and My hand which I have laid on them.  22  "And the house of Israel will know that I am the LORD their God from that day onward.

Ezekiel 39:25-29 NASB  Therefore thus says the Lord GOD, "Now I will restore the fortunes of Jacob and have mercy on the whole house of Israel; and I will be jealous for My holy name.  26  "They will forget their disgrace and all their treachery which they perpetrated against Me, when they live securely on their own land with no one to make them afraid.  27  "When I bring them back from the peoples and gather them from the lands of their enemies, then I shall be sanctified through them in the sight of the many nations.  28  "Then they will know that I am the LORD their God because I made them go into exile among the nations, and then gathered them again to their own land; and I will leave none of them there any longer.  29  "I will not hide My face from them any longer, for I will have poured out My Spirit on the house of Israel," declares the Lord GOD.

Isaiah 2:1-5 NASB  The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.  2  Now it will come about that In the last days The mountain of the house of the LORD Will be established as the chief of the mountains, And will be raised above the hills; And all the nations will stream to it.  3  And many peoples will come and say, "Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; That He may teach us concerning His ways And that we may walk in His paths." For the law will go forth from Zion And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.  4  And He will judge between the nations, And will render decisions for many peoples; And they will hammer their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not lift up sword against nation, And never again will they learn war.  5  Come, house of Jacob, and let us walk in the light of the LORD.

Isaiah 9:2-7 NASB  The people who walk in darkness Will see a great light; Those who live in a dark land, The light will shine on them.  3  You shall multiply the nation, You shall increase their gladness; They will be glad in Your presence As with the gladness of harvest, As men rejoice when they divide the spoil.  4  For You shall break the yoke of their burden and the staff on their shoulders, The rod of their oppressor, as at the battle of Midian.  5  For every boot of the booted warrior in the battle tumult, And cloak rolled in blood, will be for burning, fuel for the fire.  6  For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.  7  There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, On the throne of David and over his kingdom, To establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness From then on and forevermore. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will accomplish this.

Isaiah 65:17-25 NASB  "For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; And the former things will not be remembered or come to mind.  18  "But be glad and rejoice forever in what I create; For behold, I create Jerusalem for rejoicing And her people for gladness.  19  "I will also rejoice in Jerusalem and be glad in My people; And there will no longer be heard in her The voice of weeping and the sound of crying.  20  "No longer will there be in it an infant who lives but a few days, Or an old man who does not live out his days; For the youth will die at the age of one hundred And the one who does not reach the age of one hundred Will be thought accursed.  21  "They will build houses and inhabit them; They will also plant vineyards and eat their fruit.  22  "They will not build and another inhabit, They will not plant and another eat; For as the lifetime of a tree, so will be the days of My people, And My chosen ones will wear out the work of their hands.  23  "They will not labor in vain, Or bear children for calamity; For they are the offspring of those blessed by the LORD, And their descendants with them.  24  "It will also come to pass that before they call, I will answer; and while they are still speaking, I will hear.  25  "The wolf and the lamb will graze together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox; and dust will be the serpent's food. They will do no evil or harm in all My holy mountain," says the LORD.


Title: Yellowstone Park A Ticking Bomb
Post by: Shammu on July 18, 2008, 12:44:44 AM
Yellowstone Park A Ticking Bomb
Jul 12, 2008

(WCCO) Three million visitors go to Yellowstone National Park each year, but little do they know, it's the world's largest active volcano.

It's the country's first national park for obvious reasons. The beauty and wonder of Yellowstone provide a protected home for wildlife as well as being an amazing tourist attraction. It's an incredible piece of earth for a good reason.

"There is this huge volcano underneath Yellowstone National Park," said Greg Breining, a writer from St. Paul.

Breining spent some time studying the geology and enjoying the natural wonders of Yellowstone before writing Super Volcano: The Ticking Time Bomb Beneath Yellowstone National Park.

"There is this huge reservoir of magma just 3 or 4 miles beneath the surface of the park, and it is that magma -- this is still an active volcano -- that creates the geysers, the mudpots, the hot springs, all the other features for which Yellowstone is famous," said Breining.

The volcano here has erupted three times in the past 2 million years at fairly regular intervals of every 600,000 to 700,000 years.

The last blast was about 640,000 years ago.

Volcanic eruptions around the world today give us only a small glimpse of what another explosion at Yellowstone would be like. Thick ash deposits would bury large parts of the United States and volcanic gases could drastically affect the global climate.

"The aerosols that wind up high into the atmosphere circle the globe, and for a period of 20 years, 30 years, we would have cool cloudy weather as a result. Agriculture would be less successful than normal, and people would die by the millions," said Breining.

Nearly 30 years ago, Mount St. Helens near the Washington/Oregon border erupted killing 57 people and blowing more than a 1000 feet off the top of the mountain.

"We think of mount St. Helens -- went off in 1980 -- as a big explosion, and indeed it was," said Breining. "The most recent Yellowstone explosion was a thousand times larger than Mount St. Helens."

Scientists carefully watch what's happening with the earth at Yellowstone and it's very interesting.

"Indeed the land beneath Yellowstone is rising and falling like ... you know, somebody breathing," said Breining.

You don't have to be a scientist to be impressed with the wonder and mysterious beauty of Yellowstone, all due to the fact that just beneath the surface lies a napping volcano.

"So, it's going to go off again. It's still hot, it's still active. Will it happen in our life times? Chances are microscopic," said Breining. "I wouldn't put my vacation to Yellowstone on hold, though. I think I'd feel pretty safe in going."

Breining is also writing about the volcanic ash that blew out the last time the Yellowstone volcano erupted.

It reached as far as parts of Iowa and left amazing fossil remains in Nebraska.

