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Shammu
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« Reply #120 on: October 24, 2007, 10:36:33 PM »

Indonesian volcano eruption imminent: scientist

by Staff Writers
Blitar, Indonesia (AFP) Oct 24, 2007

A scientist warned on Wednesday that all indications pointed to the imminent eruption of a volcano on the Indonesian island of Java, despite it showing few obvious signs of activity.

Mount Kelut, a 1,731-metre (5,712-foot) volcano with a history of deadly eruptions, was put on high alert on October 16, triggering efforts to evacuate some 130,000 people living within 10 kilometres (six miles) of its crater.

But the mountain and its fertile farmed slopes have been quiet for the past few days with no drastic changes in the frequency and magnitude of volcanic and tectonic quakes affecting the area.

Most residents are spending the nights at temporary shelters further down the slopes but they are returning to work the fields during the day.

"The trend is that the centres of the shallow volcanic quakes are moving closer and closer to the surface, and this is the normal pattern prior to an eruption," said Kristianto, a geologist monitoring Kelut.

"They (the quake centres) are now less than one kilometre beneath the crater's floor but the mountain will only erupt when these are accompanied by shallow quakes of large amplitude and long, continuous tremors," he told AFP.

Although he said that an eruption was impossible to predict accurately, the signs leading to an eruption usually followed the same pattern.

President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono was to tour the area later Tuesday.

"We are making preparations for the visit but our priority remains on those displaced," said local official Sigit Raharjo.

Geologists have said they expect an eruption of Kelut would comprise of "heat clouds", searing gases and volcanic debris rushing down the slopes, similar to the most recent eruption in 1990 that left 34 dead.

Indonesia sits on the Pacific "Ring of Fire," where continental plates collide causing frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The archipelago nation is home to 129 active volcanoes, including 21 on Java.

Indonesian volcano eruption imminent: scientist
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« Reply #121 on: October 24, 2007, 10:45:43 PM »

KELUT

As of the 24th of October, the Volcanological Society opf Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the monitoring the active condition reamins normal, at Kelut. In general, recorded were approximately 2 volcanic earthquakes each month. On October 10th, 2007, the seismograph printed 13 earthquakes volcanic, whereas on October 11th, 2007 recorded 3 volcanic earthquakes at Kelut. The distribution epientre of the source of the volcanic earthquake in the status report was at a depth of 3 km under Kelut.

In the period from September 29th – October 16th, 2007, recorded by the Volcanic-Dalam earthquake as during before being on the alert and before Alert, was the number less than 20 incidents daily. On October 16th, 2007, at 1000hrs WIB began to be recorded and the Volcanic-Dangkal earthquake, at 1700hrs WIB recorded 306 earthquakes at VulkanikDangkal. After consultations with the Tanggap team of the Emergency Kelut, on October 16th, 2007 at 1725hrs WIB, Kelut the depth wa around 1 kilometre from the foundation of the crater.

The colour code at Kelut is currently at ALERT LEVEL IV
~~~~~~~~~~

GALERAS

As of the 24th of October, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (OVSP) has reported that activity of the volcano stays in: Level III (Changes in the behaviour of the volcanic activity) Of the permanent pursuit and analysis that the Vulcanológico Observatory of the INGEOMINAS makes in Pasto, one stands out that:
1. The volcanmo continues predominating the registry of seismic events related to the dynamics of the magmatic fluids, with low power levels, that happen at superficial levels and that in this week showed increase in their occurrence (mainly of episodes of spasmodic tremor).
2. When the climatic conditions have allowed it, the observation has been possible from Pasto and other populations bordering to the volcano, of columns of emission mainly conformed by water steam, that sometimes drag small volumes of solid particles (so large ash and finer). These columns have reached peak altitudes between about 500 and 1700 metres on the top of the volcanic proper. In this week, the dispersion of those columns of emission by action of the wind, has been random, going as much to the north flank as to the south (particularly in the last days).

Personnel of the Observatory the past verified a report of the Local Committee of the municipality of Nariño on fall of fine ashes and in little amount in the high part of this municipality on the 16th of October. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic activity and will opportunely inform the changes that can be detected.

The colour code at Galeras is currently at ALERT LEVEL III
~~~~~~~~

Mt. RUAPEHU

As of the 19th of October, the GeoNet Data Centre (CNDC) has reported that the Alert Level at Ruapehu was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) on 9 October because no further eruptions have occurred since the activity on 25 September.

Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Ruapehu is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
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« Reply #122 on: October 24, 2007, 10:48:41 PM »

KARANGETANG

As of the 18th of October, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 1.9 km (6,200 ft) a.s.l. on 13 October.

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

The Current Colour Code for Karangetang is currently at ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~

OL DOINYO LENGAI

As of the 20th of October, coleague John Seach of Australia has reported that a pilot report indicated an eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania occurred at 0830hrs local time today. An ash plume reached 25,000 ft. altitude, and was visible from a distance of 50 miles. The eruption lasted 30 minutes.

The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage of the volcano ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra eruptions and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

The Current Colour Code for Ol Doinyo Lengai is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 24th of October, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that again clouds obscured satellite views over Cleveland volcano last night. No reports of activity have been received. AVO continues to monitor Cleveland Volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW
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« Reply #123 on: October 24, 2007, 10:51:03 PM »

UBINAS

As of the 18th of October, INGEMMET reported that based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.6 km (18,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NNE, SE, and ESE during 11-13 and 15 October.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 24th of October, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that in the passed period days the 16th thru the 22nd of October, a total of 125 seismic events was registered; of which, 10 events are associate to fracturing of rock, 112 events had relation with the dynamics of flowed within the volcanic conduits, and three pulses of tremor of low magnitude. During this period a volcano-tectonic event happened the 19th of October at 1155hrs local time stood out, which was located to 6 km to the E of the Central Tip, with a magnitude of 2.07 and depth of 5.87 km. Of the previous thing it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, with slight excitations of the system. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic phenomenon and will inform into opportune way the changes that can be presented/displayed.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~

CHIKURACHKI

As of the 19th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended >180 km (>110 mi) from the volcano to the north-east on October 17-18, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidised basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #124 on: October 24, 2007, 10:53:20 PM »

KARYMSKY

As of the 19th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week, many shallow volcanic earthquakes and a spasmodic volcanic tremor were registered at the volcano all days. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 4.3 km (14,100 ft) ASL all week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly at the volcano was noted on October 14-18. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Ash plumes extended >190 km (>353 mi) mainly to the eastern directions from the volcano on October 15-18.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 20th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano gradually decreases. No ash emissions or explosive activity has been noted on October 18-20. Seismicity at the volcano is at background levels from 0001hrs UTC on October 19 till now. Clouds obscured the volcano on October 18-20. An intense thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed at satellite images on October 18-20. It is likely that viscous lava is effusing from the summit dome at Bezymianny. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 19th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 6.5 km (21,300 ft) ASL and small hot avalanches occurred at the volcano all week. According to video data, ash plumes raising up to 5.5 km (18,040 ft) ASL were noted on October 14-15. Gas-steam plumes containing small amount of ash rose up to 5.0 km (16,400 ft) ASL on October 11-12 and 14-15. Clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week. Ash plumes extended 30-120 km (155 mi) mainly to the eastern directions from the volcano on October 12, 14 and 16.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #125 on: October 24, 2007, 10:55:50 PM »

MANAM

As of the 18th of October, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that RVO reported that Manam's Main Crater and South Crater occasionally released white vapour plumes during 6-15 October. During 10-11 October, weak incandescence and occasional ash plumes from Main Crater were visible.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centres are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded at Manam since 1616. A major eruption in 1919 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the coast, and in 1957-58 pyroclastic flows descended all four radial valleys. Lava flows reached the sea in 1946-47 and 1958.

