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« Reply #150 on: December 02, 2007, 03:54:21 PM »

Mexican Volcano Spews Ash, Steam During Six Eruptions

Sunday , December 02, 2007


MEXICO CITY  —
Mexico's Popocatepetl volcano rumbled to life with six eruptions Friday and Saturday, spewing steam and columns of ash more than a mile into the air.

There were reports of ash raining down on parts of Mexico state and in the capital 40 miles to the northwest, the National Disaster Prevention Center said in a statement.

There appeared to be no injuries or damages and the eruptions were in line with the 17,886-foot volcano's normal activity, said Teofilo Hernandez, a researcher at the center.

Authorities said people in the surrounding areas should clean ash from their cars and homes immediately and cover their mouths to avoid inhaling it.

Referred to affectionately as "Popo," the volcano has been erupting intermittently since December 1994.

Mexican Volcano Spews Ash, Steam During Six Eruptions
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« Reply #151 on: December 03, 2007, 11:40:37 PM »

GALERAS

As of the 1st of December, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (OVSP) has reported that observed was the continuous exit of water steam and other volcanic gases, with some ash content; the emissions came as much from zones to the interior as in the periphery of the main crater. At 0558hrs, a small ash emission was observed that rose of 100 to 150 metres on the active cone, before being tended towards the nor-western sector by action of the winds and that was associated to a signal of volcanic tremor. Thermal images were taken in which an increase in the temperature of several points of emission was observed with respect to a fly-over of this past 2nd of October. Towards the interior of the main crater the main thermal anomalies appeared, getting itself to register until near 400°C.

The colour code at Galeras is currently at ALERT LEVEL III
~~~~~~~~

November 9, 2007 issue of Science Magazine features an article, Accelerated uplift and magmatic intrusion of the Yellowstone Caldera, 2004 to 2006, by YVO scientists from the University of Utah and USGS. The lead author, Wu-Lung Chang is a Post-doctoral associate with Dr. Robert B. Smith, YVO Coordinating Scientist at the University of Utah. Chang specialises in use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to measure very small movements of the Earth's crust. Using GPS and another satellite-based technique (InSAR), the authors find that parts of the Yellowstone Caldera rose as much as 7 cm (~3") per year during the period 2004-2006. The uplift is most noticeable at the White Lake GPS station, as has been discussed in YVO's monthly YVO updates during the past year. As of late October 2007, the total uplift since 2004 at that location is about 17 cm (~7"). Chang and his colleagues credit the relatively rapid rise to recharge of magma into the giant magma chamber that underlies the Yellowstone Caldera. They also used numerical modeling to infer that the magma intruded about 10 km (6 miles) beneath the surface.

North of this region of uplift, another area at Yellowstone has moved downward over the past three years. This north rim uplift anomaly (NUA) had risen during the period 1996-2003, when the rest of the caldera had subsided. The activity was featured in a 2006 article in Nature Magazine with lead author Charles Wicks, one of the co-authors on the new article in Science Magazine. Chang and others hypothesise that magma input after 2004 caused fracturing of the crust that resulted in release of hydrothermal fluids from the north rim area. The loss of fluid pressure then resulted in deflation, or subsidence of the ground surface.

Interestingly, the Yellowstone caldera has remained seismically quiet during the past three years of uplift. An earlier article on the YVO website, Satellite Technologies Detect Uplift in the Yellowstone Caldera, provides context on the techniques used to study these movements. The new activity, though more rapid than those previously measured at Yellowstone, is not unprecedented at large calderas around the globe. Given the absence of large earthquakes, earthquake swarms and anomalous behaviour of Yellowstone's hydrothermal system (its geysers, mud pots and fumaroles), all of us find little indication that the volcano is moving towards an eruption. At this time, volcanic eruptions and hydrothermal explosions remain an unlikely possibility. Given the geologic history of the area, it is likely that the current period of uplift will cease, to be followed by another cycle of subsidence. When this might happen, though, is unknown.
~~~~~~~~~~

NYIRAGONGO

As of the 29th of November, the Global Volcanism Network reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that an eruption from Nyiragongo occurred before 0600hrs on 21 November.

One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighbouring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. Extremely fluid, fast-moving lava flows draining from the summit lava lake in 1977 caused many fatalities, as did lava flows inundating portions of the city of Goma in January 2002.

