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« Reply #465 on: December 10, 2006, 01:28:56 PM »

``As one goes through the hippodrome, he comes to Nicopolis, which is a settlement on the sea no smaller than a city. It is about 4 miles from Alexandria. Caesar Augustus honoured this place because here he defeated those in a fight, who made a sally out against him with Antony.''

5757. After this, Antony, through his ambassadors challenged Caesar to a single battle. Caesar replied that Antony had many ways to die. Therefore Antony thought that he could most honourably die by being killed in battle. He determined to attack Caesar by sea and land. At supper (as it is reported) he bid his servants that they should drink and feast themselves heartily for it was uncertain what they should do tomorrow or should serve other masters if he was dead and gone. This made Antony's friends weep. Antony told them he would not lead them out to fight since he sought an honourable death for himself rather than to return with victory and honour. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 65. 9:309}

5758. About the middle of that night when the whole city was quiet and depressed for fear and expectation of what was coming, it was reported that suddenly, there was heard sweet music of all kinds of instruments. There was the sound a large number of people, as at the feasts of Bacchus and satyr-like frisking and dancing, as if indeed it had been the feast of Bacchus himself, (whom Dionysius used to feign his father.) The noise was so loud and that this very large gathering seemed to be located almost in the very middle of the city. It moved toward that gate which led to the enemy outside. They finally passed through this gate and so vanished. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 65. 9:309}

5759. Dio reported that besides this many other prodigies foreshadowed the bondage of Egypt. He said it rained in those places which never had rain before. It was not just water but blood mixed with the drops. This was not the only sign. There were flashes of armour from the clouds as this rain fell. A dragon of an incredible size was suddenly seen among the Egyptians which hissed horribly. There appeared also comets and the ghosts of the dead. The statues seemed to be sorrowful and Apis made a mournful lowing and shed tears. {Dio, l. 51. 6:47,51}

5760. On the first of August as soon as it was day, Antony went down to the harbour to order his fleet. {Orosius, l. 6. c. 19.} However, Cleopatra had caused the fleet to defect from him. {*Dio, l. 51, 6:29} For as soon as Antony's fleet had rowed near the other fleet, they greeted Caesar's soldiers and defected to them. They combined all the ships into one fleet and came to attack the city. While Antony saw this, his cavalry deserted him as did his foot soldiers. He retired into the city and cried that he was betrayed by Cleopatra, for whom he had taken up arms. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 66. 9:309,311}

5761. Cleopatra feared the anger and despair of Antony. She pretended that it was for fear of Caesar she had done this and that she would kill herself. She fled to her tomb with one eunuch and two maids. She sent a message to Antony that she was dead. He believed her and therefore desired his faithful servant Erotes (who had long ago promised that he would kill him if necessity required it,) that he would kill him. Erotes drew out his naked sword as if he would strike him but turned his face from him and killed himself. When he fell at Antony's feet, Antony said:

``Noble Eros, has showed me what must be done by myself, but could not endure to do it for me.''

5762. He stabbed himself in the belly and fell on a bed. The wound did not bring a speedy death for the blood stopped flowing after he laid down. When he was a little recovered, he desired those who stood around that they would thrust him through. They all fled from the chamber and left him crying and writhing in pain. Thereupon there was a great tumult made. When Cleopatra heard this, she looked out from the top of the tomb, for the door was so made that if it was once shut it could not be opened. Only the upper parts of it were not yet finished. She sent also Diomedes, her secretary, to bring Antony into the tomb to her. As soon as Antony knew that she was alive, he arose because he thought he might live. However, he despaired of life because of his excessive bleeding and was carried by the help of his servants to the door of the tomb as he requested. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 66, 67. 9:311,313} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:31} {Livy, l. 133.} {*Florus, l. 4. c. 11. 1:327} {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 87. 1:235} {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:47} {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 17.} {Eutropius, l. 7.} {Orosius, l. 6. c. 19.}

5763. While this was happening, Dercetaeus one of his bodyguards, took Antony's sword and hid it and stole away and ran to Caesar. He was the first one who told him of Antony's death and showed him the sword all bloody. When Caesar heard this news, he withdrew himself into the innermost room of the tent, where he much bewailed Antony as his relative and colleague. He had been his companion in many battles and in the government of the empire. Then he took his letters and he called his friends together and read them to them. He showed them how proudly and rudely Antony had answered to all his mild and just demands. Then he sent Proculeius with orders to take Cleopatra alive if possible. Caesar was afraid to lose her treasure and also thought that she would be a magnificent trophy in his triumph if he could take her alive. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 68. 9:315}

5764. In the interim, Antony was drawn up into the monument by ropes which were hung for pulling the stones up. {*Dio, l. 51, 6:31} They say there was nothing more lamentable than this sight. Antony was all besmeared with blood and almost dead. He was tied to the ropes and drawn up by the great efforts of Cleopatra and the two servants who were with her. Those who underneath him, helped lift him up. Antony stretched out his hands to Cleopatra and lifted himself up as well as he could. As soon as Cleopatra had taken him in, she laid him on a bed. Then she tare off her head piece and beat her breasts and scratched her breasts and face with her own hands. She was all of a gore with blood and called him, "Lord", "Husband" and "Emperor." She almost forgot her own miseries in compassion for him. After Antony had a little appeased her grief, he called for some wine either because he was thirsty or because he thought it would hasten his death. After he had drank it, he advised her to take care of her own affairs and to save her life if she could without dishonour. He said that among all Caesar's friends, she could most trust Proculeius. She should not lament the miserable change of his fortune but rejoice for the great good fortune he had because he had been the most famous and powerful prince of all men. He was a Roman and was not cowardly defeated by a Roman. He died just as Proculeius came from Caesar. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 67. 9:313,315}
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« Reply #466 on: December 10, 2006, 01:29:26 PM »

5765. Caesar sent C. Proculeius, who was an equestrian and Epaphroditus, his freed man. He told them both what they should say and do. However, Cleopatra feared that they would use her harshly and stayed in the tomb. She thought there was no other way she could procure her safety yet she might redeem her pardon and the kingdom of Egypt from Caesar by his fear of loosing her money. Caesar desired to get her money and to take Cleopatra alive so that he might carry her in triumph. In spite of this, he was unwilling to appear to have tricked her after he gave her a kind of pledge, since he wished to treat her as a captive and to a certain extent subdued against her will. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:33}

The Roman Empire

3974c AM, 4684 JP, 30 BC

5766. Cleopatra would not commit herself into Proculeius' hands. However, she talked with him from the building as he stood on the outside at the door which was on level ground. Although the door was barred, he could hear what she said. In this meeting, she asked the kingdom for her children. Proculeius bid her to be of good cheer and refer all things to Caesar. When he had sufficiently surveyed the place, he told everything to Caesar who sent Gallus again to demand an answer from her. When he came to the door, he kept her talking on purpose. In the meantime, Proculeius set up ladders with two servants and got in at the window where the women took in Antony. He immediately went down to the door where Cleopatra sat talking with Gallus. As soon as she saw Proculeius, she tried to kill herself with a dagger she had on her belt. Proculeius came running and held her with both his hands and took the dagger from her. He shook her cloths for fear she had some poison hidden on her. Thus Plutarch relates the story. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 69 9:317} Dio relates it like this.

5767. C. Proculeius and Epaphroditus talked with Cleopatra and offered her very tolerable conditions. Suddenly, before she agreed to them, they laid hands on her and removed anything she might use to kill herself with. They allowed her some days so that she might stay there until she had embalmed Antony's body. Then they brought her into the palace and gave her the usual train of servants and honour so that by this she might hope that she would obtain what she desired and not harm herself. {*Dio. l. 51. 6:33} As soon as Cleopatra was taken, an eunuch of hers, willingly put asps on himself and was bitten and fell into a grave which he had previously prepared for himself. {*Dio, l. 51, 6:39,41}

5768. At his first approach, Caesar conquered Alexandria which was a most rich and large city. {Livy, l. 133.} {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:23} {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 17.} {Orosius, l. 6. c. 19.} As he entered Alexandria, he talked with Areius Alexandrinus, a philosopher. Caesar took him by the right hand so his country men would honour him the more when they saw him so honoured by Caesar. {Plutarch, Antony, c. 70. 9:319} Caesar had been his student in philosophy and was very well acquainted with him and his two sons, Dionysius and Nicanor. {Seneca, de Clement} {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 89.} {Plutarch, in Politic} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:45, l. 52. 6:175} {Julian Caesar, in Octavian} &&& Areius - The Alexandrian Philosopher, is honoured by Octavian

5769. Then he went into the gymnasium and he ascended a tribunal which was set up on purpose for him. He ordered the citizens to rise, who for fear were fallen on their knees before him. In a speech, he freely pardoned all the people for three reasons. (He spoke in Greek so everyone could understand him.) He pardoned them for their great god Serapis' sake, for the greatness of the city and for his friend Areius' sake. Likewise, he pardoned all the Egyptians because he was unwilling that so many men should be put to death who in many other things had done good service for the Romans. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 70. 9:319} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:45} {Julian, epist. 51. ad Alexand.}

5770. At the request of Arieus, he pardoned many including among others Philostratus, who was he an ablest sophister of his time. However, he incorrectly said he belonged to the school of the Academic. Therefore Caesar hated his manners and rejected his request. Therefore, Philostratus let his beard grow long and followed Areius in mourning, always repeating this verse: &&& Areius - By his entreaties Octavian pardoned Phiostratus

``The wise, while wise, a good safety has.''

5771. When Caesar heard of this, he pardoned him so that he might rather free Areius from envy, rather than Philostratus from fear. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 70. 9:319}

5772. Young Antony or Antyllas was the older of the two sons Antony had by Fulvia and he was betrothed to Caesar's daughter, Julia. Although he fled into a shrine that Cleopatra had made for his honour, Caesar took him from the image of Julius and killed him after he made many fruitless prayers. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 71. 9:319} {Suetonius, in Octavio. c. 17.} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:43} {Orosius, l. 6. c. 19.} As the soldiers beheaded him, Theodorus his school teacher who betrayed him, took from his neck a most precious jewel and sewed it in his belt. He denied this but it was found on him and he was crucified. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 71. 9:319} Caesar ordered that Jullus, the other son of Antony by Fulvia, should receive all things in the estate. Jullus' freed men were ordered to give all things to him that dying men are commanded by the laws to leave to their heirs. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:45}

5773. The children that Antony had by Cleopatra, were very honourably kept with their governors and train of servants that waited on them. Caesar saved and nourished and cherished them no less than if they had been linked in an alliance with him. {Suetonius, in Octavian} {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 71. 9:319}

5774. Of those that favoured Antony, Caesar executed some and pardoned others either of his own good will or by the intercession of friends. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:45} Among those that were put to death was Canidius, a most bitter enemy always to Caesar and unfaithful to Antony, {Orosius, l. 6. c. 19.} who died most cowardly than seemed for one who bragged he was not afraid of death. {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 87. 1:235} Q. Orinius also was put to death by Caesar's own command because he was a senator of the people of Rome and was not ashamed most basely to be governor to the queen's spinners and weavers. {Orosius, l. 6. c. 19.}

5775. Antony had many children of kings and princes. Some were kept as hostages and others by false accusations. Caesar sent some of them home and married others to each other. He kept some with him. He returned Jotape to her father, the king of the Medes, who had found asylum with him after his defeat. He did not send back Artaxas' brothers at his request because he had killed the Romans that were left behind in Armenia. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:45}

5776. When he viewed the tomb (which was of glass {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:37}) and the body of Alexander the Great, which was taken out of the vault, Caesar put a crown upon it and scattered flowers over it and worshipped it. As he touched the body, it was said he broke off a piece of his nose. He was asked if he wanted to see the bodies of the Ptolemy's and the Alexandrians really wanted him to see them. He refused and said that he would rather see a living king not the dead. {Suetonius, in Octavio. c. 18.} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:45,47} For that very reason, he would not go to see Apis because he said he usually worshipped gods not oxen. {*Dio, l.51. 6:47}

5777. Many great kings and captains desired to bury Antony. However, Caesar would not take him from Cleopatra. She buried him in a splendid and magnificent manner. Caesar allowed her to take as much as she required for his funeral. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 72. 9:321}

5778. Through her much sorrow and grief, (for her breasts were covered with inflammations and ulcers because of the blows she had given herself,) Cleopatra had a fever which she gladly used as an excuse to stop eating so that she would die without any more trouble. She had a physician whose name was Olympas, to whom she declared the truth of the matter and used him as a councillor and assistant in her death. Olympus recorded this in his history of these events. When Caesar suspected the matter, he threatened both her and her children. She had allowed herself to become quite sick but later she allowed herself to be cured and ate properly. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 72. 9:321}

5779. Shortly after Caesar himself came to visit her and comforted her. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 73. 9:321} She fell down at his feet and tried in vain to seduce him for her beauty was beneath the prince's chastity. Although he perceived that she intended to stir up affections in him, yet he disguised his feelings and fixed his eyes on the ground and said only this:

``Woman be of good cheer, you shall have no harm done to you.''

