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Entertainment => Books => Topic started by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:24:52 AM

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:24:52 AM
This is a book by James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, Church of Ireland that was published in 1658. While there are a few that will argue some of the dates the majority are readily accepted by many Biblical scholars. Images have been left out.

James Ussher


Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland


James Ussher, was one of the greatest scholars and theologians of his time. In his enduring search for knowledge he travelled widely in Britain and Europe, seeking the earliest available manuscripts, buying those he could, and copying others. After his death, his extensive and valuable library, formed the nucleus of the great library of Trinity College, Dublin.

James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, was the pre-eminent figure in the contemporary Church of Ireland, and a leading patron of scholarship at Trinity College, Dublin. A staunch defender of episcopacy, he was nevertheless respected on all sides during the religious upheavals of the 1640s and 1650s, and regarded as the person most likely to achieve an accommodation between the Presbyterians and the Church of England. As such, he was valued by Hartlib and Dury, both of whom helped him at times with his scholarly work and looked to him as a potential patron for their own schemes.

Despite his success as a churchman, Ussher is perhaps most famous for having dated the start of the creation to the evening before 23rd October, 4004 B.C. Ussher calculated this timing in his Annals, a work of biblical chronology which he published in Latin in 1650 (Hartlib noted its progress through the press with great interest), and which was translated into English in 1658. The book was the fruit of many years labour; as early as the summer of 1640, Ussher had been reported ‘spend[ing] constantly all the afternoones’ in the Bodleian working at it (Constantine Adams to Hartlib, Hartlib Papers, 15/8/3A–4B).

In the Annals, Ussher developed the chronological work of many earlier scholars, in particular Joseph Justus Scaliger (who had pioneered the use of the Julian period in calendrical calculations) to provide a framework for dating the whole Bible historically. He argued that, although scripture itself only tended to take notice of entire years, the Holy Ghost had left clues in the Bible which allowed the critic to establish a precise chronology of its events, through the application to the text of the results of astronomical calculations and its comparison with the dates of pagan history. Ussher’s system had the advantage of preserving several attractive numerical symmetries, for example the ancient Jewish notion, adopted by Christians, that the creation anticipated the birth of the Messiah by 4,000 years, but it was also heavily dependent on classical chronologies and on an interpretation of the calendar which already seemed out-dated to many scholars.

Although not wholly original, Ussher’s work was nevertheless influential and became widely accepted, not least because its dates were later incorporated into the margins of some editions of the Authorized Version. However, Ussher’s chronology rested too heavily on the Hebrew text of Old Testament to escape controversy even in his own day. Its findings were attacked by those who were persuaded that the Greek translation of the Old Testament (the Septuagint) or the Samaritan Pentateuch (both of which presented different chronologies from the Hebrew) were more reliable witnesses to the dictation of the Holy Ghost, or that they concurred more closely with the evidence of astronomy and pagan history. Yet, in the opinion of Hartlib, and perhaps of many others, Ussher’s critics were churlish individuals who were unwilling to admit their own debts to his scholarship. Despite such debates, most seventeenth-century readers of the Bible would have agreed with Ussher that it ought, in principle, to have been possible to establish an accurate and detailed biblical chronology.

Illustrated opposite is the title-page from the Annals, engraved by Francis Barlow and Richard Gaywood. This shows a number of the crucial figures and episodes from Ussher’s chronology. Adam and Eve are flanked by the figures of Solomon and Nebuchadnezzar, the builder and destroyer of the first Temple, which is also shown both in its glory and after its fall. The engraving also depicts the second Temple, built after Cyrus allowed the return of the Jews to Jerusalem, and its eventual destruction. The figures of Cyrus and of Vespasian (who was Emperor at the time of the destruction of Herod’s Temple, in A.D. 70) flank a depiction of the Last Supper. This copy of the Annals has also been extra-illustrated by the pasting in of a contemporary engraved portrait of Ussher, which shows him holding ‘God’s Word’, the Bible, in his hand. It was executed for the London printseller, Peter Stent, who advertised it for sale in 1653, 1658, 1662, and 1663.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:27:16 AM
Archbishop of Armagh
Church of Ireland

Printed by E. Tyler, for F. Crook, and G. Bedell

This work is in the Public Domain. Copy Freely

 The Epistle to the Reader

Censorinus, in his little book, the "Explication of Times Intervals", written to Q. Cerellius on his birthday, wrote in the preface of it.

``If the origin of the world had been known to man, I would have started there.'' (Consor. in c. 20.)

And a little later, speaking of this time:

``Whether time had a beginning or whether it always was, the exact number of years cannot be known.'' (Consor. in c. 21.)

Therefore Ptolemy, from "Astronomical Supputations", concerning the creation and history of the world states that it is beyond the knowledge of man.

``To find the details of the history of the whole world or such an immense period of times, I think it is beyond us that desire to learn and know the truth.'' (Ptolem. l. 3.)

Julius Firmius Maternus in his discourse of history, that "Geniture of the World", received from Esculapius and Anubius.

``That was not the creation of the world. Nor, indeed, had the world any certain day for its beginning. Nor was there anything existing at the time when the world was formed by the wisdom of the Divine Understanding and Provident Deity. Nor could man in his human frailty so far extend itself, that it could conceive or unfold, easily the world's origin.'' (Jul. Firm. Mattes. l. 3. c. 2.)

It is not strange that the heathens who are totally ignorant of the Holy Bible, should despair of ever attaining the knowledge of the world's beginnings. Even among Christians, that most renowned chronographer Dionysius Petavius when asked his opinion concerning the creation of the world and the number of years from creation down to us, made this disclaimer:

``That the number of years from the beginning of the world to our time, cannot be known nor in any way found out without Divine Revelation.'' (Petav. de Doctrina Temporum, l. 9. c. 2.)

Philastrius Brixiensis disagreed with him and called it heresy:

``to know the number of the years from the creation of the world is uncertain and men do not know the time.'' (Philast. De Heres. ib. c. 6. p. 63.)

Lactantius Sirmianus, made this bold assertion in his "Divine Institutions":

``We who are trained by the Holy Scriptures to the knowledge of truth, do know both the beginning and end of the world.'' (Lastant. l. 7. c. 14.)

For whatever may have happened in the past, we are taught that:

``The Father has reserved the knowledge of things future to himself. Nor is there any mortal to whom the whole period of time is known. (ib. Nicol. Lyranius.) Even the son of Sirach is thought to say. "The sands of the sea, the drops of rain and the days of the world, who can number?"'' /APC Sir 1:28

When Lyranus is thought to have been speaking of history, (when as others interpret it here and in Chap. XVIII. 11. of his "Days of Eternity") draws this erroneous conclusion. He thinks that from the beginning of the world, time was never by any man determined "certainly" and "precisely".

The first Christian writer, (that I have known of) who attempted from the Holy Bible to calculate the age of the world, was Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch. Concerning this whole account, he states:

``All times and years are made known to them who are willing to obey the truth'' (Theoph. ad Autolyc. l. 3.)

But concerning the exactness of this calculation he later states:

``And haply we may not be able to give an exact account of every year, because in the Holy Scriptures there is no mention of the precise number of months and days''

For the Scripture normally notes only entire years and not the days and months in each instance. Hence summing the years may give an inaccurate total because the partial years were not included.

But granting this one thing, (and this is a most reasonable assumption) that the Holy Writers had this purpose in noting the years of the world in their various places with such diligence. They sought to reveal to us the history of the world that otherwise, no one could know. This, I say, being granted, we affirm that the Holy Spirit has anticipated this doubt. He has started and ended each of the periods, on which a series of time depends and added the very month and day. For example, the Israelites left Egypt on the 15th day of the first month. Nu 33:3. In the 480th year after their exodus, in the second month on the second day, Solomon began to build the temple. 1Ki 6:1. The months and days given for the start and end of the period show that 11 months and 14 days are to be taken away. The period is not 480 whole years, but only 479 years and 16 days. 2Ch 3:2

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:27:33 AM
``Those who promise to give us an exact astronomical table of time, from the creation to Christ, seem to me more worthy of encouragement than praise in that they attempt a thing beyond human capacity.''

Thus states David Paraeus, who, among the most recent of our writers, calculated the number the years to Christ's time from the Holy Scriptures. Therefore he says, abandoning astronomical calculations, he used the civil time of the Hebrews, Egyptians and Persians as the only way to do this accurately.

But if I have any understanding in this matter, it does not matter what rule we use to measure the passing of time, as long as it starts and ends with a certain number of days. Anyone could with D. Paraeus, by some equal measure of years, define the time between the foundation of the world and Christ's time. Also it would be very easy without the help of any astronomical table, to set down how many years happened during that interval. The passing of time in any civil year from a season to the same season again is simply a natural astronomical or tropical year.

Anyone can do this who is well versed in the knowledge of sacred and profane history, of astronomical calculations and of the old Hebrew calendar. If he should apply himself to these difficult studies, it is not impossible for him to determine not only the number of years but even the days from the creation of the world. Using backward calculations, Basil the great, told us we may determine the first day of the world.

``You may indeed learn the very time when the foundation of the world was laid. If you return from this time to former ages, you may endeavour studiously to determine the day of the world's origin. Hence you will find when time began.'' {Basil. in Hexamer. Homil. 1.}

The nations in various ages used different methods of calculating time and years. It is necessary that some common and known standard be used to which these may be reconciled. The Julian years and months are most suitable to the common collation of times. These start on midnight, January 1, A.D. Using three cycles, every year is uniquely identified. For example, the Roman indiction {a} of 15 years, the cycle of the moon {b}, or golden number of 19 and the solar cycle {c} (the index of Sunday or Paschal days) containing the period of 28 years. It is known that the year 1650 A.D. is identified with the numbers of 3 in the Roman indiction {a}, 17 in the lunar cycle and 7 in the solar cycle. (I do not say that of the year of the birth of Christ, which is still disputed among the learned.)

Since our Christian period comes long after the creation of the world, counting years backward is difficult and error prone. There is a better way. Modern chronologers have extrapolated these three cycles backward to the year when all the cycles would start at 1 on January first. This creates an artificial epoch of length 7980 years based on the product of the three cycles multiplied together.
Lunar Cycle    19 Years
Solar Cycle    28 Years
Years of Interdiction    15 Years
Total 19 times 28 times 15 = 7980 Years

I think this was first noted by Robert Lotharing, Bishop of Hereford, in England. 500 years later Joseph Scaliger adapted this to chronological use and called it by the name of the Julian Period, because it extended the cycle of Julian years back in time and forward. The cycle starts at noon, January 1, 4713 BC. and is a leap year. Here the lunar cycle is 1, the Solar cycle is 1 and the Interdiction cycle is also 1. Hence 1 AD is the year 4714 of the Julian period and is identified by the Roman Indiction of 4, lunar cycle of 2, solar cycle of 10.

Moreover we find that the years of our forefathers, the years of the ancient Egyptians and Hebrews were the same length as the Julian Year. It consisted of 12 months containing 30 days. (It cannot be proved that the Hebrews used lunar months before the Babylonian captivity.) 5 days were added to the 12th month each year. Every 4 years, 6 days were added to the 12th month. I have noted the continual passing of these years, as set forth in the Bible. Hence the end of Nebuchadnezzar's reign and the beginning of his son Evilmerodach's reign was in the 3442 year of the world. (3442 AM) By collation of Chaldean history and the astronomical cannon it was in the 85 year of Nabonasar. This was 562 BC. or 4152 JP. (Julian Period) From this I deduce that the creation of the world happened in the beginning of the autumn of 710 JP. {d} Using astronomical tables, I determined the first Sunday after the autumnal equinox for the year 710 JP which was October 23 of that year. I ignored the stopping of the sun, in the days of Joshua and the going back of it in the days of Hezekiah. (See the notes in my Annals for 2553 AM and 3291 AM) From thence I concluded, that from the preceding evening of October 23, marks the first day of creation and the start of time.

I ignored the difficulties raised by chronologers who are occupied by the love of contention, as Basil notes. Hence I deduce that the time from the creation until midnight, January 1, 1 AD. was 4003 years, 70 days, 6 hours. Also based on the death of Herod I conclude that the birth of our Saviour was four full years before January 1, 1 AD. According to our calculations, the building of Solomon's temple was finished in the 3000th year of the world. In the 4000th year of the world, Mary gave birth to Christ Lu 2:6 (of whom the temple was a type). Joh 2:21 Hence Christ was born in 4 BC. not 1 AD. {e}

But these things, (which I note at the present) God willing, shall be more fully explained in our "Sacred Chronology". This I intend to write with a "Treatise of the Primitive Years" and the "Calendar of the Ancient Hebrews". In the meantime I thought it best to publish the "Annals of the Old Testament". Based on this foundation, I included a chronicle of all foreign affairs that happened in Asia and Egypt. These include events before the beginning of the Olympiads and matters relating to Greece and Rome and other areas.

In doing the sacred history, I have followed the translation of Janius and Tremellius, using their Hebraism's and the information from their work. In doing the secular history, I have noted the writings of their ancient authors or the best translation from the Greek of their works. In particular I used James Dalechamp translation in Athenaeus. Although in noting the chapters I observed the edition of "Natalis Comes". From these I have written this history using material from Codomanes, Capellas Emmias, Pezelius, Eberus, Salianus, or any other chronologer, which I had. However, I always referred to the original authors and did most of my work directly from their writings and not second hand sources. Since my purpose was to create an accurate chronology, I may not have followed the exact wording of these writers in every case, but I have preserved the intent of their writings.

Of the many historians, who lived before Julius Caesar, the passing of time leaves only four of note: Herodotus, Thucidides, Xenophon and Polibius. The last one is poor and inaccurate in many places. These I esteemed the most authentic for their antiquity. I used them to correct the frequent errors in chronology of Diodorus Siculus. However in matters that related to Alexander the Great, they are silent. For this period, I also followed not only Diodorus but Curtius and Arrian to try to determine the history of that period.

I used the following abbreviations:
AD    Years from the start of the Christian era.
AM    Year of the World from creation.
BC    Years before the Christian era.
JP    Julian Year starting at January 1, 4713 BC.
NK   Northern Kingdom of Israel.
SK   Southern Kingdom of Israel.

After the time denoted by AM, one of four letters may be affixed.
a    Autumn
b    Winter
c    Spring
d    Summer

Other things the prudent reader will figure out for himself. I wish you the enjoyment of these endeavours and bid you farewell.

London, July 13, 1650 AD.

Rev. James Ussher

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:28:14 AM
 Explanatory Notes by Editor

{a} Dictionary Definition of "Roman Indiction."

In chronology, a cycle of fifteen years instituted by Constantine the Great; originally, a period of taxation. Constantine having reduced the time which the Romans were obliged to serve in the army to fifteen years, imposed a tax or tribute at the end of the term, to pay the troops' discharged. This practice introduced the keeping of accounts by this period. But, as it is said, in honour of the great victory of Constantine over Mezentius, Sept. 24, A.D. 312, by which Christianity was more firmly established, the council of Nice ordained that accounts of years should no more be kept by Olymiads, but that the "indiction" should be used as the point from which to reckon the date years. This was begun Jan. 1, A.D. 313. "Johnson. Encyc."

Taken from the definition of "Indiction" in "Noah Webster's First Edition of an American Dictionary of the English Language", Published 1989, by "Foundation for American Christian Education", California. (Dictionary was first published in 1828.)

{b} Lunar Cycle

The lunar cycle consists of 19 years or 235 complete orbits of the moon around the earth. This differs from 19 years of 365.25 days each by approximately one and an half hours. On the first year of the next cycle of 19 years, the new moon would again be on January 1.

{c} Solar Cycle

The solar cycle consists of 28 years. At the start of each new cycle every day and month of the year would correspond exactly to the days and months of the first year of the previous cycle.

{d} Time of Creation

Since the Jews used to start their year in the autumn, this is not an unreasonable assumption. Also the biblical pattern of "evening and morning" seems to apply to year as well as days. First the dark months of autumn and winter and then the bright months of spring and summer. This also fits the biblical pattern in spiritual matters too. For the saint, his worst lot in life comes first followed by an eternal day of happiness in Christ. The best wine comes last. Joh 2:10 See Spurgeon's Sermon No. 225, "Satan's Banquet" and No. 226, "The Feast of the Lord".

{e} The Christian Era

The Christian Era should properly began with the year Christ was born; and in devising it, the intention was to have it begin with that year. By the "Christian Era" is meant the system upon which calendars are constructed and by which historical events are now dated in practically all the civilized world. But the originator of the system made a miscalculation as to the year (in the calendar then in use) in which Christ was born, as the result of which the year A.D. 1 was fixed four years too late. In other words, the Lord Jesus was four years old in the year A.D. 1.

The mistake came about in this way: The Christian Era (i.e. the scheme of dates beginning A.D. 1) was not devised until A.D. 532. Its inventor, or contriver, was a monk named Dionysius Exiguus. At that time the system of dates in common use began from the era of the emperor Diocletian, A.D. 284. Exiguus was not willing to connect his system of dates with the name of that infamous tyrant and persecutor. So he conceived the idea of connecting his system with and dating all its events from, the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. His reason for wishing to do this was, as he wrote to Bishop Petronius, "to the end that the commencement of our hope might be better known to us and that the cause of man's restoration, namely, our Redeemer's passion, might appear with clearer evidence."

For the carrying out of this excellent plan, it was necessary to fix the date of the Incarnation in the terms of the chronological systems then in vogue. The Romans dated the beginning of their history from the supposed date of the founding of the city ("ab urbe condita" or A.U.C as usually abbreviated). Dionysius Exiguus calculated that the year of our Lord's birth was A.U.C. 753. He made his equivalence of dates from Lu 3:1, "Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar" etc., at which time Christ was 30 years of age according to Lu 3:23. But it was ascertained later that a mistake of four years had been made; for it clearly appears by Mt 2:1 that Christ was born before the death of Herod, who died in 749 A.U.C. Tiberius succeeded Augustus, Aug. 19, A.U.C. 767. Hence his 15th year would be A.U.C. 779; and from those facts Dionysius was right in his calculation. But it was discovered in later years that Tiberius began to reign as colleague with Augustus four years before the latter died. Hence the 15th year mentioned by Luke was four years earlier than was supposed by Dionysius and consequently the birth of Christ was that many years earlier than the date selected by Exiguus, which date has been followed ever since. This must be allowed for in any computation of dates which involves events happening before Christ.

"The Wonders of Bible Chronology", Page 84,85, Philip Mauro, first published 1922, Reprinted by, Reiner Publications, Swengel, Pennsylvania

Philip Melanchthon:
His Narration, Concerning
Philip Prince Palatine,
to Rhenus.

I have often heard Capino relate the following when Dalburgius, the Bishop of the Vangions, Rudolphus Agricola and myself were with Philip Prince Palatine Elector. Not only in ordinary conversation but also in serious discussions about the affairs of the state, they would often bring notable examples from the Persian or Greek or Roman history. The Prince was very zealous to know more of history and he noted that the distinction of the times, nations and empires, was necessary for this. Therefore he wished them to make a chronology of the kingdoms of ancient history based on all available Hebrew, Greek and Latin authors. At that time in 1480 AD, there were no books about the ancient empires in the German language. Nor had the Latins anything of that nature, save Justin's confused Epitome, which also lacked a detailed chronology. Those learned men were delighted to compile this work. Therefore they compiled a chronology from Hebrew, Greek, and Latin monuments of the various monarchies. To this they added all the most important events in proper place and created a chronology of the nations and times. This grateful Prince read these works most earnestly and delighted in them. Also he was thankful that the times and the memory of the most important events were preserved by Divine Providence. For they showed him, how that the history of the world was continued, so that Herodatus begins his writings a little before the end of the prophetic history. For even before the end of the Persian monarchy, concerning which we have a most clear account of Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah, some of the names of the kings of Assyria and Egypt, are the same in the prophets and Herodotus. Jeremiah foretells their destruction to Apries, which also Herodotus describes. After Apries kills Jeremiah, Amasis strangles the proud king after he had captured him. The Palatine prince said he saw the witness of the Divine presence in the ordering of empires. For these empires could neither be attained nor retained by mere human power. Therefore they were created that they might be the upholders of human society, unite many nations, restore law, justice, peace and indeed, they might teach men concerning God. Therefore, he did often repeat those words of Daniel that God changes and confirms empires. He said likewise, that by the changes and punishments of tyrants, the just judgment of the Almighty was most conspicuous. By these illustrious examples, all mankind was admonished to acknowledge God and were to understand that he wills and ordains justice and is truly offended with those who transgress this his ordination. Such were the speeches of that Prince, concerning the rise and fall of empires.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:29:07 AM
The Annals of the Old Testament
from the Beginning of the World
The First Age of the World

1a AM, 710 JP, 4004 BC

1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Ge 1:1 This beginning of time, according to our chronology, happened at the start of the evening preceding the 23rd day of October in the year of the Julian calendar, 710.

2. On the first day Ge 1:1-5 of the world, on Sunday, October 23rd, God created the highest heaven and the angels. When he finished, as it were, the roof of this building, he started with the foundation of this wonderful fabric of the world. He fashioned this lower most globe, consisting of the deep and of the earth. Therefore all the choir of angels sang together and magnified his name. Job 38:7 When the earth was without form and void and darkness covered the face of the deep, God created light on the very middle of the first day. God divided this from the darkness and called the one "day" and the other "night".

3. On the second day Ge 1:6-8 (Monday, October 24th) after the firmament or heaven was finished, the waters above were separated from the waters here below enclosing the earth.

4. On the third day Ge 1:9-13 (Tuesday, October 25th) when these waters below ran together into one place, the dry land appeared. From this collection of the waters God made a sea, sending out from here the rivers, which were to return there again. Ec 1:7 He caused the earth to bud and bring forth all kinds of herbs and plants with seeds and fruits. Most importantly, he enriched the garden of Eden with plants, for among them grew the tree of life and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Ge 2:8,9

5. On the fourth day (Wednesday, October 26th) the sun, the moon and the rest of the stars were created.

6. On the fifth day (Thursday, October 27th) fish and flying birds were created and commanded to multiply and fill the sea and the earth.

7. On the sixth day (Friday, October 28th) the living creatures of the earth were created as well as the creeping creatures. Last of all, man was created after the image of God, which consisted principally in the divine knowledge of the mind, Col 3:10 in the natural and proper sanctity of his will. Eph 4:24 When all living creatures by the divine power were brought before him, Adam gave them their names. Among all of these, he found no one to help him like himself. Lest he should be destitute of a suitable companion, God took a rib out of his side while he slept and fashioned it into a woman. He gave her to him for a wife, establishing by it the law of marriage between them. He blessed them and bade them to be fruitful and multiply. God gave them dominion over all living creatures. God provided a large portion of food and sustenance for them to live on. To conclude, because sin had not yet entered into the world, God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. Ge 1:31

8. Now on the seventh day, (Saturday, October 29th) when God had finished his work which he intended, he then rested from all labour. He blessed the seventh day and ordained and consecrated the sabbath Ge 2:2,3 because he rested on it Ex 31:17 and refreshed himself. Nor as yet (for ought appears) had sin entered into the world. Nor was there any punishment given by God, either upon mankind, or upon angels. Hence is was, that this day was set forth for a sign, as well as for our sanctification in this world Ex 31:13 of that eternal sabbath, to be enjoyed in the world to come. In it we expect a full deliverance from sin and its dregs and all its punishments. Heb 4:4,9,10

9. After the first week of the world ended, it seems that God brought the newly married couple into the garden of Eden. He charged them not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil but left them free to eat of everything else.

10. The Devil envied God's honour and man's obedience. He tempted the woman to sin by the serpent. By this he got the name and title of the old serpent. Re 12:9 20:2 The woman was beguiled by the serpent and the man seduced by the woman. They broke the command of God concerning the forbidden fruit. Accordingly when sought for by God and convicted of this crime, each had their punishments imposed on them. This promise was also given that the seed of the woman should one day break the serpent's head. Christ, in the fulness of time should undo the works of the Devil. 1Jo 3:8 Ro 16:20 Adam first called her Eve because she was then ordained to be the mother, not only of all that should live this natural life, but, of those also who should live by faith in her seed. This was the promised Messiah as Sarah also later was called the mother of the faithful. 1Pe 3:6 Ga 4:31.