The Current Colour Code for Nyiragongo at ORANGE
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« Reply #152 on: December 03, 2007, 11:42:48 PM »

CONCEPCION

As of the 3rd of December, the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) informs that on afternoon of, 24 of November, began a new episode of volcanic activity in the volcano Concepcion, Island of Ometepe. After some smaller exits of gases than they were observed as of the noon, they happened at 0331hrs and 1432hrs, local time, with two moderate explosions in the main crater. After these explosions a strong exit of gases began to the 1600hrs that threw volcanic ash in small amounts. This process had a strong phase, until the 1630hrs, approximately, and continued later with smaller intensity. The thrown ash was taken by the wind and it was deposited in small amounts in the Island of Ometepe and Bethlehem, Potosí and Buenos Aires, Department of Rivas. At the time of sending this official notice this activity has diminished considerably. INETER continues monitor volcano Concepcion and will inform on any new event of importance.

The volcano Concepción is one of Nicaragua's highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua and is connected to neighbouring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. A steep-walled summit crater is 250 m deep and has a higher western rim. N-S-trending fractures on the flanks of the volcano have produced chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars located on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides extending in some cases down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepción was constructed above a basement of lake sediments, and the modern cone grew above a largely buried caldera, a small remnant of which forms a break in slope about halfway up the north flank. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past half century have increased the height of the summit significantly above that shown on current topographic maps and have kept the upper part of the volcano unvegetated.

The Current Colour Code for Concepcion at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~

VILLARRICA

As of the 21st of November, based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Villarrica rose to an altitude of 3.8 km (12,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 14 November. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

The Glacier-clad Villarrica, is one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot Villarrica's flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano have been produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 sq km of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Villarrica at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~
Volcano: KELUT

As of the 2nd of December, the Center for Volcanology and Geology Disaster Mitigation (CVGDM) has reported that volcano Kelut expected to stay calm, to be not provoked by rumours that were unclear about the Kelut eruption and to hope always followed the directive from the local SATLAK PB and SATKORLAK PB. The smoke bellowing high had the potential to contain poisonous gases that were dangerous for the life. Then the community was forbidden to enter the territory in a radius of 1.5 km from the crater lake because of the threat of the danger of smoke bellows and the high temperature, inhaled poisonous gas as well as was threatened by the eruption danger. The instability of the crater lake resulting from the existence of the growth of the lava turret, then in this rainy season the settling community is alarmed with respect to the river, the potential to be threatened the overflow of Kelut water of the crater lake.

The relatively inconspicuous, 1731-m-high Kelut stratovolcano contains a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of Indonesia's most deadly eruptions. A cluster of summit lava domes cut by numerous craters has given the summit a very irregular profile. Satellitic cones and lava domes are also located low on the eastern, western, and SSW flanks. Eruptive activity has in general migrated in a clockwise direction around the summit vent complex. More than 30 eruptions have been recorded from Gunung Kelut since 1000 AD. The ejection of water from the crater lake during Kelut's typically short, but violent eruptions has created pyroclastic flows and lahars that have caused widespread fatalities and destruction. After more than 5000 persons were killed during an eruption in 1919, an ambitious engineering project sought to drain the crater lake. This initial effort lowered the lake by more than 50 m, but the 1951 eruption deepened the crater by 70 m, leaving 50 million cubic meters of water after repair of the damaged drainage tunnels. After more than 200 deaths in the 1966 eruption, a new deeper tunnel was constructed, and the lake's volume before the 1990 eruption was only about 1 million cubic metres.

The Current Colour Code for Kelut at ALERT LEVEL 2
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« Reply #153 on: December 03, 2007, 11:45:53 PM »

KRAKATAU

As of the 29th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that according to a news article on 22 November, seismicity from Anak Krakatau declined in frequency. Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 24 November. Visitors and tourists were advised not to go within a 3-km radius of the summit. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

The Current Colour Code for Krakatau at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~

SOPUTAN

As of the 29th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the Alert Status of Soputan was lowered on 23 November from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) based on a decrease in the number of earthquakes and seismic intensity, deformation measurements, and visual observations.

In connection with the decline in the Soputan status to was on the alert, VSI recommended as follows: Guguran the lava turret, the eruption of ash and smoke bellows, still potential happened, but small the possibility of causing the disaster threat for the settling community and beraktivitas to the territory outside the radius 3 km from the peak Soputan. Dilarang carried out the climb to the peak and did not carry out the activity to the radius 3 km from the Soputan peak. Jika happened the increase in the G. Soputan activity, the official of the Gunungapi Soputan Observation Post in Mali I or the Centre of Vulcanology and Mitigasi Bencana Geologi, will inform him to the local Regional Government in order to anticipates early the Soputan activity. Pemantauan G. Soputan was still being done intensively, if signs will happen the increase will be reported in detail.

