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bronzesnake
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« Reply #165 on: December 04, 2007, 04:04:26 AM »

Hello Tom - Roger, and Bob!

Just to ponder God's power at causing every mountain, hill and building to be levelled is extreemly frightening, and yet this is peanuts compared with the awsome unbounded force it took to say create the Universe!
Our God is THE awsome God!

John
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nChrist
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« Reply #166 on: December 04, 2007, 09:10:38 AM »

Hello Tom - Roger, and Bob!

Just to ponder God's power at causing every mountain, hill and building to be levelled is extreemly frightening, and yet this is peanuts compared with the awsome unbounded force it took to say create the Universe!
Our God is THE awsome God!

John

Here's a BIG Oklahoma HOWDY back at you Brother John. The Power of the "GREAT I AM", our HEAVENLY FATHER, is without limit or bounds. HE does as HE pleases in Heaven and on Earth.

Mankind is proud and boastful playing with tinker toys. ALMIGHTY GOD holds and controls all the forces of the universe in the palm of HIS HAND. We are just a tiny part of HIS Creation, so it would be impossible for us to comprehend HIS AWESOME POWER AND MIGHT. As Children of the KING OF KINGS, it's pleasant for us to imagine HIS POWER, but it's more pleasant for us to find out about HIS Love for us.

Love In Christ,
Tom

Ephesians 3:14-19 NASB
For this reason I bow my knees before the Father, from whom every family in heaven and on earth derives its name, that He would grant you, according to the riches of His glory, to be strengthened with power through His Spirit in the inner man, so that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; and that you, being rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth, and to know the love of Christ which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled up to all the fullness of God.
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Soldier4Christ
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« Reply #167 on: December 04, 2007, 09:49:07 AM »

Amen and amen!

Hello Brother John. Good to see you.
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Joh 9:4  I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work.
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« Reply #168 on: December 28, 2007, 03:55:24 PM »

TURRIALBA

As of the 16th of December, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica, OVSICORI-UNA, has reported that the volcanic unrest at Turrialba seems to intensify, and signs of a possible new eruption in the near to medium future are getting stronger: According to OVSICORI-UNA a gas-and-steam plume from Turrialba rose to an altitude greater than 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. on 5 December. Fieldwork confirmed an unusual output of gas from several fumaroles along the S outer wall. Areas burned by acute acidification have extended in the last month. Pastures turned yellowish near the upper areas, and native and exotic tree species were impacted as well as birch tree patches along most drainages. Within the W crater, temperatures of fumaroles reached 280 degrees Celsius and native sulfur was present.

Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.

The colour code at Turrialba is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~

GALERAS

As of the 25th of December, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (OVSP) has reported that continuous predominant of seismicity related to dynamics of flowed of magmatic and hydrothermal origin (episodes of spasmodic tremor) that happens at superficial levels, with characteristics similar to observed in the last the months. The registry of some events associated with fracturing of the rock material is also emphasised, that happened in a dispersed way in the volcanic complex, with low power levels (smaller local magnitudes of 2.0) and smaller depths of 10 km with respect to the top of the volcano. The prevailing cloudiness in the top of the volcano has prevented the observation of manifestations of the activity in surface.