11. After this our first parents were clothed by God with raiment of skins. They were expelled from Eden and a fiery flaming sword set to keep the way leading to the tree of life so that they should never eat of that fruit which they had not yet touched. Ge 3:21,22 It is very probable, that Adam was turned out of paradise the same day that he was brought into it. This seems to have been on the 10th day of the world. (November 1st) On this day also, in remembrance of so remarkable an event the day of atonement was appointed Le 23:27, and the yearly fast, spoken of by Paul, Ac 27:9 termed more especially by the name of nhsteian. On this feast all, strangers as well as native Israelites, were commanded to afflict their souls that every soul which should not afflict itself upon that day should be destroyed from among his people, Le 16:29 23:29

12. After the fall of Adam, Cain was the first of all mortal men that was born of a woman. Ge 4:1

130d AM, 840 JP, 3874 BC

13. When Cain, the firstborn of all mankind, murdered Abel, God gave Eve another son called Seth. Ge 4:25 Adam had now lived 130 years. Ge 5:3 From whence it is gathered, that between the death of Abel and the birth of Seth, there was no other son born to Eve. For then, he should have been recorded to have been given her instead of him. Since man had been on the earth 128 years and Adam and Eve had other sons and daughters Ge 5:4 the number of people on the earth at the time of this murder could have been as many as 500,000. Cain might justly fear, through the conscience of his crime, that every man that met him would also slay him. Ge 4:14,15

235d AM, 945 JP, 3769 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:29:24 AM
14. When Seth was 105 years old, he had his son, Enos. This indicates the lamentable condition of all mankind. For even then was the worship of God wretchedly corrupted by the race of Cain. Hence it came, that men were even then so distinguished, that they who persisted in the true worship of God, were known by the name of the children of God. They who forsook him, were termed the children of men. Ge 4:26 6:1,2

325d AM, 1035 JP, 3679 BC

15. Cainan, the son of Enos was born when his father was 90 years old. Ge 5:10

395d AM, 1105 JP, 3609 BC

16. Mahalaleel was born when Cainan his father was 70 years old. Ge 5:12

460d AM, 1170 JP, 3544 BC

17. Jared was born when his father Mahalaleel was 65 years old. Ge 5:15

622d AM, 1332 JP, 3382 BC

18. Enoch was born when his father Jared was 162 years old. Ge 5:18

687d AM, 1397 JP, 3317 BC

19. Methuselah was born when Enoch his father was 65 years old. Ge 5:25

874d AM, 1584 JP, 3130 BC

20. Lamech was born when his father Methuselah was 187 years old. Ge 5:25

930d AM, 1640 JP, 3074 BC

21. Adam, the first father of all mankind, died at the age of 930 years. Ge 5:5

987d AM, 1697 JP, 3017 BC

22. Enoch, the 7th from Adam at the age of 365 years, was translated by God in an instant, while he was walking with him that he should not see death. Ge 5:23,24 Heb 11:5

1042d AM, 1752 JP, 2962 BC

23. Seth, the son of Adam died when he was 912 years old. Ge 5:8

1056d AM, 1766 JP, 2948 BC

24. Noah, the 10th from Adam, was born when his father Lamech was 182 years old. Ge 5:29

1140d AM, 1850 JP, 2864 BC

25. Enos, the 3rd from Adam, died when he was 905 years old. Ge 5:11

1235d AM, 1945 JP, 2769 BC

26. Cainan, the 4th from Adam, died when he was 910 years old. Ge 5:14

1290d AM, 2000 JP, 2714 BC

27. Mahalaleel, the 5th from Adam, died when he was 892 years old. Ge 5:17

1422d AM, 2132 JP, 2582 BC

28. Jared, the 6th from Adam, died when he was 962 years old. Ge 5:20

1536a AM, 2245 JP, 2469 BC

29. Before the deluge of waters upon the whole wicked world, God sent Noah, a preacher of righteousness to them, giving them 120 years to repent of their evil ways. 1Pe 3:20 2Pe 2:5 Ge 6:3

1556d AM, 2266 JP, 2448 BC

30. Noah was 500 years old when his 1st son, Japheth was born. Ge 5:32 10:21

1558d AM, 2268 JP, 2446 BC

31. Noah's 2nd son, Shem, was born 2 years later because 2 years after the flood, Shem was 100 years old. Ge 11:10

1651d AM, 2361 JP, 2353 BC

32. Lamech, the 9th from Adam, died when he was 777 years old. Ge 5:31

1656a AM, 2365 JP, 2349 BC

33. Methuselah, the 8th from Adam, died when he was 969 years old. He lived the longest of all men yet died before his father. Ge 5:27,24

34. Now in the 10th day of the second month of this year (Sunday, November 30th) God commanded Noah that in that week he should prepare to enter into the Ark. Meanwhile the world, totally devoid of all fear, sat eating and drinking and marrying and giving in marriage. Ge 7:1,4,10 Mt 24:38

35. In the 600th year of the life of Noah, on the 17th day of the second month, (Sunday, December 7th), he with his children and living creatures of all kinds had entered into the Ark. God sent a rain on the earth 40 days and 40 nights. The waters continued upon the earth 150 days, Ge 7:4,6,11-13,17,24.

36. The waters abated until the 17th day of the 7th month, (Wednesday, May 6th) when the ark came to rest upon one of the mountains of Ararat. Ge 8:3,4

37. The waters continued receding until on the 1st day of the 10th month (Sunday, July 19th) the tops of the mountains were seen. Ge 8:5

38. After 40 days, that is on the 11th day of the 11th month (Friday, August 28th) Noah opened the window of the ark and sent forth a raven. Ge 8:6,7

39. 7 days later, on the 18th day of the 11th month (Friday, September 4th) as may be deduced from the other 7 days mentioned in Ge 8:10, Noah sent out a dove. She returned after 7 days. 25th day of the 11th month, (Friday, September 11th) He sent her out again and about the evening she returned bringing the leaf of an olive tree in her bill. After waiting 7 days more, 2nd day of the 12th month, (Friday, September 18th) he sent the same dove out again, which never returned. Ge 8:8,12

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:30:19 AM
The Second Age of the World

1657a AM, 2366 JP, 2348 BC

40. When Noah was 601 years old, on the 1st day of the 1st month (Friday, October 23rd), the 1st day of the new post-flood world, the surface of the earth was now all dry. Noah took off the covering of the ark. Ge 8:13

41. On the 27th of the 2nd month, (Thursday, December 18th) the earth was entirely dry. By the command of God, Noah went forth with all that were with him in the ark. Ge 8:14,15,19

42. When he left the ark, Noah offered to God sacrifices for his blessed preservation. God restored the nature of things destroyed by the flood. He permitted men to eat flesh for their food and gave the rainbow for a sign of the covenant which he then made with man. Ge 8:15-9:17

43. Man's lifespan was now half the length it was previously

1658d AM, 2368 JP, 2346 BC

44. Arphaxad, was born to Shem when he was 100 years old, 2 years after the flood. Ge 11:10

1693d AM, 2403 JP, 2311 BC

45. Salah was born, when his father Arphaxad was 35 years old. Ge 11:12

1723d AM, 2433 JP, 2281 BC

46. Eber was born, when Salah his father was 30 years old. Ge 11:14

1757d AM, 2467 JP, 2247 BC

47. When Eber was 34 years old, Peleg his son was born. Ge 11:16 He called him Peleg for in his days the earth was divided. Ge 10:25 1Ch 1:19 If this happened at the day of his birth, then it seems that when Peleg was born, Noah, who formerly knew all the places which were now covered with bushes and thorns, divided the land among his grandchildren. When this was done, they then went from those eastern parts (where they first went from the mountains of Ararat) into the valley of Shinar. Ge 11:2 Here the people impiously conspired as we find in the book of Wisdom /APC Wis 10:5 to hinder this dispersion of them as commanded by God and began by Noah (as may be gathered from Ge 11:4,6,8,9 compared together). They went together to build the city and tower of Babylon. God frustrated this project by the confusion of languages he sent among them. (Hence it took the name of Babel Ge 11:9). The dispersion of nations followed. Many companies and colonies settled down in various places according to their languages. The 13 sons of Joktan, the brothers of Peleg, as recorded in Ge 10:26-30 were among the captains and heads of the various companies. These brothers were not yet born when Peleg was born. Eber was only 34 years old when Peleg was born to him. Though we should suppose that Joktan was born, when Eber was only 20 years of age and that Joktan's oldest son was born to him when he was likewise 20 years old, yet still it appears, that the oldest son of Joktan must be 6 years younger than Peleg. So that at least the youngest of those 13 sons of Joktan, namely, Jobab and 3 other brothers of his are mentioned before him must be younger still. These countries rich in gold, Sheba, Ps 72:15 Ophir 1Ki 9:28 and Havilah Ge 2:11 were named after these men. These brothers could not be capable of such an expedition of leading colonies because of their youth until some years after Reu was born to Peleg.

48. Man's lifespan was now a quarter of the length it was before the flood.

1771a AM, 2480 JP, 2234 BC

49. 1903 years elapsed from this time to the capture of Babylon by Alexander the Great. This calculation and number of years was made according to astronomical observations by Porphyry, as we find in Simplicius, in his second book "de Coelo". This he affirms to have been transmitted into Greece from Babylon by Chalisthenes at Aristotle's request. From these writings it appears that the Babylonians devoted themselves to the study of astronomy, even from the very days of Nimrod, from whom all that region took the name of the land of Nimrod. Mic 5:6 Nimrod built Babylon and was the instigator of the building of the tower of Babel according to Josephus (l. 1. Antiq. c. 4.) Moses affirms that the royal seat of that kingdom was here. Ge 10:10 Nimrod made Babylon famous in those days. Jer 5:15 (See note on 3674a <<1898>>)

1787d AM, 2497 JP, 2217 BC

50. Reu or Ragau, was born when Peleg his father was 30 years old. Ge 11:18

1816d AM, 2526 JP, 2188 BC

51. Constantinus Manasses states that the Egyptian state lasted 1663 years. Counting backward from the time that Cambyses, king of Persia, conquered Egypt, leads us to this period. About this time Mizraim, the son of Ham, led his colony into Egypt. Hence Egypt was called sometimes the land of Mizraim, sometimes of Ham, Ps 105:23,27 106:21,22 From this it was that the Pharisees later boasted that they were the sons of ancient kings. /APC Es 16:11 (See note on 3479b AM <<988>>)

1819d AM, 2529 JP, 2185 BC

52. Serug or Saruch, was born when Ragau was 32 years old. Ge 11:20

1849d AM, 2559 JP, 2155 BC

53. Nachor was born when Saruch his father was 30 years old. Ge 11:22

1878d AM, 2588 JP, 2126 BC

54. Terah or Thara was born when Nachor his father was 29 years old. Ge 11:24

1915c AM, 2625 JP, 2089 BC

55. At this time Egialeus, king of the Sicyonians, in Peloponesus began his reign, 1313 years before the first olympiad. (Euseb. Chron.)

1920c AM, 2630 JP, 2084 BC

56. A people from Arabia bordering upon Egypt, called by the Egyptians Hyksos, meaning "kingly shepherds", invaded Egypt. They took Memphis and took over all of lower Egypt that bordered upon the Mediterranean Sea. Salatis, their 1st king, reigned 19 years, according to Josephus in his 1st book "cont. appiencem" as from Manetho.

1939c AM, 2649 JP, 2065 BC

57. Bnon, their 2nd king, reigned for 44 years, {*Manetho, 1:83}

1948d AM, 2658 JP, 2056 BC

58. When Terah was 70 years old, his oldest of three sons, Haran was born. Ge 11:26 Abram was not born for another 60 years as we shall see later. Haran was the father-in-law later of the 3rd brother Nachor. For this man died before his father Terah left Ur of the Chaldeans and left a daughter named Milcah, who was married to his uncle Nachor, Ge 11:28,29

1983c AM, 2693 JP, 2021 BC

59. At this time Apachnan reigned in Egypt for 36 years and 7 months. {*Manetho, 1:83}

1996d AM, 2706 JP, 2008 BC

60. Peleg the 6th from Noah, died 209 years after the birth of Ragau. Ge 11:19

1997d AM, 2707 JP, 2007 BC

61. Nachor the 9th from Noah, died 119 years after the birth of his son Terah. Ge 11:25

2006d AM, 2716 JP, 1998 BC

62. Noah, died when he had lived 950 years, 350 years after the deluge. Ge 9:28,29

2008c AM, 2718 JP, 1996 BC

63. Abram was born. He was 75 years old when Terah his father died at the age of 205 years. Ge 11:32 12:1,4 Ac 7:4

2018c AM, 2728 JP, 1986 BC

64. Sarai, who is also called Iscah the daughter of Haran, Ge 11:29,30, was born and was 10 years younger than her husband Abraham. Ge 17:17

2020b AM, 2730 JP, 1984 BC

65. Apophis reigned in Egypt for 61 years. {*Manetho, 1:83}

2026d AM, 2736 JP, 1978 BC

66. Reu or Ragau the 7th from Noah, died 207 years after the birth of Serug. Ge 11:21

2049d AM, 2759 JP, 1955 BC

67. Serug or Saruch, the 8th from Noah, died 200 years after the death of Nachor. Ge 11:23

2079b AM, 2789 JP, 1925 BC

68. About this time, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, or Elimais, situated between Persia and Babylon, conquered the kings of Pentapolis, Sodom, Gomorrah, Adma, Zeboiim and Bela, or Zoar. These served him 12 years. Ge 14:1,2,4

2081b AM, 2791 JP, 1923 BC

69. Jannas reigned in Egypt for 50 years and one month. {*Manetho, 1:83}

2083a AM, 2792 JP, 1922 BC

70. God called Abraham out of Ur, of the Chaldeans, to go into the land that he would show him. Ge 15:7 Jos 24:2,3 Ne 9:7 Ac 7:2-4. Ur was located in Mesopotamia according to Stephen the first martyr and Abarbenel. Ge 11:1-32 Ur was the city of the priests and mathematicians, who from their art, were called by the name of Chaldeans. By this name also even in Chaldea itself, those Genethliaci, or recorders of genealogies were distinguished and known from the rest of the Magi or wise men of that country, as we find in Da 2:2,10 4:7 5:11. These taught Terah and his sons idolatry. Jos 24:2 Terah therefore took Abram his son and Lot his nephew, the son of Haran and Sarai his daughter-in-law, Abram's wife, and started their journey together from Ur of the Chaldeans, to go into the land of Canaan. They came to Haran in the same country of Mesopotamia and there they stayed because of the great infirmity and sickness of Terah. Terah lived 205 years and died in Haran. Ge 11:31,32

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:32:06 AM
The Third Age of the World

2083 AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC

71. After Terah died who was Abram's father, God again called Abram from his own country, kindred and his father's house. A further promise and evangelical covenant of blessing was given to him. That is, in his blessed seed, our Lord Jesus Christ, all the nations of the earth would be blessed. Ge 12:1,2 Ac 7:4 From the time of the giving of this promise and Abram's immediate departure, we mark as the start of those 430 years which Abram and his posterity spent in foreign lands. Ex 12:40,41 Ga 3:17 The first and last day of this pilgrimage was on the 15th of the month Abib, which in this year was Wednesday, May 4th, according to the Julian Calendar, by our calculations.

72. Therefore, on this day, Abram when he was 75 years old, obeyed the call of God. He took Sarai his wife and Lot, his brother Haran's son, with all the substance, which he had gotten and souls which God had given him in Haran. He took his journey and at length came into the land of Canaan. He passed through it until he came to a place called Sichem, to the oak of Moreh, Ge 12:4-6 which is mentioned later in: Ge 35:4 Jos 24:25,26 Jud 9:6 Here God promised Abram that to his seed he would give that land. He built an altar to the Lord, who had appeared to him there. After leaving there, he went into the hill country, called Luz, later, known by the name of Bethel, toward the east. Ge 28:19 Here he again built an altar and called on the name of the Lord. He continued his journey and came into the south part of that country which borders Egypt. Ge 12:7-9

2084a AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC

73. A famine caused Abram to leave there and go down into Egypt. To avoid danger, Sarah his wife said she was his sister. She was taken into Pharaoh's (Apophi) house. She returned unharmed, not long after that with many gifts and presents. They were given safe passage and allowed to depart from Egypt. Ge 12:10-20

74. Abram, with Lot returned to Canaan. The country which they chose, was not able to feed both their herds of cattle. Therefore they parted and Lot went into the country of Sodom. After his departure, the promise both of the possession of that land of Canaan and also of his numberless posterity was again renewed to him. He left that place between Bethel and Hai, where he had formerly built an altar and dwelt in the plain of Mamre near Hebron. There he built an altar to the Lord. Ge 13:4

2091 AM, 2801 JP, 1913 BC

75. Bera king of Sodom, with the rest of the petty kings of Pentapolis rebelled and shook off the yoke of Chedorlaomer king of Elam, in the 13th year of their subjection to him. Ge 14:4

2092 AM, 2802 JP, 1912 BC

76. In the 14th year Chedorlaomer, with other confederate princes, Amraphel of Shinar, Arioch of Ellasar and Tidal king of the nations, combined their forces against those petty kings who had revolted from him. They first destroyed the Raphaims, the Zuzims, the Emims and the Horites, who inhabited all that region, which afterward was possessed by the Amalekites and the Ammonites. After that, they routed the kings of Pentapolis in the valley of Siddim and carried away Lot prisoner with all the plunder of Sodom and Gomorrah. When tidings came to Abram, he armed 318 of his own servants. With his confederates Aner, Eshcol and Mamre, they overtook Chedorlaomer and his army at Dan with the prey they had gotten. There they defeated and slew them and pursued them to Hobah, on the left of Damascus. They rescued Lot and the rest of the prisoners from the enemies' hands, and brought them back again with all that they had lost. When Abram returned from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer and the other kings, Melchizedek the king of Salem met him and blessed him. He was a priest of the Most High God. Abram, in return offered him the tithe of the spoil which he had taken. He kept nothing of the spoil for himself, but restored to every man his own possessions again. What was not owned he left to his troops for their service. Ge 14:1-24

77. Abram was grieved because he had no heir. Hence, God promised him a posterity equal to the stars of heaven in number. After 400 years sojourning and affliction in a land that was not theirs, God said he would bring them into the land promised to Abram and bound his word with a covenant to perform it. Ge 15:1-21

2093 AM, 2803 JP, 1911 BC

78. Sarai was longing for that blessed seed. Since ten years had passed since they came into the land of Canaan, she gave to Abram, Hagar her Egyptian servant, for a wife. Hagar conceived a child by her master Abram. She was badly treated by Sarai for her insolence. She fled from Sarai but being warned of God by his angel, she returned and submitted herself to Sarai. Ge 16:13,14

2094b AM, 2804 JP, 1910 BC

79. When Abram was 86 years old, Hagar bore him Ishmael. Ge 16:15-17 17:24,25

2096d AM, 2806 JP, 1908 BC

80. Arphaxad, the third from Noah, died 403 years after the birth of Salem. Ge 11:13

2107c AM, 2817 JP, 1897 BC

81. God made a covenant with Abram, when he was now 99 years old concerning the seed of Isaac. He was to be born of Sarai about that time twelve months later. God gave him the sign of circumcision (changing both their names, Abram into Abraham and Sarai into Sarah) for a sure pledge and testimony of his promise. He promised also to favour Ishmael the firstborn, for his father's sake. These promises Abraham received and embraced with a true faith. Hence in true obedience, caused himself, being now 99 years of age and his son Ishmael then 13 years old and all his household, to be circumcised, the same day it was commanded him. Ge 17:21-26

82. Abraham invited angels, who looked like travelling men, into his house and gave them a feast. These angels reiterated the promise of the birth of Isaac for Sarah's sake. They foretold the judgment God intended upon the 5 cities, for their utter destruction. Abraham, fearing what would become of Lot and his family in Sodom, made intercession to God for the sparing of that place. Ge 18:23-33 Therefore Sodom, Gomorrah, Adamah and Zeboiim, for their horrible sins, perished by fire and brimstone that rained down upon them from heaven. Ge 19:1-29 These cities were to be an example to all wicked men in times to come, of the pains of that everlasting fire to be inflicted on them in the lake of fire and brimstone, which is the second death. 2Pe 2:6,7 Re 19:20 20:10 21:8 The monument of this remains to this day, even the Dead Sea. The valley of Siddim, where these five cities stood in former times was full of brimstone and salt pits. This has since grown into a vast lake, which from the brimstone still floating in it, is called "Laces Asphaltitis", a Lake of Brimstone and from the salt, "Mare Salsum", the Salt Sea. /APC Wis 10:6,7 Ge 14:3,10 De 3:17 29:23 Zep 2:9 Of this, Solinus thus writes:

``A great way off from Jerusalem, there lies a woeful spectacle, of a country to be seen, which was blasted from heaven and appears by the blackness of the earth falling all to cinders. There were in that place before this two cities, one called Sodom, the other Gomorrah, where if an apple grew, though it seems to have a show of maturity and ripeness, yet it is not eatable at all. The outer skin of it, contains nothing within it save a stinking smell, mingled with ashes and being never so lightly touched, sends forth a smoke and the rest falls presently into a light dust of powder.''

83. Lot was hurried from Sodom by the angels and avoided its destruction, by fleeing to a little city, called Bela also called Zoar. His wife was turned into a pillar of salt. Lot feared to continue at Zoar and left the plain country. He went into the hills, as he was commanded, taking his two daughters with him. Ge 19:30-38

84. Abraham left the plain of Mamre and went towards the south to dwell in a place which was later called Beersheba. He was entertained by Abimelech, king of the Philistines at Gerar. Sarah, once again went by the name of his sister and she was taken from him. After the king was reproved and punished by God, he restored her untouched to her husband. He presented him with large gifts and presents. By Abraham's prayers Abimelech and all his house were healed of their infirmities. Ge 20:1-18

2108c AM, 2818 JP, 1896 BC

85. When Abraham was now 100 and Sarah 90 years of age, the promised son Isaac was born to them. Ge 17:17,21 Ro 4:19 Not long after this, Moab and Amon were born to Lot, who was both father and grandfather to them. Ge 19:36-38

2113c AM, 2823 JP, 1891 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:32:25 AM
86. After Isaac was weaned, Abraham made a great feast. Sarah saw Ishmael the son of Hagar the Egyptian jesting with, or rather "mocking" (as in Ge 39:14 that word is translated) or even "persecuting" (as the apostle, Ga 4:29 expounds it) her son Isaac. Ishmael who was the older, claimed the right of inheritance in his father's estate. Sarah asked Abraham to cast out Ishmael, "for the son of this handmaid shall not be heir with my son Isaac." Though he took this very grievously at first, yet he did it, for God had said to him, "in Isaac shall thy seed be called". Ge 21:8,12 Ro 9:7,8 Heb 11:17,18 Hence, we observe that Isaac is called his only begotten son. It was 430 years from the time Abraham left Haran Ga 3:17 Ex 12:41 until the exodus. Abraham was told his seed would be persecuted for 400 years. Based on Ga 4:29, Ge 15:13 Ac 7:6 we conclude that this presecution started at this time when Issac was 5 years old when Abraham made this feast, 30 years after Abraham left Haran.

``Among the Hebrews there is a difference of opinions. Some hold that this was done in the 5th year after Isaac's weaning, others in the 12th. We, choosing a shorter time of age, reckon that Ishmael was cast out with his mother, when he was 18 years old.''

87. So Jerome says, writing on the traditions of the Jews on Genesis, that from this declaration of the elect seed and persecution (as the apostle terms it) of Isaac, by Hagar's son, many of them, start the 400 year period which the seed of Abraham was to be a stranger and sojourner and afflicted in a foreign land, as God had foretold him. Ge 15:13 Ac 7:6 For those 400 years were to be completed at the same time as the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt, as appears from Ge 15:14 Ex 12:35,36,41 when compared with each other. Although the ordinary gloss from Augustine, refers to the beginning of the account, to the very birth of Isaac, as if the scripture called the number of 405 by the amount of 400 years meaning that the time was a rounded off number.