The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

The Current Colour Code for Soputan at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~~~

KARANGETANG

As of the 29th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the Alert Status of Karangetang was lowered on 23 November from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) due to a decrease in seismicity and decrease of observed plume height and density.

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

The Current Colour Code for Karangetang is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
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« Reply #154 on: December 03, 2007, 11:50:59 PM »

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 3rd of December, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that cloud cover continues to obscure the volcano and observation by satellite has not been possible. AVO has received no new information about activity at Cleveland volcano over the past 24 hours. AVO continues to monitor Cleveland Volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 29th of November, INGEMMET reported that based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 20 November. During 24-27 November, ash plumes visible on satellite imagery rose to altitudes of 6.1-9.1 km (20,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SW.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 3rd of December, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that on the 2nd of December at 0628hrs (local time) an earthquake of magnitude 2.25 on the Richter scale with the epicentre registered 1 km NE of the Central Tip of the snow-white volcano of the Huila.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #155 on: December 03, 2007, 11:53:43 PM »

KARYMSKY

As of the 30th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the activity of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was slightly above background levels on November 26 and at background levels on November 24-25. There were no seismic data on the other days this week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 30th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the volcano continues. A viscous lava flow is effusing from the summit dome at Bezymianny. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels on November 25 and at background levels on the other days. According to visual and video data, strong gas-steam plumes from the volcano were noted on November 27-29. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed on November 26 and 28-29. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 30th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels last week. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 6.0 km (19,700 ft) ASL and hot avalanches occurred at the volcano all week. According to visual and video data, strong gas-steam plumes rose up to 5.0 km (16,400 ft) ASL on November 22 and 26-29. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week. Ash plumes extended 15-66 km (9-41 mi) to the south-west, north-west, north and south-east from the volcano on November 26-28. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #156 on: December 03, 2007, 11:56:03 PM »

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 2nd of December, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant changes over the last 24 hours. Nevertheless, at 1500hrs (ECT) yesterday afternoon an earthquake was felt across Montserrat as two pulses of slight shaking/vibration. This was a regional tectonic, not volcanic, event. The USGS recorded a magnitude 7.4 and occurring at 149 km depth, located NNE of Martinique. A small pyroclastic flow was observed on the eastern side of the volcano minutes afterwards, followed by a further observed series of 3 small flows in the Tar River valley at 1530hrs. Nevertheless, there is no cause for concern and whilst the shaking may have loosened some surface material on the lava dome, no more significant (seismic or pyroclastic) events are expected to result from this earthquake activity.

Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding although the likelihood of this is thought to decrease with time as no further lava extrusion occurs. During heavy downpours, such during the passing of tropical depressions, lahar activity in drainages around the volcano (including the Belham Valley to the northwest), remains a potential hazard. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~~


Volcano: Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 3rd of December, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift northeast.

The active spine of the lava dome continues to extrude, according to our in-crater tiltmeter. This instrument, located adjacent to the new dome’s north flank, shows small inflation-deflation events every few hours, which CVO interprets as dome growth pulses. The wind from winter storms has increased the noise on seismometers close to or in the crater, saturating them relative to the sparse small earthquakes that have characterised the eruption as of late. No in-crater GPS results are available this morning. Views from all volcano cams in the past 24 hours have been useless for assessing eruptive activity, owing to poor weather. The discharge from streams exiting the crater has increased slightly, as measured by acoustic flow monitors. Stream discharge likely will increase slowly early Sunday. It may change abruptly at middle elevations by Sunday evening or Monday, when a rain-rich warm front is forecast for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

COLIMA

As of the 27th of November, a SIGMET from the Mexico Weather Office (MWO) stated an emission to 24000 ft. at 1613Z moving to the west at 11.5 mph. Visible imagery thru 1645Z does not show anything to the west but does show an emission at 1415Z to the NNE. RAOB and model data suggest the height would be 16,000 ft. The volcano cam shows another minor steam emission about 1645Z at summit level.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW
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« Reply #157 on: December 03, 2007, 11:59:21 PM »

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 2nd of December, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano registered 5 exhalations, accompanied by steam and gas emissions. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report CENAPRED can see the volcano with a steam and gas emission.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: PACAYA