The Current Colour Code for Manam is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 24th of Ocotber, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable volcanic activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant change over the last 24 hours. Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding, although the likelihood of this is thought to decrease with time as no further lava extrusion occurs. Nevertheless, overnight, in response to heavy rainfall there was a period of lahar activity lasting around two hours between 0230hrs and 0430hrs ECT detected by the MVO seismic network. This affected drainages on all sides of the volcano including the Belham Valley to the northwest. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 24th of October, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift northeast.

Halcyon weather provides clear views of MSH this morning. The dome-building eruption continues with no change in ground deformation or earthquake activity that remains at or near levels typical of recent months. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
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« Reply #126 on: October 24, 2007, 10:58:29 PM »

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 24th of October, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano registered 4 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. At this moment there is no visibility towards the volcano due to dense clouds.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 24th of October, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that during the last 24 hours, the volcano presents/displays a high level of activity, characterised by the generation of explosions, tremors of emission and LP earthquakes, generated by the vibration of flowed in the interior of the volcano. In addition for two weeks slight deformation in the north flank has been registered.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: 76 events of long period have been registered (LPs), a volcano-tectonic event (VTs), 29 episodes of tremor of emission and 6 explosions. Four of these explosions have values of Displacement Reduced greater than 4 cm2, which is the reason why it is considered of moderate size. These explosions happened at 1641hrs, 2256hrs of and 0102hrs and 1302hrs of today and yesterday caused waves of infrasound of 95, 216, 104 and 148 Pascales in a sensor located at 6 km of distance from the crater. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: In the afternoon of today, observations of the eruptive columns due to the cloud presence were not made yesterday in the area. At noon today, a column of steam and ash of 4 km of height was observed on the summit. Later a column of 1500 m with direction NW and a small ash content was observed. Reports of ash fall are not had. Climate/Rains/Lahars: Slight rains of yesterday were reported at night, but any report of the occurrence of mud flows is not had (lahars). Deformation: From the 07th of October, clinometer of RETU, located in the superior part of the northern flank, it continues registering a noticeable deformation of radial axis (190 urad).

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 18th of October, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that white vapour plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 8-16 October. Occasional explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted NNE and S. Ashfall was reported downwind, including Namanula Hill and surrounding areas. The ash emissions were intermittently accompanied by roaring noises, and incandescence at the summit was observed during the reporting period.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1
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« Reply #127 on: October 24, 2007, 11:00:11 PM »

KILAUEA

As of the 24th of October, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the 7/21 eruption continued to supply lava to a channel that fed flows that seeped from its base and issued from its distant end. That latter flow has advanced nearly a mile and has entered a forested kipuka along the northern margin of the flow field. Hazard Summary: There are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: Lava in the channel is a few metres below the rim; there were no overflows. Scattered incandescence on the northern and southern margins suggest that the seep-fed flows continued to be active. As of yesterday morning, a lava flow, issued from the channel end, advanced about 1.5 km (0.9 miles),and entered the remains of a forested kipuka along the northern margin of the flow field.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: Fume and dark - no incandescence has been seen since the end of August. No significant tilt changes were recorded; GPS receivers continued to record slow contraction across the cone. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeters recorded no significant tilt changes. GPS receivers recorded slowed contraction across the caldera consistent with deflation of a summit source. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the south flank faults. A magnitude-3.2 earthquake was located 7.5 km (4.7 miles south of Halema`uma`u crater beneath the Koa`e fault system at a depth of 33 km (20 miles). Seismic tremor levels remained at low values.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
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« Reply #128 on: October 25, 2007, 10:30:18 PM »

Indonesian volcano spews white smoke

Thu Oct 25, 12:30 AM ET

JAKARTA, Indonesia - A volcano erupted in central Indonesia on Thursday, shooting plumes of white smoke and sand nearly 5,000 feet into the air and covering nearby villages in ash, officials said.

Residents living near the crater of Mount Soputan, located on Sulawesi island, were evacuated before the blast and there were no immediate reports of injuries or serious damage, said Sandy Manengke, a local monitoring official.