Yellowstone Park A Ticking Bomb (http://wcco.com/specialreports/yellowstone.park.volcano.2.769661.html)


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 30, 2008, 11:54:33 PM
Well I'm only going to post everything happening since, July 1st. It's been a while since I've up-dated this topic.
~~~~~~~~~~~~

Kliuchevskoi

As of the 29th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that seismic activity of the volcano has been gradually increasing since June. The activity of the volcano, possibly, could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of the volcano was slightly above background levels all week: a lot of volcanic earthquakes and intermittent volcanic tremor were registered at the volcano all week. According to visual data, weak gas-steam activity was observed on August 25-27, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered over the volcano all week.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The colour code at Kliuchevskoi is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~

Anatahan

As of the 7th of August, the USGS has reported that during 30 July-5 August seismic tremor from Anatahan fluctuated. Gas-and-steam plumes possibly containing some ash were occasionally visible on satellite imagery at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and below. Plumes drifted W and NW. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

The elongate, 9-km-long island of Anatahan in the central Mariana Islands consists of large stratovolcano with a 2.3 x 5 km, E-W-trending compound summit caldera. The larger western caldera is 2.3 x 3 km wide, and its western rim forms the island's 790-m high point. Ponded lava flows overlain by pyroclastic deposits fill the floor of the western caldera, whose SW side is cut by a fresh-looking smaller crater. The 2-km-wide eastern caldera contained a steep-walled inner crater whose floor prior to the 2003 eruption was only 68 m above sea level. Sparseness of vegetation on the most recent lava flows on Anatahan had indicated that they were of Holocene age, but the first historical eruption of Anatahan did not occur until May 2003, when a large explosive eruption took place forming a new crater inside the eastern caldera.

The colour code at Anatahan is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

Mauna Loa

As of the 25th of July, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has reported that Mauna Loa is not erupting. Slow extension, as measured by GPS receivers on either side of the volcano, continued. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes. Sensors within a crack in Moku`aweoweo crater floor continued to record background gas concentrations and temperatures.

Mauna Loa remains seismically quiet with few earthquakes occurring beneath Mauna Loa Volcano. Since the beginning of January, 2005, HVO analysts have rarely located more than 10 earthquakes per week beneath Mauna Loa summit. The Kao`iki seismic zone between Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcano summits remained active with 10-20 earthquakes per week. Each week, 1-5 earthquakes are also located beneath the Kealakekua area of west Mauna Loa. These levels are typical of the past several years.

The colour code at Mauna Loa is currently at YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 30, 2008, 11:56:37 PM
Asama

As of the 22nd of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that the Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption plume that on 14th August rose to an altitude of 3 km a.s.l. and drifted S.

Asama, Honshu's most active volcano, is located at the junction of the Izu-Marianas and NE Japan arcs and has an historical record dating back at least to the 11th century. The modern cone of Maekake-yama is situated E of the horseshoe-shaped remnant of an older andesitic volcano, Kurofu-yama, which was destroyed by a late-Pleistocene landslide about 20,000 years before present (BP). Growth of a dacitic and rhyolitic lava cone was accompanied by pumiceous pyroclastic flows, the largest of which occurred about 14,000-11,000 years BP, and by growth of the Ko-Asama-yama lava dome on the E flank. Maekake-yama is probably only a few thousand years old, but has had several major Plinian eruptions, the last two of which occurred in 1108 and 1783 AD.

The Current Colour Code for Asama is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Mayon

As of the 14th of August, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismlogy (PHIVOLCS) reported that on 10 August, a mild explosion from Mayon produced an ash plume to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. PHIVOLCS reported that during the previous few weeks seismic activity had increased slightly and incandescence at the crater had intensified. The Alert Level remained at 1. The 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank and the 6-km Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) in all other areas remained in effect.

PHIVOLCS is keeping a tight watch over Mayon volcano after it monitored a mild explosion in the mountain at 0912hrs Sunday, a PHIVOLCS bulletin at noontime said. Mt. Mayon emitted smoke that reached a height of around 200 metres above the summit, said the PHIVOLCS bulletin. The smoke from the volcano summit later drifted east northeast. "The volcano is undergoing an episode of increased activity probably related to magma movement and though no major eruption is indicated, steam and ash explosions may occur in the following days," added the bulletin. The PHIVOLCS reiterated that Alert Level 1 remained over Mt. Mayon as of Sunday. It has also reminded the public that the seven-kilometre extended danger zone at the southeastern flank and the six-kilometre permanent danger zone at other areas remain off-limits due to threats from sudden small explosions and rockfalls from the upper slopes.

In view of the above, PHIVOLCS reiterates that Mayon volcano’s status remains at Alert Level 1. The public, however, is reminded that the 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) at the southeastern flank of the volcano and the 6-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) at other areas remain off-limits due to the continuing threat from sudden small explosions and rockfalls from the upper slopes. Active river channels and those areas perennially identified as lahar-prone around the volcano should be avoided when there is heavy and prolonged rainfall. PHIVOLCS is keeping a tight watch over Mayon and shall immediately report any significant development to all concerned.

The Mayon Volcano is an active stratovolcano in the Philippines on the island of Luzon, in the province of Albay in the Bicol Region. The near perfectly cone shaped volcano is situated 15 kilometres northwest of Legazpi City. Mayon Volcano is one of the candidates of the New 7 Wonders of Nature. Mayon is classified by volcanologists as a stratovolcano, or composite volcano. Its symmetric cone was formed through alternate pyroclastic and lava flows. Mayon is the most active volcano in the country, having erupted over 47 times in the past 400 years. It is located between the Eurasian and the Philippine Plate, at a convergent plate boundary: where a continental plate meets an oceanic plate, the lighter continental plate overrides the oceanic plate, forcing it down; magma is formed where the rock melts. Like other volcanoes located around the rim of the Pacific Ocean, Mayon is a part of the "Pacific Ring of Fire". It is renowned as the "Perfect Cone" volcano because of its almost perfectly conical shape.

The Current Colour Code for Mayon is currently at the YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

Kasatochi

As of the 30th of August, the Alaska Volcano Obsetrvatory (AVO) reported that seismic activity at Kasatochi volcano continues to slowly decline following the eruptions on August 7th. Possible intermittent tremor occurred for several hours on August 27th and was detected by the AVO seismic network on Great Sitkin Island 25 miles west of Kasatochi. Satellite views were cloudy this week.

Located at the northern end of a shallow submarine ridge trending perpendicular to the Aleutian arc, Kasatochi is small 2.7 x 3.3 km wide island volcano with a dramatic 750-m-wide summit crater lake. The summit of Kasatochi reaches only 314 m above sea level, and the lake surface lies less than about 60 m above the sea. A lava dome is located on the NW flank at about 150 m elevation. The asymmetrical island is steeper on the northern side than the southern, and the volcano's crater lies north of the centre of the island. Reports of activity from the heavily eroded Koniuji volcano to the east probably refer to eruptions from Kasatochi. A lava flow may have been emplaced during the first historical eruption in 1760.

The Current Colour Code for Kasatochi is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 30, 2008, 11:58:39 PM