As of the 21st of November, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from PACAYA's (Guatemala) MacKenney cone rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. on 17 November and drifted NW. A thermal anomaly was also identified on the imagery.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex volcano constructed on the southern rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the caldera floor. The Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1,100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent Strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion on the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 21st of November, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that ash can be seen in morning satellite imagery. INSIVUMEH confirms ash to 15,000 ft. Later, faint ash could be seen in earlier satellite imagery however currently no ash is seen. Current SIGMET places ash to 15,000 ft.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
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« Reply #158 on: December 04, 2007, 12:10:18 AM »

SANTA MARIA

As of the 29th of November, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex was visible on 23 November. On 26 November, a steam-and-ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 3rd of December, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the style of the activity has changed again and now less explosions of small size are registered, but however the episodes of tremor and events of flowed movements were increased of long period (LP). In spite of this reduction of the volcanic activity, the state of the volcano is still considered in a high level and could stay more in this one by some days. The kind observation to inform into any important change of this activity, continues.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: 15 explosions, 42 episodes of tremor of emission and 40 events of long period (LP) have been registered. The explosions registered in the last hours are mainly small; those of moderate character they happened at 0011hrs and 0118hrs of this dawn. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: During the night and dawn of today, the volcano was storm cloud, but in satelite images a plume of emission in the direction of the northwest was observed. In the morning, the volcano was cleared and a continuous steam emission was reported that took course to the southwest; later, with the explosions registered between 1030hrs and 1253hrs (small), columns with a moderate content to under ash were generated, that reached about 2 km of height and from Runtún they reported the vibration of windows. There are no reports of ash fall. Climate/Rains/Lahars: In the afternoon of yesterday, the volcano was cloudy and during the night, between the 1800hrs and 2100 hours, the strong rain was registered but any disadvantage did not take place. In the afternoon of today, rains were also registered.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 29th of November, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that white plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE and NNW during 17-28 November. Plumes drifted N, NW, and W. Continuous incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises were occasionally heard. A lava dome on the crater floor was seen on video images on 25 November. The dome was an estimated 20 m high and 50 m across, and was strongly degassing.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1
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« Reply #159 on: December 04, 2007, 12:12:41 AM »

Mt. ETNA

As of the 27th of November it has been reported to INTLVRC by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) reported that from 0400hrs the tremor decreased and the explosive activity ceased. The flow of lava in direction of Valle dell Bove is now in the course of cooling. The important plumes of ashes emitted at the time of this new eruption moved and arrived as far as Calabria. The airport of Reggio Calabria was obliged to close its doors with the interruption of the air traffic because of the presence of volcanic ash on the tracks. In addition it is interesting to observe a correlation between the Northern crater Is and Southern Is, because as often the activity of the Northern crater East starts with a Strombolian activity before the eruptions from the Southern crater East does not begin. The strong explosion recorded by the seismograph (updated of the 23) occurred with the Northern crater Is. The cameras of the INGV actually observed plumes of gray and black ashes coming from this crater.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater. Flank eruptions, typically with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna's summit craters began in 1995. The active volcano is monitored by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Volcanologia (INGV) in Catania.

The volcano Mt. Etna is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 3rd of December, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout fed lava to the southeast but most active only in the upper 800 m (0.5 miles). Lava has re-entered perched pond 1. Activity Summary for the past few months: Lava from the 7/21 fissures is probably fed from a shallow magma storage area beneath Pu`u `O`o where it degasses before being erupted. Through August, `a`a flows advanced quickly to the northeast before stalling. In September and October, the channel system produced shorter `a`a lava flows that made the flow field wider. In late October, tube-fed pahoehoe flows developed and, in early November, the east tube produced pahoehoe flows along the south margin that advanced nearly as far to the east as the August flows before stalling. Starting on November 21, lava from fissure D bypassed the channel and built a shield over the fissure feeding a channelized lava flow to the southeast. Hazard Summary: Based on the information summarised above, there are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Wao Kele o Puna is also closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: The Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) fed lava to the southeast flow which remains most active within 800 m (0.5 miles) of fissure D. A new flow, probably a channel overflow, has advanced a few hundred metres (yards) southward from fissure D. In a few hazy views from the webcam this morning, lava has re-entered pond 1 and filled it to within a few metres (yards) of the rim. Incandescence indicated activity at the western base of pond 1, possibly a new seep.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter recorded inflation from a source to the southeast. GPS receivers recorded 1 cm (one-half inch) of contraction across the cone. Seismic tremor levels near fissure D remained at low levels.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeters recorded abrupt inflation starting at 0800hrs yesterday and continuing until 0300hrs this morning. Seismic tremor levels dropped one-third in value during the inflation. GPS receivers recorded 2 cm (almost one inch) of contraction in the past month. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the south flank faults. Southerly winds again pushed gas emissions northward. In Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, sulfur dioxide concentrations at the Visitor's Center peaked at 1,000 ppb at 0900hrs and 800 ppb at HVO at midnight last night. The State Department of Health air quality monitoring website has not updated their on-line data since yesterday morning.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 1st of December, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that the Arenal volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica, around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela, canton of San Carlos, and district of La Fortuna. Recognized as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