The heat could be felt as far as 12 miles away, he said, and some residents living in villages near the base of the 5,800-foot mountain wore face masks to protect themselves from the smoke and ash.

Abandoned homes along the volcano's fertile slopes were covered in soot, Manengke said.

Indonesia has more active volcanoes than any other nation because of its location on the Pacific "Ring of Fire" — a series of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and Southeast Asia.

Mount Soputan, 1,350 miles northeast of the capital, Jakarta, is one of its most active. It rarely spews lava, however, instead spitting out smoke, ash and sand, Manengke said.

Indonesian volcano spews white smoke
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« Reply #129 on: October 27, 2007, 11:54:36 PM »

Indonesia's 'Child of Krakatoa' Volcano Near Eruption

Saturday, October 27, 2007

JAKARTA, Indonesia —  The Indonesian volcano known as the "Child of Krakatoa" spewed ash and smoke, prompting warnings of a possible eruption, a government volcanologist said Saturday.

The mountain in the Sunda Strait, 80 miles west of Jakarta, formed after the giant Krakatoa eruption of 1883 that killed tens of thousands of people and was the largest explosion in recorded history.

"Activity at Anak Krakatoa increased yesterday and there were several small eruptions," said Surono, a leading government volcanologist who, like many Indonesians, uses one name. "We have upgraded the alert level to the second highest."
(Orange 4, next is Red..... D.W.)

Anak Krakatoa, which means "Child of Krakatoa," is the third volcano to become active in recent weeks in Indonesia, a sprawling nation of more than 17,000 islands. The country has about 150 volcanos along an arc of fault lines called the Pacific "Ring of Fire."

Krakatoa's massive 1883 blast, heard nearly 2,000 miles away in Australia, sent pyroclastic surges of gas and burning ash which, combined with a tsunami, wiped out 165 villages and killed at least 36,417 people. It destroyed two thirds of the island of Krakatoa between Java and Sumatra.

Indonesia's 'Child of Krakatoa' Volcano Near Eruption
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« Reply #130 on: November 03, 2007, 03:47:54 PM »

Indonesian eruption report creates panic

By INDRA HARSAPUTRA, Associated Press Writer 1 hour, 19 minutes ago

MOUNT KELUD, Indonesia - Villagers fled the slopes of one of Indonesia's deadliest volcanos Saturday after seismic readings indicated that an eruption had started after weeks of heightened activity.

But Surono, a senior government volcanologist who goes by a single name, told el-Shinta radio station late Saturday that monitoring equipment close to the crater of Mount Kelud was still working, indicating that there had been no eruption.

"In reality Kelud did not erupt", Surono said.

The volcano in the heart of densely populated Java island was shrouded in fog and no visual confirmation of the eruption reports was possible before night fell, government seismologist Umar Rosadi said.

Scores of people, including women hauling babies in slings, descended from the mountain in police trucks and on bicycles and motorcycles. Some were in tears, and many wore masks to protect against volcanic ash.

"I am afraid because the authorities say this eruption will be worse than the ones that have come before," said Marsini, resident of a village three miles from the crater. "They say there may be poisonous gas. I am leaving now."

Rosadi and another government scientist said official monitors had left their posts after detecting continuous tremors.

For weeks, authorities have warned of an impending eruption and pleaded with villagers to move to tent camps or government buildings.

Thousands have evacuated villages closest to the crater but many people have insisted on staying behind to tend to crops or look after their houses.

Some apparently believe a local myth stating if they stayed at home without switching indoor lights on or speaking in a loud voice then the mountain would not erupt.

In 1990, Mount Kelud killed more than 30 people and injured hundreds. In 1919, a powerful explosion that could be heard hundreds of miles away destroyed dozens of villages and killed at least 5,160.

Scientists fear a buildup of magma under Kelud's crater lake could trigger a violent blast, sending a torrent of mud, ash and rock careering down the side of the 5,679-foot mountain.

The mountain has been on its highest alert status for more than two weeks, but in the last 48 hours the intensity of the quakes and the temperature of its lake have exceeding those in the days preceding the 1990 blast, scientists say.