5780. She did not just request life, which Caesar promised her, but she really wanted his love and the kingdom. {*Florus. l. 4. c. 11. 1:327} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:35,37}

5781. Last of all she delivered to Caesar a list of all the treasures she had. When Seleucus, one of her treasurers accused her that she had omitted some things and had not told all, she leaped up and took him by the hair and beat him soundly. Caesar smilingly reproved her, to whom she answered:

``It is not a great matter O Caesar, since you have come and visited me in this condition that I am in and to talk with me that I should be accused by my own servants as if I had reserved some jewels. These were not for myself who is a poor wretch but that I might present them to Octavia and your Lyria. I hoped that by their intercession to you that I might find more mercy and favour from you.''
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« Reply #467 on: December 10, 2006, 01:30:17 PM »

5782. Caesar was glad for this and hoped that now she had a mind to live. He told her that he would do this for her and also things beyond her expectations. He departed supposing that he had deceived her. In fact he was more deceived by her! {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 73. 9:323,325}

5783. There was a young gentleman named Cornelius Dolabella who was a close friend of Caesar's. This man was in love with Cleopatra and at her request he told her secretly through a messenger that Caesar was to journey by land through Syria and that he was determined to send her and her children into Italy within three days. When she knew this, she desired of Caesar that he would permit her to pay her last respects to Antony. When she had done this, she put garlands upon the tomb and kissed it. Then she ordered a bath to be made for her. After she had bathed, she feasted sumptuously. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 74, 75. 9:325,327}

5784. After dinner she gave Epaphroditus (to whose charge she was committed) a letter to carry to Caesar and pretended it was about some other business. The letter really contained her request to be buried with Antony. She thus excused herself and sent him on his way. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 74. 9:325} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:39}

5785. After Epaphroditus left, Cleopatra shut the doors and only kept with her two waiting women, Iras or Nairas, and Charmion, who usually dressed her. One of them could excellently do up her hair and the other paired her nails. Cleopatra adorned herself with her best clothes that she possibly could and in her robes. She put an asp on her left arm which she had brought to her, covered with figs, grapes, and flowers, to better deceive her guards. She died from its bite as if she were in a slumber. {*Florus, l. 4. c. 11. 1:327} {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 87. 1:233} {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 85. 9:327} {Galen., in de Theriaca ad Pisonem.} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:39} {Eutropius, l. 7.} {Orosius, l. 6. c. 19.}

5786. Other historians note the deceptive nature of Cleopatra and doubt the power of an asp to kill so quickly. They question if she actually died from the bite of an asp. Some say that Cleopatra made in her arm a large and deep wound with her teeth, (or some other thing) and put poison into the wound which she had previously prepared from an asp. The poison was brought to her in a bone. After the poison had entered her body, she peacefully ended her life and her guards did not even know it. {Galen., in de Theriaca ad Pisonem.} {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:43} {*Plutarch, in Antony, c. 85. 6:327} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:39,41} There were only two little pricks found in her arm. Caesar, who saw her dead body, carried her picture with an asp attached to her arm in his triumph. {Plutarch, in Antony, c. 86. 9:329} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:39} Horace speaks of her thus: {Horace, l. 1. Ode 37.}

--------So stout she could
With cheerful countenance behold,
Her ruined palace, asps receive,
And of their poison them bereave:
By delay in death more keen;
Envies the Liburnians they
Should she, so great a queen,
In triumph lead a secret prey.

5787. When Caesar had opened Cleopatra's letters, he knew immediately what was done. At first he thought to go there himself and sent some there quickly to see what happened. They ran there as quickly as they could and found the guards standing before the door, not knowing what had happened. When they had opened the door, they found Cleopatra dead lying upon a golden bed in all her royal robes. Iras or Nairas was fallen dead at her feet and Charmium (or Charmione) was half dead and heavy headed. She was trimming the diadem that she wore. When one in anger asked her:

``Is this well done, O Charmium?''

5788. She answered:

``Very well and becoming to one that had sprung from so many kings.''

5789. She spoke not another word but fell down there by the bedside. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 75. 9:327,329} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:41} When Caesar had seen Cleopatra's body, he tried all means to see if it were possible to revive her. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:41} He brought in the Psylli to suck out the venom and poison but in vain. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 75. 9:327,329} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:41} {Suetonius, in Octavio. c. 17.} {Orosius, l. 6. c. 19.}

5790. When Cleopatra was surely dead, Caesar admired and pitied her. He was very grieved and thought that he had lost the main attraction for his triumph. He ordered her body to be sumptuously and royally buried and to be laid in the same tomb with Antony. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 66. 9:329,331} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:41} He did this honour for them in that he had them buried in the same sepulchre and to finish the tomb which they had begun. {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 17.} Caesar ordered her women attendants to be honourably buried. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 66. 9:331}

5791. Plutarch wrote that Cleopatra lived 39 years and reigned 22 which was the number of years from the death of her father, Ptolemy Auletes. Some historians, {Ptolemy, Catalogue of the Kings} {Clemens Alexandrinus, l. 1. Stromat.} {Porphyrius in Greek Eusebius, Scaliger, p. 226.} {Eusebius in Chronic.} and others assign only 21 years and two or three months. Plutarch wrote, that she reigned more than 14 years with Antony. Tertullian in his third book against the Jews stated that she reigned 13 under Augustus, calculating the start of the government of Antony from the death of Julius Caesar and of Augustus from his first consulship. From the death of Alexander the Great, who first founded the Macedonian Empire, to the death of Antony and Cleopatra, with whom it fell, both in Ptolemy (as well in the Catalogue of the Kings, as in the third book of his Great Work, as in Clemens Alexandrinus, in l. 1. Stromat.} lasted 294 years. We deduce the time as 293 and a quarter years.

5792. And at this time Caesar put an end to the civil wars. {Florus, l. 4. c. 12. 1:327} {Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 87. 1:233,235} Dionysius of Halicarnassus also confirmed in the preface of his Roman Histories that he came into Italy as soon as Augustus Caesar had put an end to the civil wars in the middle of the 187th Olympiad. This was the beginning of the third year in the month of August after Egypt was reduced under the power of the Romans and an end made to their civil wars. The words of the decree of the senate showed in Macrobius {Macrobius, Saturnal, l. 1. c. 12.} and Censorinus stated that the Egyptians calculated from that time in which they came under the power and government of the people of Rome, the years of the Augusti, (not of the Qewn Sebaswn, as Scaliger thought, but of Caesar Augustus, who had the dominion over them.) {Censorius, c. 21. l. de natali die.} He said this book was written by him in the Philippic year of the Augusti 268 (for thus the best copies have, it not 267) from the death of Alexander the Great, 578 years and from Nabonassar 986 years. (The beginnings of these years are taken from the first of the vage or moveable month Thoth of the Egyptians.) He agreed with Ptolemy who in the third book of his great Syntaxis, says, that there elapsed from the beginning of the reign of Nabonassar to the death of Alexander, 424 Egyptian years and then to the empire of Augustus, 294 years.

5793. Therefore that Egyptian epoch began on the first day of the moveable month Thoth of the year of the Philippic account, beginning from the death of Alexander the Great, 293 years, from Nabonassar 719 years. This indeed was on the first day of the week as is found in a writing of a certain Jew, recorded at Norimberge with Messahala, namely, of the month August in 4684 JP on the 31st day, which according to the false account of leap years, that was then used at Rome, was called the 29th day of August. This was that epoch, twn apd Aulousou etnz, "of the years of Augustus", which was accommodated by Ptolemy, {Ptolemy, Synaxis, l. 3. c. 8.} to the moveable year of the Egyptians. Vettius Valens, an Antiochian, in Anqologwn geneQliakwn, to the form of both those years, and seeing that Augustus ruled Egypt 43 years (as Philo shows in his embassy to Caesar.) We find this also so many calculated his empire to be so long, in Ptolemy, Catalogue of the Kings, and Clemens Alexandrinus, l. 1. Stromat.

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« Reply #468 on: December 10, 2006, 01:30:53 PM »

5794. Cleopatra had sent her son Caesarion, who she had by Caesar the dictator, with a great sum of money through Ethiopia into India. His tutor, Rhodon persuaded him to return as if Caesar had recalled him to his mother's kingdom. As Caesar was deciding what he should do with him, they say Areius, the philosopher said to him: &&& Areius - By his advice, Octavian killed Caesarion

``It is not good that Caesar's name should common be.''