Mt. Cleveland

As of the 30th of August, the Alaska Volcano Obsetrvatory (AVO) reported that satellite views were most cloudy this week. A weak thermal anomaly was detected on August 24th. The lack of recent activity prompted AVO to lower the Aviation Colour Code/Alert Level to YELLOW on August 25.

Beautifully symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Cleveland is joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Mt. Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Mt. Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Cleveland is currently at the YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

Chikurachkil

As of the 29th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that according to satellite data, significant ash plumes have not been observed since August 3rd. But ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are still possible. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano. According to satellite data, clouds obscured the volcano most time of the week, ash plumes or clouds were not observed on the rest of the time.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidized basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at the YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

San Cristobal.

As of the 17th of July, the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) informs that a news article reported that San Cristóbal produced a series of small explosions on the 11th of July, sending a plume of gas and ash NW. The article also noted that INETER had detected a series of tremors in recent weeks.

The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.

The Current Colour Code for San Cristobal is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 31, 2008, 12:00:45 AM
Chaiten

As of the 28th of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that SERNAGEOMIN reported that on web camera views, pilot observations, and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 20-23 and 26 August ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. A thermal anomaly over the lava dome was detected on satellite imagery during 22-23 August.

Chaitén is a small, glacier-free late-Pleistocene caldera with a Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. The north side of the rhyolitic, 962-m-high obsidian lava dome occupying the 3.5-km-wide caldera is unvegetated. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km away from the volcano to the north and south. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén, and the high point on its southern rim reaches 1122 m. Two small lakes occupy the caldera floor on the west and north sides of the lava dome. Moreno (1985 pers. comm.) noted that the nearby volcano of Yelcho listed by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (1973) does not exist.

The Current Colour Code for Chaiten is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Llaima

As of the 28th of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that steam plumes from the pyroclastic cones in Llaima's main crater were visible during periods of clear weather on 16 August. Steam plumes rose from the W flank where lava flows were active in February and July. On 17 August, sporadic gas-and-ash emissions were observed. Cloud cover prevented observations during 18-20 August. On 21 August, three explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Gas and steam was emitted in between explosions; resultant plumes rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 9 km E. During an overflight, scientists observed steam-and-gas plumes being emitted from a small crater in the N sector of the main crater. A larger crater, about 100 m in diameter, in the central sector emitted ash. The ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A thin layer of ash blanketed the E flank. Ash-and-gas plumes from the main crater drifted W on 22 August. On 23 August, observers reported that incandescent material was ejected less than 1 km above the crater. The next day, an ash plume drifted about 1.5 km SSE. Ash blanketed some areas of the flanks. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Yellow.

Llaima, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, contains two main historically active craters, one at the summit and the other, Pichillaima, to the SE. The massive 3125-m-high, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano has a volume of 400 cu km. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 cu km Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterised by Strombolian, Hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.

The Current Colour Code for Llaima is currently at the YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~

Sakura-Jima

As of the 28th of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Sakura-Jima on 23 August. The altitude and direction of a possible resultant plume were not reported.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 31, 2008, 12:02:56 AM
Suwanose-Jima

As of the 28th of August, the Japan Meteorlogical Agency (JMA) has reported that based on reports from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 24-26 August. Resultant plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. during 25-26 August.

The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-Jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the E flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take (also called Otake), the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.(JMA)

The Current Colour Code for Suwanose-Jima is currently at the YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~

Semeru

As of the 28th of August, the CVGHM reported that the Darwin VAAC reported that based on pilot reports and observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 August ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967.

The Current Colour Code for Semeru is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~~~

Krakatau

As of the 21st of August, the CVGHM reported that according to a news article, explosions and earthquakes from Anak Krakatau averaged 120 per day approximately during 11-17 August. Monitoring personnel observed active lava flows, ejecting rocks, and emissions of "smoke."

The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

The Current Colour Code for Krakatau is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 31, 2008, 12:05:10 AM
Dukono

As of the 28th of Auguat, the Volcano Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported to INTLVRC that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 August an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 26 August, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WNW.

Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

The Current Colour Code for Dukono is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~~~

Galeras

As of the 28th of August, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto - INGEOMINAS, informs that continuous the predominant seismicity associated with the dynamics of flowed inside the volcanic system, in relatively superficial levels and originated by magmatic processes as as much hidrotermales. The registry of a cluster of earthquakes (great amount of events in a relatively short time) associated with the fracturing of the solid part of the volcanic system stands out, which happened between 2306hrs of the 19th of August and at 1000hrs on the 20th of August; this seismicity was located to 2 km to the West-Southwest of the volcanic cone, with depths between 1 and 4 km with respect to the top and with local magnitudes of up to 1.6 on the Richter scale. They continue of significant way the sulphur dioxide emissions to the atmosphere (origin gas typical magmatic), that come in the last characterising the process months, with values measured during the last week of up to 6000 tonnes daily. By action of winds, the preferential dispersion appeared towards the north-western flank of the volcano. Concerning surface activity, days 22, 24 and 25 of August, the column of gas discharge was observed, with dispersion by action of winds towards the north the first two days and towards the south on the 25th of August. The columns reached heights near 1 km with respect to the top of Galeras and sometimes they were observed of gray colouration, possibly associated with some solid particle content and large ash. Since it has been mentioned, the general evaluation of the phenomenon allows to demonstrate the existence of a magmatic body in relatively superficial levels, that its process of degasification maintains, probably with a system of conduits, that make possible the exit of gases and with possible ash emissions.

Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

The Current Colour Code for Galeras is currently at LEVEL III
~~~~~~~~~~~