Once locally known as Cerro Arenal (i.e. Mount Arenal) it was presumed extinct until July 29, 1968 when an earthquake caused it to erupt, after approximately 400 years of dormancy. The eruption wiped out the town of Arenal and killed 87 people [1]. It lasted for several days, and during that time destroyed crops, property, livestock, and forests. 15 square kilometers were buried and the explosion affected over 232 square kilometers. The eruption caused three new and active craters to form. Before the eruption, there was a wide veriety of plant and wildlife on the mountain. It has been active since the explosion and can be reported to have minor eruptions every 5-10 minutes.

In October, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling down the SW and S flanks, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
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« Reply #160 on: December 04, 2007, 12:14:51 AM »

YASUR

As of the 1st of December, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time ! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Projectile ejection Yasur volcano has not produced a large destructive eruption historically. There is no indication that a large eruption will occur in the near future at Yasur volcano. Magma chamber inflation is currently being accommodated by the volcano. The largest reasonable level of activity expected is the ejection of bombs 3-4 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows threatening low lying areas near the volcano. This type of activity would pose a danger to nearby villages. Ground deformation Yasur volcano has the second greatest level of ground uplift in the world. Since 1000 AD there has been a yearly average uplift of 149 mm. This is only beaten by Iwo Jima volcano in Japan with 200 mm uplift per year since 1200 AD. Tsunami Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes, and landslides may result in the production of tsunamis which may threaten coastal populations. Flooding Lake Siwi broke through its natural dam in 2002 flooding Sulphur Bay Village and destroying houses. Landslides Landslide and debris flow pose significant risks to the surrounding population. Uplift of the caldera creates unstable ground, combined with the deposition of unstable ash and cinders. Ashfall Periods of strong volcanic activity may cause ashfall over large areas of Tanna Island. Ashfall can damage crops, cause roofs to collapse, and result in mudflows after rain. Gas Gas samples collected from the plume crossing Yasur crater rim in 1988 contained SO2 and HCl gases at concentrations between 3 and 9 ppm. This is a hazardous level of gas. This level of SO2 causes a decrease in lung function and immediate irritation of eyes nose and throat. Lava Flow Lava flows occur infrequently at Yasur volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 1st of December, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that Stromboli continues its relentless eruptions. In November 2007, Marco Fulle and Tom Pfeiffer visited Pizzo with local Magmatrek guides. Mild NE wind made for good visibility of the collapsed crater terrace, on which five vents were erupting every five to ten minutes. The terrace subsided in March 2007: the western rim of SW crater gives a good indication of the amount of subsidence. The eastern part of the terrace is now approximately 100 metres lower than before.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of December, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that the volcano has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activity. One of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes. Most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring and interpretation of seismic and seismoacoustic activity volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE
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« Reply #161 on: December 04, 2007, 12:39:45 AM »

Hello Dreamweaver,

Brother Bob, my older Brother and his family live about 60 miles South of Mt. St. Helens. I remember him telling me about the last eruption. I don't think that most people living in this part of the world have a clue about the power unleashed in even a relatively small volcanic event. 60 Miles away, and everything was covered with a layer of ash. I don't know very much about volcanoes, but I would suspect the last eruption of Mt. St. Helens was tiny in comparison to the many other active volcanoes that you list. If I remember correctly, Yellowstone is a monster and might rank up their with the largest and potentially most dangerous volcanoes in the world.