The colour code at Galeras is currently at ALERT LEVEL III
~~~~~~~~

MAUNA LOA

As of the 22nd of December, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has reported that Mauna Loa is not erupting. There have been no significant changes except heavy snowfall in early December. A strong winter storm buried a critical radio repeater, its solar panels, and batteries preventing the webcam images and summit gas data from being telemetered to HVO. HVO is waiting for some snow melt to get the system running again. HVO's network of continuous GPS receivers showed slow inflation over the past 6 months, recording about 1 cm of extension across the caldera and the flanks in that time. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes. Mauna Loa remains seismically quiet with few earthquakes occurring beneath the summit. Since the beginning of January, 2005, HVO analysts have rarely located more than 10 earthquakes per week beneath Mauna Loa summit.

The colour code at Mauna Loa is currently at YELLOW
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« Reply #169 on: December 28, 2007, 03:57:18 PM »

NYIRAGONGO
01.52S 029.25E 3470m

Nyiragongo
Nyiragongo photo courtesy of NASA.

As of the 12th of December, the Global Volcanism Network reported that in central Africa, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, sit two volcanoes: Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira. Besides their proximity to Lake Kivu in the south, these volcanoes share the capacity for destruction, each having produced its share of catastrophic eruptions since the early twentieth century. Yet these volcanoes differ markedly from each other, one being a low-profiled structure rising subtly from the plain, and the other sporting steep slopes.

NASA’s Landsat 7 satellite captured this false-colour image of Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo on January 31, 2007, about a year after Nyiragongo sent a devastating lava flow through the town of Goma. Lava flows from neighbouring Nyamuragira, however, are more conspicuous in this picture, contrasting with the lush green vegetation with their somber shades of brown and purple-black. Nyiragongo shows evidence of its own activity. The deep pink dot at its summit is a hotspot where the sensor has detected unusually warm surface temperatures. The bright white dots are clouds, likely resulting from water vapour released by the volcano. Near the clouds is a small area of peacock blue, also part of the volcanic plume. Along the shores of Lake Kivu, areas of purple-brown indicate bare ground and human-made structures. On the 29th of November, the Global Volcanism Network reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that an eruption from Nyiragongo occurred before 0600hrs on 21 November.

One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighbouring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. Extremely fluid, fast-moving lava flows draining from the summit lava lake in 1977 caused many fatalities, as did lava flows inundating portions of the city of Goma in January 2002.

The Current Colour Code for Nyiragongo is at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

NICARAGUA

As of the 27th of December, the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) informs that according to a news article, INETER reported that an explosion from Concepción on 20 December was followed by gas-and-ash plumes. Ashfall was reported in nearby communities.

The volcano Concepción is one of Nicaragua's highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua and is connected to neighbouring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. A steep-walled summit crater is 250 m deep and has a higher western rim. N-S-trending fractures on the flanks of the volcano have produced chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars located on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides extending in some cases down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepción was constructed above a basement of lake sediments, and the modern cone grew above a largely buried caldera, a small remnant of which forms a break in slope about halfway up the north flank. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past half century have increased the height of the summit significantly above that shown on current topographic maps and have kept the upper part of the volcano unvegetated.

The Current Colour Code for Concepcion is at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

INDONESIA

As of the 6th of December, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that during Volcano Discovery's expedition, thanks to extraordinary good weather, they were able to observe Anak Krakatau's ongoing eruption during 21-26 November: overall, its activity was relatively constant and ranged from strong strombolian to weak vulcanian activity, probably according to various levels of phreatomagmatic and magmatic activity within the conduit. All activity occurred from the newly formed crater on the upper southern flank just below the old summit crater of Anak Kraktau. On 21 November, this crater had an oval shape and was approximately 50x70 m in diameter. Reports of lava flows earlier in the course of the eruption could not be verified and no deposits from lava flows were visible, only debris from ejected solid blocks and a few deformed fresh bombs.

Ash venting: The most frequent, typical type of acitivty that was present during most of the time consisted in ash venting. Dense, dark brown brown, billowing ash clouds escaped in pulses from the crater, rose typically 100-200 metres and occurred at near-constant intervals of about 2 minutes. At all times, the ash was drifting east due to near constant westerly winds. Only few or no blocks were observed being ejected along with such ash clouds. On 24 November, we observed phases where ash venting became continous over several minutes.