Nevado del Huila

As of the 28th of August, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, INGEOMINAS reported that in the present week a total of 570 seismic events was registered. Of them, 382 are related to fracturing of rock, 162 with the dynamics of flowed within the volcanic conduits, 20 events Hybrid type and 6 pulses of tremor of low magnitude. Of the seismicity registered by the volcano during the week, one respectively stands out the occurrence of two associated events to fracturing of rock the days 24th of August 25th at 1636 hours and at 1137 hours; first of them it had a magnitude of 3.4 on the Richter scale and it was located to 6.3 km to the SW of the Central Tip to a depth of 8 km, the second it had a magnitude of 2.8, and it was located at 2.3 km to the E of the Central Tip to a depth of 1.86 km. Today a movable measurement of the SO2 flow was realised, in the section spoolable that communicates the South of Corinth (Huasano path) with the South of Santander de Quilichao (Mandivá path), the SO2 flow was calculated at 3,272 tonnes/day, in a column with preferential dispersion towards the WNW. The volcano continues with slight increases in the seismic activity that is registered daily, being predominant the seismicity of low magnitude, with the exception of the happened events of the 24th and 25th of August.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Nevade del Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Nevado del Huila is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 31, 2008, 12:07:09 AM
Pacaya

As of the 30th of August, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric Conditions: Cleared. Pluvial Precipitation: 14.4 mm. Wind speed: 5.0 km/hr. Direction: Southwest. Activity: From the capital city it is possible to observe the gas plume that rises to 400 metres on the crater, nevertheless this is due to the little wind speed and not to a greater activation. The lava flow of the flank, stays in the South flank in the middle of the west the volcanic building with 2 flows fed by the same source, reaching, 200 meters.

The eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

Fuego

As of the 30th of August, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric Conditions: Cleared. Pluvial Precipitation: 6.0 mm. Wind speed: 0.0 km/hr. Direction: Southeast. Activity: White fumaroles to 100 metres of height that moves to the southwest. In the night, until this hour 10 explosions have been observed, 8 of them accompanied by weak rumblings and degassing sounds similar to airplane turbines. The flow of lava stays in direction of the Ravine Santa Teresa, with approximated length of 250 to 300 metres.

The Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta volcano may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango volcano, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

Santa Maria

As of the 30th of August, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric Conditions: Cleared. Pluvial Precipitation: 0.0 mm. Wind speed: 0.0 km/hr. Direction: Southwest. Activity: In the morning 2 explosions have been observed a weak one, a moderate one expelling gray ash to 300 and 600 metres from height dispersing towards the southwest. From the 2200 hours constant avalanches of blocks have been observed from the cupola of the crater of the Cono Caliente.

The symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The 3772-m-high stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit of Volcán Santa María to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 31, 2008, 12:09:07 AM
Soufriere Hills

As of the 30th of August, the Monstserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) reported that much of the activity at the Soufriere Hills Volcano this week has been triggered by heavy rainfall on Montserrat, with a pyroclastic flow on the 25th of August and several lahars. Other observations are consistent with continuing slow extrusion of lava on the western flank of the dome. There was a rainfall-induced pyroclastic flow at approximately 0110 hours local time on Monday, 25 August, after almost one hour of heavy rainfall. The flow was on the western flank of the volcano and lasted for less than 15 minutes. The flow split into two parts. The larger part travelled towards Lee’s Yard, but did not go as far as the flow on the 28th of July 2008. The other part of the flow was mainly contained in a gully and travelled as far as Amersham. At the time of the flow, the wind was blowing towards the north so there was a strong smell of volcanic gases in most areas of Montserrat. The smell of gases continued to be noticeable throughout the night. Ashfall was reported from all parts of Montserrat north of the volcano. Woodlands received the heaviest ashfall, with up to half a centimetre of dark wet ash. There was a heavy dusting of ash in Salem, Olde Town and Olveston. Lahars in the Belham River and various ghauts around the volcano were recorded on 25, 26 and 27th of August. On two occasions, there was a heavy thunderstorm centred on the volcano but no rainfall in inhabited areas. Despite some public concern about volcanic activity, there was none.