2126d AM, 2836 JP, 1878 BC

88. Salah the 4th from Noah, died 403 years after the birth of Heber. Ge 11:15

2131b AM, 2841 JP, 1873 BC

89. Assis reigned in Egypt for 49 years, 2 months. {*Manetho, 1:83}

2133 AM, 2843 JP, 1871 BC

90. By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up his son Isaac. He considered within himself, that God was able by his power, to raise him again from the dead, whence also he did receive him, in a manner. Heb 11:17,19

91. Josephus says that at this time Isaac was 25 years old. (Antiq. l. 1. c. 13.) He was at that time in his prime of years. This may be deduced from the fact that he was able to carry so much wood for the burning and consuming of such a whole burnt offering of himself as Abraham intended to make. Ge 22:6

2145c AM, 2855 JP, 1859 BC

92. Sarah died in Hebron at age 127. Abraham bought the cave for her burial in the field of Machpelah from Ephron the Hittite, for a sum of money. This was the first possession that he had in the land of Canaan. Ge 23:1,2,19,20 As Abraham is known to us as the father of the faithful, Ro 4:11,12 so is Sarah as the mother of the faithful. 1Pe 3:6 She is the only woman whose age at death is mentioned in the scripture.

2148b AM, 2858 JP, 1856 BC

93. Abraham was very careful about getting a wife for his son Isaac. He sent his chief servant, Eliezer of Damascus Ge 15:2 (taking first an oath of him) to find one for him. Eliezer under the guidance of God went into Mesopotamia and there obtained for him Rebecca the daughter of Bethuel, sister to Laban the Syrian. Isaac received her for his wife and brought her into the tent of his mother Sarah. By the solace and contentment which he took in her, he dispelled the sadness and grief which he had after the death of his mother, who died 3 years before. Ge 24:1-67 He was 40 years old when he married Rebecca. Ge 25:20

94. About this time began the reign of the Argivi in Peloponesus, 1080 years before the first olympiad, according to Eusebius in his Chronicle reports, from Castor.

95. The first that there reigned was Inachus, who reigned 50 years. Of him Erasmus, in the proverb, "Inacho Antiquior", refers to. Whom also I refer that of the most learned Varro, in his 17th book of "Human Affairs", (cited by A. Gellius in his first book, "Noctium Attic" c. 16. and of Macrobius: l. 1 Saturnal.) where he said, to the beginning of Romulus are reckoned more than 1100 years. For from the beginning of Inachus' reign, according to the calculations of Castor, there mentioned, to the Palilia, or solemn festivals of Pales (the country goddess among the Romans) mentioned by Varro, are reckoned 1102 years.

2158d AM, 2868 JP, 1846 BC

96. Shem the son of Noah died 500 years after the birth of Arphaxad. Ge 11:11

2167d AM, 2877 JP, 1837 BC

97. When Rebecca had been barren for 19 years after her marriage, Isaac in great devotion made prayer to God on her behalf, and she thereupon conceived twins. Ge 25:21

2168c AM, 2878 JP, 1836 BC

98. When the twins strove in the womb, Rebecca asked counsel of God. God said that two differing and opposing nations should proceed out of her in that birth, of which the one should be stronger than the other, and that the older should serve the younger. But at the time of her travail, the first that came forth was ruddy all over and like to a shag garment and his name was called Esau. Then came forth the other, holding the former by the heel, whereupon he was called by the name of Jacob. Isaac, their father, at the time of their birth, was 60 years old. Ge 25:22 Ho 12:3

2179 AM, 2889 JP, 1825 BC

99. Manetho wrote {*Manetho, 1:101} that Tethmosis king of Thebais, or the upper Egypt, besieged the Hyksos or Shepherds, shut up in a place called Auarim (containing 10,000 acres of ground) with an army of 480,000 men. When he found no possibility of taking them, he agreed with them that they should leave Egypt and go freely wherever they wished. They, with all their substance and goods, being in number no less than 440,000, passed through Egypt and went by the way of the wilderness into Syria. For fear they had of the Assyrians, who then possessed all Asia, they built themselves a city in the land of Judah, as it is now called. This city was big enough to hold so large a number of inhabitants, and called it Hierosolyma, i.e. Jerusalem. Manetho states this in Josephus l. 1. contra Appionem Grammaticum, which (Appion in his 4th book of "Egyptian Affaires") calls this king, Amosis. He proves out of the Annals of Ptolemy Mendesius an Egyptian priest, that he was contemporary to Inachus mentioned previously, king of the Argivi, as Tatian the Assyrian (in his Oration against the Greeks) Justin Martyr, (in his Paranetion or Exhortatory to the Greeks) Clemens Alexandrinus in his first book of his Stromata and others do report. All which following Josephus and Justus Tiberiensis understand is meant of the Israelites, because they traded much in sheep, Ge 46:33,34 47:3. Because they went from Egypt into Canaan and therefore imagine that Moses was contemporary with Inachus and was the man that conducted them in that journey. Whereas those things seem rather to refer to the Phoenicians, whom Herodotus (l. 7. c. 89) reports to have come from the Red Sea and settled themselves in Palestine. The departure of the Israelites from Egypt happened many years after Inachus, as the course of this chronology undoubtedly shows.

2180c AM, 2890 JP, 1824 BC

100. When Tethmosis or Amosis drove out these shepherds, he reigned in the lower Egypt for 25 years, 4 months.{*Manetho, 1:101}

2183c AM, 2893 JP, 1821 BC

101. Abraham died when he was 175 years old and 100 years after entering Canaan. He was buried by his two sons, Isaac and Ishmael, in his cave at Machpelah, with Sarah his wife. Ge 25:7,10 He lived 15 years after the birth of Jacob, with whom he is said also to have lived in tents. Heb 11:9

2187d AM, 2897 JP, 1817 BC

102. Heber, the 5th from Noah, died 430 years after the birth of his son Peleg. Ge 11:17 This man lived the longest of any who were born after the flood. He out lived Abraham and from him Abraham came first to be surnamed, the Hebrew. Ge 14:13 In later times, all the posterity of his grandchild Jacob, were known by the same name. Ge 40:15 Canaan was called the land of the Hebrews, while the Canaanites were still living there.

2200 AM, 2910 JP, 1804 BC

103. About this time, the promises previously made to Abraham, so it seemed, were fulfilled in his son Isaac. To wit:

1) I will multiply thy seed, as the stars of heaven.
2) To thy seed will I give this land.
3) In thy seed, shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. Ge 26:4

2205d AM, 2915 JP, 1799 BC

104. Chebron reigned in Egypt 13 years. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2208c AM, 2918 JP, 1796 BC

105. When Esau was 40 years old, he took two wives from the land of the Hittites. One was Judith the daughter of Beeri and the other was Bashemath the daughter of Elon. These two wives were very troublesome and a grief to Rebecca. Ge 26:34,35 cf. Ge 27:46 28:8

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:33:20 AM
 106. At this time the Ogygian Deluge occurred in the country of Attica 1020 years before the first olympiad. This is reported by Hellanicus, Castor, Thalus, Diodorus Siculus and Alexander Polyhistor in his third book of his Chronography, by Julius Africanus, as we find it in Eusebius' book, de Prap. Evang. Varro says this flood happend 300 years earlier.

2218d AM, 2928 JP, 1786 BC

107. Amenophis reigned in Egypt 20 years, 7 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2231b AM, 2941 JP, 1773 BC

108. Abraham's son, Ishmael, died at the age of 137 years. Ge 25:17

2239b AM, 2949 JP, 1765 BC

109. Amessis the sister of Amenophis, reigned in Egypt 21 years, 9 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2242 AM, 2952 JP, 1762 BC

110. Euechous began to reign in Chaldea, 224 years before the Arabians. (Julian Africanus) He seems to be the same with Belus of Babylon, or Jupiter Belus, who was worshipped later by the Chaldeans as a god. Isa 46:1 Jer 50:2 51:41

2245a AM, 2954 JP, 1760 BC

111. 44 years before his death, Isaac had grown old and blind. He sent his oldest son Esau to hunt some venison for him. Isaac purposed to bless him when he returned. However, Jacob his younger son, by the subtil counsel of his mother, came disguised in Esau's clothing bringing Isaac's favourite meat. Thus he stole away the blessing, unknown to his father. The blessing, though forgotten, God confirmed ever after to Jacob. By so doing, Jacob incurred his brother's hatred. Jacob journeyed to Mesopotamia to his uncle Laban, to avoid his brother's plan to kill him Ge 27:41 and to find a wife of his own kindred. Ge 28:1 Before he left, he asked for his father's blessing on the trip.

112. On his journey, he saw a vision of a ladder. In this vision, God confirmed to him, all the blessings formerly given to his father. God assured him of his grace and favour for the future. In remembrance of this experience, Jacob set up a pillar. He changed the name of the place from Luz to Bethel and made a vow to God there. When he came to Haran, he stayed with Laban for a month. He fell in love with Rachel his daughter and agreed to serve Laban 7 years for her. Ge 27:1 29:20 Ho 12:12 Jacob was 77 years old in 2259 AM.

113. When Esau knew Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him away into Mesopotamia to find a wife there and that Jacob did not like the daughters of Canaan, he tried to pacify his father's mind. Isaac was offended with him for marrying his first wife from Canaan. Therefore he took a second wife Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, the son of Abraham, Ge 28:6,9

114. Esau had been now a married man 37 years and was 77 years old. Jacob, who was as old as he, had all this while lived a bachelor. Remembering his father's command, he asked Rachel his wife to be given to him because he had served the allotted time for her. Ge 29:21 He was now of an age suitable for marriage, as Tremellius explains it. Tho. Lidyate understands this to have happened after the first month he was with Laban. However Laban intended from the beginning to make full use of Jacob's industry and his managerial skills before he would give his daughter to Jacob. This no doubt, was mentioned when Jacob first arrived since this was the main purpose for his coming.

115. However, by Laban's fraud, instead of Rachel, Leah, the older daughter, was put into Jacob's bed on the marriage night. Nevertheless, at the end of the marriage week, Jud 14:12,17 Rachel also was espoused to him on the condition that Jacob of would serve seven more years for her. Laban gave to Leah, his maid servant Zilpah for a handmaid and to Rachel he gave Bilhah.

116. When Leah was not so favoured by Jacob as Rachel was, God made Rachel barren and Leah was made a mother of 4 children in 4 successive years. Ge 29:21-30:24

2246 AM, 2956 JP, 1758 BC

117. Leah bore Reuban, Jacob's firstborn. Ge 29:32 For his incest committed with Bilhah, his father's concubine, Reuben later lost his birthright. Ge 35:22 49:3,4 1Ch 5:1

2247 AM, 2957 JP, 1757 BC

118. Simeon was born.

2248 AM, 2958 JP, 1756 BC

119. Levi was born Ge 35:34

2249c AM, 2959 JP, 1755 BC

120. Judah was born Ge 35:35 from whom the Jews took their name.

2259c AM, 2969 JP, 1745 BC

121. God blessed Rachel and she bore Joseph to Jacob at the end of his 14 years of service. Jacob asked permission from Laban to return into his own country. He remained there 6 more years on a another condition made between him and his father-in-law Laban for a certain part of his flock. Ge 30:22,25,31 31:41 Now Jacob was 91 years old when Joseph was born and consequently, 77 years old, when he first began to serve Laban. This can be deduced for Jacob was 130 years old, when he first stood before Pharaoh, at the time when the 7 years of plenty were passed and 2 years of the famine were over. Ge 45:6 47:9 Joseph was then 39 years old. He was 30 years old when he first came before Pharaoh, just before the 7 years of plenty. Ge 41:32,46

2261a AM, 2970 JP, 1744 BC

122. Mephres reigned in Egypt, 12 years, 9 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2265c AM, 2975 JP, 1739 BC

123. As the jealousy and malice grew between Laban and his sons against Jacob, God warned him to return to his own country. Jacob told his wives of this. When Laban was shearing his sheep, at the latter end of the spring (See note on 2974c AM <<439>>) after 20 years of service, Jacob secretly fled from Laban. He took all his goods, wives and family and crossed over the river Euphrates. Ge 31:1,3,19,21,38,41 It is said Jacob had 12 sons born to him in Mesopotamia. Ge 35:22,26 Benjamin is not to be counted among them because he was born later in the land of Canaan near Bethlehem. Ge 16:18,19 In like manner, as the 12 apostles are counted to make up that number even though Judas was dead. Joh 20:24 1Co 15:1 Concerning this matter, see Augustine in his 117th question upon Genesis.

124. Three days later, Laban (for he was three days journey from the place where Jacob kept his sheep) heard that his son-in-law was gone and took some of his friends and kindred with him. After travelling seven days he caught up with him at Mount Gilead. This mount was named from this meeting. After many arguments, they finally reconciled. For a testimony and monument to their covenant and agreement, Jacob erected a pillar, with a heap of stones. Laban the Syrian, called it "Jegar Sahadutha", but Jacob the Hebrew called it "Galeed", i.e. "the heap of a testimony", or "witness" between the two. Ge 31:47,48

125. After Jacob left Laban in peace, he was frightened by the news of his brother Esau's coming with a band of men. He divided his company into two groups and called on God. He sent ahead of him presents to his brother Esau. After wrestling with the angel, he was given the name of Israel by God. Jacob matured spiritually by depending more on the help of God than on man. Ge 32:1-32 Ho 12:3,4

126. Esau entertained his brother courteously. After much entreaty he accepted Jacob's presents and offered to escort him on his way. When Jacob refused, Esau left. Then Jacob went on to Succoth. He called the place Succoth because he built an house there and cotes for his sheep. After passing over Jordan, he came into Canaan and pitched his tent in Shechem, a city of the Shechemites. He bought a parcel of ground from the sons of Hamor the Shechemite, for 100 pieces of silver. There he built an altar, which he called by the name of "El-Elohe-Israel" or "The mighty God, the God of Israel." Ge 33:1-20 It was in this same place that Abraham had built his first altar before: Ge 12:6,7 and where Jacob's well was, near to Mount Gerizim. When the woman of Samaria spoke to our Saviour, she said that her fathers worshipped in this mountain. Joh 4:5,6,12,20 This mountain was located in the country of the Shechemites. Jud 9:7

2273d AM, 2983 JP, 1731 BC

127. Mephramuthosis reigned in Egypt 25 years, 10 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2276c AM, 2986 JP, 1728 BC

128. When Joseph was 17 years old, he told his father of his brothers' wickedness and was told by God that he would one day be the head of all his father's family. His brothers hated him for this so much that they plotted his death. At length they agreed to sell him for a slave into a far country. When they drew him from the pit that they had cast him into, they sold him for 20 pieces of silver to the Ishmaelite and Midianite merchants. Both of these peoples descended from their grandfather Abraham. Joseph was carried away by them to Egypt. There they sold him to be a slave to Potiphar, the captain of Pharaoh's guard. Ge 37:2,3,6 Justin also, in his Epitome of Troeus Pompeius, l. 36. c. 2. makes mention of Joseph. He says:

``His brothers envied the excellency of his wisdom. After getting him privately into their hands, they sold him to foreign merchants who carried him into Egypt.''

2287c AM, 2997 JP, 1717 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:33:58 AM
 129. When Joseph, was thrown into prison, he interpreted the dreams of two officers of Pharaoh's court. This was two years before he was brought before Pharaoh. Ge 40:1-41:1

2288c AM, 2998 JP, 1716 BC

130. Isaac died at the age of 180 years and was buried by his two sons, Esau and Jacob. Ge 35:28,29

2289b AM, 2999 JP, 1715 BC

131. When Pharaoh could not get his dreams interpreted by his own wise men, and after hearing of Joseph's skill in expounding dreams, he sent for Joseph. He was 30 years old when he explained the king's dreams. The first dream was that of the 7 years of plenty followed by 7 years famine. Moreover, he advised Pharaoh how to provide from the abundance of the first 7 years of plenty, for the famine of the next 7 years of scarcity. Thereupon Pharaoh, by the general agreement of all his nobles, made him governor of the whole kingdom. He gave him a wife, Asenath, the daughter of Potiphar, governor of On or Heliopolis in Egypt. Ge 41:1-46 Justin also from Trogus Pompeius says, that he was very important to Pharaoh. For he said:

``Joseph was most skilled in explaining dreams or signs and was the first that found out and taught the art of the interpretation of dreams. Neither was there any part of divine or human intention, which seemed to be unknown to him in that he foretold a famine many years before it happened. All Egypt would have perished unless the king, by his advice, had ordered grain to be stored many years before the famine came.''

132. From the harvest of this year started the 7 years of plenty. In these years Joseph laid up an enormous supply of grain. Asenath, his wife, bore him two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. Ge 41:47,51,53

2296c AM, 3006 JP, 1708 BC

133. The 7 years of the famine began from the harvest of this year as predicted. Joseph's wisdom in laying up supplies not only sustained Egypt but also helped relieve the famine in the neighbouring countries. Ge 41:54,57

2297d AM, 3007 JP, 1707 BC

134. Jacob sent 10 of his sons into Egypt to buy grain. Joseph pretended not to know them and took them for spies. They were held and not released until Simeon, the oldest and the leader of them, who consented to sell Joseph, was cast into prison. He was held to ensure that the rest should bring to Joseph, Benjamin, their youngest brother, who was born of Rachel, Joseph's own mother. When they were sent away, they carried their grain and the money they had payed for it. This money was placed into each of their sacks by the secret orders of Joseph. They told their father Jacob, all that had happened to them. Also they told him it was necessary that their youngest brother Benjamin return with them to Egypt. They were not able to convince Jacob to allow this to happen. Ge 42:1-38

2298b AM, 3008 JP, 1706 BC

135. When Jacob was hard pressed by the famine, he sent his sons again and with them Benjamin their brother. He sent twice the amount of money needed to buy grain and other gifts for Joseph. When they arrived, they were courteously entertained and feasted by Joseph. Simeon was released and returned to them. Ge 43:1-34

136. When they were on their way home, Joseph arrested them for stealing his cup. This he had caused secretly to be hidden in Benjamin's sack. When they were confronted with this crime, they tried to show their honesty by the fact that they returned the money they found in their sacks when they came into Egypt the second time. They offered to die, or to be his slaves, if any such thing could be proved against them. But in the end the cup was found with Benjamin. They returned to Joseph and yielded themselves to him to be his slaves. When Joseph refused and said he would have no one but him with whom the cup was found, Judah then humbly offered himself to serve him in Benjamin's stead. Ge 44:1-34

137. When Joseph heard Judah make this offer, he revealed himself to his brothers. The brothers were all terrified at the remembrance of the sin which they had committed against Joseph. He comforted them by showing how that deed of theirs was an act of God's providence. From the king's supplies, Joseph ordered wagons and provisions for their journey. They were to go and to return with all speed, bringing their father and their families with them. When they told their father, he did not believe them, until he saw the wagons and other supplies necessary for them to move to Egypt. Ge 45:1-28

138. After Jacob offered sacrifices and was encouraged by God, he and all his family, went down into Egypt. This was in the beginning of the third year of the famine when Jacob was 130 years old. Ge 45:6 46:1,27 47:9 De 26:5

139. After Joseph had told Pharaoh of the arrival of his family in Egypt, he brought his father and 5 of his brothers to Pharaoh. When Pharaoh had communed with them, he assigned them a suitable place in the land of Goshen where Joseph took care of all their needs. Ge 47:1-12

2299d AM, 3009 JP, 1705 BC

140. Mephramuthosis died and Thmosis reigned in Egypt for 9 years 8 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2300 AM, 3010 JP, 1704 BC

141. Joseph took all the money in Egypt and Canaan from the grain that he had sold to them. Ge 47:14

2301 AM, 3011 JP, 1703 BC

142. When all the money of both these countries was spent, the Egyptians sold all their flocks and herds of cattle to Joseph for food to live on that year. Ge 47:15-17

2302 AM, 3012 JP, 1702 BC

143. At the end of this year, when their money and stock of cattle was all gone, the Egyptians then sold both their lands and freedom to Joseph. He supplied them with grain for food and with seed to plant in this seventh and last year of the famine. He was to be repaid in the year following, when the famine was over. So that Pharaoh would have a clear title and full possession of the lands he purchased, Joseph moved everyone from one side of the country to the other. There he assigned to every man land to till and to work. From the profits a law was made giving Pharaoh a fifth part of the increase. Only the chief governors' and the priests' lands, were not bought by Pharaoh. These individuals had a living by the king's allowance and had no need to sell their lands for food as others had.

2309b AM, 3019 JP, 1695 BC

144. Amenophis reigned in Egypt 30 years 10 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2315 AM, 3025 JP, 1689 BC

145. When Jacob was about to die, he adopted Ephraim and Manasseh the sons of Joseph. He blessed them by revelation from God and set the younger ahead of the older. Ge 48:1-22 Heb 11:12 When he called his sons together, he blessed them all and foretold what should befall them in the coming generations. He told them that memorable prophesy of the Messiah and gave orders to them concerning his burial. He died at 147 years of age 17 years of which were in the land of Egypt. Ge 49:1-33 47:25

146. Joseph had the body of Jacob embalmed and kept for 40 days. The Egyptians mourned him for 70 days. With Pharaoh's leave, the body was conveyed into the land of Canaan by Joseph and his brothers and with a great number of the principal men of Pharaoh's court. Lamentation was again made over him 7 days and he was buried with his kindred in the cave at Machpelah according to his wishes. Ge 50:15-21

2340b AM, 3050 JP, 1664 BC

147. Orus reigned in Egypt for 36 years 5 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2369c AM, 3079 JP, 1635 BC

148. By faith, Joseph on his death bed spoke of the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt. He asked that his bones might be carried with them. He was 110 years old when he died and saw his children to the third generation. Ge 50:22-26 Heb 11:22 These were Shuthelah and Tahan, the grandsons of Ephraim and Eran or Taran, Nu 26:36 the sons of Manasseh and Gilead was Manasseh's grandchild. From here it is, that the Greek expositors, speaking of the families of Jacob and Joseph, which were said to consist of 70 souls, Ge 46:27 De 10:22 adding to the total these 5 who were born to Joseph in Egypt 1Ch 7:20-29 for a number of 75 persons in all. It appears that Joseph ruled and governed the state of Egypt for 80 years under several Pharaohs. Eusebius in his chronicle, has rightly observed and summarised it thus:

``Joseph was made governor of Egypt when he was 30 years old and when his father Jacob was 122 years old. He headed the government for 80 years. After he died, the Hebrews were held in bondage by the Egyptians 144 years. Therefore, the whole time which the Hebrews spent in Egypt was 215 years, starting from the time that Jacob and his sons went down into Egypt.''

149. The book of Genesis ends with the death of Joseph and contains the history of 2369 years. This book was written by Moses. This is the opinion of the Talmudists in their Bababathra l. 1. and so it is generally believed by all the Hebrews. The sum of it is delivered by "Servins Sulpicins", in the first book of his "Historia Sacras" thus:

``At this time lived Job, a man embracing the law of nature, and the knowledge of the true God and very righteous and rich in goods. He was renowned for the fact that neither the enjoyment of those riches corrupted him, nor the loss of them depraved him in any way. When he was plundered of all his goods by Satan, bereft of his children and at last tormented with grievous botches and sores in his body, he did not sin. Having first been commended by God himself, he was later restored to his former health, and had double of what he possessed before.''

2376c AM, 3086 JP, 1628 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:34:46 AM
 150. Acencheres the daughter of Orus reigned in Egypt for 12 years 1 month. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2385 AM, 3095 JP, 1619 BC

151. Levi died in Egypt when he was 137 years old. Ex 6:16 He was the grandfather by the mother's side to Moses and Aaron and great grandfather by the father's side. Levi had begotten Kohath in Canaan, who died at the age of 133 years and a daughter called Jochebed in Egypt. Amram the son of Kohath married Jochebed the daughter of Levi, his own aunt. From that marriage (expressly forbidden later) Le 18:12 20:19 Moses and Aaron and their sister Miriam were born. Amram lived 137 years, just as long as his grandfather and his father-in-law. He died shortly before the Israelites left Egypt. Ex 2:1,6,18,20 Nu 26:59

2388 AM, 3098 JP, 1616 BC

152. Rathotis, the brother of Acencheres, reigned in Egypt for 9 years. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2389 AM, 3099 JP, 1615 BC

153. When the Ethiopians came from as far as the river Indus, they settled on the borders of Egypt. (Euseb. Chron.) This is the place, to which Panegyrist refers, where he said:

``Let the victories of Egypt give place to this, under which the Ethiopian and Indus both did tremble''

154. J. Potken, in his Ethiopian Psalter printed at Rome in 1513, calls Ethiopia, which is to the south of Egypt, the greater India.