Vulcanian eruptions: At more irregular intervals, about 10-30 minutes apart, more violent, small vulcanian-type explosions interrupted the ash venting events. The explosions consisted in a sudden spray of mostly solid rocks and few incandescent scoria, followed by more powerful and turbulent ash plumes, which rose up to above 1 km. Generally, these vulcanian-type explosions tended to occur after slighly longer repose intervals with no or little visible activity in the crater and in most cases, the length of the repose interval was correlated with the force of the explosion. Several exceptionally powerful explosions occurred at intervals of approximately 16-24 hours: the strongest one occurred happened shortly after midnight on 21-22 November, and showered the whole of Anak Krakatau island with incandescent blocks, ignited bush fires and produced a very loud cannon-shot noise that rattled windows on the west coast 40 km away. Other unusually large blasts occurred at around 0200hrs on 21 Nov, at around 0900hrs and 1320hrs on 23 November.

Strombolian activity: Activity shifted temporarily towards more strombolian type explosions on the evening of 22 November: until about 0100hrs on 23 November, most activity then consisted in bright, scoria-rich strombolian explosions with lots of fresh incandescent bombs that produced only relatively little ash compared to the preivious activity. After some of the more powerful strombolian explosions, the team observed weak, near-continuous spattering from a vent in the crater.

Increasing activity after 23 Nov: Early on 23 November, activity returned to more ash-rich, probably phreatomagmatic in origin, activity. Ash production and the average violence of the individual events increased slighlty but visibly over the next two days, while a rythm of single events at near-constant intervals of about 2 minutes was maintained. During 24-25 November, ash plumes typically rose to >1 km above the crater and were well visible from the west coast.

The Current Colour Code for Krakatau is at ALERT LEVEL 2
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« Reply #170 on: December 28, 2007, 03:59:23 PM »

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 28th of December, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that partly cloudy satellite views showed nothing unusual today. No other reports of activity have been received. AVO continues to monitor Cleveland volcano with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 27th of December, INGEMMET reported that based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SW during 24-25 December.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

COLOMBIA

As of the 25th of December, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the Snow-covered Volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, informs that in the week between the 18 and the 24 of December a total of 97 seismic events was registered. Of them, 27 events are associate to fracturing of rock, 67 events are related to the dynamics of fluid within the volcanic conduits, 2 events hybrid type and a pulse of tremor of low magnitude. Of the previous, it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, with slight excitations of the system.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #171 on: December 28, 2007, 04:01:42 PM »

KARYMSKY

As of the 28th of December, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that according to seismic and satellite data, an ash activity of the volcano was not registered last two months. However, activity of Karymsky can resume at any time and ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL could occur. The explosive activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was at background levels on December 23-26. There was no seismic data in the other days of last week (technical reasons). According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly was noted on December 26. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 28th of December, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the volcano continues. A viscous lava flow is effusing from the summit lava dome. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismicity of the volcano was above background levels on December 22-23, and at the background levels on December 20-21 and 26. According to visual and video data, a weak fumarolic activity was observed at the lava dome on December 26-27. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the dome was observing on December 22, 24 and 25-26. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 28th of December, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was slightly background levels last week. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor (on December 19-22) were registered all week. Strong gas-steam plumes up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) ASL were observed on December 23-24. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noting last week. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #172 on: December 28, 2007, 04:04:16 PM »

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 28th of December, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that the pause in activity continues and measurable activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant change over the last 72 hours. During heavy precipitation it must be remembered the potential hazard of lahar (or mudflow) in the drainage channels around the volcano remains. The alert level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 28th of December, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift to the southeast early in the day and to the northeast later in the day.