On clear nights, several distinct points of red glow can be seen on the dome. Most of these are in the scar that was created by the explosion on 28 July and then excavated by the pyroclastic flow on 25 August. There are at least two areas of glow to the north of this scar which indicate the presence of hot rock near the surface of the dome. Seismic activity continues. MVO recorded 18 rockfalls, 12 long period, 13 hybrid and 5 volcano-tectonic events this week. Most of the rockfalls were on the western side of the dome. Most of the hybrid and volcano-tectonic events have been recorded since 27 August and are located below the dome, at depths down to 2.5 km. Reliable measurements of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux were only possible for three days at the start of the week because the change in wind direction moved the plume outside the monitoring network. The average flux for the week was 466 tonnes per day (t/d) with a minimum of 239 and a maximum of 758. These values are lower than those seen since the explosion on 28 July. Lava extrusion is expected to continue. The extrusion rate has been relatively low since it started on 28 July, but an increase cannot be ruled out. The pyroclastic flow on 25 August has enlarged and steepened the rockfall gully over the Gages Wall. Because of this, further pyroclastic flows may occur without any warning, especially when there is heavy rainfall. The Hazard Level is 3.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~

Ubinas

As of the 21st of August, the El Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN) reported that based on SIGMET reports and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 18 August ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

Karymsky

As of the 29th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 6.0 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The explosive activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels on August 24-27 and at background levels on August 21-23rd. According to seismic data, possible ash-gas explosions up to 3.2 km (10,500 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano, weak intermittent volcanic tremor was registered on August 21-22. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered over the volcano on August 24, 26-28th, ash cloud extended to the southeast from volcano on August 27th.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 31, 2008, 12:10:59 AM
Bezymianny

As of the 29th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity of the volcano did not exceed background levels. According to visual data, moderate gas-steam activity was observed on August 25-28, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered over the lava dome and over the deposits of pyroclastic flow.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Sheveluch

As of the 29th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported to INTLVRC that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity was slightly above background levels all week: volcanic earthquakes and a weak volcanic tremor were registered at the volcano all week. According to visual data, gas-steam activity with some amount of ash from avalanches was observed on August 22, 25-28, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days of the week. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered over the lava dome all week, gas-steam and weak ash plumes extended 80 km (50 mi) to the southeast from volcano on August 26-27.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskoi volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

Colima

As of the 29th of August, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reports that they have not been able to register activity during last the twenty-four hours, nor is report on damages or affectation in the adjacent populations. Most of the time, in the zone where it is the volcano persists the cloudiness, water precipitations and electrical activity, conditions associated to the passage of the tropical wave no. 26, that affects the states of the centre, the south and the west of the country; it is for that reason that reminds the population to avoid the permanence in bordering ravines, before the possibility of lahars (mud flows). Also, it follows the restriction effective for the over-flights that do not have scientific aims or of civil defence, and is prohibited the permanence of people other people's to these activities in ravines of the volcano.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 31, 2008, 12:12:58 AM
Popocatepetl

As of the 30th of August, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system detected 4 low intensity exhalations accompanied by steam and gas emmision. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report there is not visibility to the volcano due to the clouds. From high to low probability the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions; occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater. There is a permanent monitoring of the volcano to detect any change. The traffic light of volcanic alert remains in YELLOW Phase 2.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Tungurahua

As of the 30th of August, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the level of activity of the volcano continues with a descendent tendency. In the morning of today superficial signals of activity in the volcano were not observed.

The IG reports that seismicity: In the last 24 hours, a total of 26 earthquakes of long period (LPs) has been entered that denote a moderate level of flowed movements of inside the volcano. Volcanic explosions have not taken place. Observations, Emissions and Ash: The volcano has remained most of the time dimmed but in the morning of today one was sprightly and any superficial manifestation in the zone of the crater was not observed. Noises: Originating noises of the volcano have not been reported. Rains and Lahars: In the morning of today slight rains in the zone were registered, but it did not have reports of lahars.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~

Okmok

As of the 30th of August, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) informs that seismicity at Okmok volcano has declined and significant ash plumes have not been observed since August 19th. The Aviation Colour Code/Alert Level was reduced to YELLOW/Advisory on August 27th. A clear satellite view on August 28th showed a weak steam plume and a weak thermal anomaly. Although the level of seismicity has declined and it appears that ash is no longer being erupted, it is possible for vigorous ash emissions to resume at any time.

The broad, basaltic Okmok shield volcano, which forms the NE end of Umnak Island, has a dramatically different profile than most other Aleutian volcanoes. The summit of the low, 35-km-wide volcano is cut by two overlapping 10-km-wide calderas formed during eruptions about 12,000 and 2050 years ago that produced dacitic pyroclastic flows that reached the coast. More than 60 tephra layers from Okmok have been found overlying the 12,000-year-old caldera-forming tephra layer. Numerous satellitic cones and lava domes dot the flanks of the volcano down to the coast, including 1253-m Mount Tulik on the SE flank, which is almost 200 m higher than the caldera rim. Some of the post-caldera cones show evidence of wave-cut lake terraces; the more recent cones, some of which have been active historically, were formed after the caldera lake, once 150 m deep, disappeared. Hot springs and fumaroles are found within the caldera. Historical eruptions have occurred since 1805 from cinder cones within the caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Okmok is currently at the YELLOW


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 31, 2008, 12:16:04 AM
Mt. Etna

As of the 24th of July it has been reported by INGV-CT that an inspection of Etna's summit craters on 15 July revealed degassing from the Northeast Crater and to a lesser degree from the BN-1 crater of the Bocca Nuova. Explosive activity was restricted to Vent 2 of the active NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters and characterised by weak Strombolian activity and diffuse ash emissions. During 15 and 17 July lava flows were active in the Valle del Bove. On 17 July, no explosive activity was seen along the fissure.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Mt. Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