Indonesia has about 100 active volcanos, more than any nation.

The country is spread across 17,500 islands and is prone to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes because of its location on the so-called "Ring of Fire" — a series of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and Southeast Asia.

At least three are currently erupting elsewhere in the country, including Mount Anak Krakatau, which lies of the northern tip of Java island. The mountain was formed after the famous Krakatau volcano erupted in 1883 killing thousands, but it is not seen as at risk of a major blast.

Indonesian eruption report creates panic
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« Reply #131 on: November 06, 2007, 02:04:31 PM »

Indonesian volcanos spit lava, dark ash

By IRWAN FIRDAUS, Associated Press Writer Mon Nov 5, 1:14 PM ET

MOUNT KELUD, Indonesia - Several Indonesian volcanos spewed hot ash, molten rock and clouds of dark smoke Monday, and scientists warned a violent eruption could come at any moment.


Steam and hot gasses rise above the Mt. Kelud volcano early
Monday Nov. 5, 2007, in East Java, Indonesia. The killer
Indonesian volcano on high alert spat out fresh clouds of
smoke on Monday as scientists warned any eruption
would likely be much larger than the last time it blew its top.
(AP Photo/Trisnadi)

The most threatening was the deadly Mount Kelud on densely populated Java island, where a dome of magma was forming under a crater lake and soaring temperatures overheated monitoring equipment.

A few hundred miles away, Anak Krakatao, or the "Child of Krakatoa" in English, fired pumice and lava onto its slopes.

At least one other of Indonesia's approximately 100 active volcanoes sent bursts of ash showering down on nearby villages.

Experts said there was no connection between the heightened activity at the different volcanos along the tropical archipelago.

Authorities monitoring the peaks were most concerned about Kelud because of its deadly history, including a 1919 explosion that killed thousands.

The temperature of the crater lake on Mount Kelud was so great that nearby monitoring equipment stopped working, said Surono, one of 16 volcanologists watching over the peak 24 hours a day. Like many Indonesians, he uses only one name.

Despite the threat, there was little sense of panic on Kelud's slopes, witnesses said.

While several thousand people have fled to government shelters, authorities said Sunday that around 25,000 others were ignoring evacuation orders and remained in the danger zone around Kelud.

Officials have made no attempts to prevent people from traveling inside a six-mile zone around the peak that the local government says is off-limits.

"I feel it is OK to stay here," said Sukirno, who was tending papaya plants four miles from the peak. "No one can guarantee our safety apart from ourselves."

Kelud has been on the highest alert level for more than two weeks. But since Friday, scientists have been warning an eruption was imminent based on the frequency of tremors shaking and its intense heat.

In 1990, Mount Kelud spat out red-hot gases, mud and lava that killed more than 30 people and injured hundreds. In 1919, a powerful explosion that reportedly could be heard hundreds of miles away killed at least 5,160.

"If it goes this time, it will be much larger than in 1990," said Surono, basing his prediction on the number of tremors and the lake temperature — both of which have been much higher than in the days preceding the earlier blast.

The team monitoring the volcano has also said an eruption may be small or gradual — or might not happen at all given the unpredictable nature of the 5,679-foot mountain.

Images of Mt. Kelud's crater lake showed a dome had formed, but thick steam made it difficult to estimate its size, volcanologist Umar Rosadi said.

Around 40 miles southeast of Kelud, Mount Semeru was also putting on a display, sending out clouds high into the air that coated buildings in nearby villages and the town of Blitar with a fine layer of ash, witnesses said.

Ash rain from Semeru is common in the town, and Rosadi said people had no need to worry. No evacuations were ordered.

Anak Krakatoa was formed off the northern tip of Java island after a massive eruption at the giant Krakatoa volcano in 1883. That blast was heard nearly 2,000 miles away in Australia and sent surges of gas and burning ash which, combined with a tsunami, killed at least 36,000 people.