Another winter storm is hitting the area. The volcano is obscured from view, but our in-crater tiltmeters show small tilt events related to dome growth. There has been little earthquake activity over the past 24 hours. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

COLIMA

As of the 28th of December, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reports that in the last 24 hours there have been events of no importance with respect to the activity of the Colima volcano and the cloudiness has again prevented the visibility of exhalations or fumaroles; also, it is indicated that reports on damages or affectation in the adjacent populations are not had. At this time of the year the presence of cold fronts is common, which cause the cloud presence, light rains and sporadic electrical storms in the top of the volcano; it is for that reason that remembers to the population that avoids the permanence in bordering ravines, before the possibility that they register lahars (mud flows). On the other hand, it continues the restriction for the over-flights that do not have scientific aims or of civil defence, and is prohibited the permanence of people other people's to these activities in ravines of the volcano.

In permanent coordination with the State Unit of Civil Defence Jalisco, the Government of Colima is pending of monitoring the activity of the volcano in real time; this way, it counts on opportune information to be able to respond before any contingency and to guarantee the security of the population, as it is the interest of the governor Jesus Silverio Cavazos Ceballos. In addition, one works in the preventive programmes to maintain informed to the citizens on the evolution into the volcanic activity, and to avoid that alarm by rumors is generated.

Also constant communication with the communitarian brigade that has formed with inhabitants of the town of the Becerrera, to those who exists has become qualified in the self-protection with respect to the natural disasters. Also, permanent contact with the personnel of the military team of Yerbabuena, La Becerrera in Colima, El Jabalí, and Causentla, Cofradía de Tonila, Atenguillo, El Saucillo, El Fresnal, El Embudo, Juan Barragán, Los Machos, El Agostadero and El Borbollón in Jalisco.

They have been continuing the same recommendations established for months, in which it is indicated that who are or live in zone of risk, follow the indications that this organism transmits through mass media; it is necessary to emphasize that the zone of exclusion of activities for the states of Jalisco and Colima is of 7.5 kilometres from the top of the volcano on the channels of ravines. The radius of preventive alert remains in 11.5 kilometres from the top of the volcano, which includes the populations of La Becerrera in Colima, El Jabalí, and Causentla, Cofradía de Tonila, Atenguillo, El Saucillo, El Fresnal, El Embudo, Juan Barragán, Los Machos, El Agostadero and El Borbollón in Jalisco. The permanence in ravines must be avoided Colima, El Cordobán, San Antonio and Monte Grande, in Colima, and San Antonio and El Muerto, La Tuna, Santa Ana, El Cafecito, La Arena and Beltrán-Durazno in Jalisco.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW
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« Reply #173 on: December 28, 2007, 04:06:19 PM »

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 28th of December, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano again registered 8 exhalations, accompanied by steam and gas emissions. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report there are dense clouds around the cone. However, at earlier hours steam and gas emissions were observed.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

PACAYA

As of the 27th of December, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that according to CONRED, a 17 December INSIVUMEH report noted changes in Pacaya's behaviour. On 19 December, CONRED issued a bulletin noting that INSIVUMEH reported observations of white and blue "smoke" plumes. The plumes rose to an altitude of 2.8 km (9,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Lava flows were unchanged from previous days. Based on these reports, CONRED raised the Alert Level to Yellow in surrounding communities.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex volcano constructed on the southern rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the caldera floor. The Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1,100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent Strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion on the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is YELLOW
~~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 27th of December, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that early visible imagery shows a plume extending north around 17.25 mi and dissipating with time. Winds are forecast to move any visible ash more W with time. Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes from Fuego rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted SW on 21 December. Gas or ash plumes were seen on satellite imagery on 23 December and drifted W. According to CONRED, INSIVUMEH reported on 24 December that an ash plume drifted SW. CONRED reiterated that the Alert Level remained at Yellow.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is YELLOW
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« Reply #174 on: December 28, 2007, 04:08:55 PM »

SANTA MARIA