The Mt. Etna is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Rabaul

As of the 28th of August, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) has reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued to be emitted during 18-22 August, although less so than during 16-18 August. Some prolonged ash-free intervals were immediately followed by explosions that produced ash plumes. The plumes drifted NW and caused ashfall in areas downwind. Occasionally incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises were heard. Explosions also ejected incandescent lava fragments. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The Rabaul volcano is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~~~

KIlauea

As of the 30th of August, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the Kilauea summit continued to produce small amounts of ash and elevated amounts of sulfur dioxide gas from the Halema`uma`u vent. At the east rift eruption site, Pu`u `O`o cone continued to produce high amounts of sulfur dioxide gas; lava flows through tubes to the ocean.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The Halema`uma`u vent was very noisy yesterday with multiple rock impact sounds becoming frequent and loud in time with the episodic seismic tremor bursts. Some of these sounds were heard by NPS eruption crew personnel at Jaggar Museum overlook. In the evening, incandescence could be seen to also pulse in time with those bursts; the brightness decreased considerably after 1 am, just after the episodic tremor bursts stopped. This morning, the white plume is rising from the vent and being blown southwest over the Ka`u Desert. Ash production continued; the collection this morning included increased amounts of volcanic glass material in the form of small tears and blobs, delicate and coarse hair, and irregular shreds, some like twisted braids and some in irregular shapes. Wall rock and alteration fragments were still part of the mix. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained elevated and variable; the most recent average measurement was 700 tonnes/day on August 28 compared to a pre-2008 background rate between 150-200 tonnes/day. The summit tiltmeter network recorded minor oscillations. The network of GPS receivers that span the summit recorded weak contraction across the caldera. Episodic seismic tremor stopped at 0045 hours this morning, after having been nearly continuous for more than 48 hours; this morning, tremor levels resumed at values nearly identical to those before the episodic tremor began. The number of RB2S2BL earthquakes beneath Halema`uma`u Crater decreased but are still well above background values of 40/d. Forty two earthquakes were located beneath Kilauea, 31 of them beneath the summit caldera focused on the Halema`uma`u vent, 6 on south flank faults, 5 on Koa`e faults, andfour beneath the southwest rift zone.

Last 24 hours in the middle east rift zone vents and flow field: Magma continued to degas through Pu`u `O`o Crater resulting in an emission of 1,500 tonnes/day of sulfur dioxide on August 28th, down from a high of 7,100 tonnes/day on July 18th and near background values of about 2,000 tonnes/day. No incandescence was observed overnight within the crater. The tiltmeter on the north side of Pu`u `O`o cone recorded minor oscillations. GPS receivers recorded no change in distance across the crater. Seismic tremor levels are at low values near Pu`u `O`o and the TEB vent. Lava from the TEB vent and the rootless shield field flows through tubes to the ocean. Yesterday, HVO geologists found no active surface flows anywhere on the flow field; Waikupanaha ocean entry was generating a strong steam plume with no explosions evident. There had been a bench collapse sometime between Monday and Thursday, most likely at around 2200 hours on Wednesday night, August 27th, based on seismic evidence. No incandescence was observed overnight from rift zone to the top of the pali above the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. GOES-WEST imagery shows a prominent coastal steam plume blowing offshore at 0615 hours.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on August 31, 2008, 12:16:48 AM
Mt. Erebus

As of the 1st of August, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that lava flows of more viscous phonotephrite, tephriphonolite and trachyte are erupted after the basanites. The upper slopes of Mt. Erebus are dominated by steeply dipping (~30°) tephriphonolite lava flows with large scale flow levees. A conspicuous break in slope at approximately 3200 metres is a summit plateau representing a caldera. The summit caldera itself is filled with small volume tephriphonolite and phonolite lava flows. In the centre of the of the summit caldera is a small, steep-sided cone composed primarily of decomposed lava bombs and a lag deposit of anorthoclase crystals. It is within this summit cone that the active lava lake continuously degasses and periodically erupts.

CAVEAT: Despite the database of information on the geology of Mt. Erebus, there is still much to be learned about the volcano. The relative lack of knowledge becomes apparent when Mt. Erebus is stacked up against other active volcanoes of the world. There are many reasons for this comparative lack of knowledge, including the scarcity of rock exposures due to snow and ice cover, the remoteness of the volcano, the extreme environment, the brief field season (<6 weeks per year) and its non-threatening nature (i.e. no large populations are in jeopardy because of Mt. Erebus, unlike Vesuvius in Italy or Popocatepetl in Mexico).

Despite the above factors limiting the Mt. Erebus knowledge base, clearly much has been learned about the volcano over the past 25+ years. Nearly all exposed lava flow sets on Mt. Erebus have been physically sampled. Nearly all of these have been examined petrographically and petrologically. The summit lava flows on Mt. Erebus have been extensively mapped and dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method. The flank flows have been mapped in less detail, but many have also been dated. Tephra from Mt. Erebus has been found in glaciers on the volcano, mapped, geochemically examined and dated. The morphological characteristics of the edifice have been combined with the geochronological data to provide an evolutionary history of Mt. Erebus. And the physical and eruptive characteristics of the summit lava lake has been observed nearly every year for the past 25 years.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the world's southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE


Title: Indonesia Raises Alert Level for Erupting Volcano
Post by: Shammu on October 08, 2008, 12:50:00 AM
Indonesia Raises Alert Level for Erupting Volcano

Tuesday , October 07, 2008

The alert level for a volcano in central Indonesia has been raised after it began spewing hot clouds and lava, a vulcanology official said on Tuesday, Reuters reported.

The volcano erupted Monday, shooting clouds of smoke and flames into the night sky.

Indonesia's volcanology center said Mount Soputan, roughly 1,350 miles northeast of capital Jakarta on Sulawesi island, billowed smoke plumes as high as 3,200 feet.