2397 AM, 3107 JP, 1607 BC

155. Acencheres, the son of Rathotis, reigned in Egypt for 12 years and 5 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2410a AM, 3120 JP, 1594 BC

156. Acencheres II reigned in Egypt for 12 years and 3 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2422b AM, 3132 JP, 1582 BC

157. Harmais reigned in Egypt for 4 years and 1 month. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2426c AM, 3136 JP, 1578 BC

158. Ramesses reigned in Egypt for 1 year 4 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2427d AM, 3137 JP, 1577 BC

159. Ramesses Miamun reigned in Egypt for 66 years 2 months. {*Manetho, 1:103} The latter part of the surname seems to have been deduced from the first part of the name Amenophis. His son after him and several also of his predecessors were called by this name. The former part of it was from the word "Moy" which with the Egyptians signifies "water", as Josephus (a. contra, Apion.) and Clemens Alexand. (1. 1. Stromat.) and Suidas (in ~wc) affirms. Those writers, who relate all by way of fables, called Mythologians, gave him the name of Neptune, the feigned god of the waters, as shall be shown upon the year 2533 AM <<259>>. This is that new king, who did not know Joseph. He was born after Joseph's death and remembered no more the great benefits received from him. By his policy the Egyptians, frightened at the number and strength of the Israelites in the land, subjected them to a heavy and cruel bondage. In addition to tilling the ground, they laid upon them the building also of the king's magazines and storehouses and the whole cities of Raamsis or Ramesis. Ex 1:8,14 Ac 7:18,19 The latter took its name, as Mercator thinks, from Ramesses the founder of it and the other perhaps from his queen.

2430b AM, 3140 JP, 1574 BC

160. Aaron was born 3 years before his brother Moses, 83 years before the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. Ex 7:7

2431b AM, 3141 JP, 1573 BC

161. The ungodly king could not prevail with Shiphrah and Pua, the two principal midwives of the Hebrew women, to force them to kill all the male children of the Hebrews. Therefore he proclaimed a barbarous edict to destroy them all by drowning them in the river. Ex 1:15-22 Ac 7:19,20 This happened between the birth of Aaron and the birth of Moses.

2433 AM, 3143 JP, 1571 BC

162. 41 years after the death of her father Levi, Jochebed bore Moses to Amram, her nephew and husband. Moses was 80 years old, when he first spoke to Pharaoh to let the children of Israel go. Ex 7:7 40 years later Moses died in the 12th month when he was 120 years old. De 3:1,2 34:7

163. Because Moses was an attractive child, as Justin also from Trogus Pompeius mentions him to have been, his parents hid him 3 months in their house. They did not regard the king's edict. Ex 2:2 Ac 7:20 Heb 11:23

164. He was discovered by the diligent inquiry made by the king's searchers and their bad neighbours the Egyptians. The parents put him in a basket of bulrushes, daubed over with slime and pitch and laid it in the flags, by the brim of the river. His sister, Miriam or Mary, Nu 26:59 1Ch 6:3 stood near by to see what would become of him. Pharaoh's daughter whom Josephus (Antiq. l. 2. c. 9.) called Thermutin and so does Epiphanius, in Panario and others) found him there. She put him out to be nursed, as it happened, to his own mother Jochebed. Afterward she adopted him for her son and had him brought up and instructed in all manner of science and learning of the Egyptians. Ex 2:5,10 Ac 7:21,22

2448 AM, 3158 JP, 1556 BC

165. Cecrops, an Egyptian, transported a colony of the Saits into Attica (Diod. Sic. l. 1.) and set up there the kingdom of the Athenians. This was 780 years before the 1st Olympiad, according to Eusebius in Chron. reports from Castor. From the time of Cecrops, the Chronology of the Ile of Paros, published by that most learned J. Selden, among his Marmora Arundelliana, deduces history or antiquities of Greece. After him and Moses, who was contemporary with him, many memorable things happened in Greece as follows:

a) Deucalion's flood
b) Phaeton's fire
c) the birth of Ericthonius
d) the rape of Prosepina
e) the mysteries of Ceres
f) the institution of the Elesinian sacrifices,
g) Triptolemus' art of tilling the ground
h) the carrying away of Europa, by Jupiter
i) the birth of Apollo
j) the building of Thebes, by Cadmus
k) those of a later time, Bacchus, Minos, Perseus, Esculapius, Castor and Pollux, Hercules. (Euseb 1. 10. de Prep. Ev. c. 9.)

2465 AM, 3175 JP, 1539 BC

166. In the 18th year of Cecrops, the Chaldeans made war and fought with the Phoenicians. (Euseb. Chron.)

2466 AM, 3176 JP, 1538 BC

167. In this war the Chaldeans were defeated and the Arabians reigned in the country of Babylon 216 years before Belus the Assyrian came there to reign. The 1st king of the Arabians was Mardocentes, who reigned there 45 years (Jul. Afric.) and seems to be the man that is called Merodach. He was later reputed by the Babylonians to be a god, Jer 50:2. Succeeding kings borrowed their names from him as Merodoch, Baladan and Evil-merodach.

2473b AM, 3183 JP, 1531 BC

168. When Moses was 40 years old, he visited his brethren, the Israelites. When he saw their sad plight and an Egyptian smiting a man of the Hebrews, he killed the Egyptian and buried him in the sand. This became known not only to his brethren but also to Pharaoh who sought to kill him. Moses fled from there into the land of Midian. He married Zipporah the daughter of Jethro and stayed there 40 years. Ac 23:30 Ex 2:11,12 3:1 18:1,2 Nu 10:29 Jude 4:11

2474 AM, 3184 JP, 1530 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:35:04 AM
169. Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, was born forty years before he was sent by Moses to spy out the land of Canaan. Jos 14:7,10

2494a AM, 3203 JP, 1511 BC

170. Ramesses Miamun died in the 67th year of his reign about 1510 BC. The length of his tyrannical reign seems to be noted Ex 2:23 in these words.

``And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died: and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried ...''

171. That is the cruel bondage, which they endured, even after Ramesses was dead for about 19 and 6 months, under his son Amenophis, who succeeded him. For so long and no longer a time of his reign is assigned by Manetho based on his writings. {*Manetho, 1:103} Although filled with a multitude of old wives tales, all such are abundantly refuted by Josephus, in his 1st book against Apion., yet there are two truths in it.

1. Under this Amenophis, the father of Sethosis or Ramesses (the 1st king of the following Dynasty, or successive principality) which Manetho makes the 19 and not under the other Amenophis which was the 3rd of that Dynasty (as Josephus vainly surmises), the Israelites, under the conduct of Moses, according to Manetho's relation, left Egypt.

2. The Egyptians called him Amenophis, the father of Sethosis and Armais. The Greeks called him Belus, the father of Egyptus, and Danaus. During Belus' time, according to Thallus the Chronographer (as he is alleged by Theophilus Antiochenus and Lactantius) agrees with the age of this Amenophis. Although the fable writers confounding this Belus of Egypt, with Belus the Assyrian, the father of Ninus. They tell us that certain colonies were transported by this Belus (who was drowned in the Red Sea,) into the country of Babylon.

2513b AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC

172. God appeared to Moses in a burning bush that was not consumed with fire, while he was keeping his father-in-law Jethro's sheep in the mountain of Horeb. He called him to deliver his people Israel from their slavery and bondage in Egypt. Moses sought to avoid doing this with many excuses. At length however, he undertook the work being persuaded partly by miracles and partly by assurance given him of the help of God and his brother Aaron given him for an assistant. Ac 7:30,35 Ex 3-4:1,18

173. Moses left Jether or Jethro his father-in-law and with his family took his journey for Egypt. Because he neglected to circumcise his son Eliezer, he was stopped by God in the way and not allowed to continue until he done this. He sent back his wife Zipporah and his two sons, Gershom and Eliezer, to her father Jethro. Now freed from all encumbrance, he returned to mount Horeb and met his brother Aaron. He went on and performed his duty, confirmed by miracles, in the public sight of the children of Israel. Ex 4:18,31 18:1,6

174. Moses and Aaron declared to Pharaoh God's message. Pharaoh charged them as being leaders in a rebellion and sent them away angrily. He increased the burden of the Israelites more than ever before. Their overseers were beaten because they could not do all the work. They complained in vain to Pharaoh. They complained to Moses and Aaron and Moses complained to God. God graciously heard him and told him to finish the work he had begun. Ex 5:1-22

175. Moses returned to the Israelites with further instructions from God. Because of their oppression, it was to no avail. Hence God commanded him to go again to Pharaoh. Ex 6:1-30

176. Moses was 80 years old and Aaron 83 years old when they were commanded by God to return again to Pharaoh. When the magicians by their sorcery, imitated the miracles of Aaron's rod becoming a serpent, Pharaoh was more obstinate than ever. Ex 7:1,13 The leaders of these magicians which opposed Moses, were Jannes and Jambres. as named by the apostle, 2Ti 3:8. These names are noted, not only by the Jews in their Talmudical treaty of tyhgm i.e. of Oblations, c. 9. where they are called by the names of yghfy and admmw i.e. Jochanne and Mamre. In the Chaldee Paraphrase, they are attributed to Jonathan. Ex 1:15 7:11 Among some heathen writers, for so Numenius Apamaeus, a Pythagorean Philosopher, in his 3rd book, wfsituataqhq cited by Euseb. 1. 9. Prepar. Evang. c. 8. relates this history:

``Jannes and Jambres, interpreters of the mysteries of Egypt, were in great repute at the time when the Jews were sent out of Egypt. It was the opinion of all men that these were inferior to none in the art of magic. For by the common opinion of the Egyptians, these two were chosen to oppose Moses, the ring leader of the Jews. Moses prayers were most prevalent with God. They only were able to undo and frustrate all those most grievous calamities that Moses brought upon all the Egyptians.''

177. Pliny, (1. 30. c. 1.) in reference to this states

``There is also another sect of Magicians, depending upon Moses, and Jannes and Jotape Jews.''

178. Wherein nevertheless he falls into a double error,

a. In reckoning Moses among the magicians.
b. In making Jannes and Jotape to be Jews.

179. But when Pharaoh's magicians could do no more, God through Moses sent his ten plagues upon the Egyptians. These are summarised in Ps 78: 1-72 105:1-45. According to the Jews, these plagues lasted a year but in fact they were all sent within one month in this order.

180. About the 18th day of the 6th month, (which in the previous year and thereafter became the 12th month Ex 12:2) God sent the first plague of the waters turning into blood. After 7 days, Ex 7:25 about the 25th day, came the second plague of the frogs which were removed the next day. About the 27th was brought upon them the third plague of flies and lice.

181. About the 28th day, Moses threatened them with a fourth plague of flies and other vermin. These came on the 29th day and were all taken away on the 30th day.

182. About the 1st of the 7th month (which shortly after was made the 1st month of the year Ex 12:2) After Moses warned them of a fifth plague, he brought it upon them the next day. This was the plague of murrain in cattle. About the 3rd day, the sixth plague of boils and botches came upon man and beast. This plague came on the magicians as well. Ex 9:11 Hence wrote Justin, from Trogus Pompeius, l. 36.

``The Egyptians were afflicted with the scab and sores. When they were warned by an Oracle, all, that were infected with that disease, expelled Moses out of Egypt lest the plague should spread further among the people.''

183. Note here too the sayings collected out of Diodorus Sicul. 1. 40. reported in Phati Bibliotheca. p. 620.

184. About the 4th day, Moses warned them of a seventh plague which came on them on the 5th day of the same month. It was a plague of thunders and rain and grievous hail, mixed with fire which ruined their flax and barley because the barley was then in the ear and the flax bolled. But their wheat and the rye were not harmed, because they were not yet out of the ground. Hence Nicolaus Fullerus, l. 3. of his Miscellanies rightly observes, p. 389. that this plague happened in the month of Abib.

185. About the 7th day Moses threatened them with an eighth plague. The next day the plague of locusts came and devoured all green plants. He removed the plague about the 9th day. Ex 10:4,11,19

186. The month Abib, which was the 7th month, was from this time on made the first month of the year. Ex 12:2 13:4 This was for a memorial of their departure out of the land of Egypt. From the beginning of this month we deduce the epochs of the Jewish Calendar. Nu 9:1,2 Ex 40:17

187. On the 10th day of this the month, (which was the Thursday April 30th according the Julian Calendar) was instituted the feast of the Passover and unleavened bread. The Pascal lamb was chosen and killed four days later. Ex 13:3,6

188. Moses now brings upon them the ninth plague of 3 days darkness. It was so dark that none of the Egyptians during that time, once left the place where they were when the darkness came. However, the Israelites had during that time, light in their dwellings. Ex 10:22,23

189. Upon the 14th day (Monday, May 4th) Moses spoke with Pharaoh for the last time. Moses told him of the tenth plague which should come upon him. This was the death of all the firstborn of Egypt, which came to pass the next night at midnight. Pharaoh, in a rage ordered Moses to get out of his sight and never come back again. Ex 10:24-29 11:1,4-8 The passover was celebrated that evening. Ex 12:11,12

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:35:43 AM
The Fourth Age of the World

190. On the 15th day of the 1st month (Tuesday, May 5th) at midnight, the firstborn of all Egypt were slain. Pharaoh and his servants, quickly sent away the Israelites with all their goods and the plunder which they had received from the Egyptians. Ex 12:33,35,36 It was exactly 430 years from the first pilgrimage of Abraham's departure from Canaan, to the day they were set free from bondage. The day after the Passover, they journeyed toward Ramesses with about 600,000 men, besides women and children. Ex 12:29-31,37,41,51 Nu 33:3 From that place the camps are recorded by Moses. From the Hebrew meanings of the words, Jerome, in writing to Fabiola, expounds symbolically, in his Treatise of their 42 camps. I suppose the first camp to be at Ramesses. Thus then:

1. At Ramesses, where the Israelites were placed by Joseph, Ge 47:11, they all met who either dwelt among the Egyptians Ex 3:2 or who at that time were scattered over all Egypt to gather stubble. Ex 5:12

2. At Succoth, Moses first declared to them the commandments of God for the yearly keeping of the Passover and the sanctifying of the firstborn. Ex 13:1-22

3. At Etham, in the border of the wilderness, the Lord led them with a pillar of a cloud by day and in a pillar of fire by night. Ex 13:20,21

4. At Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, opposite Baalzephon, Pharaoh, with his host overtook them. Here Moses divided the waters with his rod and they passed through the midst of the Trythraean, or Red Sea into the desert of Etham. When Pharaoh and his army tried to follow, they were all drowned when the waters came together again. At dawn, the Israelites were completely freed from the bondage of the Egyptians, whose bodies they saw floating all over the sea and cast up on the shore. Ex 14:26-30 They sang a song of praise and thanksgiving to God, for their deliverance. Ex 15:22 This song Re 15:3 is called the Song of Moses and is the first song of deliverance by the Hebrews.

This happened on the 21st day of the first month on the last day of the feast of unleavened bread, as appointed by God. This is the general opinion of the Jews and most agreeable to truth.

From there they marched three whole days through the wilderness of Etham, from Tuesday the 22nd to Thursday the 24th and they found no water all the way. Ex 15:22 Nu 33:8

5. At Marah, named from its bitter waters, the people which had gone without water three whole days, began to murmur. Moses threw into the water a piece of wood and made them drinkable. This taught the people in time to come to put their trust in God, Ex 15:23,26

6. At Elim were 12 fountains of water and 70 palm trees. They camped by the side of those fountains. Ex 15:27 Nu 33:9

7. This camp was by the Red Sea. Nu 33:10

191. Now we come to the second month.

8. Upon the 15th, (Thursday, June 4th) the Israelites came to the place of their eighth camp in the wilderness of Sin, between Elyma and Sinai. Being hungry they murmured against God and their leaders. About evening, God sent them quails and the next morning rained on them manna from heaven. They lived on manna for 40 years, until they entered the land of promise. Ex 16:1-35

9. They camped at Dophkah.

10. They camped at Alush.

11. At Rephidim the people murmured again because of thirst. (This place was called Meribah and Massa.) Moses gave them water by striking the hard rock with his rod. Ex 17:1,7 This Rock followed them throughout the wilderness. Ps 78:16,20 105:41 1Co 10:4 De 8:15

The Amalekites attacked the rear of the Israelites who were all weary and tired from their long journey in the wilderness. They killed some of the stragglers and weakest of them. Moses sent out to fight with them Jehosua or Joshua the son of Nun his servant. Ex 33:11 His proper name was Hosea but Moses changed it to Jehosuah. Nu 13:16 or Jesus. Na 8:17 Ac 7:45 Heb 4:8

Joshua fought and defeated the Amalekites in Rephidim while Moses prayed on top of the hill. The people were commanded by God to utterly destroy and root out that whole nation. For a memorial of this battle they built an altar there. De 25:17-19 Ex 17:8-16

192. The third month.

12. In the Desert of Sinai, the Israelites camped opposite Horeb and stayed there almost a whole year. They left the wilderness of Sinai, on the 2nd day of the 2nd month, of the 2nd year after coming out of the land of Egypt. Nu 10:11,12 They came here on the same day of the 3rd month, of the 1st year, after coming out of Egypt. This was on the third day of the third month (Monday, June 22nd) according to Fr. Ribera, l. 5. de Templo. Ex 19:1

193. When Moses went up into the mount, God declared to him that he would renew his covenant with the Israelites. He would bind them to himself by a law and that he would favour and love all those who would observe and keep that law. This they readily agreed to. God gave them two days to prepare and sanctify themselves to receive that law. He forbid all except Moses and Aaron to approach the mount. Afterward in great majesty God came down to the mount as they all watched and trembled at the sight. Ex 19:1-25

194. God proclaimed his law as contained in the ten commandments with a terrible voice. Ex 20:1-26 De 5:1-33 This did not make void the promise of grace made to Abraham 430 years before.Ga 3:17

195. The people were terrified as God gave them many other laws. Ex 20:21-23 De 4:13,14 These were written in the book of the covenant Moses gave to the people. After this Moses rose early in the morning and he built an altar at the foot of the mountain. He set up 12 pillars according to the 12 tribes of Israel. He sent 12 young men of the firstborn (as the Chaldee paraphrases it) whom the Lord had consecrated to himself Ex 24:4 Nu 3:13 8:16,17 to be ministers of those holy things. Ex 19:22 This was before the Levitical priesthood was ordained. These men offered sacrifices, first for sin, and then of thanksgiving to the Lord. Moses read the book of the covenant to the people which contained the commandments found in Ex 20:1-23:33. He then took the blood of the calves and goats that were offered and with water scarlet wool and hyssop, he sprinkled the book as well as 12 pillars representing the 12 tribes of Israel. This ratified that solemn covenant between God and his people. Ex 24:3-8 Heb 9:19,20

196. Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu and 70 men of the elders of Israel, went up into the mount and there beheld the glory of God. When the rest returned, Moses, with his servant Joshua, stayed there for six more days. On the seventh day God spoke to Moses and he continued there 40 days and 40 nights Ex 24:9-18 This time includes those six days which he spent waiting for the Lord. During this time, he ate no meat nor drank water. De 9:9 He received God's commands concerning the construction of the tabernacle, the priests garments, their consecration, sacrifices and other things as related in Ex 25:1-Ex 31:18.

2513d AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC

197. The fourth month.

198. When those 40 days and 40 nights were over, God gave Moses the two tables of the law in stone written by God's own finger. Ex 31:18 De 9:10,11 God ordered him to go down quickly, for the people had already made a molten calf to worship. Moses by prayer pacified God and went down from the mount. When he saw the people keeping a festival in honour of their idol in the camp, he broke the tables of the law at the foot of the mount. Ever since this, the Jews keep a solemn fast to this day on the 14th day of the 4th month. This has led some men into the error that the 40 days of Moses in the mount, are to be started from the day immediately following the giving of the ten commandments. Thus omitting altogether the intermediate time, spent in writing and reading the book of the covenant and sanctifying the covenant made between God and his people with solemn rites and ceremonies. Ex 24:1-18

199. Moses burnt and defaced the idol and the Levites killed 3,000 of the people. Ex 32:20-29 De 9:21 33:9

200. The next day Moses returned again into the mount and there again entreated the Lord for the people. Ex 32:30-32

201. He commanded them to lay aside their gorgeous apparel and to set up the tent of the congregation outside the camp. This tent was used until the tabernacle was built by Bezaleel. The people out of a deep sense of God's wrath, repented of their sins. Moses prayed that God himself should be their guide and leader in their way and not an angel. This prayer was heard. Ex 33 1-23

202. God commanded Moses to get new tables of stone and to bring them with him into the mount the next day. Moses brought them the next morning. When Moses stood in the cleft of a rock, God passed by and showed him a glimpse of his glory. Ex 34:1-35

203. Again Moses stayed another 40 days and 40 nights in the mount without meat or drink and prayed for the people. De 9:18 10:10 God was appeased and renewed his covenant with the people with certain conditions. He gave his laws again and told Moses to write them down. Again, God himself wrote the ten commandments in the tables which Moses brought to him. Ex 34:10-28

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:37:05 AM
 204. The sixth month.