Indonesia is spread across 17,500 islands and is prone to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes because of its location within the so-called "Ring of Fire" — a series of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and Southeast Asia.

Indonesian volcanos spit lava, dark ash
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« Reply #132 on: November 06, 2007, 02:13:29 PM »

GALERAS

As of the 6th of November, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (OVSP) has reported that the activity of the volcano continues in: Level III (Changes in the behaviour of the volcanic activity). The registry of seismic events related to the dynamics of the magmatic fluids predominates, that happen preferential at superficial levels, standing out among them the events of spasmodic Tremor type that are associated with gas discharges and fine ash. Some of these tremors showed low frequencies that stay in the time. When the climatic conditions were favourable could be observed columns of emission mainly conformed by steam of water and in some occasions to small volumes of fine ash. These columns reached peak altitudes between 500 and 2900 metres on the top of the volcanic ediface, like what happened today at 0927hrs. During this week the wind speed has shown low values, thus the emission columns gain altitude and its dispersion is variable, going as much to the north flank as to the south. The day first of November at 1810hrs stands out that the report of an explosion heard in the sector of San Cayetano was received and in the cabin of National Parks, in the route to the top of Galeras, which was associated with a signal of registered spasmodic tremor to the same hour, lamentably the surrounding fog did not allow the direct observation of the emission column. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic activity and will opportunely inform the changes that can be detected.

The colour code at Galeras is currently at ALERT LEVEL III
~~~~~~~

YELLOWSTONE CALDERA

As of the 2nd of November, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), reported that during the month of October 2007, 34 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone Region. The largest of these shocks was a magnitude 2.1 on October 17, 2007 at 0639hrs MDT, located about 26 miles southeast of West Thumb, WY. There were no swarms and no earthquakes were reported felt during October. Earthquake activity in the Yellowstone region is at low background levels.

Ground Deformation Summary: Through October 2007, continuous GPS data show that most of the Yellowstone caldera continued moving upward at similar to slightly lower rates as the past year. The maximum measured ground uplift over the past 36 months is ~17 cm at the White Lake GPS station. An example can be found at: http://pboweb.unavco.org/shared/scripts/stations/?checkkey=WLWY&sec=timeseries_plots&timeseries=raw . The general uplift of the Yellowstone caldera is scientifically interesting and will continue to be monitored closely by YVO staff.

The colour code at Yellowstone is currently at  ??
~~~~~~~~~

Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of November, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that explosives and a volcano may sound like a dangerous combination, but New Mexico Tech researchers with seismometers are aiming to use them to gather information about volcanoes that could help people. The scientists hope to use seismology to begin developing an image of the inside of the Antarctic volcano Mt. Erebus and fine-tune techniques to do so during a few months at the bottom of the world. The information would help show how the volcano works, said Professor of Geophysics Richard Aster. Kyle Jones, senior who plans to visit Antarctica for the third time, said the knowledge they gain from Mt. Erebus could apply to other volcanoes. Mt. Erebus has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activity. One of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes. Most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring of the seismic and seismoacoustic activity of the volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE
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« Reply #133 on: November 06, 2007, 02:16:38 PM »

STROMBOLI

As of the 1st November, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that during the recent tour "From Stromboli to Etna" a crew observed mild to moderate explosions from Stromboli volcano. The most active vent appears to be in the former central crater, with powerful explosions throwing glowing material up to 200m elevation above the crater and often outside on the N and NE flanks. Other vents in the eastern and western part of the crater erupt occasionally with loud bangs and loud hissing noises produced by strong gas jets.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