If a tiny or small volcano can have such a dramatic effect on such a large area, can we even imagine the potential impact of a large, huge, or monster volcano. I'm sure there are studies done that estimate what the potential impact would be, but most of us never imagine things like this. As an example, I understand that Yellowstone could have a massive impact on the entire earth for an unknown period of time. I read once that Yellowstone had the destructive power to effect many fault lines that have been inactive for many years. I live within about 25 miles from an inactive fault line. One study I read indicated that an eruption of Yellowstone could trigger huge earthquakes many miles away, and the fault line near us was one that was mentioned. Here's a little grin for you and everyone else reading this. We have a tiny un-manned seismology station in a tiny town called Meers, Oklahoma. Meers really amounts to a cafe that's also the post office, and the seismology station is in a glass cabinet in the same cafe. The machine is logging information, but I don't know how much anyone pays attention to it. We have had small earthquakes here, but it's hard for us to tell since we live right on top of Fort Sill, the artillery center of the world, home to MRLS, home to Paladin, was home for Redstone, and was to be home for the new Crusader. We have huge booms and earth shaking from bombs and artillery all the time, so we wouldn't know anything was different unless houses started falling into the earth. We have had some fairly interesting sink-hole activity in this area, and one was just less than a block from us. So, if you hear an echo from my computer, it might be because I'm typing from underground.    Grin

I mainly wanted to make the point that volcanic activity can be deadly serious, and it's not just something that can happen thousands of miles away. I understand that one moderate volcano can have the destructive power of many nuclear weapons. This is a tiny example of the awesome power of GOD in HIS Creation. Man hangs pictures on the wall, and GOD hangs planets in place. Mankind will have to learn the proper reverence for ALMIGHTY GOD one day, and it won't be pleasant. I love GOD, but I also respect and fear HIM. ALMIGHTY GOD deserves respect, fear, love, praise, thanks, and worship. I think those days grow near when all men will learn the hard way that the CREATOR ALMIGHTY GOD is in CHARGE!

Love In Christ,
Tom

Thanks be unto God for His unspeakable GIFT, Jesus Christ, our Lord and Saviour Forever!
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« Reply #162 on: December 04, 2007, 12:59:53 AM »

Brother, I was in Yakima, Washington when Mt. St Helens erupted back in 1980. That is east of Mt. St. Helens, I was on vacation from Sambos.  I wanting to see the eruption, from Mt. Adams. Which I never made it to watch. I can remember to this day the skies turning black. About 10:00 a.m., the skies turned black . Yakima is like 75-80 miles away, from Mt. St. Helens.

I still have a vial of ash, I scraped off my car. Never the less, I was late getting back to Show Low. Shocked

The reason for the seismology station in Meers, is for the the New Madrid Fault Zone. The earthquakes that have happened there in the past, are normally magnitude of 8+. The geography of the rock back there is old rock. In the west is new rock, which is more elastic.
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« Reply #163 on: December 04, 2007, 01:28:32 AM »

Quote
Dreamweaver Said:

The reason for the seismology station in Meers, is for the the New Madrid Fault Zone. The earthquakes that have happened there in the past, are normally magnitude of 8+. The geography of the rock back there is old rock. In the west is new rock, which is more elastic.

 Wink  Thanks Brother - I feel a lot better now. I've always heard that the Wichita Mountains is one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world, but I didn't know this area was due for monster earthquakes. I really prefer tornadoes, but I don't guess we get to choose. I'll just pray that the Rapture is first.

Love in Christ,
Tom



1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 NASB
But we do not want you to be uninformed, brethren, about those who are asleep, so that you will not grieve as do the rest who have no hope. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so God will bring with Him those who have fallen asleep in Jesus. For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord. Therefore comfort one another with these words.

1 Corinthians 15:50-58 NASB
Now I say this, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. Behold, I tell you a mystery; we will not all sleep, but we will all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality. But when this perishable will have put on the imperishable, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, "DEATH IS SWALLOWED UP in victory. "O DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR VICTORY? O  DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR STING?" The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law; but thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your toil is not in vain in the Lord.
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« Reply #164 on: December 04, 2007, 01:42:08 AM »

The epicenter of the New Madrid Fault Zone runs from just south of me to down just south of Memphis, TN  It is not uncommon for earthquakes of 3.8 to be felt from it very recently. There has been as high as 11 recorded from it in the past. Some of these quakes have been felt as far away as North Carolina to the east and the panhandle of Oklahoma to the west, causing significant damage even that far away. If Yellowstone caldera were to go it is believed that it would set off the New Madrid and perhaps many in Calif as well. The ash from it would cover an area at least 600 miles in radius from Yellowstone. Yes, even that is just a drop in comparison to the almighty power of God and will be nothing in comparison to when His wrath gets poured out on this world.

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Joh 9:4  I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work.
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