205. After 40 days, Moses returned from the mount with the tables in his hand. Because his face shone, he covered it with a vail. He proclaimed the laws of God to the people, ordering the observation of the Sabbath. He asked for a free will offering to be made toward the building of the tabernacle. Ex 34:1-35:35

206. So that this offering could be done in an orderly manner, all males were numbered from 20 years old and upward and they were found to be 603,550. According to the law prescribed by God, Ex 30:12,13 each contributed half a shekel. The total sum amounted to 100 talents of silver and 1775 shekels Ex 38:25,26. Hence it is gathered, that every talent among the Jews, amounted to 3000 shekels: every pound containing 60 shekels. Eze 45:12. In addition to this pole tax, from the voluntary offering was the sum of 29 talents of gold, and 730 shekels; and of brass, 70 talents and 2400 shekels. Ex 38:24,29 As for other materials needed for the tabernacle, there came in more than enough and the people were commanded to stop giving! Ex 36:5-7

207. Bezaleel and Aholiab were appointed by God for the chief workmen of the tabernacle. Ex 31:2-6 35:30-35

2514a AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC

208. In the first six months of this year the tabernacle, the ark of the covenant, the altar, the table of shewbread, the priest's garments, the holy ointments, the candle sticks and other utensils and vessels belonging to the sacrifices, were finished in the desert at Mount Sinai and were brought to Moses. Ex 36:1-39:43

209. God commanded Moses to:

1. On the first day of the second month he should set up the tabernacle and furnish it with all things belonging to it.Ex 4:2,8

2. He should anoint them with holy oil and should consecrate Aaron and his sons for the priesthood, Ex 9:15

210. He did this but not both activities the same time. For upon the very day God appointed, he erected the tabernacle, with all things belonging to it. Ex 40:17,33 The second command he performed later at a time appointed by God. Le 8:1-13 It took seven days for the consecration of the priests and altar. Ex 29:35-37

2514c AM, 3224 JP, 1490 BC

211. On the first day of the first month (Wednesday, April 21st) of the second year after they left Egypt, the tabernacle of the covenant was set up and filled with the glory of God. Ex 40:2,17,34 From it God uttered his will and commandments to Moses. These are recorded in the first 7 chapters of Leviticus. In the same year and first month, the Israelites, as commanded by God, celebrated the passover at the evening of the 14th day. (Tuesday, May 4th) On this day some of the people complained to Moses and Aaron that they could not keep the passover with the rest of the congregation on the appointed day because they were unclean from touching a dead body. God made a law that all such persons should keep their passover on the 14th day of the second month if they could not keep it on the day first appointed. Nu 9:1,14

212. On the first day of the second month (Friday, May 21st) God commanded Moses to take the number of all the males of the children of Israel from 20 years old to 60 by their tribes, except the Levites. He appointed the Levites for the service of the tabernacle and assigned the responsibilities for setting it up, taking it down and moving and carrying it from place to place. Nu 1:1 26:64

213. The census came to 603,550 Nu 10:1,46 the same number as 7 months earlier, when they were taxed for a contribution to the building of the tabernacle. Ex 38:26

214. Moses, according to God's command, Ex 29:37 30:22,30 40:9,25 anointed the tabernacle and the altar with all things in it with the holy oil, consecrating them to the Lord. He also consecrated Aaron and his four sons with the same oil and with rites and ceremonies necessary for the execution of the priestly office. He commanded them not to stay in the tabernacle for seven days. Le 8:1-36 This was the time required for the consecration of them and the altar. Ex 29:35-37 Le 8:33

215. Moses outlined the order and position of the tribes in their march and encampments Nu 2:1-34

216. The number of Levites from one month old and upward, was found to be 22,300. Nu 3:15,35 The 2200 firstborn of the Levites managed the service of God in lieu the firstborn of Israel. The number of the firstborn of the children of Israel, exceeded the whole number of the Levites (their firstborn deducted) by 273. Therefore they were taxed for every additional person, five shekels for redemption money. Nu 3:39-50

217. The Levites were set apart and consecrated to God for his service. Every man was appointed a certain time when he was to perform his ministry. Nu 8:5-26

218. 8580 Levites were between 30 and 50 years old. Their offices and services were assigned among them according to their families. Nu 4:1-49

219. All leprous and unclean persons were put out of the camp. The laws for restoring of damages and of jealousy were ordained. Nu 5:1-31

220. The vow, the consecration and manner of the Nazarites was instituted. Nu 6:1-27

221. Upon the 8th day following the completion of the consecration, Aaron offered sacrifices and oblations, first for himself and then for all the people. All these offerings consumed by fire that fell from heaven upon them. This sign ensured belief of the people that the priestly office among them was ordained by God himself. Le 9:1-24

222. All the tabernacle was completely set up and anointed all over, together with the utensils and things belonging to it. The altar which had been consecrated for 7 days, was now dedicated by Aaron by his first oblation of sacrifices made on it. The seven previous days were for expiation, or cleaning and ordained for the hallowing of the altar. Ex 29:36,37

223. The heads of the tribes brought six covered wagons and twelve oxen, and jointly offered them before the tabernacle. All this was given to the Levites, the sons of Gershon and Merari for their duties. Every day leaders of the tribes brought their various sacrifices and things belonging to the ministry of the tabernacle and offered them towards the dedication of it. This took twelve days. Nu 7:1-11,84,88

224. On this first day, Naasson, (from whom David and according to the flesh, Jesus Christ himself) came and made his offering for the tribes of Judah. Then the rest, every one for his tribe, according to the order as they were ranked in their camps, made offerings. Nu 7:11-83

225. Nadab and Abihu were Aaron's two oldest sons who had gone with their father up into the Mount Sinai and saw the glory of God there. Ex 24:1,9,10 They went into the sanctuary with strange or common fire. This was not that fire which fell from heaven, Le 9:24 and which was perpetually to be kept alive and continued for the burning of the sacrifices and incense in times to come. They were struck dead in the place by fire sent from heaven. Le 10:1,9 Nu 3:2-4,26,60,61 The priests were forbidden to make lamentation for them. Moreover for their neglect of duty, all the priests were ordered to abstain from wine and strong drink before they were to go into the tabernacle. A law also was made, that what was left of the sacrifices should be eaten by the priests. Aaron's excuse for not doing this was allowed by Moses. Le 10:6-20

226. Upon this occasion the law was made (about the tenth day of this month, as it seems) that only the high priest should enter into the sanctuary once in a year. This was only to be on the day of atonement and the general fast which was to be kept on the 10th day of the seventh month. Le 16:1-34

227. On the 14th of this month, (Thursday, June 3rd) at evening, the passover was to be celebrated by those who were unable to keep it a month earlier because of their uncleanness Nu 9:1-24

228. By God's command, this blasphemous person, was carried out of the camp, and stoned. Le 24:10-13

229. All the laws contained in the 17 last chapters of Leviticus seem to have been made in this month.

230. God commanded two silver trumpets to be made, to call the congregation together for the times of their moving and marching and sacrificing. Nu 10:1-28

231. Jethro, who was also called Hobab, brought his daughter Zipporah, with her two sons, Gershon and Eliezer who were left with him, to Moses, his son-in-law. He congratulated him and the people for their deliverance from Egyptian bondage. He publicly declared both by word and deed, his faith and devotion toward the true God. By his advise, Moses delegated the government of the people to some others and ordained magistrates for the deciding of lesser issues. Ex 18:1-27 De 1:9-18 Nu 10:29

232. The 19th day of this month seems to have been the last day that the 12 leaders of the tribes made their oblations for the dedication of the altar. This day Ahira made his offering for the tribe of Naphtali. Nu 7:78,88

233. On the 20th day of the second month (Wednesday, June 9th) God commanded the Israelites to break camp and to start their journey to take possession of the promised land. Nu 10:11,12 De 1:6,7 Moses asked Jethro to go along with him, but he refused and returned home. Nu 9:29,30 Ex 18:27

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:38:05 AM
234. The cloud rose from the tabernacle and they arranged themselves into four squadrons, or battalions and marched from Sinai. They had been there almost a year. After 3 days journey they came to the wilderness of Paran, Nu 10:12,33 where they stayed and rested for 23 days.

13. At their 13th camp, at a place called Kibrothhattaavah, Nu 33:16 some who murmured were struck with fire from heaven. Hence that place was called Tabor. They were saved by the intercession of Moses yet again murmured and provoked God by their loathing of manna and desiring of flesh to eat. Nu 11:1-10 Ps 78:19-21

235. Moses complained to God of the great burden of this government and desired to be relieved from it. God chose 70 elders to help him. Two of these, Eldad and Medad, prophesied in the camp. Nu 11:10-17,24-30

236. God gave the people quails for a whole month, not just for a day as he did the year before. Ex 16:12,13 He sent a most grievous plague among them. From the graves of those who lusted, that place was called, Kibrothhattaavah, Nu 11:31-34 Ps 78:26-31 Ps 106:15

14. The fourteenth camp was at Hazeroth. Nu 11:35 33:17 Miriam and Aaron spoke evil of Moses their brother because he had married a woman of Ethiopia. Zipporah his wife was from Madian, which was a part of the Eastern Ethiopia, otherwise called Arabia. They made themselves equal in all points with him. God honoured Moses more than they and struck Miriam with leprosy. She was sent outside of the camp. At the prayer of Moses, she was healed after seven days. Nu 12:1-15 De 24:9

2514d AM, 3224 JP, 1490 BC

237. Miriam was cleansed some time during the 4th month. After she returned to camp, the Israelites left that place.

15. They camped in Hazeroth, in the desert of Paran, Nu 12:6 33:18 near Kadeshbarnea, Nu 13:26

238. On the fifth month.

239. From the wilderness of Paran, Nu 13:3 or Kadeshbarnea, Nu 32:8 De 1:19,22 9:23 Jos 14:7 at the time of ripened grapes, God commanded Moses to send 12 spies from every tribe Nu 13:1,2to thoroughly spy out the land. Moses and the people were agreeable to this plan. De 1:22,23 Among these men was 40 year old Caleb, the son of Jephunneh (of the tribe of Judah) Jos 14:7 and Oshea (the son of Nun, whom Moses called Joshua, from the tribe of Ephraim. These men entered the land from the south by the desert of Sin, passing through to the very northern part to Rehob. Nu 13:21,22 De 1:23

 240. The sixth month.

241. The spies spent 40 days in searching out the land and returned to Kadesh in the wilderness of Paran. They brought one branch of a vine with a cluster of grapes on it gathered from the valley of Eshcol. This valley was named for its pomegranates and figs. Nu 13:23-27 De 4:24,25 This likely happened before the 7th month before the feast of tabernacles. This feast was kept on the 15th day of that month when the fruits of the barn and winepress, were always gathered. Ex 23:16 Le 23:39 De 16:13 Ten of the twelve men spoke ill of the country and its barrenness, magnifying the city's strength and the giants living there. This discouraged the people from marching any further toward it. However, Caleb did all he could, to persuade the people to go on. Nu 13:28-33 32:9

242. The people were terrified by the report made by the rest and threatened to return again to Egypt. They were ready to stone Caleb and Joshua for their conflicting report. When God threatened the people with sudden destruction, Moses again prayed and their lives were spared. However, God declared that all of them who were over 20 years old would die in the wilderness and would never see the promised land but wander in the wilderness for forty years. Nu 14:1-35 26:64,65 32:10-13 De 1:26-36 9:23 Jos 5:6 Ps 95:8-11 106:24-26 Their children entered the promised land in the 39th year. Nu 32:13 De 2:14

243. God destroyed the 10 rebellious spies by sudden death. Nu 14:36,37 In memory of this event, the Jews keep a fast on the seventh day of the sixth month, called Elul.

244. God commanded them to break camp and return back into the desert near the Red Sea. Instead they disobeyed him by going forward into the mountain and were pursued all the way to Hormah and defeated by the Amalekites and Canaanites. Therefore they sat down and wept before the Lord, but he would not hear them. Nu 14:40-45 De 1:40-45

245. After this incident, as the Israelites continued to die in the wilderness, Moses composed the 90th Psalm, Lord thou hast been our refuge, &c. He also showed that the normal age of men was reduced to 70 or 80 years. Therefore,

246. The age of man was shortened to a third of what it was before

2515a AM, 3224 JP, 1490 BC

247. The Israelites continued in Kadesh many days. De 1:46 For whether it was for a day, a month, or a year, as long as the cloud continued over the tabernacle, the camp did not move. Nu 9:22 In some places the camp stayed for many years since in the 37 years there were only 17 camps mentioned. After leaving Kadesh, they returned into the wilderness toward the Red Sea and camped around the hill country of Seir many days. De 2:1 Jud 11:16 The 17 camps for this time in the wilderness of Seir were mentioned in the 33rd chapter of Numbers in this order:

16th at Rimmonparez
17th at Libnah
18th at Rissah
19th at Kehelathah
20th at Mount Shapher
21st at Haradah
22nd at Makheloth
23rd at Thahash
24th at Thara
25th at Mithcah
26th at Hashmonah
27th at Moseroth
28th at Benehaajan, or Beeroth Bene Jaakan of the well of the sons of Jaakan De 10:6
29th at Horhagidgad, or Gudgodah, De 10:7
30th at Jotbathah, a place full of springs of water, De 10:7
31st was Ebronah
32nd was Eziongaber, which is near to Eloth and by the shore of the Red Sea, in the land of Edom 1Ki 9:26

2515 AM, 3225 JP, 1489 BC

248. The only mention of these camps are the laws and historical events as recorded in Nu 15:1-19:22.

1. Nu 15:1-41 A man was stoned by God's command for gathering sticks on the Sabbath. Although the sacrifices were omitted in the wilderness, yet the Sabbath was kept.

2. Nu 16:1-50 Korah, Dathan and Abiram rebelled against Moses and Aaron. They were swallowed alive into the earth. When 250 of their associates offered incense, God destroyed them by fire. God commanded their censors to be taken and used for a covering for the alter. This was for a memorial of them to the children of Israel. The people murmured against Moses and Aaron for this calamity and God killed 14700 of them.

3. Nu 17:1:13 The twelve rods were brought by the twelve princes and laid in the sanctuary. Aaron's rod was the only one that budded and brought forth almonds. It was set before the ark, for a warning against any future rebellions.

249. All these events are thought to have happened in the later half of the second year after they left the land of Egypt. Moses wrote only what happened in the first two years and the last year of their travel in the wilderness. For the intervening events of those 37 years see Abulensis, upon Numb. cap 1. Quast. 3.

250. The scriptures also show that the time, which the Israelites spent in travelling from Kadeshbarnea, till they passed the vale, or brook Zedad, was half a year after they moved from their 32nd camp. Another half year elapsed before they passed the river Jordan making up the full 38 years. During this time, all those ungodly rebels perished. De 2:14-16

251. For the first 9 years the Israelites spent in the wilderness, Armais governed in Egypt and Sethosis invaded the East. Both were brothers and sons of Amenophis who drowned in the Red Sea as before noted in the item under 2494 AM. Manetho in his Egyptiaca, mentioned by Josephus in his first book against Apion, wrote:

``Sethosis was well equipped with cavalry and ships and made his brother Armais ruler over all Egypt. He let Armais use all power and authority there except he was not to wear a crown and he charged him not to dishonour his wife the Queen and mother of his children. Armais was also told to abstain from all other concubines of the king. Sethosis himself however made war in Cyprus and Phoenicia and against the Assyrians and the Medes. Some of these he subdued by his powerful army and others he overtook merely caused by the terror his reputation. Puffed up with this great success near home, he went on with greater confidence to ravage and spoil all the kingdoms and countries of the East. A few years after he was gone, Armais whom he left in Egypt, having no fear, did everything the king commanded him not to do. First, he misused the queen and lay continually with the king's concubines. Later, he followed the advice of his friends and wore the crown, plainly rebelling against his brother.''

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:38:58 AM
252. Thus Manetho adds:

``Armais, was Danaus; and Sethosis was also called Egyptus,''

253. and that Egypt was named after him. Ramesses, was named after his grandfather showing that these similar names and events reveal that Tacitus calls him Rhamses and Herodotus, Sesostris. Tacitus says:

``A king called Rhamses, conquered all Libya, Ethiopia, the Medes and Persians, Bactria, Scythia and all the lands which the Syrians and Armenians and the Cappadocians held along with Bithynia and Lycia, by the Mediterranean Sea:''

254. Tacitus records him under the name of Rhamses. Regarding Sesostris, Herodotus in his second book writes that their Egyptian priests say:

``He was the first, to bring all nations bordering the Red Sea under his subjection sailing by way of the Arabian gulf. He came back the same way and gathered a mighty army. Marching into the continent of Asia, he subdued all the nations which stood in his way. Leaving Asia he crossed into Europe and conquered the Scythians and Thracians. It seems he went no further because the marks and monuments of his name and victories are found in Palestine of Syria. Two monuments are in Ionia, one at Ephesus, as you go into Phoencea, another one is on the way leading from Sardis to Smyrna.''

255. A similar report comes from Diodorus Siculus, of Sesoosis l. 2. but he makes him far more ancient than this. The age of his brother Danaus proves that he was contemporary with Moses. Manetho and Diodorus record the timing of these events nearly the same. They indicate that at the time all foreigners were expelled from Egypt, Danaus and Cadmus, with their companies came into Greece and Moses with his company went into Judea. This we find in the Selections of Phoisus. For the better understanding this 37 year period we include events from Eusebius in his "Tables" as follows:

2520 AM, 3230 JP, 1484 BC

256. Egypt (which was formerly called Aeria) was named after Egyptus who was there made king after the expulsion of his brother, Danaus. Our account varies only two years from that of Eusibius for:

2522 AM, 3232 JP, 1482 BC

257. Egyptus was also called Ramesses and Sesostris and Sesoosis. After spending 9 years in many voyages and foreign wars, (as Diodorus Siculus states in his first book) he returned to Pelusium. During this time Armais, who was also called Danaus ruled over Egypt. He first attempted to poison his brother Egyptus at a banquet provided for him but failed in the attempt as both Herodotus l. 2. c. 107. and also Diodorus Siculus l. 1. p. 53. (in the Greek and Latin edition of him) testifies. At which time he fled for fear of his brother from the kingdom which he had in Egypt and came into Greece, (as Georgius Syncillus states in the Greek Eusebius, published by Scanger, page 26,27.)

2530 AM, 3240 JP, 1474 BC

258. When Danaus came into Greece, he made himself ruler of Argos and made it abound with waters. Danaus by his 50 daughters, destroyed the 50 sons of his brother Egyptus except only his son Lynceus who reigned after him at Argos.

2533 AM, 3243 JP, 1471 BC

 259. Busiris the son of Neptunus and Libya the daughter of Epaphus, were joint tyrants in the area next to the Nile river. He barbarously murdered all strangers who passed that way and fell into his hands. Ovid. (lib. 3. de Tristi.) asked who was more cruel than Busiris? Virgil, (3. Georg.) queried who had not heard of Eurystheus' hard heart? The altars by the unworthy Busiris reared were indeed unworthy to be defended. Much more unworthy he was to have been commended by any man, which yet was his lot to be, according to Socrates the orator, in his, Busiridis Encomium. On this (as after him, also Eusebius did) state that he was the son of Libya, the daughter of Epaphus and Neptunus. Note that this Ramesses, surnamed Myamun, (of whom I spake, in the year of the world 2427) was by mythological writers, surnamed Neptunus and was the man who commanded the new born infants of the Hebrews to be drowned. He had two sons, Amenopis, i.e. Belus of Egypt (the father of Egyptus and Danaus). He was that enemy of the Almighty God and was drowned in the Red Sea with his army. He had a son Busiris who was so infamous for butchering strangers, (a fitting offspring for such a father) that succeeded him. On this from A. Gellio, l. 15. c. 21. that the poets were inclined to call men who were barbarous, cruel and devoid of humanity, the sons of Neptune who was born of that merciless element, the sea.

2543 AM, 3253 JP, 1461 BC

260. According to Eusebius in these times Tat the son of Hermes Trismegistes lived. The Egyptians say that Sesostris learned his wisdom from this Hermes. (Elian, l. 12. Var. Histor. c.4.)

2549 AM, 3259 JP, 1455 BC

261. Cadmus and Phenix went from Thebez in Egypt into Syria and founded the kingdom in Tyre and Sidon. Eusib. Chron.

2552b AM, 3262 JP, 1452 BC

262. After the Israelites had wandered around the hill country of Seir and Edom for 37 years, they went from Kadeshbarnea to Eziongaber in Edom. Travelling from the north to the south to the shore of the Red Sea, God then commanded them to turn northward and march straight for the land of promise. When the land of Edom lay directly in their way, he ordered them that they should not fight with the Edomites because they were brothers. God told them how great was his providence and care toward them in preserving them for 40 years in the wilderness. De 2:1-7 He used the round number of 40 for the actual time of 39 years.

2552c AM, 3262 JP, 1452 BC

263. In the first month of the 40th year, after they left Egypt, the Israelites came into the wilderness of Zin and camped there.

33. They camped at Kadesh Nu 20:1 33:36-38 Jud 11:17 of Zin, near the border of Edom, Nu 20:14,15 towards Eziongaber and the Red Sea. This was not at Kadeshbarnea, where they made their 15th camp and which lay near the border of Canaan, toward the south. Nu 34:4 Jos 15:3

264. Miriam died Nu 21:1 here 4 months before her brother Aaron, and 11 months before her brother Moses. She was the oldest of the three and lived 130 years as appears, Ex 2:4,7 so that she was a pretty mature maiden when Moses was born. This was noted before upon the year of the world, 2433. The Jews to this very day keep the memory of her death upon the tenth of the first month.

265. Again the people complained to Moses and Aaron for lack of water. God commanded to call water out of the hard rock, only by speaking to it. Through impatience and diffidence to God's command, Moses spoke something unadvisedly with his lips and struck the rock twice with Aaron's rod. This was the rod that budded and blossomed. He drew water from it as he had drawn out of another rock, 37 years earlier. Ex 17:7 For this occasion the place was called Meribah, or waters of strife. Nu 20:2-13. For it is most likely, that the former water, which Tertullian called, Aquam Comtiem, the water that followed them, (mentioned in the eleventh encampment) was swallowed up in the Red Sea. In this second time of want of water, the children complained just like their fathers did many years before.

266. Moses and Aaron for their diffidence and unbelief in executing the commandment of God were not allowed to enter into the land of Canaan. Nu 20:23,24 27:14 Ps 106:32,33

267. The Israelites sent messengers to the Edomites and Moabites asking to pass through their land. They refused to let them pass through their countries, Nu 20:14-20 Jud 11:17 but allowed them to pass along their borders. De 2:4,6,29 On this occasion, they stayed a while at Kadesh, Jud 11:17 then went forward again.

34. The 34th camp was in mount Hor, on the borders of Edom, Nu 20:22,23 or Mosera, De 10:6. To this place the Israelites are said to have come when they left Beeroth Bene Jaakan, or the wells of the sons of Jaakan, their 28th camp. They camped in Gudgodah, or Horhagidgad, Jotbath and other places. For it is said, De 10:7 that from there they came to Gudgodah and from Gudgodah to Jotbathah. These words "from there" are not to be understood of Mosera, but of Beeroth, as many learned men have long since noted on this passage.

268. The Israelites mourned for Aaron 30 days, Nu 20:29 this is the whole month when he died.

269. On the sixth month, the king of Arad, who dwelt on the southern part of Canaan, after hearing of the Israelites approach, went and fought against them taking many of them prisoners. For this they vowed, a vow to God and when they defeated them, they destroyed them and their cities. Because of this, that place was called Hormah, i.e. the place where that vow was made of utterly destroying the Canaanites. Nu 31:1-3 33:40

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:39:36 AM
270. They left mount Hor, avoiding the plain country that led from Elath, and Eziongaber and the Red Sea straight into Edom. They went around Edom and came to the east side of it Nu 21:4 De 2:40 and there they made another camp.

35. They camped at Zalmonah, Nu 33:41 named for the brazen serpent set up there. The people murmured because of the fierce serpents sent among them by God. (Not a little worm, breeding in their flesh, as Fortunius Licentus, in his third book, de spontanco Viventium ortu. c. 51. imagines.) These poisoned them with their bite. They were healed by looking upon the image of a brazen serpent that God appointed to be set up on a pole. Nu 21:5-9 Jos 3:14 1Co 10:9

36. They camped at Punon. Nu 33:42

37. They camped at Oboth. Nu 21:10,33,43

38. They camped at Ijeabarim on the borders of Moab Nu 33:44 in that desert which lies to the east of Moab Nu 21:11 and is called the desert of Moab. De 2:8 For, they continued their march through that wilderness and came to the east of Moab. Jud 11:18

271. And when they left there to pass by the valley or brook of Zared, God forbade them to make war upon Moab. Nu 21:12 De 2:8,13

272. They passed over Zared, 38 years after the sending of their spies from Kadeshbarnea.

273. All those over 20 years old who rebelled against God there, had died. De 2:6

39. They camped at Dibongad Nu 33:45

40. They camped at Almondiblathaim, Nu 33:46 also called Bethdiblathaim, in the wilderness of Moab. Jer 48:22 Eze 6:14

2553a AM, 3262 JP, 1452 BC

 274. When the Israelites were passing the borders of Moab, at Ar and approaching the country of the Ammonites, God forbade them to make any war upon the Ammonites. De 2:18,19,37 He commanded them to pass over the river Arnon: which at that time was the boundary between Moab and Ammon. De 2:24 Nu 21:13 They camped at Arnon and never entered the territory of Moab. De 2:24 Nu 21:13 Jud 11:18

275. Next they arrived at Beer, where the well was which the princes and nobles of the people, with Moses their law-giver, had dug with their staves. They came to Matthan, Nahaliel, Bamoth and the valley, which is in the country of the Moabites, at the entrance of the hill which looks toward the wilderness Nu 21:16-20 of Kedemoth. De 2:26 Here they camped.

41. They camped at Abarim opposite Nebo. Nu 33:47 As for Maanah and the other places, these were not camps, as Tremellius observes in Nu 2:12, but only places through which they passed on their march before Moses sent messengers to the Amorites. The Chaldee paraphrases does not take them for proper place names, but only as titles. They interpret them of the waters of the well (as the Rock, 1Co 10:4) which followed the Israelites to the brooks and from the brooks to the mountains and from the mountains to the valley of the Moabites.