5795. Therefore, Caesar put him to death, after the death of his mother. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 81, 82 9:321} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:43}

5796. The statues of Antony were thrown down but Cleopatra's were not touched. Her friend Archibilius had obtained from Caesar for the sum of 2000 talents, that they should not be thrown down as Antony's were. {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 86. 9:331}

5797. In the palace there was a great amount of money found which was stored there by Cleopatra from the spoils of almost all the temples. She also exacted much from them that were guilty of any crime. Two thirds of their goods were demanded of the rest who could not be accused of any crime. All the soldiers arrears were paid and Caesar also gave 250 denarii to each of those soldiers who were with him so they would not plunder the city. Caesar also paid all his debts that he owed any man and gave many gifts to the senators and equestrians that had accompanied him in the war. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:49}

5798. For this part of the year Caesar chose M. Tullius Cicero for his colleague in the consulship who was the son of Cicero the orator whom Antony murdered. Cicero read the people the letters which Caesar had sent to Rome concerning the defeat of Antony in the Alexandrian war, (not Actium, as Appian erroneously wrote.) He read the copy of them in the rostrum where his father's head and hand had been previously publicly displayed. {*Plutarch, Cicero, c. 49. 7:209} {*Appian, Civil War, l. 4. c. 4. s. 20. 4:173 c. 6. s. 51. 4:229} {*Dio, l. 51. 6:53}

5799. This year on the September 13th (ides), we learn from the Marble Table at Capua that M. Tullius was chosen as the consulship to replace M. Licinius, {in Annal. tom. 3. p. 495.} and the same day that:

``When Augustus was consul with the son of M. Cicero, he was presented with an obsidional crown (wreath) by the senate.'' {Pliny, l. 22. c. 6. 6:305}

5800. There were many crowns and processions decreed for Caesar at that time in Rome. He had also another triumph granted him for subduing the Egyptians. The day when Alexandria was taken was declared a lucky day. From that day, the inhabitants should use as the starting point in their calculations of time. Caesar was given the power of tribune all his life. He would have the power to help anyone asking for it within the pomerium or one mile beyond the walls. This was not lawful for any tribune of the people to do. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:53,55}

5801. Herod wavered between love and hatred toward his wife Marriamme. He was continually incensed against her by the false accusations of his sister Salome and his mother Cyros who stirred in him hatred and jealousy against her. He may have dealt more harshly with her had not the news come very conveniently that Antony and Cleopatra were both dead and that Caesar had won Egypt. Herod hurried to meet Caesar and left his family as it was. When he left, he commended Sohemus to Mariamme, and said that he owed him much respect for the care he had for her and also gave him the government of a part of Judea. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 15. c. 11.}

5802. Caesar built a city in the same place where he defeated Antony and called it Nicopolis. He held the same plays which he had done for the former at Actium. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:49} {*Strabo, l. 17. c. 10. 8:43}

5803. Caesar had organised Egypt into the form of a province so that it might be more fruitful and suitable to produce grain for the city of Rome. His soldiers scoured all those ditches where the Nile overflows and had been choked with mud for a long time. {Suetonius, in Octavio. c. 18.} He also made some new ditches. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:49}

3975a AM, 4684 JP, 30 BC

5804. Herod met with Caesar in Egypt and in confidence of his friendship, he spoke freely with him and was highly honoured by him. Caesar gave him the 400 Galatians who were formerly Cleopatra's bodyguard and added to his kingdom, Gadara, Hippos, and Samaria as well as the cities of Gaza, Anthedon, Joppe, and the Strato's Tower. These additions increased the splendour of his kingdom. {*Josephus, Wars, l. 1. c. 15. Antiq., l. 15. c. 11.}

5805. Caesar did not commit the province of Egypt to the senate because of Egypt's large fickle population. It was too important because it was the source of grain for Rome and it had incredible wealth. He forbid any senators from even going to Egypt and he so distrusted the Egyptians that he forbid any Egyptian from becoming a senator. He permitted other cities to govern themselves after their own laws but he ordered the Alexandrians that they should govern the city without senators. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:47}
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« Reply #469 on: December 10, 2006, 01:31:23 PM »

5806. Areius, the philosopher, refused the government of Egypt although it was offered to him. {Julian, ad Themistium.} Therefore, Caesar made Cornelius Gallus, who was of lowly estate, to be governor of the province of Egypt. He was the first Roman governor that Egypt ever had. {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:135} {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 66.} (*Dio, l. 51. 6:47} {Eutropius, l. 7.} {Sextus Rufus, in Breviario.} Gallus was from Forum Julium that was the one whom Virgil in the last Eclogue of his Bucolicks speaks of in that pleasant verse. {Ammianus Marcellinus, l. 17. Hierony. in Chronic. 1.} To whom also there are Erotica (love verses) extant which were dedicated by Parthenius of Nice. Virgil imitated his prose in his Latin verses. {Aulus Gellius, l. 13. c. 25.} {Macrog. Saturnal. c. 17.} {Tiberius, Greek Poems} {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 70.} &&& Areius - Refused the governorship of Egypt

5807. After Caesar had settled all things in Egypt as he thought best, he went into Syria with his land forces. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:49,51} {Orosius, l. 6. c. 19.} Herod escorted him as far as Antioch. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 11.}

5808. Tiridates fled into Syria after he was defeated and Phraates, the conqueror, sent ambassadors to Caesar. Caesar gave them both a friendly answer and did not indeed promise any help to Tiridates but gave him permission to tarry in Syria. He kindly accepted Phraates' son and brought him to Rome and kept him as an hostage. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:51} He was the youngest son of Phraates who through the negligence of those who kept him, was captured and stolen away according to Justin. {Justin, l. 42. c. 5.} However, Justin refers this event to a later time.

5809. Caesar departed from Syria. Messala (Corvinus) deceived the Cyzicenian gladiators who were allowed to live in Daphne, the suburbs of Antioch, and they were sent to various places under the pretence of being enlisted in the legions. As the occasions arose, they were killed. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:23}

5810. Caesar appointed Athenodorus as governor over Tarsus in Cilicia. He was a citizen of that city and was Caesar's teacher and the son of Sandon, a Stoic philosopher. He restored the state that was corrupted by Boethius and his soldiers who domineered there even until the death of Antony. He was slandered with the following graffiti.

``Work for the young men, counsels for the middle aged and flatulence for the old men''.

5811. He took the inscription as a joke and ordered, "Thunder for the old men" to be written beside it. Someone who was contemptuous of all decency and afflicted with a loose bowel, profusely splattered the door and wall of Athenodorus' house. The next day he said in an assembly that they could see how low the city had sunk and how sick the state was particularly from its excrements! {*Strabo, l. 14. 6:351}

5812. Caesar went into the province of Asia and made his winter quarters and settled all the affairs of his subjects. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:51} {Orosius, l. 6. c. 19.}

3975b AM, 4685 JP, 29 BC

5813. On the first of January, Caesar entered into his fifth consulship in the island of Samos. {Suetonius, in Octavio, c. 26.} On the same day, all his ordinances were confirmed by oath. At the same time that he received letters about the Parthian affairs, it was decreed, that in their songs he should be counted among their gods, a tribe should be called Julia after him, the companions of his victory should be carried in triumph with him and he should be clad with garments woven with purple and that the day when he entered Rome should be solemnized with public sacrifices and be always held sacred. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:55}

5814. Caesar permitted a temple to be built at Ephesus and Nicaea, (for those were considered the most famous cities of Asia and Bithynia) and dedicated to the city of Rome and to his father Julius. These cities should be inhabited by natural Romans. He gave permission to foreigners, whom he called Greeks, that to himself (Octavian) they might build temples. That is as the Asians at Pergamos, and the Bithynians at Nicomedia. He permitted the Pergamenians to dedicate those plays, called "Sacred", in honour of his temple. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:57} More is written about this by Tacitus on Tiberius in {Tacitus, Annals, l. 4. c. 51.}

``Augustus of most famous memory did not forbid a temple to be built in Pergamos, in honour of himself and the city of Rome.''

5815. The next summer, Caesar crossed over into Greece. {*Dio, l. 51, 6:59} on his way to his triumph for Actium. While he was at Corinth, a fisherman was sent as an ambassador to him from the island Giaros. He begged for the tribute to be reduced for they were compelled to pay 150 drachmas when they were barely able to pay 100 because the island was so poor. {*Strabo, l. 10. 5:165,167}

5816. When Caesar entered Rome, others offered sacrifices (as it was decreed) and the consul Valerius Potitius (who replaced Sextus Apuleius) sacrificed publicly for the senate and people of Rome for his coming. This was never done for anyone before that time. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:59} Caesar held three triumphs as he rode in his chariot. One was for the victory in Dalmatia, Actium and Alexandria. This lasted for three days, one triumph followed another. {Livy, l. 133.} {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 22.} Vigil wrote this: {Vigil, Aeneid, 8.}

But when thrice Rome with Caesar's triumphs now Had rung, to the Latian gods he made a vow, Three hundred temples all the city round With joy, with plays and with applauses found.

5817. Propertius wrote: {Propertius, l. 2. Elegies, 1.}

Whether of Egypt or Nile, whose Stream into seven channels parted goes; Or of the golden chains king's necks surround, Or how the Actian beaks sail on the ground.

5818. Caesar brought these three triumphs into the city in the month of August, as the words of the decree of the senate show. {Macrobius, Saturnal. l. 1. c. 12.} This was not done on January 6th (8th of ides) when he was in Asia as Orosius wrote. {Orosius, l. 6. c. 20.} On the first day, he triumphed for the Pannonians, Dalmatians, Japydes and their neighbours, and of some people of Gaul and Germany. On the second he triumphed for his victory at sea at Actium and on the third for the conquest of Egypt. The last triumph was the most costly and magnificent and he made more preparation for it than all the rest. In it was carried in a bed the effigy of Cleopatra, (with an asp biting her arm) showing how she died. Her children by Antony, were led among the captives. They were Alexander and Cleopatra who were named the "sun" and "moon." {*Dio, l. 51. 6:61,63}

5819. Alexander, the brother of Jamblichus, the king of the Arabians was captured in the Actian war and was led in triumph and later put to death. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:7} The Cleopatra who was called the "moon" and led in triumph, was given in marriage to Juba, (who himself was led in triumph by Julius Caesar.) Caesar gave this Juba who was brought up in Italy and had followed his wars, both this Cleopatra, and his father's kingdom of Maurusia. He gave to them also the two sons of Antony and Cleopatra, namely Alexander and Ptolemy, but Juba had another son by his wife Cleopatra whom he called Ptolemy and who succeeded him in his kingdom. {*Dio, l. 51, 6:43} {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:169} {Plutarch, Caesar} {*Plutarch, Antony, c. 87. 9:331}
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« Reply #470 on: December 10, 2006, 01:31:53 PM »

5820. On August 26th, (5th of the calends of September), there an altar was dedicated to "Victory" in the courthouse, as is found noted in the old marble calendar. {Gruter, Inscript. p. 133.} It was placed in the Julian courthouse and decorated with the spoils of Egypt. Caesar showed that he got the empire by goddess "Victory". He hung in the temple of his father Julius, the dedicated things which came from the Egyptian spoils. He also consecrated many things to Jupiter Capitolinus, Juno and Minerva. By a decree of the senate, all the ornaments which were hung up there previously, were removed as being defiled. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:63} He repaired the temple which was in a state of decay through age or consumed by fire. He adorned both them and others with very rich gifts. He brought into the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus one donation of 16,000 pounds of gold besides pearls and precious stones valued at 50,000,000 sesterces. {*Suetonius, in Octavian} Rome was so much enriched with the wealth of Alexandria so that the price of goods and other valuable things doubled and the interest rate fell from 12% to 4%. {*Dio, l. 51. 6:61,63} {Orosius, l. 6. c. 19.}

5821. In the fifth consulship, Caesar accepted the name of "Emperor", not such as was usually given according to the old custom for some victory, (for that he had often received both before and after) but by which all the whole government was saved. This was previously decreed to his father Julius and descendants. {*Dio. l. 52. 6:187,189} This inscription was placed this year in honour of Caesar:

``Senatus Poplusque Romanus Imp. Caesari Divi Julii F. Cos. Quinct. Design. Sex. Imper. Sept. Regublica conservata.''