The nearest villages are five miles from the crater's mouth, well out of the danger zone, the agency said on its Web site. Although no evacuations were ordered, people were warned to stay at a safe distance because it might spew lava.

Indonesia, a tropical archipelago straddling a major fault line known as the "Pacific Ring of Fire," has more active volcanoes than any other nation. The 3,280-foot Mount Soputan has been one of the most active.

Indonesia Raises Alert Level for Erupting Volcano (http://www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_story/0,3566,433761,00.html)


Title: Montserrat volcano erupts; fires in former capital
Post by: Shammu on December 04, 2008, 10:24:01 PM
Montserrat volcano erupts; fires in former capital
Wed Dec 3, 3:58 pm ET

SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico – The volcano on the tiny Caribbean island of Montserrat has burst into action, spewing columns of ash and hurling glowing red rocks that set vegetation and a few buildings ablaze in the island's deserted capital, scientists said Wednesday.

The explosion late Tuesday at the cloud-shrouded Soufriere Hills volcano — the first in nearly six months — occurred without any seismic activity, according to scientists who monitor any the volcano.

None of the island's 4,500 people were injured or evacuated.

Chief scientist Roderick Stewart said by telephone that bushes and a few buildings burned for several hours in Plymouth, the capital city that was abandoned when volcano erupted in 1997 and killed 19 people.

"I'm quite surprised there's still stuff that can burn there," Stewart said.

"This is the sort of event we've been expecting since the last explosion in July," Stewart said "It seemed to be triggered by a collapse."

The explosion on the western side of the volcano was smaller than when the lava dome partially collapsed in late July and spewed ash some 40,000 feet (12 kilometers) into the air. That explosion was preceded by about three days of earthquakes.

The Soufriere Hills volcano sprang to life in 1995. More than half the British Caribbean territory's 12,000 inhabitants moved away. An eruption in 1997 buried much of the south and killed 19 people.

Montserrat volcano erupts; fires in former capital (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20081203/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/cb_montserrat_volcano/print)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I guess I need to up-date this topic, since it's been a while. :o


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 04, 2008, 10:26:56 PM
CERRO MACHIN

As of the 26th of November, the Gobal Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Manizales reported that between the 19th and 23rd of November, the activity of the volcano Cerro Machín continued to present/display low levels of seismic activity, registering 68 earthquakes of low magnitude, of which 66 are associated to processes of fracture to the interior of volcanic complex (type VT) and 2 to flowed gas transit and (type LP); these events were located mainly in the dome and to the south of the same with depths between 2 and 7 km it stands out the occurrence of two earthquakes on the 23rd at 1504 and 1505 hrs, with magnitudes of 2.0 and 1.1 on the Richter scale, respectively, which was reported like senses by the people who live in the neighbourhood of the volcano.

The small Cerro Machín stratovolcano lies at the southern end of the Ruiz-Tolima massif about 20 km WNW of the city of Ibagué. A 3-km-wide caldera is breached to the south and contains three forested dacitic lava domes. Voluminous pyroclastic flows traveled up to 40 km from the volcano during eruptions in the mid-to-late Holocene perhaps associated with formation of the caldera. Late-Holocene eruptions produced dacitic block-and-ash flows that traveled through the breach in the caldera rim to the west and south. The latest known eruption of Volcán Cerro Machín took place about 800 years ago.

The colour code at Cerro Machin is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

REDOUBT

As of the 2nd of December, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), reported that seismic activity remains at low levels. No unusual activity observed in mostly clear satellite views.

On 5 November, AVO raised the Aviation Colour Code for Redoubt to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory because of significant changes in gas emission and heat output during the previous several months. The changes were a departure from the long-observed background activity. ASTER satellite images from 13 October detected warming near the summit craters; evidence of warming had been directly observed in July 2008. Fumarolic activity and water flowing beneath Drift Glacier on the N flank had produced a 45-m-wide melt or collapse hole at an elevation of about 1,700 m (5,600 ft) on the Drift Glacier. On 2 November, a slushy debris-flow deposit originated from about the location of the 1966-68 vent. During 6-11 November, no activity was observed on satellite imagery and seismicity remained low.

Redoubt is a 3108-m-high glacier-covered stratovolcano with a breached summit crater in Lake Clark National Park about 170 km SW of Anchorage. Next to Mt. Spurr, Redoubt has been the most active Holocene volcano in the upper Cook Inlet. The volcano was constructed beginning about 890,000 years ago over Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith. Collapse of the summit of Redoubt 10,500-13,000 years ago produced a major debris avalanche that reached Cook Inlet. Holocene activity has included the emplacement of large clay-rich lahars, one of which dammed Lake Crescent on the south side and reached Cook Inlet about 3500 years ago. Eruptions during the past few centuries have affected only the Drift River drainage on the north. Historical eruptions have originated from a vent at the north end of the 1.8-km-wide breached summit crater. The 1989-90 eruption of Redoubt had severe economic impact on the Cook Inlet region and affected air traffic far beyond the volcano.

The colour code at Redoubt is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~

AKAN

As of the 4th of December, the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) has reported that an eruption from Akan (also known as Meakan-dake, which means Meakan Peak) of the Akan volcanic complex on the 28th of November. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, and SE. Ash was deposited on the E flank up to 4 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at "near-crater warning" (levels 2 and 3 on a 5-level scale).

Akan is a 13 x 24 km, elongated caldera that formed more than 31,500 years ago immediately SW of Kutcharo caldera. Growth of four post-caldera stratovolcanoes, three at the SW end of the caldera and the other at the NE side, has restricted the size of the caldera lake. The 1-km-wide Nakamachineshiri crater was formed during a major pumice-and-scoria eruption about 13,500 years ago. Of the Holocene volcanoes of the Akan volcanic complex, only the Me-Akan group, east of Lake Akan, has been historically active, producing mild phreatic eruptions since the beginning of the 19th century. Me-Akan is composed of 9 overlapping cones. The main cone of Me-Akan proper has a triple crater at its summit. Historical eruptions at Me-Akan have consisted of minor phreatic explosions, but four major magmatic eruptions including pyroclastic flows have occurred during the Holocene.