276. From the wilderness of Kedemoth Moses sent messengers to Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon. He asked permission to pass peacefully through his borders (as the Edomites and Moabites had done) because that was a short cut to the fords of Jordan. When he denied them passage and made war upon them, the Israelites slew Sihon and possessed all his cities and dwelt in them. De 2:24-36 Nu 21:21-31 Jud 1:19-22

277. Moses sent his spies to Jazer which they conquered with the towns associated with it. They expelled the Amorites from there, from the river of Arnon which is the bound of Moab, Nu 21:13 22:36 to the brook of Jabbok which divides it from Ammon. De 3:16 Jos 12:2 13:10 They never meddled with the country lying next to the river Jabbok, neither with any of the lands belonging at that time to the children of Ammon of Moab, as God had commanded them. De 2:9 9:37 Therefore, 264 years later when the Ammonites complained that the Israelites had taken their land from Jabbok to Arnon and even to the brooks of the river Jordan, Jephthah correctly answered them that this was not true. They had not meddled with the lands, either of the Moabites or the Ammonites. When they had slain Sihon, they took all the lands belonging to the Amorites, from the river Arnon, to Jabbok, and possessed it as their own inheritance. Jud 11:13,15,22,23 It was also true that Sihon king of the Amorites had formerly taken from Vaheb king of the Moabites, Heshbon and all that country of his to Arnon. Nu 21:14 Also he had taken from the Ammonites, half their country even to Arnon which lay opposite Rabbah. De 3:11 All that land belonged formerly to the Ammonites and later was taken from the Amorites and assigned to the tribe of Gad to dwell in. Jos 13:25

278. When the children of Israel marched on their way to Bashan, Og king of Bashan, one of the giants, met and fought with them at Edrei. He and all his people were utterly destroyed. The Israelites possessed all his country which included 60 cities and all the land as far as Argob. De 3:1-11 Nu 21:33-35 Am 2:9

279. Jair, son of Manasseh seized all the country of Argob, stretching to the borders of the Geshurites and Mahacathites and called them Havothjair, after his own name.Nu 32:41 De 3:14 This Manasseh was the son of Segub, of the tribe of Judah. However, he was counted among the Manassites both in respect to the inheritance he had among them and also in reference to his grandmother. She was the daughter of Machir of the tribe of Manasseh. He was the father of Gilead who bore Segub the father of this Jair, to Hezron when he was 60 years old. 1Ch 2:21,22 This passage states that this Jair possessed 23 cities in the land of Gilead. He took Geshur and Aram (according to the best expositors) with the villages of Jair and Kenath with its villages, 60 cities in all. Nobah who was under him took Kenath with its villages and called it Nobah after his own name. Nu 32:42

280. After these victories the Israelites left the mountains of Abarim. They camped in the plain of Moab on this side of the ford of Jordan, which led to Jericho from Bethjeshimoth to Abelgotcha2tim, Nu 22:1 33:48,49

42. They camped at gotcha2tim, Nu 25:1 or Abelgotcha2tim Nu 33:49. Here they stayed until Joshua lead them to the bank of Jordan. Jos 3:1

281. Balak the son of Zippor was the king of Moab. When he saw what the Israelites had done to the Amorites, he was afraid lest under the pretence of passing through his country, they would also take his kingdom from him. Therefore, after taking counsel with the princes of the Midianites who were his neighbours, he sent for Balaam the son of Beor. Balaam was a soothsayer from Mesopotamia. Balak asked him to come and curse the Israelites and promised him a large reward for his labour. He intended afterward to make war upon the Israelites. Nu 21:1-6 De 33:4 Jos 24:9

282. Balaam was warned of God and at first refused to come. When he was sent for a second time, he pleaded with God to let him go and went intending to curse Israel. God was offended by his intentions and made the dumb ass on which he was riding to speak in a man's voice to reprove his folly. Nu 22:7-35 2Pe 2:15,16

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:40:17 AM
 283. Balaam, offered sacrifices twice and attempted to curse Israel, to gratify Balak but being forced by the Spirit of God, he instead ended up blessing them. He foretold what good fortune was with them and what calamities should befall their enemies. Nu 23:1-24:25 De 23:5 Jos 24:10

284. By Balaam's advice, the women of Moab and Midian were sent to turn the Israelites away and to make them commit idolatry with them. Nu 25:1-3 31:16 De 4:3 Ps 106:28 Re 2:14 Therefore, God commanded Moses, first to hang all the leaders of this rebellion. He then gave orders to the judges, to put to death all who had joined themselves to Baalpeor. Finally, God sent a plague upon the people, in which 23,000 men died in one day. 1Co 10:8 This number plus those who were hanged and killed with the sword was 24,000. Nu 25:4,5,9

285. Phinehas the son of Eleazar killed Zimri, the son of Salu, chief of his father's family of the tribe of Simeon. He also slew Cozbi the daughter of Sur a prince of the Midianites. This appeased the wrath of God and the plague was ended. Nu 25:1-18 Ps 106:30 Therefore God assigned for ever the high priesthood to the house of Phinehas. He commanded them to make war against the Midianites. Nu 25:12,13,17,18

286. God commanded Moses and Eleazar to count the people 20 or more years old. This was done in the plain of Moab, near to Jordan, opposite Jericho. The number of men was 601,730 in addition to the Levites. 23,000 Levites were counted who were at least a month or more old. Moses received God's command for the division of the land of promise among the Israelites. Nu 26:1-63

287. The daughters of Zelophehad had their father's land divided among them because there was no male heir. Because of this situation, the law of inheritances was made. Nu 11:1-11

288. God told Moses that he was about to die and Joshua was to be his successor. Moses laid his hands upon him and gave him instructions. Nu 27:12-23 De 3:26-28 Various laws were then made. De 28:29,30

289. 12,000 of the Israelites lead by Phinehas, defeated the Midianites and slew all their males including their 5 princes and Sur the father of Cozbi. All were under the subjection of Sihon the Amorite while he lived. Balaam the wizard was killed when he should have returned into his country of Mesopotamia. Nu 24:25 Instead he stayed and died with the Midianites. Nu 31:1-8 Jos 13:21,22 From the females, only the virgins were spared. Nu 31:9-54

2553b AM, 3263 JP, 1451 BC

290. The lands which belonged to Sihon and Og, Moses divided and gave to the tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh. Nu 32:1-42 De 3:12-20 29:8 Jos 13:8-12 22:4 This was from the river Arnon, to mount Hermon (which is also called Shenir and Sirion, and Sion) and joins upon Anti-Lebanon, De 3:8,9 4:48 Jos 12:1 13:9,11

291. When the Israelites were going into the land of Canaan, God commanded them to drive out the Canaanites and destroy their idols. Nu 33:50-56 They were to divide the land west of Jordan among the nine remaining tribes and the other half tribe of Manasseh. Nu 34:1-29 Of the 48 cities of the Levites and the 6 cities of refuge, Nu 35:1-34, three were assigned by Moses on the east of Jordan. De 4:41-43

292. Moses addressed Israel on the 5th day of the 11th month (Saturday, February 20th) in the 40th year after their departure out of Egypt in the plain of Moab. This is recorded in De 1:1-27:26.

293. Moses, with the elders of Israel, commanded the people that after their passage over Jordan they should set up large stones. These were to be plastered and the ten commandments written on them. They were to speak the blessings from Mount Gerizim and the curses from Mount Ebal. De 27:1-26 He exhorted them to observe the law of God by setting before them the benefits of obedience and the miseries that would happen to them for their disobedience. De 28:1-68

294. God commanded Moses to renew the covenant between God and them, and their children in mount Horeb. Moses again attempted to persuade them to keep that covenant hedged in by all the blessings and curses which would accrue to the keepers or breakers of it. De 29:1-29 He gave a promise of pardon and deliverance, if at any time, when they broke it, they should repent. He stated that God had declared his will to them so that no one who broke the law should plead ignorance of the law. De 30:1-20

295. When Moses wrote this law, he gave it to the priests the sons of Levi and the elders of the people to be observed. When he finished the book of the law, he ordered it to be put in the ark. De 31:1-30 The same day he wrote his song and taught it to the children of Israel. De 32:1-52

296. Just before Moses died, he blessed every tribe with a prophecy, except the tribe of Simeon. His last will and testament is contained in De 32:1-52

297. In the 12th month of this year, Moses left the plain of Moab and climbed up Mount Nebo which was a part of the country of Abarim. From the top of it facing Jericho, he beheld all the land of promise and then died at the age of 120 years. Nu 27:12,13 De 3:23-29, 32:49,50 34:1-5 31:2-4,7 Of this time he spent 40 years less a month in governing the people of Israel. This is confirmed by Josephus, in the end of his 4th book of antiquities. He states that Moses died on the first day of the last month of the year. The Macedonians called the month Dystrus but the Hebrews called it Adar. This fits better with the account of historians who wrote shortly thereafter than with the tradition of the Jews of later times. These historians say that he died upon the 7th of Adar, as in Sedar Olam Rabba, c. 10. in his hryjp book of the death of Moses. In the preface of Maimonides to the book, called Misnaioth this is mentioned also. In the calendars of the Jews of this time this appears. They still celebrate the memorial of his death by a solemn fast on this day.

298. God moved the body of Moses from the place where he died, into a valley of the land of Moab, opposite Bethpeor and buried him there. No one knows where the grave of Moses is to this day. De 34:6 This valley was in the land of Sihon king of the Amorites which the Israelites took from him. De 4:46 Bethpeor was given to the Reubenites. Jos 13:20 Therefore, Moses is said to have been buried in the land of Moab. Likewise De 29:1 the covenant is said to have been renewed in the land of Moab. It is to be understood that this land formerly did belong to the Moabites but was recently taken from them by Sihon king of the Amorites. Nu 21:26 This land was now possessed by the Israelites.

299. The archangel Michael Jude 1:9 disputed with the devil over the body of Moses. The Devil wanted to expose the body that it might become an object of idolatry to the people of Israel. Chrysostrome in his 1st Homily on Matthew and Thodores, on Deuteronomy, Quest. 43. and Procopius Gazans, on Deuteronomy and others state this. Though no where do we find that the Jews ever gave themselves to the worshipping of relics. This dispute between Michael and the devil about the body of Moses is found in the apocryphal book called "The Assumption of Moses". We read this in Origen peziazcat, lib 3. c. 2., in Gelasius Cyricenu, in the Acts of the Council of Nice, part. 1. c. 20. and similar stories are found in xwba of Rabbi Nathan.

300. The Israelites mourned for Moses in the land of Moab, 30 days for the whole 12th month. De 34:8

301. Here ends the Pentateuch, or the five books of Moses, containing the history of 2552 and a half years from the beginning of the world. The book of Joshua begins with the 41st year after the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt.

2553c AM, 3263 JP, 1451 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:40:49 AM
 302. The first month.

303. God confirmed the leadership of Joshua. He sent spies from gotcha2tim to the city of Jericho, which were hidden by Rahab in an inn. These were secretly sent away when they were searched for. They hid three days in the mountain and then returned to Joshua. Jos 2:1-24

304. Joshua commanded the people that in addition to the manna which had not yet ceased, they should take other provisions with them. In three days they were to pass over Jordan Jos 1:10,11

305. The next morning, they left gotcha2tim and came to the river Jordan. They camped there that night. Jos 3:1

306. Three days later they were instructed to provide food for the journey. The people were commanded to sanctify and prepare themselves to pass over Jordan on the next day. Jos 3:2-5

307. On the 10th day of the first month, (Friday, April 30th), the same day that the Pascal lamb was to be chosen out of the flock, Joshua (a type of Christ) led the Israelites through the river Jordan into the promised land of Canaan (a type of that heavenly country.) God divided the waters and they passed through the river dryshod. Normally in that season, the waters would overflow the banks. For a memorial of this miraculous passage, Joshua set up twelve stones in the very channel of Jordan. They took another twelve stones from out of the middle of the river and set them up at Gilgal, where they next camped. Jos 3:1-4:24

308. The next day, Joshua renewed the use of circumcision in Gilgal, which had been neglected for 40 years. There the people rested and stayed until they were well again. Jos 5:2-9

309. On the 14th day of the first month (Tuesday, May 4th) in the evening, the Israelites celebrated their first passover in the land of Canaan. Jos 5:10

310. The next day was passover. (Wednesday, May 5th) They ate of the produce of the land of Canaan, unleavened bread and roasted grain. The manna stopped the very day after they began to live off of the produce of the land. Never again did the children of Israel see manna. That year they lived on the fruits of the land of Canaan. Jos 5:11,12

311. Our Lord Jesus, the Captain of his Father's Host, appeared to Joshua, (the type of Jesus), before Jericho with a drawn sword in his hand. Jesus there promised to defend his people. Jos 5:13-15

312. The Ark of God was carried around Jericho for seven days. On the 7th day, the walls of Jericho fell down flat when the priests blew their trumpets. The city was taken and utterly destroyed. All were killed except for Rahab and her family. Jos 6:1-27 Later she married Salmon of the tribe of Judah and they had a son called Boaz. Mt 1:5

313. For the sacrilege of Achan God abandoned Israel and they were defeated at Ai. Achan's sin was determined by the casting of lots and he was found guilty. God was appeased when he and his family and cattle were stoned and burnt with fire. Jos 7:1-26 Ai was taken by an ambush and utterly destroyed. 12,000 men of Ai were killed in the battle. Jos 8:1-29

314. According to the law, in Mount Ebal an altar was erected for sacrifices. The ten commandments were engraved on it. The blessings and cursings were repeated in Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim. The book of the law was read to all the people. Jos 8:30-35

315. The kings of Canaan were stirred by this great success of the Israelites. They all united against Israel except the Gibeonites. These craftily found a way to save their own lives by making a league with Israel. However later they were assigned to do the work associated with the house of God. Jos 9:1-27

316. When Adonizedek, king of Jerusalem, with the kings of Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish and Debir heard that Gibeon allied themselves with Israel, they united their forces and besieged Gibeon. When Joshua raised the siege, he pursued those five kings slaughtering their troops as far as Azekah and Makkedah. At this time the sun stood still over Gibeon and the moon over the valley of Ajalon for almost a whole day until the Israelites were fully avenged of their enemies. Jos 10:1-14 On this account Laurentius Codomannu observes two things:

317. First, since Ajalon was less than a mile west of Gibeon, it is very likely that the moon was then past the full and close to a new moon.

318. Second, since both those great lights stopped and started together, the astronomical account of this is not invalidated by this event. Even as in music, the harmony is not broken, nor do the voices clash if they all rest at the same time and then begin again, each man playing his part until the end of the piece.

319. The five kings hid themselves in a cave at Makkedah and Joshua commanded the entrance to be blocked with stones and a guard set up until the enemies were defeated. After the enemies fled into fortified cities and when all the army was safely returned to Joshua at Makkedah, the stones were removed. The five kings were taken from the cave and each of the captains of the host was bidden to put his foot upon their necks. The kings were hung on five trees until evening and then their bodies were thrown into the same cave and the mouth of the cave blocked with stones. Jos 10:16,17

320. And thus ended that most busy year of the world, 2553. In the first six months Moses conquered all that land east of Jordan. The rest of the year Joshua conquered most of the land west of Jordan. In the middle of the year the manna ceased and the people of Israel began to live off the food in the land of Canaan.

2554a AM, 3263 JP, 1451 BC

321. From the autumn of this year after the manna stopped, the Israelites began to till the ground and sow it. This year was to be reckoned the first year of their tillage. The sabbatical years are reckoned from this year. Ex 23:10,11 Le 25:2-7 De 15:1-9 31:10

322. When the five kings were defeated, all the rest of the kings united and fought against the Israelites. Joshua fought against them for six years. Jos 11:1-18

2559a AM, 3268 JP, 1446 BC

323. Joshua was now grown old. He was commanded by God to divide all the land west of Jordan among the nine remaining tribes and the other half tribe of Manasseh. Jos 13:1-7 He first divided the land of Gilgal, (where the tabernacle of God then was and the army then stayed) among the tribes of Judah and Ephraim and the half tribe of Manasseh. Jos 14:6 15:16,17 At this time Caleb the son of Jephunneh, 45 years after the time that he was sent to spy out the land by Moses, desired to have Hebron with the mountain countries of Judah. This was assigned to him for his part in undertaking to expel the Anakims from there. Jos 14:5,10,13

324. Tremellius observed correctly that Joshua did not permit Caleb and his company to take Hebron alone but he went with the army to take it. When Hebron was conquered, Joshua gave Caleb the adjoining lands and villages. Joshua set apart the city with its common lands for a city of refuge and for the priests. Jos 21:11-13 1Ch 6:55-57 Neither Hebron or Debir were yet taken by the Israelites, though both were within the inheritance assigned to Caleb. The Anakims were not expelled from there. Jos 14:1-15:63 Hence the passages in Jos 10:28-11:23 Jud 1:9-15 seem to be refer to this place because the subject matter is the same.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:41:20 AM
 325. When the children of Judah and Joseph were settled in their possessions according to their tribes, a large part of the land of Canaan still remained in the hands of the Gentiles. Before dividing up more land, Joshua took the army from Gilgal and attacked Makkedah and Libnah and utterly destroyed the kings and people of both these cities. Jos 10:28-30

326. From there he marched with his army to Lachish and took it after a two day battle. All the inhabitants were killed. When Horam king of Gezer came to help Lachish, Joshua defeated him and killed all his people. Joshua then marched to Eglon and took it the same day and killed its inhabitants. Jos 10:31-35

327. After this Joshua with all Israel went up from Eglon to Hebron and took it. He killed the new king of it, for the old one was hanged six years before. The inhabitants of Hebron with all its cities were killed. Jos 10:36,37 Caleb also expelled the three giants, the sons of Anak, Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai. Jos 15:14 These giants were among the reasons Israel refused to enter the land 45 years earlier. Nu 13:22,23

328. Joshua with the army marched from the south of Canaan to Debir, Jos 10:38 which formerly was called Kirjathsepher. Here Caleb had proclaimed that whoever took it should have his daughter for a wife. His first cousin Othniel the son of Kenaz took it and married his daughter Achsah. Her dowry was a piece of land with its springs. Jos 15:15,19 Jud 1:11,15 When Othniel took the city he killed the inhabitants and their new king. The previous king was hanged with the rest, six years earlier. Jos 10:39

329. Joshua destroyed all the hill country, all the south parts, plain and valley and all their kings, from Kadeshbarnea, to Gaza and all the country of Goshen, (which was in the lot of the tribe of Judah) as far as Gibeon. All these kings and all their lands Joshua took at one time in one expedition for God himself fought for Israel. When this was done, he and the host of Israel returned to Gilgal. Jos 10:40-43

330. The rest of the kings united their forces and came to the waters of Merom to fight with Israel. Joshua, in a surprise attack, defeated and slew them. He took all their land Jos 11:1-16 from the mountain which goes to Seir which is the frontier of Edom, to Baalgad in the valley of Lebanon beside the hill of Hermon. Jos 11:17 12:7

331. Then Joshua expelled the giants, the Anakims from their cities, the hill countries, Hebron, Debir, Anab and generally from the mountains of Judah and all Israel. Hebron was taken by the tribe of Judah. Jud 1:10

332. When the whole land was conquered, the next year he divided it among the children of Israel according to their tribes. The land rested from war. Jos 11:23 14:15

2560a AM, 3269 JP, 1445 BC

333. The first Sabbatical year they kept was the seventh year from the first year when they began tilling the ground in Canaan. Joshua, a type of Jesus, had brought them into this place of rest, which was a type of that Sabbath and rest which the true Jesus was to give to God's people. Heb 4:9 From this time is reckoned the years of Jubilee, which was every fifty years. Le 25:8-13

334. On the 15th day of the month, (Saturday, November 5th) according to the law, the Levites kept the feast of tabernacles in booths made from boughs of trees. Le 23:39,40 This was done more solemnly than in the later times of the judges and kings Ne 8:17

335. God was now about to give the Israelites rest from all their enemies around them so that they could live there securely. It was necessary that a place should be chosen which God himself would select to place his name there. De 12:10,11 After the whole land was subdued, they came together at Shiloh and set up the tabernacle of the congregation. Jos 18:1 The tabernacle with the ark of the covenant stayed there for 328 years. The meaning of the name and the city called Shiloh seems to be the same place as Salem, for, as ~lf signifies Peace or Rest Ge 34:21 Na 1:12 so also doth hlf Da 4:1. Also the Messiah is thought to have been called Shiloh, Ge 49:10 because not only was he to be peaceable and quiet but also he was the author of our eternal rest and peace. As well, Melchizedek, the king of Salem, the king of peace Heb 7:2 lived here according to Jerome in his 126th Epistle to Enagrius. In Jerome's time the city was near the place where John baptized. Joh 3:23 Ge 33:18 According to Jerome's account and the Septuagint translation, Shiloh was called Sichem because it was located Jos 24:25,26 18:1 Ge 35:4 Jud 9:6 21:8-19 in the country of the Sichemites.

336. The remaining land was divided among the other seven tribes for their inheritance and the boundaries were recorded in a book. Jos 18:1-19:51 After the seven nations of the Canaanites were destroyed, their lands were all distributed among the Israelites.

337. In the year after God's choosing Isaac until now, was about 450 years. Ac 13:17,19,20 Since from the birth of the promised seed Isaac, to this time, are 452 years and from the rejection of Ishmael, 447. Hence the time was approximately 450 years.

2560d AM, 3270 JP, 1444 BC

338. Out of the land from both sides of the Jordan 48 cities were selected for the inheritance of the Levites. 6 of these were made cities of refuge. Sanctuaries were made there where those who had not committed wilful murder might flee for protection. Jos 20:1-21:45 The Israelites now possessed the land promised to their fathers. God gave them rest and peace on every side according to all that he had sworn to their fathers. Jos 21:43,44 The companies of the Reubenites, Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh that came over the Jordan to help their brethren conquer the land, returned to their possessions on the other side of the Jordan. Jos 22:4 1:12-15 Nu 32:21,22

339. On their return journey, they came to Gilead at the passage of Jordan, in the borders of the land of Canaan. There they built a large altar. The other tribes thought they intended to revolt so they resolved to make war against these two tribes. They sent Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the high priest, with ten other princes of the people, to find out why the alter was built. When they understood that the altar was not built to offer sacrifices but only a memorial and as a token of the fellowship which they had with the rest of the tribes of Israel, they changed their minds and did not fight with them. Jos 22:1-34

2561 AM, 3271 JP, 1443 BC

340. Joshua built the city of Timnathserah in mount Ephraim where he lived for many years after God had given rest to Israel. Like Joseph, he lived to the age of 110 years Ge 50:26 and was buried in Timnathserah. Jos 23:1 24:29,30

2591d AM, 3301 JP, 1413 BC

341. After the death of Joshua and the elders who outlived him, the disorders happened that are recorded in Jud 17:1-21:25. These were the idolatry of Micah and the children of Dan and the war of the Benjamites and its causes. This was a time of anarchy, ever man doing what seemed right in his own eyes. The elders who died were less than 20 years old when they came out of Egypt. They were eye-witnesses to all that God had done. However the next generation forgot God and married the Canaanites and worshipped their idols. God was angry and gave them into the hands of Cushan, king of Mesopotamia. This was the first calamity of theirs and lasted eight years. Jud 2:7 3:6-8

2599d AM, 3309 JP, 1405 BC

342. Othniel, the son of Kenaz and son-in-law to Joshua, Jos 15:17 Jud 1:31 of the tribe of Judah was raised up by God to judge and avenge his people. He defeated Cushan and delivered the Israelites from their bondage. And the land had rest 40 years, after the first rest which Joshua procured for them. Jud 3:9-11

2609a AM, 3318 JP, 1396 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:41:57 AM
 343. The first Jubilee was celebrated in the land of Canaan in the 49th year.

(Note, a jubliee year fell on the seventh sabbatical year and occurred every 49 years. In Le 25:8-10 it says the jubliee was in the 50th year. Also a jubilee and sabbatical year started in the autumn. Le 25:9 If a jubilee occurred every 50 years, the text would have to say in the 51st year. If a child is one year old, is in his second year. Likewise if a man is 49 years old, he is in his 50th year. In /APC 1Ma 6:49 it says that this was a sabbatical year. From the associated text we know that year was 163 BC. If the sabbatical and jubliee cycle was 50 years long, 163 BC would not be a sabbatical year. Likewise Josephus stated that 37 BC was a sabbatical year when Herod captured Jerusalem. This would not have been the case if the cycle was 50 years long and not 49. This confirms the accuracy of Ussher's work. See note on 3841d AM <<3482>>. See note on 3967b <<4959>> Editor.)