``The senate and people to the emperor Caesar, the son of Julius of blessed memory, consul the fifth time, elected the sixth time Imperator the seventh for having saved the commonwealth.'' {Gruter, Inscript., p. 126.}

5822. Among the captives was Diocles Phaenix, the son of Artimidorus, the scholar of Tyrannio Amisenus and captured by Lucullus, (from whom he also was called Tyrannio.) Diocles was bought by Dimantis, a freed man of Caesar's, and was given to Terentia the wife of Cicero, (who as appears from Pliny {*Pliny l. 7. c. 48. 2:613} and Valerius Maximus {Valerius Maximus, l. 8. c. 13.} lived more than 103 years.) He was freed by her and taught at Rome and wrote 68 books. {Suidas, in Voc. Turaptwn.}

3976a AM, 4685 JP, 29 BC

5823. Caesar summoned Antiochus of Commagene before him because he had treacherously killed an ambassador of his brother's who was sent to Rome. Antiochus had a law suit with his brother. Antiochus was brought before the senate and was condemned and executed. {Dio, l. 52. 6:191}

5824. An whole year after Herod returned from Caesar, his suspicions daily increased between him and his wife Mariamme. She avoided her husband's caresses and moreover always upbraided him with the death either of her grandfather (Hyrcanus) or her brother (Aristobulus) so that Herod could barely restrain himself from striking her. When his sister, Salome heard the noise, she was greatly disturbed and sent in the butler who long before that time was prepared by her, who should tell the king that he was solicited by Mariamme, to deliver to him a love potion which whatever it was he had gotten from her. Thereupon, Herod examined the most faithful servant of Mariamme by torture because he knew that she would do nothing without his knowledge. He could not endure the torments and confessed nothing except that she was offended for some things that Sohemus had told her. When the king heard this, he cried out that Sohemus who had always been most faithful both to him and the kingdom, would never have spoken of these things unless there had not been some more secret friendship between them. Thereupon he ordered Sohemus to be apprehended and put to death. He called a council of his friends and accused his wife for planning to poison him. He used such sharp words that those who were present easily knew that the king intended that she should be condemned. Hence, she was condemned by the general consent of them all. When as they thought that she should not be quickly executed but detained in one of the king's citadels, Salome urged on the king exceedingly that she should be immediately killed. She feared that there might be some revolt among the people if she were alive and in prison. Thus was Mariamme executed. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 11.}

5825. Her mother, Alexander, saw this and realised she could expect the same treatment from Herod. To clear herself of the same crime, she upbraided her daughter before everyone and called her most wicked and ungrateful towards her husband and that she deserved such a death who dared do such an heinous act. While she pretended these things and though she would pull her daughter by the hair, those present condemned her hypocrisy very much. Her daughter did not reply but repelled the false accusation with a resolute countenance and mind and underwent her death without fear. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 11.}

5826. After she was executed, Herod began to be more inflamed with love for her. He often called her name and lamented her beyond all decency. Although he tried to forget her by seeking pleasure in feasting and drinking, yet nothing worked. Therefore he forgot about the government of his kingdom and was so overcome with grief that he would ask his servants to call "Mariamme", as though she were alive. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 11.}

3976b AM, 4686 JP, 28 BC

5827. As Herod was thus affected, there came a plague which killed a large number of the people and nobility. All men thought that this plague was sent for the unjust death of the queen. This just increased the king's depression and he finally hid himself in a solitary wilderness under pretence of hunting. He afflicting himself and succumbed to a serious inflammation and pain of the neck so that he began to rave. None of the remedies relieved him but rather made the disease more painful so that they began to despair for his life. The physicians let him eat whatever he wanted because the disease was so serious and he was in so great a danger of dying anyway. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 11.}

5828. As Herod was sick in Samaria, Alexandra, at Jerusalem, tried to capture the two citadels of the city. One was joined to the temple and the other was located within the city. Therefore she plied with their governors that they would deliver them to her and to the children of Mariamme lest if Herod die, they would be seized by others. Those who had formerly been faithful, were now more diligent in their office, because they hated Alexandra and thought it a great offence to despair of the health of their prince. These men were the king's old friends and one of them, Archialus, was the king's nephew. Thereupon they presently sent messengers to Herod to tell him of Alexandra's actions and he soon ordered her to be killed. Finally, he overcame his disease and was restored to his strength, both of body and mind. However, he had grown so cruel that for the least cause, he was ready to put anyone to death. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 11.}

5829. The three times Octavian had a census the people are noted by Suetonius. {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 27.} That the first were made in the lustran, that is, in the year that they calculated for the beginning of the five years when he and M. Agrippa were consuls. This is shown from the marble Capuan table. {tom. 3. Annal. Pighii. p. 495.}

``In my sixth consulship, with my colleague M. Agrippa, I numbered the people and I made another census after 41 years.''

5830. (That is from the censorships of Cn. Lentulus and L. Gellius after whom the musters were laid aside.)

``In the census Rome had forty hundred thousand and sixty three thousand citizens.''

5831. That is 4,063,000 for which Eusebius in his Chronicle has 4,164,000.
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« Reply #471 on: December 10, 2006, 01:32:25 PM »

5832. Caesar held the plays that were decreed for the victory at Actium, with his wife, Agrippa. In these he showed men and boys from the patricians fighting on horseback. This was held every four years and were committed to the four orders of the priests to arrange. These were the chief priests, augurs, septemviri and quindecemviri. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:195}

5833. In the 178th Olympiad, Thebes in Egypt was razed even to the ground, (as is read in the Eusebian Chronicle), by Cornelius Gallus. Georgius Syncellus in his Chronicle from Julius Africanus stated that Gallus defeated the cities of the rebellious Egyptians. {Syncellus, p. 308.} He recovered with a few men, Heropolis which had revolted. He very suddenly put down a revolt that was raised about taxes. {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:135,137} He exhausted the city by intercepting many of them. {*Ammianus Marcellinus, l. 17. c. 4. s. 5. 1:319} He erected statues for himself almost all over Egypt and wrote his own acts on the pyramides. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:255}

3977 AM, 4687 JP, 27 BC

5834. When Caesar was consul for the seventh time, he read a speech in the senate and said that he would resign his government and turn it over to the senate and people. When he had ended his speech, many spoke and desired that he alone would take the whole administration of the government upon him. Finally, they convinced him to assume the whole government. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:171,217,219} He did this on the January 7th (7th of ides) as is shown from the Marble tables of Narbo. {Gruter, Inscriptions, p. 229.}

5835. Caesar had the empire confirmed on him by this means from the senate and the people. To appear democratic, he took upon him the empire but he said he would be very careful of the public affairs because they required the care of one that would be diligent. He positively said that he would not govern all the provinces or that he would govern them for ever that which he had now taken on to govern. Therefore he restored to the senate, the weaker provinces because they were the more peaceable. He retained the stronger provinces where there was more danger or had enemies close by or that were likely to have seditions. He did this under this pretence that the senate might safely govern the best parts of the empire and he would assume the harder more dangerous provinces. This was merely a pretence to make them disarmed and unfit for war and thus he won both the arms and the solders to his side. For this reason, Africa, Numidia, Asia and Greece, with Epirus, Dalmatia, Macedonia, Sicily, Crete, Libya, Cyrene, Bithynia, with Pontus adjoining, Sardinia, and Hispania Baetica were assigned to the senate. Caesar governed the rest of Spain, all Gaul, Germany, Coelosyria, Cilicia, Cyprus and Egypt. Caesar assumed this government over the provinces for ten year's time, within which time he promised himself he should easily reduce them to order. He added this also in a bragging way, like a young man, that if he could subdue them in a shorter time then he could sooner hand them over to the senate to manage as well. He then made patricians the governors over all the provinces. However, he appointed a man over Egypt who was not a senator but an equestrian for the reasons stated previously. He gave Africa and Asia, particularly to the senators and he assigned all the rest of the provinces to those who had been praetors. He forbad that they should receive by lot any provinces until the fifth year after they had held an office in the city. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:219-229}

5836. Upon the 13th (ides) of January, the provinces were allocated as Ovid notes. Thus speaking about Caesar Germanicus. {Ovid, Fasti, l. 1}

On the Ides the half-man priest in Jove's great feign Offers the entrails of a sheep with flame, Then all the province came to us, and then Thy grandsire was Augustus named among men.

5837. For on the same day, Caesar received the title of Augustus. Censorinus {Censorinus, de die Natali} showed this was done the fourth day later, in these words:

``On the sixteenth day before the calends of February (January 15th) the Emperor Caesar, the son of him of blessed memory, by the opinion of L. Munacius Plancus, was greeted Augustus by the senate and the rest of the citizens. He was consul for the 7th time and M. Vipsanius Agrippa was the other consul, for the 3rd time.''

5838. When Caesar had settled all things and organised the provinces into a certain form, he was surnamed Augustus. {Livy, l. 134.} This name was given him in his seventh consulship, {*Dio, l. 53. 6:235} and by the request of Plancus with the consent of the whole senate and people of Rome. {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 91. 1:243} Suetonius wrote: {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 7.}

``The opinion of Munacius Plancus prevailed that Caesar should be called Augustus, (though some were of opinion that he should be called Romulus, as if he also had been a founder of the city) not only because it was a new but also a more honourable name. The religious places and where anything is consecrated by the flying of birds, are called "Augusta", of growing or from the gesture or feeding of birds as also Ennius on writing about this:''

``After that noble Rome was built by sacred flight of birds.''

5839. Florus stated: {*Florus, l. 4. 1:351}

``It was also debated in the senate whether he should be called Romulus because he had founded the empire. However, the name Augustus seemed to be the more holy and venerable so that while he now lived on earth, he might be as it were deified by the name itself and title.''

5840. Dio said many similar things and notes that he was called "Augustus" by the Romans and by the Greeks from the splendour of his dignity and sanctity of the honour which was greater than human. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:235} cf. Ac 25: 21,25 17:23 2Th 2:4) Ovid added: {Ovid, Fasti, l. 1.}

All common persons have their common fame, But he with Jove enjoys an equal name, Of old most sacred things, Augusta were: Temples that name and hallowed things do bear: Yea augury depends upon this word, And whatever more Jove does afford: Let it enlarge his rule and live let all, Our coast, be guarded by a fenced wall.

5841. By this means the whole power of the people and senate was conferred upon Augustus. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:235} This name was previously held sacred and until now such as that not any governor dared take it upon himself. He assumed so large a title for the usurped empire of the world. From that day its whole commonwealth and government began to be and to remain in the possession of one man. The Greeks call this a monarchy. {Orosius, l. 6. c. 20.} The Romans began their epoch of their Augustus from the first of January. Censorinus {Censorinus, de natali die} compares the 265th year of this account with the 283rd of the Julian account. He in the next chapter puts the consulship of Marcius Censorinus and Asinius Gallus on the twentieth year of Augustus which was the 38th of the Julian account (from Julius Caesar's calendar reform).

5842. Tralles a City in Asia was destroyed by an earthquake. The gymnasium collapsed and it was later rebuilt by Caesar. {Eusebius, Chronic} {*Strabo, l. 12. c. 18. 5:517}
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« Reply #472 on: December 10, 2006, 01:32:52 PM »

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5843. Costabarus the Idumaean and his wife Salome the sister of Herod had a disagreement. She, contrary to the custom of the Jews, sent him a bill of divorce and went to her brother Herod and told him that she preferred her brother's goodwill ahead of her marriage. She said that Costabarus was plotting seditions with Lysimachus, Antipater and Dositheus. To make her story more credible, she said that he had secretly kept and guarded within his country, Bebas' children for twelve years now from the time of the taking of Jerusalem by Herod. All this was done without the knowledge and good will of the king. As soon as Herod knew, he sent some men to their hiding places and killed them along with as many as were accomplices in crime. He did this so all of Hyrcanus' family would be killed. He removed any threat to the throne so there would be no one to resist him. {Josephus, l. 15. c. 11. <c. 7. 1:414>}

5844. Herod became more secure and departed more and more from his country's customs. He violated them with new institutions. First of all, he instituted wrestling every fifth year in honour of Caesar. To hold this, he began to build a theatre in Jerusalem and an amphitheatre in the plain. Both were of sumptuous workmanship but direct violations of Jewish customs. There was no Jewish tradition for these shows however he wanted this observed and to be proclaimed to the countries around him as well as to the foreign countries. He offered large prizes and he invited skilled wrestlers and excellent musicians along with those that played on instruments. Nothing bothered the Jews so much as the trophies which were covered with armour and they thought them to be images which were forbidden them by their law. To appease them, Herod ordered the ornaments to be removed and showed them that the trophies were merely wooden poles. After this was done all their anger was turned into laughter. {Josephus, l. 15. c. 11. <c. 8. 1:415>}

5845. THE FIFTH CALIPPIC PERIOD BEGINS.

5846. Cornelius Gallus spoke many things with much vanity against Augustus. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:255} Ovid {Ovid, Tristium, l. 2.} that was written for Augustus himself, stated:

To court Lycoris was not Gallus' shame, But he when lisped by drink defiled his name.