The Current Colour Code for Akan is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 04, 2008, 10:28:55 PM
SAN CRISTOBAL

As of the 27th of November, INETER informs that according to a news article, seismic activity from San Cristóbal increased on the 14th and 17th of November. The article also noted that INETER reported explosions and subsequent ash-and-gas emissions from the crater on the 21st of November. Ashfall was reported in areas to the S.

The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.

The Current Colour Code for San Cristobal is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~

BARREN IS.

As of the 20th of November, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported a lava flow from Barren Island on the 17th of November. A possible low-level ash plume was seen drifting W on satellite imagery. On the 18th of November, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.

Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the centre of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during historical eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Barren Is. is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

DALAFFILLA

As of the 27th of November, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that during the 19th-24th of November, the MODIS satellite continued to detect thermal anomalies over the area near Dalaffilla and Alu volcanoes from the eruption that began on the 3rd of November.

Dalaffilla, also referred to as Gabuli, is a small, but steep-sided conical stratovolcano that rises 300 m above surrounding lava fields SE of Alu volcano. This morphology, unusual for the Erta Ale Range volcanoes, results from the extrusion of viscous, silicic lava flows with primary slopes up to about 35 degrees. These silicic flows extend primarily to the east; on the west they are blocked by walls of a horst structure along the crest of the Erta Ale range. Other basaltic lava flows from regional fissures surround the 613-m-high volcano. Fumarolic activity occurs in the 100-m-wide summit crater and has weathered surrounding lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Dalaffilla is currently at the ORANGE


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 04, 2008, 10:32:11 PM
CHAITEN

As of the 4th of December, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, pilot reports, SIGMET notices, and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 23, 25, 27, and 29th of November, and the 2nd of December, ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and NNW. A thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery on the 25th and 29th of November.

The Current Colour Code for Chaiten is currently at the RED
~~~~~~~~~

SUWANOSE-JIMA

As of the 27th of November, the Japan Meteorlogical Agency (JMA) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption from Suwanose-jima on 21 November. A plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. An explosion was reported on 25 November.

The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-Jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the E flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take (also called Otake), the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.(JMA)

The Current Colour Code for Suwanose-Jima is currently at the YELLOW
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DUKONO

As of the 27th of November, the Volcano Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported to INTLVRC that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on the 20th of November an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NW.

Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

The Current Colour Code for Dukono is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1


Title: Re: Volcanoes
Post by: Shammu on December 04, 2008, 10:34:55 PM
GALERAS

As of the 4th of December, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto - INGEOMINAS, informs that the seismic activity that predominates continues associate with processes related to flowed sources of movement of inside the volcanic system, that in surface is reflected with the fluctuating degassing of the system. Generally, the seismicity registered diminution with respect to the levels of the last month. Also lapses of several hours are appearing in which the seismicity is reduced well-known. Concerning manifestations of the activity in surface, the noticeable fact registered the 30th of November related to a process of ash emission that was associated with an episode of spasmodic tremor that began towards 0218 hrs with a duration near 30 minutes. The emission was characterised by the fine ash presence that basically dispersed towards the south and the south-southwest with respect to the volcano in sites like High Gualmatán, High Cubiján, Marqueza Alto and Cobanegra to distances with respect to the main crater of 7, 12,5, 7,5 and 6 km respectively. Thicknesses of ash were observed smaller 1 mm East event appeared as much after a remarkable diminution in number as in energy of the seismic events of transitory character. During the last week the maximum daily value of Dioxide emission of Azufre (SO2) to the atmosphere, registered the 29th of November, with a value near the 700 tonnes. The general evaluation of the phenomenon stays under which the existence of a magmatic body in surfaces is demonstrated, that a degassing process maintains fluctuating, and that is showing cooling evidences, solidification and possible obstruction of conduits which can favor the occurrence of episodes at least similar to registered the 30th of November. The presence of that magmatic material in surface, in the form of dome, deserves special attention to the evolution of the process, without so far it implies a change in the activity level.

Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

The Current Colour Code for Galeras is currently at LEVEL III
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NEVADO del HUILA

As of the 27th of November, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, INGEOMINAS reported that an eruption of Nevado del Huila at 2145 hrs on 20 November that destroyed part of a new lava dome that had formed during the previous months. The Alert Level was raised to Red (on a 4-color scale where Red is the highest level). According to the Washington VAAC, two gas-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 12.4-15.4 km (40,700-50,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SE. Hot material erupted at the summit melted areas of the surrounding glacier and caused lahars in the Bellavista and Páez rivers. Lahars in the Páez River damaged infrastructure and destroyed homes, and residents of Taravira, Tóez, and La Estrella reported abundant ashfall and noises associated with both the eruption and the lahar. There may have been as many as 10 fatalities and 10 others were missing, and several populations were left without means of communication. By the time of a report at 0230 on 21 November, the seismicity had decreased. During an overflight, scientists observed a 400-m-dimater crater in the SW area of Pico Central. A lava dome inside the crater was degassing. Intense fumarolic activity was noted from the W end of a crack generated in April 2007. The next day, the Alert Level was lowered back to Orange because seismicity had returned to background levels. INGEOMINAS continued to receive reports of sulfur odors and continuous gas emissions from the summit. According to news reports, the lahars damaged or destroyed about 70 homes and several bridges, and displaced many families. Hundreds of people were ev