As of the 22nd of December, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW on 21 December.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 28th of December, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that as in previous weeks the activity of the volcano stays in a high level, but showing a tendency of constant behaviour. Seismic the activity is characterised by the generation of events related to the mobilisation of flowed to the interior of the volcanic complex, whereas superficially it is continued reporting intense brightness in the zone of the crater, exit of incandescent material in form of blocks, roars of varied intensity and cannon shots. It is continued receiving reports of ash falls in populations located in the west, like Bilbao and Choglontus, and the southwest, like Palitahua.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: A total of 45 explosions of moderate size to small has been entered, 49 events of long period, 25 episodes of tremor of emission of little energy and 1 episode of harmonic tremor. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: At night the presence of intense brightness in the zone of the crater and the exit of incandescent material in form of blocks was reported yesterday that rolled by the superior part of flanks. Associated with this activity the generation of roars of moderate intensity was reported. Today constant observations due to the cloudiness presence have not been made in the zone of the volcano, nevertheless it has been managed to distinguish the presence of a column of emission with moderate ash content of approximately 1.5 km of height and direction of movement towards the west. Additionally strong cannon shots have been reported and to roll of blocks by flanks of the volcano with the explosive events registered at 1217hrs (local time) and 1340hrs (local time). Yesterday received were reports of slight ash falls in the zone of Palitahua, Bilbao and Choglontus. Climate/Rains/Lahars: The IG does not have rain reports in the sector of the volcano.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 20th of December, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that ash plumes from the new vent in the NE crater of Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. during 10-13 December. Plumes drifted SE, W, NW, and E. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul town on 11 December. Occasional incandescence at the summit was observed. During 13-18 December, white plumes were observed and a strong smell of hydrogen-sulfide gas was reported.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1
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« Reply #175 on: December 28, 2007, 04:10:52 PM »

KILAUEA

As of the 28th of December, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the Activity Summary for last 24 hours: Short lava flows from the TEB and its satellitic shields still dominated the action. Seeps east of pond 3, in the original 7/21 channel, were weakly active. SO2 emissions are increasing at the summit.

Activity Summary for the past few months: Lava from the 7/21 fissures is probably fed from a shallow magma storage area beneath Pu`u `O`o where it degasses before being erupted. For the first three months, mostly `a`a flows advanced from a 1.6 km (1 miles)-long channel to the northeast. In late October, tube-fed pahoehoe flows developed and, in early November, the east tube produced pahoehoe flows along the south margin that advanced nearly as far to the east as the earlier `a`a flows before stalling. Starting on November 21, Thanksgiving Eve, lava from fissure D bypassed the channel and built a shield over the fissure feeding a channelised lava flow to the southeast. Within weeks, lava had also refilled several ponds in the original 7/21 perched channel.

Hazard Summary: Based on the information summarised above, there are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Wao Kele o Puna is also closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: The TEB shield and the two satellitic shields to the southeast continued to be active issuing short flows to the southeast; the middle shield produced at least one flow to the north. Spots of intermittent incandescence suggested that the seep east of pond 3 in the original 7/21 perched channel was active but there were no signs of activity from the channel itself. An overflight is planned for this morning.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: No incandescence was seen in Pu`u `O`o crater last evening. The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter recorded deflation from a source to the southeast between rain squalls. GPS receivers continued to record contraction of the cone at a slightly increased rate since 12/6 Seismic tremor levels remained at low values.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeter network recorded deflation. GPS receivers recorded slow contraction across the caldera. Seismic tremor values were steady at the high end of low levels. One earthquake was located on south flank faults. Sulfur Dioxide emissions were measured at 290 tonnes/day yesterday, at least 150% of typical values.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 16th of December, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that Arenal, one of the few volcanoes with near-constant activity, continues to be in mild Strombolian-type activity. During the past weeks, activity was from Crater C and consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, small lava flows on the S flank, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Some of the stronger eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