5847. Augustus noted his infamy and forbid him his house and to live within any of the provinces because he was so ungrateful and malevolent. Gallus was also accused of robbery, pillaging the provinces and of many other crimes first by Valerius Largus who was a most wicked man and his associate and friend. Later many others accused him who previously had flattered Gallus. They left him when they saw Largus become more powerful. It was decreed by the whole senate that Gallus was guilty and should be banished. All his goods should be confiscated for Augustus and because of this, the senate would offer sacrifices. Gallus was not able to handle his grief and feared that the nobility were highly incensed against him to whom the care of this business was committed. He fell upon his own sword and by his suicide, he prevented his condemnation. Gallus was forced to kill himself by the testimony of accusers and by the decree of the senate. Augustus indeed praised their love toward him for being so displeased for his sake. In spite of this, Augustus wept and bewailed his own misfortune that he alone could not be angry with his friends as much as he was with himself. {*Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 66.} {*Dio, l. 53. 6:255} {Ammianus Marcellinus l. 17.} {Jerome, in Chronicles} 5325. Petronius was appointed the new governor to replace Gallus in Egypt. He withstood the charge of a number of the Alexandrians who threw stones at him with only his bodyguards. He killed some of them and subdued the rest. {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:137}

5848. Polemon, the king of Pontus was included among the allies and confederates of the people of Rome. The senators were given the privilege of having the front seats in the theatres throughout his whole kingdom. {*Dio. l. 53. 6:257} It seems that from him Pontus took the name of Polemoniacus. {Justin, Novella, 8.}
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« Reply #473 on: December 10, 2006, 02:06:44 PM »

3979 AM, 4689 JP, 25 BC

5849. Ten citizens of Jerusalem conspired against Herod. They hid their swords under their garments. One of them was blind and joined them to show that he was ready to suffer anything that would happen to the defenders of their country's rights. One of those whom Herod had appointed for finding out such things, discovered the plot and told Herod. When the conspirators were apprehended, they boldly drew out their swords and proclaimed that this was not for any personal gain but for the public good that they had undertaken this conspiracy. Thereupon they were led away, by the king's officers and executed by all manner of tortures. Shortly after this, the spy who exposed the plot and was hated by all, was killed by some, cut in pieces and thrown to the dogs in the presence of many men. The murderers were not caught until after long and wearisome inquisitions wre made by Herod, it was wrung out by tortures from some silly women who knew of the act. Then the authors of that murder were punished along with their whole families. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 15. c. 11. <c. 8. 1:416>}

5850. So that he would be more secure from the seditions of the tumultuous people, in the 13th year of his reign, (to be reckoned from the death of Antigonus) Herod began to fortify Samaria. It was a day's journey from Jerusalem. He called the place Sebaste. (Greek for the Latin name of Augusta) Its circumference was two and an half miles. He build a temple 300 yards long in the very middle of it which was exquisitely adorned. He arranged for many of the soldiers who had always helped him and also people of the neighbouring counties, to come and live there. {*Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 11,12 <c. 8. 1:426>} Africanus calls it in the Chronicle of Georgius Syncellus, the city of the Gabinians, (p. 308.) for when Samaria was destroyed by John Hyrcanus, and rebuilt by A. Gabinius and repopulated (See note on 3947b <<4161>>) by the name of Gabiniun or Gabineiun. This can be understood only as the colony that Gabinius brought there. I am pleased that this was also noted by that man of learning and courtesy James Goarus (to whose great industry, the recent famous edition of the Georgian Chronicle is beholding.)

5851. Herod also built another fort previously called Strato's Tower to control the country. He named it Caesarea. Also in the large plain, he built a citadel and selected men by lot from his cavalry to guard it. In Galilee he built Gaba and Hesebonitis in Perea. These citadels were strategically located in the country so as to quickly put down any rebellion of the people. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 11. <c. 8. 1:416,417>}

5852. Augustus began his ninth consulship in Tarracon (a city of the Nearer Spain,) {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 26.} in the third year of the 188th Olympiad. The Indians asked for amity with Augustus. {Eusebius, Chronicle} Ambassadors were sent from King Pandion, {Georgius Syncellus, Chronicle, p. 311.} as we have also found noted from some Roman tables.

5853. P. Orosius confirms that there came to Augustus to Tarracon, ambassadors from the Indians who were from the farthest part of the east and from the Scythians from the north with presents from both their nations. {Orosius, l. 6. c. 21.} Horace wrote these verses about this occasion:

The lofty Scythian and the Indians late,
Came for the answer of their future fate.

5854. Horace in {Horace, l. 4. Carminum 4.} an ode to Augustus wrote:

The yet untamed Cantaber in thee,
Mede, Indian, Scythian do mirrors see:
Thou that preservest Italy from dread,
And Rome, her glory and exalted head.

5855. Florus wrote {*Florus, l. 4.1:349,351}

``The Scythians and Samatians sent their ambassadors and desired friendship. The Seres (Chinese) and the Indians who live beneath the sun, brought presentes which included precious stones, pearls and elephants. Nothing so much spoke for their sincerity as the length of the journey which had lasted four years. The complexion of the men seemed as if they had come from another world.''

5856. Suetonius wrote: {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 21.}

``He induced the Scythians and Indians, (countries known only by name) to make suit of their own accord through ambassadors for amity with him and the people of Rome.''

5857. Eutropius also wrote: {Eutropius, l. 7.}

``The Scythians and Indians, to whom the Roman name was unknown, sent presents and ambassadors to him.''

5858. To conclude, Aurelius Victor lists other countries also:

``Indians, Scythians, Garamantis and Bactrians sent ambassadors to him to desire a league with him.''

5859. After Amyntus died, Augustus did not turn over the kingdom to his sons but made it a Roman province. From that time on, Galatia and Lycaonia began to have a Roman governor. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:261} M. Lollius the propraetor, governed that province. {Eusebius, Chronicles} {Eutropius, l. 7.} {Sextus Rufus, Breviary.} However, the towns of Pamphylia which were formerly given to Amyntus were restored to their own district. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:261}

5860. In the 13th year of Herod's reign, very grievous calamities befell the country of the Jews. First there was a continual drought followed by a famine. The change in diet caused by the famine, caused a pestilent disease in the land. Herod had not means enough to supply the public needs. He melted everything in the palace that contained gold or silver. He spared nothing no matter how exquisitely it was made. He even melted down his own dinner plates and cups. He made money from this and sent it to Egypt when Petronius was governor there. Although he was plagued by a number who had fled to him from the famine, yet because he was privately Herod's friend and desired the preservation of his subjects, therefore he especially gave them permission to export grain. He helped them in the buying and in the shipping of the grain. So that the greatest means of the preservation of the country was attributed to Petronius. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 12. <c. 9. 1:417>}

5861. As soon as Herod had the grain, he first of all very carefully divided it to those who could not take care of themselves. Since there were many who through old age or some other disability could not prepare it for themselves, he assigned to them certain cooks so that they might have their food prepared. By his diligence, the people changed their minds toward him and he was praised as a bountiful and providential prince. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 12 <c. 9. 1:418>}

5862. From the 29th of August (that is, the third day before the beginning of the Syrian month Elul or of our September) on the 6th day of the week, the Egyptian epoch started which Albatenius in the 32nd Chapter of his astronomical work calls Al-kept (that is, of the Coptitiae or Egyptians.) He said the account and order of the motions of the stars are determined from Theon's calculations. To which from the account Dilkarnaim (or of the Seleucidae, which he begins with the Syrians, from the beginning of Elul or September) he says there have passed 287 years. This is how it reads in the manuscript, not as published, 387. For in this year, the first day of the month Thoth, both in the moveable year of the Egyptians, as in the fixed year of the Grecians and Alexandrians (as Theon speaks) was found to fall upon the same day (of August in the Julian account 29th.) This happens only after the full period of 1460 of the Alexandrian years and of the Egyptian, 1641 years which shows the renewing or constitution of either year.

``This renewing happened to be made after 1460 years from a certain beginning of time, namely, the fifth year of the reign of Augustus.''

5863. This is according to Theon in the explanation of mt pente eth, that is being ended or five years after the beginning of the empire of Augustus. Both Theon and Ptolemy agreed that this began 294 years after the death of Alexander or the Philippic account. From this Philippic account even to this constitution are 299 years as correctly noted in the astronomical epitome of Theodorus Metochita. Panodorus, the Alexandrian monk, did not intend anything else in discussing this period and constitution of 1460 years which happened on August 29th from the epoch of which he wrote that account. The motions of the stars and the eclipses are to ordered in the astronomical calculations. However, Georgius Syncellus who was very unskilful in these matters in his chronicle {George Syncellus, Chronicle, p. 312, 313.} in telling his opinion, clearly perverted the meaning because he did not understand it.
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« Reply #474 on: December 10, 2006, 02:07:16 PM »

3980a AM, 4689 JP, 25 BC

5864. Herod provided for his subjects against the harshness of the winter so that everyone would have proper clothing since their cattle were dead and there was a shortage of wool and other things. When he had provided for his own subjects, he took care also of the neighbouring cities of the Syrians. He gave seed for sowing. All the citadels and cities and the common people who had large families came to Herod for help and he was able to help the foreigners too. He gave 10,000 cors of grain to foreigners (100,000 Athenian medimni or 600,000 bushels) and 80,000 cors (800,000 Athenian medimni or 4,800,000 bushels) to his own subjects. (1 cor = 10 Athenian medimni) (1 Athenian medimni = 6 bushels) {Josephus, Antiq. l. 15. c. 12. <c. 9. 1:418>}

5865. Since Augustus was ill, he could not attend at Rome the marriage of his daughter and Marcellus, the son of his sister Octavia. He solemnized it with the help of M. Agrippa. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:206}

3980b AM, 4690 JP, 24 BC

5866. On the first of January when Augustus entered his tenth consulship, the senate confirmed by oath that they approved of all his acts. He had promised every man in Rome 400 sesterces (100 denarii).