2658a AM, 3367 JP, 1347 BC

344. The second Jubilee.

2661d AM, 3371 JP, 1343 BC

345. After Othniel died, the Israelites again sinned against God and were delivered into the hands of Eglon, king of Moab. He along with the Ammonites and Amalekites, defeated the Israelites and took Jericho. This was their second oppression and it lasted for 18 years. Jud 3:12-14

2679b AM, 3389 JP, 1325 BC

346. Just before the tribe of Benjamin was almost entirely wiped out, God raised up Ehud, the son of Gera a Benjamite, to avenge his people. While feigning a message to Eglon from God, he stabbed him in the belly with his dagger and left him dead in his own dining room. After he escaped he gathered all Israel together in Mount Ephraim and slew 10,000 valiant men of Moab. And the land had rest 40 years; after the former rest and deliverance by Othniel.Jud 3:15,30

347. Later, Shamgar, the son on Anath, also avenged Israel by killing 600 Philistines with an Ox goad.

2682 AM, 3392 JP, 1322 BC

348. Belus the Assyrian reigned over the Assyrians in Babylon, for 55 years. saith Jul. Africanus.

2699d AM, 3409 JP, 1305 BC

349. After the death of Ehud, the Israelites sinned again. God gave them up into the hand of Jabin of Canaan who reigned in Hazor. Jabin had 900 chariots of iron and oppressed Israel for 20 years. Jud 4:1-3

2707a AM, 3416 JP, 1298 BC

350. The 3rd Jubilee.

2719d AM, 3429 JP, 1285 BC

351. Deborah, the wife of Lapidoth, a prophetess, judged Israel at that time in mount Ephraim. Barak of the tribe of Naphtali, son of Abinoam, was made captain of the host of Israel. In a fight at Megiddo, they defeated Sisera, who was captain of Jabin's army. Jabin was killed by Jael the wife of Heber the Kenite. She did this in her own tent by hammering a nail into the temples of Jabin's head. Deborah wrote a song in memorial of that victory, and the land rested 40 years, after the former rest restored by Ehud, Jud 4:1-5:31

2737 AM, 3447 JP, 1267 BC

352. Ninus, the son of Belus, founded the Assyrian Empire. This empire continued in Asia for 520 years. Herod in his first book, c. 95. affirms this and Appian Alexander in the beginning of his work follows the same account. However, Dionysius Halicarnassus, who is known for diligent research into such matters, in his first book of Antiquities, says, that they had a very small part of Asia under their command. Diodorus Siculus in his Bibliotheca, reports that Ninus, joined with Arieus king of Arabia and possessed all Asia and ruled India and Bactria for 17 years. Finally, he took in the Bactrians with their king Zoroastres. Justin writes of him, from Trogus Pompeius, in book 1.

``When Ninus had conquered his adjacent neighbours, he added their forces to his own. By this he became stronger still to conquer the next enemy. Every victory was a step to another and by this means, he subdued all the people of the east. His last war was with Zoroastoes king of Bactria. This king is said to have been the first to find out the art of magic and to have most diligently looked into the nature of the world and the motion of the stars. Ninus slew him and died later after this.''

353. Julius Africanus and Eusebius say, that he reigned 52 years.

2752d AM, 3462 JP, 1252 BC

354. The Israelites sinning again, were delivered into the hands of the Midianites. This fourth oppression lasted 7 years. Jud 6:1

2756a AM, 3465 JP, 1249 BC

355. The 4th Jubilee.

2759d AM, 3469 JP, 1245 BC

356. When the Israelites fell into this fourth bondage, they cried to God for help and were reproved by a prophet. Then was Gideon of Manasseh, son of Joash the Abiezrite chosen to deliver them by an angel sent from God. By God's command, he overturned the altar of Baal and burnt its grove. As a result of the strife between him and the people, he was called Jerubbaal and Jerubbesheth. Jud 6:32 2Sa 11:21. From 32,000 volunteers, he selected 300 men according to God's criteria. Gideon and these men equipped with their trumpets, pitchers and torches so frightened the Midianites, that he put to flight all their host. After this the Ephraimites pursued them and slew their princes, Oreb and Zeeb. After this Gideon first pacified the Ephraimites, who complained that they were not called to the battle at first. Then he passed the river Jordan and defeated the remainder of the Midianitish army. He chastised also the men of Succoth and Penuel who had refused him provisions for his journey. He slew the two kings of the Moabites, Zebah and Zalmunna. After these great victories, he refused the Israelites offer to make him and his posterity king. Using the enemies golden earrings he made an ephod. Later, this led them to fall into idolatry. After the Midianites were conquered, the land had rest 40 years, after the former rest restored to them by Deborah and Barak Jud 6:1-8:28

2768d AM, 3478 JP, 1236 BC

357. As soon as Gideon was dead, the Israelites fell into idolatry and worshipped Baalberith for their god. Jud 8:33 Abimelech the son of Gideon, (born by his concubine from Sichem) purposed to be king and slew 70 of his brothers all upon one stone. Jud 9:15,18,24,56

2769d AM, 3479 JP, 1235 BC

358. When Abimelech was made king with the Sichemites' help, Jotham the youngest son of Gideon, having escaped Abimelech's clutches, challenged them from the top of the mount Gerizim, about the wrong they had done to his father's house. By way of a parable he prophesied their ruin and then fled from there and dwelt quietly in Beeroth. Jud 9:1-57

2771d AM, 3481 JP, 1233 BC

359. After Abimelech reigned over the Israelites three years, Gaal, a man of Sichem, made a conspiracy against him. When Zebul discovered this, the city of Sichem was utterly destroyed and sowed with salt. The inhabitants were all killed and the temple of their god Beeroth was burnt with fire. From there Abimelech went to besiege Thebez. He was hit on the head with a piece of a millstone thrown by a woman and then he was killed by his own armour bearer, Jud 9:50-54 2Sa 11:21

2772a AM, 3481 JP, 1233 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:42:28 AM
 360. After Abimelech, Tola, the son of Puah, of the tribe of Issachar, judged Israel 23 years. Jud 10:1,2

2781 AM, 3491 JP, 1223 BC

361. After the Atyadans first reigned in Sardis, Argon, the son of Ninus reigned. His posterity held the kingdom of Lydia for 505 years or 22 generations. Each son succeeded his father to the throne until Candaules the son of Myrsus. Herod. l. 1. c. 7.

2789 AM, 3499 JP, 1215 BC

362. Semiramis, the daughter of Derces, was wife first of Menon and later of Ninus. Diodorus Siculus in the second book of his Bibliotheca states that she reigned for 42 years over all Asia except India and lived 62 years. From Cresias Cnidius describes at length her noble acts especially against Strabrobates king of India. From Megasthenes, who writes expressly of the Indian affairs, as we find in Strabo, l. 15. and from Arrians in his book De Indicus said that she died before she ever came into India. Herod. l. 1. c. 184. reports that she cast up huge works round about Babylon. Formerly the river (Euphrates) overflowed all the lower parts it. Justin also, speaking of Semiramis in l. 10. out of Trogus Pompeius, says this:

``She built Babylon and walled it round with bricks, laying the stones with brimstone, instead of sand. This brimstone erupts naturally from the earth everywhere in that area. This queen did many other very memorable acts. Not content to keep her husband's conquests, she added Ethiopia to her dominions and she also made war on India. She was the first to enter India and Alexander the great the next.''

363. All other writers agree with Dionysius also, that Bacchus, is reported to have conquered India. It was Diodorus and Troghus, who falsely reported that this queen enclosed Babylon with a wall of brick. Stabo also, in his 2nd and 16th books of his Geography is refuted by the sacred history of Ge 11:1-32 and Eupolemus. It was Nebuchadnezzar and his daughter-in-law, Nectoris who built the wall of Babylon many ages after. Eupolemus states in his book, pri tofdaiwt Assisicxà in Eusibius, l. 9. Preparat. Evangel.

``It was first built by those, which escaped the deluge''

364. Erranius mentiones by Stephanus Bysantinus, in his book, de Vrbibus, in the word of Babylon: and Eustatius in Dionys. Perieg. p. 126. noting, that Babylon was built 1002 years before Semiramis was born. If he had said 1022 years, this date would nearly agree with the Babylonish calendar sent from there by Calisthenes, out of Porphyrie, in the year of the world, 1770. The same Porphyrie also, l. 4. cont. Christianos, was cited by Eusebius. l. 1. Prepar. Evangel. Eusebius spoke of Sancuniathon Berution, a most ancient writer, about the beginning of the Phoenicians, who said he took his argument from Hierombal or Jerubbaal from the year of the world 2759. This Jerubbaal (Gideon) was a priest of Jevo, that is Jehovah, the God of the Jews, whose history was dedicated to Abibalus, king of the Berutians. Eusebius states further, that this Sancuniathon, lived in the days of Semiranis, Queen of the Assyrians who is said to have been before the Trojan wars at that time. This agrees with my account allowing her to have lived after the war of Troy by eleven years.

2790d AM, 3500 JP, 1214 BC

365. Eli, the priest was born, for he died at the age of 98 years, 1Sa 14:15 in the year of the world 2888.

2795a AM, 3504 JP, 1210 BC

366. After Tola died, he was buried at Shamir, in mount Ephraim. Jair a Gileadite from the tribe of Manasseh, succeeded him. Beyond Jordan, Jair judged Israel for 22 years Jud 10:1-3. Jair's son took the cities of Argob, naming them Havothjair Nu 32:41 De 3:14 after whose example, the thirty sons of this second Jair; (who, to distinguish him from the former, 1Sa 12:11 1Ch 7:17 seems to have been surnamed Bedan by the 30 cities which they possessed by the name of Havothjair. Jud 10:4

2799a AM, 3508 JP, 1206 BC

367. Because the Israelites forsook God and worshipped the gods of other nations, God gave them up into the hands of the Philistines and the Ammonites. This was their fifth oppression lasting 18 years. Jud 10:8 The bondage ended in victory over the Ammonites when Jephthah began his rule over Israel.

2805a AM, 3514 JP, 1200 BC

368. The fifth Jubilee.

2816d AM, 3526 JP, 1188 BC

369. During the 8th year of their slavery, the enemies defeated the Israelites, who lived beyond Jordan. The Ammonites passed over the river and attacked Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim, whom the Philistines had already crushed. The Israelites called on God and were grievously rebuked by him. However, they showed their repentance by abandoning their idols and obtained mercy. Jud 10:8

2817a AM, 3526 JP, 1188 BC

370. Jair died and was buried at Camon.Jud 10:5

371. That same year the Ammonites camped in Gilead. The Israelites camped in Mizpah, which is also in Gilead. Jud 10:17 11:11 Jephthah the Gileadite was called to be captain of the host of Israel by the men of Gilead. He made war upon the Ammonites and subdued them. He vowed to God that if God would give him the victory, he would offer as a burnt offering whatever came from his house to meet him. His daughter was unaware of the vow and greeted him first. She was offered as a burnt offering to God. Jephthah also killed 42,000 Ephraimites, who behaved themselves insolently against him. He judged Israel 6 years. Jud 11:1-12:7

2820c AM, 3530 JP, 1184 BC

372. Troy was destroyed by the Greeks 408 years before the first Olympiad.

2823d AM, 3533 JP, 1181 BC

373. When Jephthah was dead and buried in Gilead, Ibzan, the Bethlehemite, judged Israel 7 years. Jud 12:7-9

2830a AM, 3539 JP, 1175 BC

374. Ibzan died and was buried at Bethlehem. Elon the Zebulonite succeeded him and judged Israel 10 years. Jud 12:10,11

2831 AM, 3541 JP, 1173 BC

375. When Semiramis tried to lay carnally with her son, he killed her. She had ruled for 42 years after Ninus. Justin l. 1. c. 2. Although it seems incredible that a woman of 62 years of age would commit such an act of incest, St. Austin, l. 18 de Civita. Dei, seemed to believe it. More about Semiramis and her death can be read in Diodor. Sicu. l. 2. Biblio.

376. Semiramis' son, Ninus or Ninyus was content with the empire which his parents had and laid aside all cares of military affairs. Ninus was very effeminate in that he seldom kept company with men. He spent most of his years in the company of women and eunuchs. Justin. l. 1. c. 2. out of Trogus, Diodor. Sic. l. 2. and Atheneus l. 12. out of Cresias; l. 3. Persicorum.

2840a AM, 3549 JP, 1165 BC

377. Elon died and was buried at Ajalon in the tribe of Zebulun. Abdon the Ephraimite, the son of Hillel the Pirathonite succeeded him. He judged Israel 8 years. Jud 12:12-14

2848a AM, 3557 JP, 1157 BC

378. When Abdon died he was buried at Pirathon in mount Ephraim. Jud 12:15 After him came Eli who judged Israel 40 years. 1Sa 4:18 He was also the high priest. This high priesthood was transferred from the descendants of Eleazar to Ithamar. When Israel sinned again, God delivered them into the hands of the Philistines for the next 40 years. Jud 13:1 This was the Israelites' sixth oppression which we think ended seven months after the death of Eli when the Ark was brought back again. Hence, it was about the beginning of the third month, called Sivan, when Eli began to judge Israel.

2848d AM, 3558 JP, 1156 BC

379. An angel appeared to the wife of Manoah of the tribe of Dan at Zorah. He told her that she, though barren, would conceive and bear a son. This child would be a Nazarite who would begin to deliver Israel out of the hands of the Philistines.Jud 13:5

2849b AM, 3559 JP, 1155 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:43:27 AM
 380. As foretold by the angel, Samson the Nazarite was born at Zorah. Jud 13:24,25 It seems he was conceived after their 40 years oppression had begun by the Philistines.Jud 13:1-5 He avenged the Israelites of the Philistines for 20 years.Jud 15:20 Obviously, Samson's birth could not have happened later unless he was judging Israel before he was 18 years old which seems unlikely.

2854a AM, 3563 JP, 1151 BC

381. The sixth Jubilee.

2867d AM, 3577 JP, 1137 BC

382. While Eli was executing the office of a judge in civil causes, under the Philistines, Samson picked a quarrel against him because he was engaged to marry a woman of Timnah. Samson had begun to judge the Israelites at the age of 22.Jud 14:4 On the day of his betrothal, he had killed a lion with his bare hands. He made a bet at the wedding feast and propounded a riddle to the guests. When he had lost, because his wife had told them what the meaning of the riddle was, in a rage he went and slew 30 men of Askelon. He gave these wedding guests the suits of clothing which he had stript off their bodies to fulfil the terms of the wager and returned home to his father.

2868c AM, 3578 JP, 1136 BC

383. At harvest time, Samson went to present his wife with a kid, at her father's house, but found that she had been given away to another man in marriage. He then sought revenge by catching 300 foxes and tying fire brands to their tails. He turned them all loose into the Philistines grain fields, vineyards and olive gardens, setting them all ablaze. The Philistines were very angry so they took Samson's wife and father-in-law and burned them to death. In revenge, Samson killed a great multitude of them and sat down upon the rock of Etam. From there 3000 Jews arrested him and delivered him to the Philistines. He then killed a 1000 of these Philistine men with the jawbone of an ass. When Samson prayed in that place called Lehi, God opened a hole in the jawbone and from it came a fountain of water. This fountain was called Enhakkore meaning the fountain of him which called upon God. With the water from this fountain, he refreshed himself because he was thirsty and ready to faint. Jud 15:1-20

2887c AM, 3597 JP, 1117 BC

384. Delilah, Samson's concubine, betrayed him by cutting his hair, the symbol of his Nazarite vow and delivered him to the Philistines. They plucked out his eyes and carried him away prisoner to Gaza. They put him in prison there binding him with chains of brass. In prison his hair grew again and his strength was renewed. He pulled down the temple of Dagon while the princes of the Philistines and a great multitude of the people were in it. More men were killed when the temple fell, including himself, than he had slain in all his lifetime. He was buried with his father, between Zoar and Eshtaol, when he had judged Israel for 20 years. Jud 16:30,31

2888d AM, 3598 JP, 1116 BC

385. The Israelites took courage by this great loss of the Philistines and gathered together to camp near Ebenezer (named by the prophet Samuel, when twenty years later the Philistines were overthrown by him in the very same place). 1Sa 7:12 There the Israelites lost 4,000 men. When they sent for the ark of the covenant from Shiloh to be brought into the camp, the Philistines saw all that was at stake. During that battle the Philistines encouraged one another lest they said:

``we be forced hereafter to live in slavery under the Hebrews as they have been under us.''

386. In that second battle, 30,000 Israelites were killed. The ark of God was taken by the Philistines and Hophni and Phinehas, the two priests and the sons of Eli were slain there. When Eli heard the news, he fell off his chair backwards and broke his neck (for he was very fat). His daughter-in-law also, the wife of his son Phinehas went into labour because she was pregnant and she delivered a son, called Ichabod and died. 1Sa 4:1-22 When the Philistines took the ark of God, they carried it to Ashdod and placed it in the temple of their god Dagon.

387. Twice Dagon was found grovelling before the ark on the ground. Some of the inhabitants of the place died of the plague and some were struck with filthy emerods in their secret parts.Ps 78:66 They moved the ark from there first to the Gittites and later to the Ekronites. However, the same plagues occurred wherever it went. After seven months, by the advice of their priests, the Philistines sent the ark home again with gifts into the land of the Israelites. About the beginning of the third month, during wheat harvest time 50,070 men of Bethshemesh were killed for looking inside the ark. 1Sa 5:1-6:1,13-19 From there the ark was moved and carried to the house of Aminadab in Gibeah atthe Hill of the city of Kirjathjearim. 1Sa 7:1,2, 2Sa 6:3,4 This place was inhabited by the tribe of Judah and was also called Baalah and Kirjathbaal. 1Ch 13:6 Jos 15:9,60 However, all this time the tabernacle where God was worshipped, stayed at Shiloh in the tribe of Ephraim. Jud 18:31 1Sa 14:3

2894c AM, 3604 JP, 1110 BC

388. Barzillai the Gileadite was born, for he was 80 years of age, when Absalom rebelled against David. 2Sa 19:35

2903a AM, 3612 JP, 1102 BC

389. The seventh Jubilee.

2908c AM, 3618 JP, 1096 BC

390. For 20 years after the ark came to Kirjathjearim, 1Sa 7:2 the Israelites were grievously oppressed by the Philistines. Finally being persuaded by Samuel, they returned to the Lord after they abandoned all their idols. They came together at Mizpah where they are said to have drawn water to have drawn tears from the bottom of their hearts and to have poured them out before the Lord. 1Sa 7:6 This perhaps symbolized some external effusion or pouring forth of water to signify their inward repentance and mourning for their sins. 2Sa 14:14 Some would understand this of the repentants themselves. Ge 35:2 Ex 19:14 After their repentance, God immediately delivered the people of the Israelites from the invasion of the Philistines. 1Sa 7:10 Jos 10:10,11 God sent a terrible thunder which terrified the Philistines. They abandoned all the cities of the Israelites which they held formerly. 1Sa 7:14 Several small garrisons were left in only a few places. 1Sa 10:5 No more did they come to invade their borders because they saw that the hand of the Lord was against them all the days of Samuel until Saul became king. 1Sa 7:12 However after Saul became king, they returned again and oppressed Israel. When Samuel was old he made his two sons to be judges over Israel at Beersheba. They did not serve the Lord like their father but perverted judgment for rewards and bribes. 1Sa 8:1-3 He did not retire completely for from the passage 1Sa 7:15-17 it appears that he continued judging the people by himself to his dying day.

2909c AM, 3619 JP, 1095 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:44:08 AM
391. Because Samuel's sons were taking bribes and perverting justice, the Israelites began to make light of Samuel's leadership which troubled him and offended God. 1Sa 8:6-8 The Israelites were disgusted by the excessive behaviour of Samuel's sons and requested that they should have a king as other nations had. 1Sa 8:4,5 In additions to this, the Philistines still had some garrisons in their land. Nahash, king of the Ammonites had also assembled men in preparation for war against them. This caused them great fear so they resolved to no longer rely on Samuel's wisdom, or on the power of God, who had up to that time been their king and avenger. In spite of the fact that they had expelled the Philistines out of their land, they still expressed their desire to have a king. 1Sa 12:12,17,19 Though God was angered by their request he gave them a king Ho 13:10,11 whose name was Saul, the son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin. Saul reigned for 40 years. Ac 13:21 Saul's son Ishbosheth was 40 years old when he succeeded his father in the kingdom.2Sa 2:10 Ishbosheth is said to have been born when Saul was anointed king. Saul was first anointed privately and afterward publicly before all the people at Mizpah by Samuel. It was 21 years since the death of Eli 1Sa 7:2 that Samuel had judged Israel. 1Sa 10:1,24,25 About 1 month later,1Sa 12:12,16 (as the Septuagint and Jospehus, lib. 6. Antiquis. records) Jabeshgilead was besieged by Nahash king of the Ammonites. This siege was lifted by Saul when he defeated the Ammonites. The whole congregation of Israel came together at Gilgal and Saul was again proclaimed king there. 1Sa 11:14,15 Samuel however, questioned Saul's sincerity in fulfilling his royal position and complained of the wrong that had been done him. Samuel called upon God to send thunder and rain which terrified the people. Then he comforted them with the promises of God's mercies. 1Sa 12:17 This appears to have happened during their wheat harvest season, around the time of the feast of Pentecost, in the beginning of the third month, 21 years after the ark arrived from the country of the Philistines.1Sam 6:13 It seems that a full 20 years passed between the bringing back of the ark and the subduing of the Philistines.1Sa 7:2,13 and that one year passed between the expelling of the Philistines from out of Israel and Saul's anointing as king. As 1Sa 13:1 states in the Hebrew:

``Saul was the son of one year when he reigned; and he reigned two years over Israel.''

392. Hence, Saul reigned for two years; free from the subjection of the Philistines.

2911c AM, 3621 JP, 1093 BC

393. The Philistines attacked Israel and took them captive. Saul shook off their yoke and recovered his kingdom again from their hands. 1Sa 14:47 War with the Philistines continued many years during Saul's reign. Since the war began eight years before David was born, before it ended Samuel prophesied of David succeeding the throne after Saul. The Lord hath sought him a man according to his own heart, and God hath commanded him to be ruler over his people, 1Sa 13:14 The Philistines took from them all their smiths so they would have no weapons to fight with or no one to make them. Hence, when the day of battle came only Saul and his son Jonathan had weapons. 1Sa 13:19-22

2919c AM, 3629 JP, 1085 BC

394. David was born to Jesse the Ephrathite in his old age.1Sa 17:12 David was the youngest of eight sons born to Jesse. Bethlehem was called the City of David 1Sa 20:6 Lu 2:4 30 years before he succeeded Saul in the kingdom. 2Sa 5:4 1Sa 16:1

2941c AM, 3651 JP, 1063 BC

 395. God had rejected Saul and his family from the kingdom. After mourning a long time about this, Samuel was sent by God to Bethlehem to anoint David as king. This occurred 40 years before the rebellion of Absalom. 1Sa 16:1 2Sa 15:7 David was a handsome looking lad who was called away from shepherding his father's sheep. 1Sa 16:12 Because David was preferred before his older brothers and being anointed in their presence,1Sa 16:13 they were envious of him.1Sa 17:28 David's brothers were as envious of him as Joseph's brother's were of him. He was also made king over Judah at the same age that Joseph was made ruler over Egypt. Ge 41:46 2Sa 5:4 From the day of his anointing, the Spirit of God came upon him giving him his courage and wisdom.1Sa 18:5,13 2Sa 5:2 As a result of this, while Saul lived, he was made general over all Israel and became a great warrior to fight the Lord's battles.1Sa 25:28 He became known as a prophet and the sweet Singer of Israel who by his divine Psalms would teach and instruct the people of God. Ac 2:30 2Sa 23:1,2

396. Mephibosheth (or Meribbaal) 1Ch 8:34 9:40 the son of Jonathan was born five years before the death of his father 2Sa 4:4

2944c AM, 3654 JP, 1060 BC

397. David feared that he might at last fall into Saul's hands, so he fled to king Achish in Gath taking 600 men with him. 1Sa 21:10 Achish gave him the town of Ziklag to dwell in and he lived there for one year and four months in the land of the Philistines.