Once locally known as Cerro Arenal (i.e. Mount Arenal) it was presumed extinct until July 29, 1968 when an earthquake caused it to erupt, after approximately 400 years of dormancy. The eruption wiped out the town of Arenal and killed 87 people [1]. It lasted for several days, and during that time destroyed crops, property, livestock, and forests. 15 square kilometers were buried and the explosion affected over 232 square kilometers. The eruption caused three new and active craters to form. Before the eruption, there was a wide veriety of plant and wildlife on the mountain. It has been active since the explosion and can be reported to have minor eruptions every 5-10 minutes.

In October, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling down the SW and S flanks, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
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« Reply #176 on: January 02, 2008, 05:29:05 PM »

700 flee as volcano erupts in Chile 
Area rocked with explosions, spewing lava, ash

About 700 people were evacuated as a volcano erupted Wednesday in southern Chile, rocking the area with explosions and spewing lava and ash.

But the Llaima volcano's eruptions were slowing by Wednesday afternoon, so a larger evacuation did not appear necessary.

The evacuees included about 200 tourists, National Forest Service employees and others in the surrounding Conguillio National Park, about 400 miles south of Santiago.

Hundreds spent the night outside or in shelters in Melipeuco, a town of 5,000 near the Llaima volcano. Others fled to communities farther away, but most were returning Wednesday.

Chile's Emergency Bureau director, Carmen Fernandez, said a larger evacuation wasn't necessary despite television images showing thick smoke and lava flowing from the crater.

"There are no signs yet of an increased risk," Fernandez said. "There is some flow of lava, but not in a continued manner yet."

The bureau said the eruption was decreasing Wednesday and explosions were less frequent and milder, even as Argentina reported a heavy presence of gas and ash across the border.

The 9,400-foot high Llaima, one of the most active among some 60 active volcanos in Chile, has not had a major blast since 1994.

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« Reply #177 on: January 17, 2008, 08:39:26 AM »

Small quake reported
at Mount St. Helens
'We're just being cautious. It's not
that we're anticipating any activity'

Steam seeping from a fracture atop the lava dome in Mount St. Helens' crater and the mountain's first noteworthy seismic activity since 2004 have caught scientists' attention this week as signs that something is moving inside it.

While the likelihood of a major eruption seemed low, scientists have quit venturing into the volcano's crater and are checking the monitoring equipment along St. Helens' flanks.

"We're just being cautious. It's not that we're anticipating any activity," Cynthia A. Gardner, scientist in charge of the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory, said Wednesday.

Geologist John S. Pallister was flying over the volcano in southwestern Washington on Sunday when he spotted the steam.

"It was interesting enough to take some pictures," said Pallister, a private pilot who works in the hazards section of the volcano observatory.

After landing, he learned that a magnitude-2.9 earthquake had registered on seismographs at an observatory in Vancouver. That was followed by a small tremor that lasted nearly an hour and a half, an unusually long period, punctuated by a second quake of magnitude 2.7—all in the same period in which he saw the steam.

Tiltmeters also registered alternate ground swelling and deflation near the lava dome, which has been growing in the crater since fall 2004.

All are typical signs that magma, superheated gases or both are moving through conduits beneath St. Helens, which blew its top with devastating force on May 18, 1980, leveling 230 square miles of forest and killing 57 people.

The last noteworthy tremor at the volcano lasted 55 minutes on Oct. 2, and was much more powerful, registering on seismometers from Bend, Ore., to Bellingham and causing a hasty evacuation of the Johnston Ridge Observatory five miles north of the crater.

No evacuations had been ordered by Wednesday, because the seismic activity had slowed down.

The precise cause of the recent activity was not entirely clear, Gardner said.

"The settling of the growing lava dome might have caused some fracturing and might have changed the subsurface openings so that water was either being squeezed out of openings or opening new areas," he said Tuesday.

The last precise measurements, drawn from images in July, indicated the latest eruptive phase has pumped 123 million cubic yards of material into the crater. The rate has slowed considerably, but the episode Sunday showed that could change at any time, Pallister said.

"It's still got some surprises," he said.
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« Reply #178 on: January 18, 2008, 08:21:42 PM »

I messed up, and forgot about posting............. Cry

NEVADO DEL RUIZ