5867. When he approached near the city, (from which he had been a long time absent because of his illness) he said that before he would give the money, the senate must give their assent. The senate then freed him from legal constraints and that he should have absolute power and be sole emperor to do as he wished. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:265, 267}

5868. As soon as the grain was ready to harvest, Herod sent 50,000 men, whom he had fed in time of the famine to their own countries and to his neighbours, the Syrians. By his diligence, Herod restored the almost ruined estate of his own subjects and greatly helped his neighbours, who were afflicted with the same calamities. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 12. <c. 9. 1:418>}

5869. At the same time, Herod sent 500 select men to Caesar for his bodyguards. Aelius Gallus led these men to the wars with Arabia where they preformed valiantly. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 12. <c. 9. 1:418>}

5870. Aelius Gallus (incorrectly called Aelius Largus in the later editions of Dio)

``was of the equestrian order'' {*Pliny, l. 6. c. 32. 2:459}

5871. He was the third governor of Egypt under Augustus, of whom Strabo makes mention as his friend and companion. {*Strabo, l. 2. c. 12. 1:453,455} Strabo wrote that both of them saw the statue of Memnon at Thebes. {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:123} Augustus sent him with part of the Roman garrison that was in Egypt into Arabia, {*Strabo, l. 2. c. 12. 1:453,455 l. 17. c. 54. 8:137} so that he might try to subdue those countries. This was on the border of the Ethiopians and Troglodytica beside Egypt and near the Arabian Gulf. It is very narrow here and separates the Arabians from the Troglodytae. Augustus advised him to make peace with them if they would otherwise to subdue them by force. {*Strabo, l. 16. c. 32. 7:353,355}

5872. For this expedition into Arabia, Aelius built 80 ships of two and three tiers of oars on a side, and some light galleys at Cleopatris, which was near the old canal of Nile. When there was no chance of any naval battle with the Arabians, he corrected his mistake and built 130 cargo ships. He sailed with 10,000 troops of Roman foot soldiers and their allies. These included 500 Jews and 1000 Nabateans under Syllaeus. {*Strabo, l. 16. c. 23. 7:355,357}

5873. At that time, Obodes was king of the Nabateans and was a slothful and lazy man especially about military matters. This was a common vice of all the Arabian kings. He had committed the government of his affairs to Syllaeus, who was a young, crafty man. {*Strabo, l. 16. c. 24. 7:357} {Josephus, l. 16. c. 11.} Syllaeus had promised Aelius that he would be his guide and would help him with provisions and anything he should need. However, he acted treacherously in all matters. He did not lead them safely by land or sea but through byways and circuitous barren routes. He took them to shores that were unfit for harbour and had dangerous submerged rocks or miry bogs because the sea never refreshed those places. {*Strabo, l. 16. c. 23. 7:357}

5874. After many miseries, Aelius Gallus came on the fifteenth day to the territory of Album (Leuce Come e.g. White Village). This was the largest trading place of all the Nabateans. He had lost many of his ships along with some of his men who died not from war but from the difficult trip. This was caused by the villainy of Syllaeus who said no army could be brought into the territory of Album by land. However, merchants come and go there by land with a large number of camels and men and in a way that is both safe and well supplied with provisions from one part of Arabia Petraea to the other. So many come and go in caravans, they seem to be an army for number. {*Strabo, l. 16. c. 23. 7:357}

5875. When the army of Aelius came there, it was stricken with the diseases of stomacaccis (scurvy) and scelotyrbe. These are diseases which are found in that country. One is as it were a palsy of the mouth and the other a lameness in the legs. These were caused by the bad water and plants they ate. Therefore, Aelius was forced to stay there a whole summer and winter to refresh his sick men. {*Strabo, l. 16. c. 24. 7:359}

5876. Zenodorus, who hired the house of Lysanias or the territory of Trachon, Batanea and Auranitis. He was not satisfied with its profits and joined the Trachonites who lived in caves like wild beasts. They were accustomed to rob and plunder the Damascens. The people that lived in those countries, were forced to complain to Varus, their governor of Syria. They asked if he would send letters to Caesar telling of the wrongs done by Zenodorus. Caesar wrote back that he would take special care to utterly root out those thieves. Therefore, Varro with his soldiers attacked those suspected places and purged the land from the thieves and took away the country from Zenodorus. {Josephus, Wars, l. 1. c. 15. <c. 20 1:574,575> Antiq, l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:420,421}

5877. Herod built a palace in Zion which contained two very large and stately houses with which the temple itself could in no wise compare. He called one of them by the name of Caesar and the other by the name of Agrippa. {Josephus, Wars, l. 1. c. 16. Antiq. l. 15. c. 12.}

3981a AM, 4690 JP, 24 BC

5878. The 29th Jubilee.
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« Reply #475 on: December 10, 2006, 02:07:49 PM »

3981b AM, 4691 JP, 23 BC

5879. Herod removed from the priesthood Jesus the son of Phabes and made Simon, a priest of Jerusalem. He was the son of Boethus of Alexandra, who married his daughter, Mariamme. She was the most beautiful woman of that time. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 15. c. 12. Wars, l. 18. c. 7.}

5880. After the marriage was over, Herod began to build a new palace and made a town next to it called Herodian after his own name. This place was about 7 and an half miles from Jerusalem 60 toward Arabia where he had defeated the Jews when he was thrust out by the armies of Antigonus. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 14. c. 25. l. 15. c. 12. Wars, l. 1. c. 11, 16.} Pliny mentioned Herodion and a famous town by the same name. {*Pliny, l. 5. c. 15. 2:275}

5881. Gallus left the Nabatean village of Album with his army and went through such places so that he was compelled to carry his water upon camels. This happened to him through the hostility of the guides. Therefore after many days he came into the land of Aretus who was allied with Obodus, the king of the Nabateans. This country was hard to cross because of the treachery of Syllaeus. He crossed it in 30 days travelling on unbeaten paths where his food was used up and he had few dates and used butter instead of oil. Finally, he came to the country of the nomads which was mainly a desert. It was called Ararena and was under the king of Sabos. {*Strabo, l. 16. c. 24. 7:357}

5882. Sabos was the king of Arabia Felix. No one came out to oppose Aelius. However, this journey was laborious. It was a hot sunny desert country and the waters that are naturally infected, caused the death of most of his army. That disease was not like any of ours. The head was affected and became parched thus killing many. Those who escaped death, had the disease go through their whole body into their legs and there afflicted the legs only. There was no remedy unless one drank oil mixed with wine and anointed himself with it. Very few could do this because neither was readily available, where they were, nor had they brought much with them. Among these misfortunes, the barbarians also, who at first had lost every battle with some towns also, used the disease as an opportunity to recover their losses. They attacked the Romans and recovered their lost towns and drove the rest of the Romans from the country. {*Dio, l. 53. c. 29. 6:269,271}

5883. These were the first and only Romans who carried the war so far into Arabia Felix even to the famous city of Athlula (or Athrula) {*Dio, l. 53. c. 29. 6:271} In that expedition, Gallus defeated these towns so named by previous writers: Negrana, Nestus, Nesca, Magusus, Caminacus, Labaetia, Mariba, (that was six miles in circumfirence) and Caripeta, which was the farthest he went. {*Pliny, l. 6. c. 32. 2:459} Had not Syllaeus betrayed him, he would have conquered all Arabia Felix. {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:137} We now give the account according to Strabo.

5884. Fifty days were spent in travelling over Ararena through impassable ways and he came to the city of the Agrans (or rather Negrai) in a peaceable and fruitful country. Then King Sabos fled and the city was taken at the first assault. From here on the sixth day he came to the river. There the barbarians met him in battle array of whom there fell 10,000 and only two of the Romans. They were very cowardly and used their weapons unskilfully. Some used the bow, lance, sword and the sling. For the most part, they used a double edged axe. Then he took the city Asca which was abandoned by the king. From there, he came to Athrula and he easily took it and put a garrison there. He took supplies of grain and dates for his journey and came to Marsiaba, a city of the Rhammanites who were under Ilasarus. He attacked and besieged it for six days. Later from lack of water, he abandoned the place. He understood from the captives that he was only six day's journey from that part where the spices grow. However, he spent six months getting there through the deceit of his guides.

5885. At last, when he found out the treachery, he returned another way and came in nine days to Negrana where there was a battle. Then on the eleventh day he came to the place called the Seven Wells, so named from the wells there. He travelled through places that were farmed to the village of Chaalla and later to Malotha that is located by the river side. After that he went through deserts where there was not much water to the village of Egra (or Hygra) which was under Obodas and lies by the sea. On his return journey, he spent only 60 days in all whereas before he had spent 6 months. {*Strabo, l. 16. c. 22,23 7:353}

5886. While Aelius Gallus waged war with part of the Egyptian army in Arabia, the Ethiopians which dwelt beyond Egypt, were sent by their Queen Candace (a manly woman and blind in one eye) on a sudden invasion. They surprised the garrisons of three cohorts which were at Syena, Elephantine and Philae and carried them away captives. They overthrew Caesar's statues. Against these, Petronius, the governor of Egypt marched with less than 10,000 foot soldiers and 800 cavalry against 30,000 men. At first, he forced them to flee into Pselchis, a city of Ethiopia. Then he sent to them to demand the things that they had taken away and also to know the reason why they had started this war. They said that they had been wronged by the governors and he replied that they were not lords of the country but that Caesar was. They asked for three day's time to deliberate and in the meantime did nothing to satisfy him. He marched toward them and forced them to fight and soon routed them. They were poorly ordered and badly armed. They had large shields made of raw ox hides and used weapons like hatchets, spears and some had swords. Some were forced into the city and some fled into the deserts and others to the next island. Petronicus captured Queen Candace's captains after he crossed the river in boats and ships. He sent them to Alexandria. He went to Pselchis and captured it. When he numbered the captives and those who died in battle, he concluded that very few had escaped. {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:137,139} {*Dio. l. 54. c. 5. 6:293}

5887. From Pselchis, Petronius went to Premnis which was a naturally well fortified city. To get there, he had to cross those sand dunes which overwhelmed Cambyses' army in a sand storm. He took it at the first assault then he went on to Napata (called Tanape by Dio) where Candace's palace was and her son lived. She was in a nearby citadel and sent ambassadors to treat for peace. She restored the statues and the captives who were taken from Syena. However, Petronius stormed Napata and took it and her son was forced to flee. Petronius could not go because of the sand and the heat or conveniently stay there with the whole army. He fortified Premnis with walls and put a garrison there with enough food for 400 men for two years. He returned to Alexandria and sold most of the captives. Some died of disease and he sent 1000 captives to Caesar who had recently returned from the Cantabrian war. {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:139,141} {*Dio. l. 54. c. 5. 6:295}
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« Reply #476 on: December 10, 2006, 02:08:18 PM »

5888. Pliny also wrote: {Pliny, l. 6. c. 35. 2:473}

``In the time of Augustus, the Romans entered the country of the Ethiopians under P. Petronius their general who was an equestrian and governor of Egypt. He overcame their towns which he found in the same order that we list them: Pselcis, Primis, Bocchis, Cambyses' Market, Attenia, Stadissis. At the last place, the inhabitants lost their hearing because of the noise of the cataract in the Nile River. He also sacked Napata. The farthest that he went from Syene was 870 miles. It was not the Romans who destroyed the land but the constant wars Ethiopia had with Egypt.''

5889. Phraates the 3rd was restored into his kingdom with much help from the Scythians. When Tiridates heard of their coming, he fled to Caesar with a large number of his friends. He desired that he might be restored into that kingdom and promised that Parthia would be subject to Rome if he would give him that kingdom. When Phraates knew this, he soon sent ambassadors to Caesar and asked that he would send back his servant Tiridates and his own son whom he had given as hostage to Caesar. {Justin, l. 42. c. 5.}

5890. When Tiridate's and Phraate's ambassadors were come to Rome, Augustus brought them both into the senate. When the senate appraised him of the matter, he heard the demands of each party. He then told them that he would not surrender Tiridates to the Parthians, nor would he help Tiridates against the Parthians. Lest they should seem to get nothing for their trouble, Augustus ordered a very generous allowance to be given to Phraates as long as he stayed at Rome. He sent back Phraates' son, that in lieu of him he might recover the captives and ensigns that were lost in the defeat of Crassus and Antony. {Justin, l. 42. c. 5.} {*Dio, l. 53. p. 519.)