YASUR

As of the 1st of November, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano has erupted many times per hour for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Projectile ejection Yasur volcano has not produced a large destructive eruption historically. There is no indication that a large eruption will occur in the near future at Yasur volcano. Magma chamber inflation is currently being accommodated by the volcano. The largest reasonable level of activity expected is the ejection of bombs 3-4 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows threatening low lying areas near the volcano. This type of activity would pose a danger to nearby villages. Ground deformation Yasur volcano has the second greatest level of ground uplift in the world. Since 1000 AD there has been a yearly average uplift of 149 mm. This is only beaten by Iwo Jima volcano in Japan with 200 mm uplift per year since 1200 AD. Tsunami Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes, and landslides may result in the production of tsunamis which may threaten coastal populations. Flooding Lake Siwi broke through its natural dam in 2002 flooding Sulphur Bay Village and destroying houses. Landslides Landslide and debris flow pose significant risks to the surrounding population. Uplift of the caldera creates unstable ground, combined with the deposition of unstable ash and cinders. Ashfall Periods of strong volcanic activity may cause ashfall over large areas of Tanna Island. Ashfall can damage crops, cause roofs to collapse, and result in mudflows after rain. Gas Gas samples collected from the plume crossing Yasur crater rim in 1988 contained SO2 and HCl gases at concentrations between 3 and 9 ppm. This is a hazardous level of gas. This level of SO2 causes a decrease in lung function and immediate irritation of eyes nose and throat. Lava Flow Lava flows occur infrequently at Yasur volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 1st of November, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that the country's most active volcano, Arenal's eruptions are strombolian in type, being frequent but moderate and can be viewed without danger as long as the viewers are behind the safety perimeter. This constant activity and minimal endangerment makes Arenal a popular tourist destination, especially at night, because the lava and incandescent rocks make a spectacular sight.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
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« Reply #134 on: November 06, 2007, 02:20:52 PM »

ARENAL

As of the 1st of November, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that the country's most active volcano, Arenal's eruptions are strombolian in type, being frequent but moderate and can be viewed without danger as long as the viewers are behind the safety perimeter. This constant activity and minimal endangerment makes Arenal a popular tourist destination, especially at night, because the lava and incandescent rocks make a spectacular sight.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 6th of November, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the 7/21 eruption continued to supply lava to a channel that distributed it into seeps, overflows, and tubes. Both lava tubes that have been active over the past week continued to be active and produced breakouts over their most distant sections. Flows from neither tube system have advanced beyond their Nov. 2 positions. Lava erupted from the 7/21 fissures is probably fed from a shallow magma storage area beneath Pu`u `O`o. Gas emissions continued to be high from Pu`u `O`o but not from the new fissures suggesting that the 7/21 magma first degasses beneath Pu`u `O`o before being erupted. The channel and tube system continue to produce shorter lava flows than were erupted during August causing the area covered by 7/21 flows to get wider in the northwest-southeast direction but not longer in the northeastern direction. Hazard Summary: There are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Wao Kele o Puna is also closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: Changes in the weather just before dawn this morning have allowed good views from the webcam for the first time in several days. The channel was still full and produced a small overflow. The seep-fed flows north and south of the channel were still active. Both the north-going and east-going tubes were still active as shown by scattered incandescence and burning. Small breakouts from the north-going tube continued to slowly burn into a kipuka about 1.2 km (0.75 miles) north of the channel end. The east-going tube is feeding presumed pahoehoe flows that were burning into a small kipuka 0.6 km (0.4 miles) north of Pu`u Kia`i in addition to forested areas around Pu`u Kia`i. Tremor bursts recorded more intensely at the Kalalua seismometers than on the Pu`u `O`o instruments last night seem to be loosely correlated with rainfall and most likely originate from the 7/21 vents.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: The weather change yesterday allowed some views into the crater during the day; despite the improved visibility, no incandescence was seen in the crater overnight. The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter recorded more rain-induced changes. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values. GPS receivers continued to record contraction across the crater.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeters again recorded no coherent (in one direction) tilt changes and some rain-induced signal. GPS receivers recorded contraction that has slowed since mid-October. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values. A few earthquakes were located beneath the summit and south flank faults. Sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide concentrations were elevated yesterday, but not to as large values as the three days before. So far this morning, concentrations are at normal levels.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 4th of November, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 2.7-3.7 km (3,900-15,400 ft) a.s.l. at the time of 29-30 October. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town. Occasional incandescence at the summit was observed.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1
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