As of the 4th of January, snow-covered volcano Nevado del Ruíz although showed a level under seismic activity, according to the evaluation scale that is had for this effect, demonstrated a change in the activity compared with previous months. 614 earthquakes of low magnitude were registered, located, mainly to the W of the crater, and in smaller proportion to the south of the same one, with depths that did not surpass 10 km. The Maxima magnitude registered during the month was of 2.52 in the Richter scale, corresponding to an earthquake happened on day 5 of December during a cluster seismic in that 42 events were registered, located to the W of the crater. Between days 6 and 7 and 9 and 10 of December, two small clusters appeared more, first of them between the 2007 and 0428hrs with a total of 20 located earthquakes N and W of the crater, and the second, happened between the 2000 and the 0244 in which 48 events located to NE and S of the crater were registered. A happened increase of energy is equally remarkable the 14th December, in which 16 earthquakes between the 1500hrs appeared and the 1800hrs, located to the W and of the crater. During the month, the steam column related to the fumarolic activity in the crater showed a white colour, with a peak altitude observed of 200 metres. The gas discharges Radón and the measures of deformation presented/displayed normal values. It is considered that the activity of the snow-covered volcano Nevado del Ruiz presents/displays a STABILITY (Yellow) state.

Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone is located on the SW flank, and may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

The colour code at Nevado del Ruiz is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~

MAUNA LOA

As of the 9th of January, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has reported that Mauna Loa is not erupting. There have been no significant changes. A strong winter storm buried a critical radio repeater, its solar panels, and batteries preventing the webcam images and summit gas data from being telemetered to HVO. HVO is waiting for some snow melt to replace the batteries and get the system running again. HVO's network of continuous GPS receivers showed slow inflation over the past 6 months, recording about 1 cm of extension across the caldera and the flanks in that time. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes. Mauna Loa remains seismically quiet with few earthquakes occurring beneath the summit and several located within the Kao`iki seismic zone between Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanic summits. Since the beginning of January, 2005, HVO analysts have rarely located more than 10 earthquakes per week beneath Mauna Loa summit.

The colour code at Mauna Loa is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

GALERAS

As of the 18th of January, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto - INGEOMINAS, informs that an explosive eruption occurred at Galeras Volcano in Colombia on Thursday 17th January at 2006hrs, local time. Preceding the eruption, there were five tornillo earthquakes measured between 0805hrs on January 16 and 0914hrs on January 17, 2008. The earthquakes were located near the active cone, close to the surface. About 8000 people have been evacuated. This is the most severe eruption at the volcano since it reactivated in 1989. Ash was reported to reach 36,000 ft. altitude. Also, the registry of five events Tornillo type between the 0805hrs of the 16th of January and 0914hrs of the 17th of January, located in environs of the active cone and to superficial levels. The importance of the occurrence of this type of events in Galeras, that is in preceded the eruptions of 1992 and 1993, which they appeared after the location of a lava dome in 1991; as well as they preceded some of the registered eruptives episodes between 2004 and 2006. On the other hand, as it were mentioned in the official notice of the 14th of January of 2008, the activity of Galeras continues showing of alternate way, lapses of diminution of seismicity followed of episodes of more recurrent activity, maintaining power levels low. Which remembers that to the interior of the main crater it remains a surplus of the lava dome located from end of 2005, partially was destroyed with the eruption of the 12 of 2006 July. INGEOMINAS continues very kind to the evolution of the volcanic activity and will opportunely inform the changes that can be detected.

Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

The Current Colour Code for Galeras is currently at RED
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« Reply #179 on: January 18, 2008, 08:26:18 PM »

UBINAS

As of the 15th of January, the Instituto Geofísico del Perú & the Buenos Aires VAAC has reported that volcanic ash was observed at 1828Z from 18,00 to 37,000 ft. moving SW. Also, varied and intermittent fumarolic activity, with temperatures from 90 to100 °C. Sporadically the gases rise to 100 to 500 m of height.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at RED
~~~~~~~~

PACAYA

As of the 18th of January, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported and confirmed that with regards to this volcano; Atmospheric Conditions: Cleared. Pluvial Precipitation: 0.0 mm. Wind speed: 11 k/h. Direction; Southwest. Activity: The effusion has not changed and stays in front of with lava effusion in the west of the Cerro Chino, the flows reach the 150 to 200 metres. There are moderate fumaroles at the Mackenny crater, 400 metres of height dispersing to the southwest. The registry of the seismic activity maintains events of type "B".

The eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 18th of January, the the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported and confirmed that with regards to this volcano; Atmospheric Conditions: Partially dimmed. Wind speed: in calm Direction; South & Southwest. Pluvial Precipitation: 0.0 mm. Activity: The volcano is with weak explosions and occasionally moderate explosions, expelling gray ash to 400 and 700 metres on the crater, dispersing to the south and southwest of the volcanic complex.

The Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta volcano may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango volcano, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is currently at ORANGE
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