5891. There were mutual grudges between M. Agrippa and M. Marcellus, the nephew and son-in-law of Augustus. Each one thought the other to be more respected by Augustus than themselves. Augustus feared that the contentions would get worse if they both stayed in the same place. He immediately sent away Agrippa into Asia to govern those provinces beyond the sea in his place. Agrippa left the city but sent his lieutenants into Syria while he stayed at Mitylene, on the isle of Lesbos. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:273,275} {Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 93. 1:247} {Josephus, Antiq. l. 15. c. 13.} {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 66.}

5892. Augustus resigned the eleventh consulship and made Lucius Sestius, the great favourite of Brutus, consul in his place. The senate decreed these honours to Augustus. He should be the perpetual tribune of the common people. He could convene the senate as often as he wished although he was not a consul. He could make whatever laws he pleased. He would have always proconsulary power and even within the walls of the city. He would not need to renew this power. He would always have greater power in the provinces than the very governors. {*Dio, l. 53. 6:277}

3982a AM, 4691 JP, 23 BC

5893. Aelius Gallus returned from the expedition of Arabia and left the village Egra in the kingdom of the Nabateans. In eleven day's time, he marched his army across the harbour of Muris. From here, he marched by land over to Coptus and came to Alexandria with those forces that were able to bear arms. He had lost the rest, not in war, (wherein only seven were died) but by famine, labour, diseases, and the difficult way. {*Strabo, l. 16. 7:363} Some of his medicines are mentioned by Galen {Galen, de Antidotis, l. 2.} and among these was a formula which he gave to Caesar that he had used to save many of his soldiers.

5894. Marcus Marcellus died who was the son of Octavia, the sister of Augustus and the husband of Julia, the daughter of Augustus. {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 93. 1:247} {*Dio, l. 53. 6:279}

3982b AM, 4692 JP, 22 BC

5895. Augustus restored to the Roman people the control of Cyprus and Gallia Narbonensis because they did not need any troops and took control of Dalmatia. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:291, 1. 53. 6:221}

5896. The dancing of antic and stage plays, was first brought to Rome by Pylades Cilices and Bathyllus. Pylades was the first that ever had a choir to accompany him. {Eusebius Chronicles} {Scaligeri Collectan. Grac. p. 390, Animadversion. p. 155, 156.}

5897. After Herod had built Sebaste, he began to build most magnificently, another city in a place by the sea side where Strato's tower stood. He called it Caesarea and made an harbour of admirable work equal in size to the harbour of Piraetus (at Athens). He finished all this in twelve years and spared neither labour nor cost. {Josephus Wars, l. 1. c. 16. & Antiq. l. 15. c. 13. <c. 9. 1:420>} Eutropius described it to Caesar thus: {Eutropius, l. 7.}

``The name of Caesar was so beloved by the barbarians that kings that were friends of the people of Rome, built cities in honour of him. One was called Caesarea. King Juba built this city in Mauritania and in Palestine there is another most famous city by the same name.''

5898. Herod sent his sons Alexander and Aristobulus (whom he had by Mariamme the Asmonaean) to Rome to Caesar to be raised there. They stayed at the house of Pollios who was a good friend of Herod. Caesar entertained the young men very courteously and gave Herod the power to select one of his sons for the heir to his kingdom. Caesar also gave him Trachon, Batunaea and Auranitis. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:420>}

3983a AM, 4692 JP, 22 BC

5899. After Herod had received Trachon, he took guides and went to the dens of the thieves and restrained their villainies and brought peace to the inhabitants. Zenodorus was angry from envy that he lost his possessions to Herod. He went to Rome to accuse Herod but could do nothing. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:421>}

5900. After Herod had greeted his best friend Agrippa at Mitylene, he returned into Judea. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:421>}

5901. Some citizens of Gadarea went to Agrippa to accuse Herod. He would not even hear their complains but bound them and sent them to Herod. However, Herod spared them. Although he was inexorable toward his own people yet he willingly overlooked and forgave injuries received from strangers. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:421>}

5902. Augustus went into Sicily that he might settle its affairs. He went also to other provinces even as far as Syria. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:295}

3983b AM, 4693 JP, 21 BC

5903. Augustus sent for Agrippa whom he wished had more patience. (Because of some light suspicion of harshness, under pretence that he could not become emperor, he had left all things and gone to Mitylene.) Augustus asked him to come to him from Asia to Sicily. He ordered him to divorce his wife, although she was the daughter of Octavia, Augustus' own sister and to marry his daughter Julia, the widow of Marcellus. He sent him presently to solemnize the marriage and to undertake the government of the city of Rome. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:297} {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 93. 1:247} {*Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 63, 66.}

5904. Zenodorus was desperate and had rented out Auranitis, a part of his country, to the Arabians for fifty talents yearly. Although this part was contained in the grant which Caesar gave Herod, yet the Arabians hated Herod and would in no wise allow it to be taken from them. Sometimes they laid claim to it by invasions and force and sometimes contended for the right of possession before the judges. They won over some needy soldiers, who according to the custom of wretched men, hoped for better fortunes by seditions. Although Herod knew well enough, yet he tried to settle the matter by reason than with force, lest he should give an occasion for new seditions. {*Josephus, l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. p. 421>}

5905. After Augustus had ordered things in Sicily, he passed over into Greece, when he took from the Athenians, Aegina and Eretria, because as some reported, they had favoured Antony. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:299}

5906. Petronius went with troops to prevent Candace the queen of the Ethiopians, who with many thousands, had attacked the garrison of Premnis. He entered the citadel and strengthened it with many provisions and compelled the queen to accept conditions of peace. {*Strabo. l. 17. 8:141} {*Dio, l. 54. 6:295}

5907. Petronius ordered the ambassadors who were sent to him that if they would demand anything they should go to Caesar. They denied any knowledge of Caesar or where he might be. Therefore, he ordered some to escort them to Caesar. {*Strabo. l. 17. 8:141}
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« Reply #477 on: December 10, 2006, 02:08:50 PM »

3984a AM, 4693 JP, 21 BC

5908. After Augustus has settled his affairs in Greece, he sailed to Samos and wintered there. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:299}

5909. The people of Armenia accused Artabazes or Artaxis, or Artaxias, (the son of Artavasdes who was taken by the treachery of Antony) and desired that his brother Tigranes who was then at Rome, might be their king. Augustus sent Tiberius to drive out Artabazes and to make Tigranes, the king in his place. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:303} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 3.}

5910. The ambassadors of Candace came to Samos and found Caesar preparing to go to Syria and to send Tiberius into Armenia. They easily obtained from him what they desired and he remitted their tribute also. {*Strabo, l. 17. 8:141}

3984b AM, 4694 JP, 20 BC

5911. In the spring, Augustus went into Asia when M. Apuleius, and P. Silius were consuls and from there into Bithynia. Although these provinces belonged to the people of Rome, he handled them with as much care as he did the provinces he was directly responsible for. He settled all things where it was convenient. He gave money to some and to others he imposed new sums over and above their regular tribute. He took away the freedom of the Cyzicenians because in a certain sedition, they had put to death some Romans after they had scourged them. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:299}

5912. Augustus went into Syria, in the tenth year after he had last been in that province. {Josephus, Wars, l. 1. c. 15.} This was the 17th year of the reign of Herod (from the death of Antigonus.) {Josephus, Wars, l. 1. l. 15, Antiq. l. 15. c. 13.} He took away the freedom from Tyre and Sidon because of their factions. {*Dio, l. 54. p. 525.}

5913. Zenodorus had solemnly sworn to the Gadarenes that he would never stop trying to free them from the jurisdiction of Herod and of being annexed to Caesar's province. Thereupon many of them began to complain against Herod and called him cruel and tyrannical. They complained to Caesar of his violence and rapines, and for violating and rasing their temples. Herod was not frightened by this and was ready to answer for himself. However, Caesar used him courteously and was not at all alienated from him for all this tumultuous multitude. The Gadarenes perceived the inclinations of Caesar and his friends and were afraid that they might be turned over to Herod. The next night after the meeting, some of them cut their own throats. Others who feared torture, broke their own necks and some drowned themselves in the river. Thus they seemed to condemn themselves by these actions and Caesar immediately absolved Herod. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:421>}

5914. Zenodorus' bowels burst through and much blood came out of him. He died at Antioch in Syria. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:421>}

5915. Augustus gave the tetrarchy of Zenodorus to Herod. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:421>} {*Dio. l. 54. 6:303} This was a large tract of land located between Galilee and Trachon, containing Ulatha and Paneas and the neighbouring countries. He made him also one of the governors of Syria and ordered the governors of that province to do nothing without Herod's advice. {Josephus, Wars, l. 1. c. 15., Antiq. l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:421>})

5916. Herod asked for a tetrarchy from Caesar for his brother, Pheroras. Herod gave him 100 talents from the revenues of his own kingdom, to the intent that if he should happen to die, Pheroras' estate might be assured and not subject to Herod's children. {Josephus, Wars, l. 1. c. 15., Antiq. l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:421>})

5917. Claudius Tiberius Nero was sent by Augustus, his father-in-law, with an army to visit and settle the provinces which were in the east. he was an excellent well educated youth and had many natural talents. He entered Armenia with the legions and subdued it under the power to the people of Rome. He turned over the kingdom to Artavasdes. Thereupon the king of the Parthians was terrified by the reputation of so great a name and sent his sons as hostages to Caesar. Velleius Paterculus was the great flatterer of Tiberius. {Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 94. 1:247}

5918. All historians also mention that Tigranes, the son of Artavasdes, was at this time made king of the Armenians. Artavasdes was led captive into Egypt by Cleopatra and Antony. His oldest son Artaxius (whom Dio here calls Artabazes, by his father's name) reigned in the kingdom of Armenia. Archelaus and Nero expelled him by force from the kingdom and made his younger brother king instead. (He is called by Velleius, after his father's name, Artavasdes, but by all others Tigranes.) Thus Josephus {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 5.} related the story meaning by the name of Archelaus, the king of Cappadocia, and by the name of Nero, Claudius Tiberius although he was not yet adopted by Caesar. The narration in Horace is about Nero. {Horace, l. 1. epist. 12.}

Know further too what places do partake
Roman affairs: Canteber to Agrippa falls,
Claudius Armenia did by Nero take:
The younger brother Phraates has all.
Caesar's both right and rule imperial.

5919. With which agrees that of Ovid. {Ovid, Tristium, 3.}

The Armenians sue for peace, the Parthian bow,
Horse, arms, and ensigns are resigned now.

5920. Yet Dio affirmed that Tiberius or this Claudius Nero did nothing worthy of the preparations he went to. Artabazes, or Arsazius was killed by the Armenians before his arrival. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:303} Although concerning this business, Tiberius boasted that he had done everything by his own power, and especially because there then were decreed sacrifices for it. Tacitus also seems to favour his account. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 3.}

``Artaxias was killed by the treachery of his closest friends. Tigranes was made the king of the Armenians and brought by Tiberius Nero into the kingdom.''

5921. Tiberius led his army into the east and restored the kingdom of Armenia to Tigranes and put the crown on his head in the tribunal. {*Suetonius, Tiberius (Octavian??), c. 9.}

5922. Suetonius added in the same place that Tiberius recovered the ensigns that the Parthians had taken from M. Crassus. The Parthians at Augustus' demand, also restored the military ensigns that they had taken from Marcus Crassus and M. Antony. Moreover, they offered hostages also when Augustus came into Syria, for the settling of the state of affairs in the east. {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 21.} Phraates, who had done nothing he agreed to, feared lest Augustus should make war on Parthia and sent back to him the Roman ensigns which Orodes had taken at the defeat of Crassus and which his son had taken when Antony was routed. He also handed over all the captives who were in all Parthia from the armies of Crassus and Antony. Only a few were not returned who either had killed themselves for shame and some that stayed privately in Parthia. These things Augustus received, as if he had conquered the Parthians in war. {Livy, l. 139} {*Florus, l. 4. 1:351} {*Strabo, l. 2. 1:37, l. 16. 7:237} {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 91. 1:241,243} {Justin, l. 42. c. ult.} {*Dio, l. 54. 6:301} {Eutropius, l. 7.} {Orosius, l. 6. c. 21.} {Casstodorus, in Chronicles}

5923. Eutropius wrote that the Persians or Parthians gave hostages to Caesar which they never did before to any and by delivering the king's children for hostages that they secured a firm league with a solemn procession. {Orosius, l. 6. c. 21} Strabo confirmed that Phraates {Strabo, l. 6. 3:147} entrusted his sons and his grandsons to Augustus Caesar and desired with all reverence to merit his friendship by delivering hostages to him. Justin also confirmed {Justin, l. 42, c. ult.} that his sons and grand children were hostages to Augustus. However, Tacitus said {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. init.} his real reasons for doing this.

``He showed all duty and reverence to Augustus and sent some of his children to him for the strengthening of their friendship. He did this not so much for fear of him as for the distrust of the loyalty of his own subjects.''
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« Reply #478 on: December 10, 2006, 02:09:30 PM »

5924. Thermusa, an Italian woman, was Phraates' concubine whom he later made his wife. She thought to get the kingdom of the Parthians for her son, Phraataces whom she had born to the king when she was still his concubine. She persuaded the king, now her husband and with whom she could do anything she wished, to send his lawfully begotten children as hostages to Rome. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:478>} Phraates called Titius to a conference who was then the governor of Syria. He turned over to him his four lawfully begotten sons for hostages. These were Seraspades, Cerospades, Phraates and Bonones along with two of their wives and four sons. He feared a sedition and lest some treachery should be plotted against him by his enemies, he sent his sons out of the way. He persuaded himself that no one would be able to do anything against him, if he would have none of the family of the Arsaces to be established in his place. The Parthians were extremely fond of that royal family. {*Strabo. l. 16. 7:237} In an old Roman inscription, there is added with Seraspadanes (for so he is there called) another son of Phraates who is not mentioned by Strabo. He was Rhodaspes, a Parthian and the son of Phraates Arsaces, the king of kings. {Gruter, Inscriptions, p. 288.}

5925. In the east, Augustus established his subjects according to the form of the Roman laws, but allowed those who were in league with him to live according to the laws of their ancestors. He did not think it desirable to take anything from his subjects or extend the empire but to be content with what they had. Hence he wrote this to the senate and at this time made no wars. He gave to Jamblichus the son of Jamblichus, his father's principality in Arabia. He also gave to Tarcondimotus, the son of Tarcondimotus, his father's principality in Cilicia except for some sea towns. These he gave to Archelaus along with the kingdom of Armenia the Less because the Mede who held the kingdom previously, had died. He gave Commagena to Mithridates who was only a child because its king had killed the father of Mithridates. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:303}

5926. After Herod had escorted Caesar to the sea side, he returned into his kingdom and there built a beautiful temple of white marble in honour of Caesar. This was near Paniun, at the foot of those hills are the springs of the Jordan River. He also remitted to his subjects some part of their tribute under the pretence that they should have some relief after the famine. However, in very deed, he did this to appease their minds because they were so offended with such vast building projects of the king which tended toward the destruction of their religion and good customs. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:422>}

3985a AM, 4694 JP, 20 BC

5927. To prevent seditions, Herod, forbade all private meetings in the city and too many feasts. He also had spies who would mingle in companies and note what the people talked about. Indeed, he himself would go in the night in the clothes of a common man and mingle in the company of the people to learn what they thought of him. As many as obstinately disagreed with his actions, he punished without mercy. He bound the rest of the multitude to him with an oath that they should be loyal to him. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:422>}

5928. Herod required this oath from many followers of the Pharisees including Pollio and Sameas. Although he could not make these two take the oath, he did not punish them as he did the others out of respect for the reverence he bore to Pollio. He did not impose this oath on the Esseans whom he much esteemed for Manahem's sake who was a prophet. When Herod was a private boy, Manahem greeted him as king of the Jews and had foretold that he would reign as king for more than 30 years. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. 13. <c. 10. 1:422>}

5929. Caius was born to Agrippa by his wife Julia. There was a yearly sacrifice decreed on his birthday with some other things. {*Dio. l. 54. 6:301}

5930. Augustus returned to Samos and there wintered again. To reward their hospitality, he granted the Samians liberty. A great many embassies came to him there. The Indians then by a firm league, ratified the peace which they previously had desired by their ambassadors. (See note on 3979 AM <<5330>>) Among the presents that were sent by the Indians, were tigers, which were never before seen by either the Romans or Greeks. They also gave him a certain young man who had no arms, (like used to be displayed on the statues of Mercury or Hermes) who did everything with his feet instead of his hands. He was said to bend a bow and shoot an arrow and sound a trumpet. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:305}

5931. Nicholas Damascene reported that he saw these Indian ambassadors at Antioch by Daphnis. The letter they brought mentioned more ambassadors but he said only three were alive whom he saw and the rest died because the journey was so long. The letter was written in Greek on parchment, in which was signified that it was sent by Porus. Although he ruled 600 kings, yet he did much esteem Caesar's friendship that he was ready to meet him wherever Caesar wished and that he would help him in anything that was right. Nicholas said these things were contained in that letter. Moreover they brought presents by eight servants who were naked and had only breeches on and covered with perfumes. Among the presents was the youth, Hermes, who had no arms, huge vipers, a snake 15 feet long, a river tortoise of 4.5 feet and a partridge larger than a vulture. {*Strabo. l. 15. 7:125,127}

3985b AM, 4695 JP, 19 BC

5932. Among these was Zarmarus or Zarmanochegas, one of the wise men of the Indians. He killed himself for vain glory's sake or from old age according to the customs of his country or that he might make a display of himself to Augustus and the Athenians, (for he had come into Athens.) He was made a priest of the Greek gods, although (as they report) in an unlawful time yet it was done as a favour for Augustus. He thought that he must die and lest some adversity should happen to him if he stayed any longer. He laughed as he leaped on the funeral fire with his naked and anointed body. This inscription was written on his sepulchre.

``Here lies Zarmanochegas, an Indian, of Bargosa, who immortalised himself according to the ancestral customs of Indians.'' {*Strabo. l. 15. 7:127,129} {*Dio, l. 54. 6:305,307}

5933. When Augustus returned to Rome, he entered the city on horseback in a kind of triumph. He was honoured with a triumphal arch that carried his trophies. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:301}
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« Reply #479 on: December 10, 2006, 02:10:07 PM »

5934. Augustus considered it very praise worthy that he had recovered those things which were formerly lost in war without any fighting. Therefore he ordered that it should be decreed that there should be sacrifices for this reason. A temple of Mars the revenger (in imitation of Jupiter Feretrius) in the capitol should be built where the ensigns should be hung up. This was done. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:301}

5935. This temple he had formerly vowed for Mars before the victory at Philippi. He now proclaimed that he had received another like benefit from him and he performed his vow at the twentieth year's end. He imitated Romulus who had killed Acro the king of the Coeninenses and hung up his arms in the temple that he dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius. Augustus built a temple to Mars, the twice revenger, and then placed there the military ensigns that he had recovered from the Parthians. He also instituted the Circensian plays to be solemnized every year in memory of these things. Ovid wrote: {Ovid, Fasti, 5}

It does not Mars suffice once named to have gained
He prosecutes the Parthian Ensigns yet retained.
A country guarded with store of horse, bows, plains,
For rivers inaccessible remains.
Other Crassus yet much spirited by the fall,
At once of army, standard, general.
The Roman ensigns did the Parthian bear,
And, while an enemy, their eagle wear.
This blemish still had stuck; But Caesar's might,
Better defended Latium's ancient right:
He took the ensigns, cancelled that disgrace,
And made the eagle know her proper place.
What profits shooting back, thine envious land,
Thy swifter steed, O Parthian? thy hand
Delivers back thine ensigns, and thy bow:
Thou canst no trophies of the Roman show.
A temple duly vote Bis-ultor thy
Honour receiveth most deservedly.
More honourable Romans celebrate
His plays: no scene supplies Bellona's state.

5936. Horace adds: {Horace, l. 4. Ode Ult.}

------------(Caesar) thine age Affordeth plenteous fruits to the fields,
And to Jove's capitol our ensigns yields
From Parthian pillars snatched---------

5937. Many of Augustus' coins had the inscription: SIGNIS RECEPTIS, for the ensigns recovered.

5938. Herod in the 18th year of his reign (as calculated from the death of Antigonus) told the Jews of his intention to build the temple at Jerusalem. When he saw that they were troubled, lest if he demolished the old, he could not finish the new. He assured them that the old temple would remain intact until all materials that were necessary for the new building were prepared. He did not deceive them. He provided a thousand wagons to carry stones and he selected from all the number of craftsman, the most skilful 10,000 and also a thousand priests that were clothed with priest's garments at his own expense and were able masons and carpenters. He ordered them to start the work since the materials were ready. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 14. c. 14. <c. 11. 1:423>}

3986 AM, 4696 JP, 18 BC

5939. When Augustus' first ten year term had almost expired, he extended it for another 5 years and gave to M. Agrippa another 5 years also along with some powers that were almost the same, as his such as the tribunal power. He said that so many years was then sufficient although shortly after, he accepted more years of the imperial power so that his Principality might be made decennial. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:313}

5940. The books of the Sybill's were worn out through age. Augustus ordered the priests that with their own hands they should write them out so that none other should read them. {*Dio, l. 54. 6:325,337}

5941. Augustus restored Pilades, the Cilician dancer who had been exiled from Rome because of a sedition. Hence Augustus won the favour of the people by this. When Augustus reproved him because he was always quarrelling with Bathyllus, a fellow artist and also a friend of Maecenas, Pilades cleverly rejoined:

``It is to your advantage, O Caesar, that the people should devote their spare time to us.'' {*Dio, l. 54. 6:327}

3987 AM, 4697 JP, 17 BC

5942. All the necessary materials for starting the temple where assembled within two years' time. Herod began to build the temple of Jerusalem, 46 years before the first passover of the ministry of Christ. This is confirmed by the words of the Jews: Joh 2:20

``This temple has been built forty and six years before this.''

5943. as that aorist tense is correctly translated by our country man, Lydiat.

5944. The building of this temple under Zerubbabel was started in the first year of the reign of Cyrus and for some time the building programme was interrupted. It was finished after twenty years in the sixth year of Darius, the son of Hystaspes. The magnificent building of this temple was begun by Herod at this time and was finished in nine and an half years. When comparing the time spent in building this most magnificent structure, we must take into consideration not only the labour of these two but their successors also. When it was completed:

``many ages and all the holy treasures that were sent to God from all the parts of the world there were spent.'' {Josephus, Wars, l. 6. c. 6.}

5945. Herod did not pay for this alone. Much of his wealth was spent on generous gifts and on building so many palaces, temples, and cities. He was building the city and port of Caesarea which was his most costly building project at the same time he was building the temple. Tacitus calls it:

``a temple of immense riches'' {Tacitus, Histories, l. 5. c. 9.}
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