2948a AM, 3657 JP, 1057 BC

398. From there he attacked and killed all the Geshurites, Gezrites and the Amalekites, leaving no one alive to carry news of the slaughter to king Achish. 1Sa 27:1-12

2948c AM, 3658 JP, 1056 BC

399. While David was at Ziklag, many who were relatives of Saul came to stay with him. Also many valiant men of the tribe of Benjamin, the tribe of Gad and various good soldiers came over Jordan to him in the first month when it overflowed all its banks. They were accompanied by many other captains and commanders of the tribes of Benjamin and Judah.1Ch 12:1,15,18

2949c AM, 3659 JP, 1055 BC

400. King Achish planned to invade the Israelites with his Philistine army. He took David along with him.1Sa 28:1,2 While David was on the march with his 600 men, he gathered a number of others from the tribe of Manasseh who joined him.1Ch 12:19 The Philistines were then encamped at Shunem and the Israelites were in Gilboa. 1Sa 28:4

401. When Saul saw the army of the Philistines, he became afraid and sought counsel from the Lord. Receiving no answer by a dream, or by Urim, or by his prophets, he went to Endor by night to consult with a witch. When she conjured up a vision of Samuel, Saul received the dreadful message, God shall deliver Israel, together with thyself, into the hands of the Philistines; and tomorrow, thou and thy children shall be with me 1Sa 28:5,6,19 1Ch 10:13,14

402. While David was away on his march, the Amalekites took Ziklag, plundered it and burnt it. They carried away David's two wives Ahinoam of Jezreel and Abigail, the widow of Nabal, along with the rest of the wives and children of his men.1Sa 30:1-31

403. When Saul returned the same night from the witch, the Israelites moved to the fountain of Jezreel and the Philistines went to Aphek. The princes of the Philistines became jealous of David so he and his men left their army early the next morning and returned to Ziklag. The Philistines in the interim marched up to Jezreel to fight with the Israelites.1Sa 29:1,3,10,11 It seems that Saul and his sons were not slain the next day after his communication with the apparition of Samuel (since all that day David was with the army of the Philistines) but Saul's death occurred some while after David's departure from them.

404. When David was returning to Ziklag, there came to him seven captains of the Manassites. 1Ch 12:20,21 They had arrived three days later, and found the town plundered and consumed with fire. The last 200 of his company were tired of marching and rested at the brook Besor. With the other 400 David followed after the Amalekites, overtook them. The battle lasted from the twilight of the first day to the evening of the next. They recovered all that was lost and returned home with joy.1Sa 30:1-31

405. The host of Israel were soundly trounced. The three sons of Saul, Jonathan, Abinadab and Melchishua were also killed. Saul and his armourbearer fell on their own swords. The following day the Philistines took off the head of Saul and hung up his armour in the temple of their idol Ashtaroth. His body and the bodies of his three sons were also left to hang on the walls of Bethshemesh. However, the men of Jabeshgilead remembered the deed of valour which Saul had done for them at the beginning of his reign. They stole away their bodies from there and burnt them. They buried their bones under an oak at Jabesh and fasted for them for seven days. 1Sa 31:1-13 1Ch 10:1-14

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:44:39 AM
 406. Mephibosheth, was the son of Jonathan who was now dead. When his nurse heard the news of his death she ran away with Mephibosheth. Because she was very afraid and in a great haste, he fell out of her arms and became lame in his feet ever since. 2Sa 4:4

407. When David returned from the slaughter of the Amalekites, three days later he heard of the defeat of the army of the Israelites. A boy of the Amalekites who was in the fight told him and brought Saul's crown and bracelet which he had removed from Saul's body. 2Sa 1:1-16 From this news, though quickly brought to David, it is inferred that the defeat in Gilboa happened a number of days after David left the Philistine army. This was not unusual that the battle was so delayed. Much later the Syrians camped against the Israelites at the same place at Aphek and waited seven days before fighting with them. 1Ki 21:20,26,29

408. David executed the Amalekite who claimed to have slain Saul. In a funeral song, he praised Saul, Jonathan and God's people 2Sa 1:13-27 Companies of the Israelites' army flocked daily to him. 1Ch 12:22 He asked counsel of God before he went up to Hebron with his men and their families. Here he was anointed king by the men of his own tribe at the age of 30. He reigned over Judah for 7 years and 6 months. 2Sa 2:1-4,11 5:4,5

409. Abner, the former captain of Saul's army, took Ishbosheth, Saul's son to Mahanaim and there he made him king over the rest of Israel. Ishbostheth was 40 years old and reigned two years over Israel 2Sa 2:8-10 He had two years of peace with the house of David, just as his father's two year reign 1Sa 13:1 referred to two years of peace with the Philistines. See note on 2909c A.M.

410. David sent messengers to the men of Jabeshgilead and thanked them for the kindness which they had showed to King Saul. He informed them that he was now king over Judah. 2Sa 2:5-7 To strengthen himself, he made an alliance with Talmai, king of Geshur and secured it by marrying his daughter, Maacah. She bore him Absalom and Thamar. 2Sa 3:3 13:1

2951c AM, 3661 JP, 1053 BC

411. After the two years of peace with Ishbosheth, there was a long war between his people and the people of David. Joab the son of Zeruiah, David's sister's son, headed up David's side and Abner the other side. Many battles and skirmishes happened. David's side grew stronger and stronger and Ishbosheth's side became weaker. 2Sa 2:26-3:1

2952a AM, 3661 JP, 1053 BC

412. The eighth Jubilee.

2956d AM, 3666 JP, 1048 BC

413. When Abner was disgracefully used by Ishbosheth, he revolted and sided with David. He arranged with the chief men and heads of Israel to transfer the whole kingdom to David. 1Sa 25:44 2Sa 3:6-21

414. When David fled from Saul, 1Sa 19:12 his wife Michal was given by Saul in marriage to Phaltiel. David demanded that Ishbosheth send her back. 1Sa 25:44 2Sa 3:14,15

415. When Abner came with 20 men to David, he was well received and given a feast. When he returned from David in peace, he treacherously slain by Joab. David made a great mourning and lamentation over him and he was buried at Hebron. 2Sa 3:17-39

416. All Israel was troubled by the death of Abner. Baanah and Rechab, of the tribe of Benjamin murdered Ishbosheth when he was resting on his bed in the heat of the day. They brought his head to David and he had them executed. 2Sa 4:1-12

417. The captains and elders of all the tribes came to Hebron and anointed David king over Israel for the third time. 1Ch 12:23-40 11:1-3 2Sa 5:1-3

2957a AM, 3666 JP, 1048 BC

418. David with all Israel marched to Jerusalem against the Jebusites. By Joab's valiant actions they captured the fort of Zion. Henceforth it was called the city of David, just as Bethlehem, his birthplace, was called. He made Jerusalem the capital of the kingdom and reigned over all Israel for 33 years. 2Sa 5:5-7,9 1Ch 11:4-7

2957c AM, 3667 JP, 1047 BC

419. When the Philistines heard that David was made king over all Israel by every tribe, they led their army twice against him at the valley of Rephaim and were beaten both times. 2Sa 5:22-25 1Ch 14:1-17 It was here that David, in the time of harvest, desired a drink of water from the well at Bethlehem. To please him, three of the most valiant captains broke through the host of the enemy to get it. When they brought it to him, he would not drink it. 2Sa 23:13 1Ch 11:15

2958b AM, 3668 JP, 1046 BC

420. David built up the city of Zion and strengthened the fortifications. Joab repaired the rest of the city. 2Sa 5:9 1Ch 11:8

421. Hiram sent messengers to David and cedar wood and carpenters and masons. These built his house. 2Sa 5:11 1Ch 14:1

2959 AM, 3669 JP, 1045 BC

422. The ark of the covenant which in the first sabbatical year was brought from Gilgal to Shiloh, was brought from Kirjathjearim in this sabbatical year. It was moved from Shiloh 70 years earlier. From the house of Abinadab, 30,000 choice men from all Israel accompanied the move of the ark by David. He composed the 68th Psalm for the occasion as may be deduced from Ps 68:1. This verse appears to have been taken from a prayer which was appointed by Moses to be used and sung every time the ark was moved. Nu 10:35 The ark was carried first to the house of Obededom. After three months, it was moved into the city of David, or the fort of Zion. David himself rejoiced before it and sang Ps 132:8. Solomon his son, repeated this verse 2Ch 6:41 in the next year of jubilee when he brought the ark into the Holy of Holies of the temple.

``Arise O Lord unto thy resting place, thou and the ark of thy strength''

423. See also Ps 132:6,7. From the Hebrew:

``Behold we (i.e. the men of Bethlehem dwelling there) have heard of it at Ephratah (our own country) and found it in the fields of Jair, or the wood; (i.e. in the hill of Kirjathjearim, for that signifies a city, bordering upon woods)''

424. From Ps 132:13,14

``The Lord hath chosen Zion, for an habitation for himself; saying, This is my rest for ever here will I dwell, for I have a delight therein.''

425. At Zion the ark is There to have rested, 1Ch 6:31 and was moved into the new tabernacle which David had prepared for it at Jerusalem. 2Sa 6:17 1Ch 16:1 2Ch 1:4

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:45:15 AM
 426. The tabernacle of the congregation built by Moses, with the brazen altar used for the daily sacrifices, remained at Gibeon, in the tribe of Judah until the temple of Solomon was built. It was no longer in Shiloh in the tribe of Ephraim. 1Ch 6:32,48,49 16:39,40 21:29 2Ch 1:3,5,6 1Ki 3:2,4

427. The ark was moved from house of Joseph, of which the tribe of Ephraim was a part into the tribe of Judah. Hereafter Shiloh played no part in their worship. Ps 78:67,68 Jer 7:12,14 26:6

2960d AM, 3670 JP, 1044 BC

428. David now dwelt in his house of cedar which he had built and had peace on every side. He told Nathan the prophet, that he planned build an house. God replied that this was a work that should be done by a man of peace not war. His son Solomon would build the house not David. 2Sa 7:1,2,11,13 1Ch 17:1-27 22:8-10 24:3,6 2Ch 6:8,9 1Ki 8:18,19 From now until the birth of Solomon was spent in wars. David subdued the Philistines, the Edomites, the Amalekites, the Moabites, the Ammonites and the Syrians. 2Sa 8:3 1Ch 18:1-17 The borders of Israel stretched not only from Shihor in Egypt to Hamath, 1Ch 13:5 but even from there to the river Euphrates to the borders of Syria Zobah. 2Sa 8:3 This was the extreme bound of all that land which had been formerly promised to the seed of Abraham. Ge 15:18 De 11:24 Jos 1:3,4 It was never possessed by any of them except only by David and his son Solomon. 1Ki 4:21,24 2Ch 9:28

429. At this time Hadadezer, also called Hadarezer, the son of Rehob, was king of Syria Zoba. He united his forces from Damascus with Rezon the son of Eliadah's forces. They prepared to fight against David not far from the river Euphrates. However, after David routed Hadadezer's army, he slew 22,000 of the Syrians from Damascus and put garrisons in all that country. When Rezon saw that David prevailed, he rebelled from Hadadezer and made himself captain over the forces he had recently raised. He marched with them to Damascus and set up there a kingdom for himself and his posterity. He was a very bitter enemy to Solomon, as was his kingdom to the rest of the king's of Israel. 2Sa 8:5,6 1Ki 11:23-25 Concerning this battle fought by David near to the river Euphrates, Nicolous Damascenus, in Josephus, (lib. 7. Antiq. c. 6. or 5.) mentions this battle of David's and calls this Rezon, Adad. He adds that his name was passed on to his successors to the tenth generation, as Ptolemy did to his in Egypt.

2967a AM, 3676 JP, 1038 BC

430. After Nahash king of the Ammonites died, Hanun his son reigned in his place. He badly abused the messengers that David had sent out of kindness to comfort him over the death of his father.

431. Therefore, David sent Joab who defeated a huge army of the Ammonites and Syrian mercenaries. David and Joab returned victorious to Jerusalem. 2Sa 10:1-19 1Ch 19:1-19

2968b AM, 3678 JP, 1036 BC

432. David crossed Jordan with his army and slaughtered a vast number of the Syrians who were led by Shophach, general of the army of Hadadezer, king of Syria Zoba. A time of peace between David and the petty kings of Syria followed so that they sent no more aid to the Ammonites, but served David. 2Sa 10:1-19 1Ch 19:1-19

2969c AM, 3679 JP, 1035 BC

433. At the end of the year, when kings went to battle, Joab, with his army fought with the Ammonites and besieged Rabbah, the capital city of Ammon. In the mean time, David took his ease at Jerusalem, 2Sa 11:1 1Ch 20:1 and there defiled himself in an adulterous relationship with Bathsheba the wife of Uriah the Hittite. Uriah was then in the army. Consequently, David arranged to have Uriah slain at the hand of the Ammonites. 2Sa 11:1-27

2970b AM, 3680 JP, 1034 BC

434. When David's child by adultery, was born, David was convicted by Nathan the prophet of his sin and repented. David composed the psalm Ps 51:1-19, for a memorial of his sin with Bathsheba, but the child died.2Sa 12:1-31

2971a AM, 3680 JP, 1034 BC

435. Bathsheba who was now David's wife, bore David another son whose name was given to him by God called Solomon. This child proved to be a man of peace.1Ch 22:9 His name means one beloved of God, the name of Jedidiah. 2Sa 12:25

2972c AM, 3682 JP, 1032 BC

436. Ammon, David's oldest son, raped his sister Tamar. 2Sa 13:1-39

2974c AM, 3684 JP, 1030 BC

437. Two years after he raped his sister, Ammon was slain by his brother Absalom at the time of sheep shearing, before grain harvest. 2Sa 13:23 This occurred at the end of the spring, shortly after the middle of the first month during the second mowing of the grass. Codomanus notes this from Am 7:1 Jos 3:15 4:9 5:10-12.

438. After Absalom killed Ammon, he fled to Geshur in Syria. He continued 3 years with king Talmai his grandfather on his mother's side. 2Sa 13:37,38 15:8

2977c AM, 3687 JP, 1027 BC

439. After 3 years of exile, Absalom returned to Jerusalem. His father was pacified towards him by the speech of the woman of Tekoa, who was employed by Joab. 2Sa 13:38 14:1-23

2979 AM, 3689 JP, 1025 BC

440. Absalom set Joab's barley on fire just before harvest time that year (for the following year was a sabbatical year, when there was no harvest in Judah). By this means he was admitted to his father's presence, whom he had not seen in the two years since his return from exile.2Sa 14:28,30,33

2980 AM, 3690 JP, 1024 BC

441. This sabbatical year came between the burning of Joab's corn field, and the rebellion of Absalom against his father. In his rebellion, Absalom obtained chariots, horses and a band of ruffians around him, and insinuated himself into the favour of the people. He stole away their hearts from his father David. 2Sa 15:1-6

2981c AM, 3691 JP, 1023 BC

442. 40 years after the anointing of David by Samuel, Absalom followed the advise of his chief counsellor Ahithophel and took possession of his father's kingdom. This happened between the Passover and the Feast of Pentecost. Codomanus assumes this to be the season from Barzillai having provided David (when he fled) with new fruits and roasted grain. 2Sa 17:28

443. Against the practices of Absalom and Ahithophel, David composed the 3rd and 55th Psalms. Also Shimei, of the tribe of Benjamin, railed against David, as he fled. 2Sa 16:5

444. When Ahithophel saw that his counsel was not followed by Absalom, he went and hanged himself. 2Sa 17:23

445. In the battle with David, Absalom lost 20,000 men and fled. A bough of a thick oak caught hold of his long hair so he hung there until Joab came and thrust him through with darts, killing him. 2Sa 18:9-14

446. After this victory, David was brought home again by the men of Judah and one half of the people of Israel. The Israelites rebelled, because they had not participated in that work so a new rebellion grew among them. This rebellion was soon over when the head of Sheba the son of Gera, was thrown over the walls to Joab, by the people of Abel. 2Sa 20:1-22

2983c AM, 3693 JP, 1021 BC

447. The harvest of this year failed and there was a famine, which afflicted the land for three years. This famine was sent because the blood of the Gibeonites was shed by Saul and his family. 2Sa 21:1,2

2986c AM, 3696 JP, 1018 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:45:44 AM
 448. The famine still continued so the Gibeonites hung two of Saul's sons and five of his grandchildren in the beginning of barley harvest. Rizpah, Saul's concubine, watched their bodies and kept them from being devoured by ravenous birds or beasts, until water dropped from heaven upon them.2Sa 21:8-10

449. David took the bones of Saul and Jonathan his son and moved them from Jabeshgilead along with the bones of the seven that were hanged. They were buried a Zelah in the sepulchre of Kish the father of Saul. 2Sa 21:12-14

450. Many battles were fought with the Philistines and their giants. In one battle, David who was now old, fainted in the fight and would have been slain by the giant, Ishbibenob and barely escaped. This was the last fight that David took part in.2Sa 21:16-22 1Ch 20:4-8

2987d AM, 3697 JP, 1017 BC

451. David desired to have a census taken; whether from Satan or his pride, God's wrath was kindled against the Israelites. Therefore of all the tribes, (except the tribes of Levi and Benjamin), 1Ch 21:6 27:24 the men older than 20 years were counted. 1Ch 27:23. This census took 9 months and 20 days. 2Sa 24:8 God sent the prophet Gad to David and gave him the choice of one of three punishments. He was to chose famine, sword or pestilence. 2Sa 2:48 The famine was to last 3 years, that is in addition to the previous famine 1Ch 21:12 or of 7 years, as from 2Sa 24:13. This included the 3 years of the previous famine 2Sa 21:1 and this present sabbatical year in which no sowing would take place to compensate for the losses of the previous years, for a fourth year of dearth. Three years of famine for the slaughter of the Gibeonites were already past and after this there was a poor harvest for lack of seed. This harvest would not be able to supply the needs of the next two years which the intervening sabbatical year would require. So the famine would still continue in the land, especially among the poor. Now to these past years of famine, God proposed to David three more years of famine, to choose, if he would. The reason for reconciling these two different passages, has led me in these texts 1Ch 21:12 2Sa 24:13, to refer this history of David's numbering the people to this Sabbatical year.

452. Now of the three choices, David chose the plague. 70,000 men died in one day. When the angel was about to destroy Jerusalem, God in his mercy bade him withhold his hand. He commanded David to offer whole burnt offerings and peace offerings in the threshing floor of Araunah or Ornan the Jebusite. 2Sa 24:1-25 1Ch 21:1-30

2988a AM, 3697 JP, 1017 BC

453. David foresaw that the house of God would be built in the threshing floor of Araunah. 1Ch 22:1 2Ch 3:1 He began to prepare the materials necessary for so great a work. He exhorted his son Solomon and all the heads of Israel to carry the project through to a successful completion. 1Ch 22:1-19

2988c AM, 3698 JP, 1016 BC

454. He took the number of the Levites, first from 30 and then from 20 years old and upwards. He divided them into many ranks and appointed to every one of them their offices. He established a set form both for ecclesiastical and civil government in the 40th year of his reign. 1Ch 23:1-27:34 That is the beginning of the year, a year and an half before his death.

455. Rehoboam was born to Solomon by Naaman, an Ammonite woman. He was 41 years old when he began to reign. 1Ki 14:21 1Ch 12:13 For though Solomon called himself a little child, 1Ki 3:7 and David his father said, he was a child, young and tender, 1Ch 22:5 29:1 yet in another place, he calls him a man of wisdom. 1Ki 2:9 This was even before God granted him extraordinary knowledge and wisdom. These three things, tender years, a son born and perfect wisdom were not unique to Solomon at 18. For the same were attributed to king Josiah when he was only 16, 2Ch 34:1-3 2Ch 36:2,5 for Jehoiakim was born when Josiah was only 14 years old and Jehoahaz was born when Josiah was 16.

2989b AM, 3699 JP, 1015 BC

456. David was now seventy years old. Broken with continual cares and wars, he was so weak and feeble that wearing extra cloths would hardly keep him warm. So Abishag, a young Shunammite maiden was sent for, to keep him warm.

2989c AM, 3699 JP, 1015 BC

457. When Adonijah saw his father's decline, he took counsel and advise from Joab and Abiathar the high priest and made himself king. When Bathsheba and Nathan told David of this, he ordered his son Solomon to be anointed king in Gihon by Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet and Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada. As soon as Adonijah heard this, he fled to the sanctuary and lay hold on the horns of the altar. He was pardoned by the grace and favour of Solomon and set at liberty. 1Ki 1:1-53

458. David assembled all the governors, captains and commanders of Israel with his sons and servants. He exhorted them all to the fear and worship of God and especially Solomon his son. He ordered them to proceed with the building of the temple. He gave them the pattern of the temple and consigned into Solomon's hands the gold and silver by weight for making every vessel and implement to be used in the temple. 1Ch 28:1-21 After this, by David's example and his exhortation, every man was moved to give gold, silver, brass, iron and stones all in great abundance towards the building of God's house. They gave thanks to God. The next day, they offered a 1000 young bullocks, 1000 rams and 1000 lambs, with the meat offerings. Solomon was anointed as king the second time and Zadok confirmed as the high priest. 1Ch 29:1-23

2990a AM, 3699 JP, 1015 BC

459. After David gave instructions to his son Solomon, he died. 1Ki 2:1-10. He had reigned in Hebron for 7 years 6 months and 33 years in Jerusalem over all Israel. 2Sa 5:5 Concerning the forty years which the scripture attributes to his reign, we must take for the term which he reigned before he made Solomon king in his place and after that he lived for 6 more months. So that the years of Solomon's reign as mentioned in the scriptures, are to be reckoned from the first month, a full half year, before David's death.

2990b AM, 3700 JP, 1014 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:46:15 AM
 460. Adonijah used Bathsheba to ask Solomon to give him Abishag the Shunammite for a wife. Therefore, as one still aspiring to be king Solomon had him executed. Abiathar of the family of Eli, was put out of the high priesthood and Zadok, a descendent of Phinehas replaced him. This was foretold by God in 1Sa 2:33,35. So the high priesthood reverted from the family of Ithamar to the family of Eleazar and there continued. Joab fled to the tabernacle in fear and lay hold on the horns of the altar. He was executed by Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, who was made captain of the host in his place by the king. Shimei, who had before railed upon David, was confined only to his house, yet with this condition, that if at any time he passed over the brook Kidron, he would be executed. 1Ki 2:1-46

461. When Hadad the Edomite heard that Joab was dead, he returned out of Egypt to his country. When Solomon began to follow after vanities, God used him as an enemy against Solomon. 1Ki 11:14,21

2991a AM, 3700 JP, 1014 BC

462. Pharaoh king of Egypt, gave his daughter in marriage to Solomon. He gave her the city of Gezer located in the tribe of Ephraim. Jos 21:21 Pharaoh had taken it from the Canaanites and killed all its inhabitants. 1Ki 9:16 Solomon brought her into Zion, the palace of David. 2Ki 3:1,2 2Ch 8:11

2991c AM, 3701 JP, 1013 BC

463. Solomon offered 1000 whole burnt offerings at Gibeon where the tabernacle was situated. God appeared to him in his sleep and asked him to choose anything he wanted. Solomon chose wisdom to be given him. Therefore, God gave him wisdom from above as well as all other blessings over and above this. The first test of his wisdom was the deciding of the controversy between the two women about the child. This gave him a reputation and the respect from the people. 1Ki 3:1-28

2992a AM, 3701 JP, 1013 BC

464. When Solomon was visited by messengers sent from Hiram, king of Tyre, they wanted to help him with timber for the building of the temple. When Solomon met Hiram's terms, Hiram co-operated in the venture. Solomon supplied the workmen, over whom he set pay masters and other officers to oversee the work. 1Ki 5:1-18

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:46:50 AM
 The Fifth Age of the World

2992c AM, 3702 JP, 1012 BC

465. The foundation of the temple was laid in the 480th year after Israel's exodus from Egypt. This was in king Solomon's 4th year of reign on the second day of the second month (called Zif, Monday May 21st). 1Ki 6:1,37 2Ch 3:2

2993b AM, 3703 JP, 1011 BC

466. Three years after he was commanded not to cross the brook Kidron, Shimei returned from Gath to bring back two run-away servants. Solomon commanded that he be executed. 1Ki 2:39-46

3000a AM, 3709 JP, 1005 BC

467. In the 11th year of Solomon's reign, in the eighth month, (called Bul) the temple and its furnishings was finished. It took 7 years 6 months to build. 1Ki 6:38 The dedication of the temple was postponed till the next year because it was a Jubilee year.

3001a AM, 3710 JP, 1004 BC

468. This was the ninth Jubilee which opened the fourth millennium of the world. King Solomon celebrated the dedication of the temple with great pomp and splendour. All Israel was assembled together in the 7th month, called Ethanim. The ark was brought from Zion into the Holy of Holies. The tabernacle and holy vessels from Gibeon went into the temple treasury. God gave a visible and wonderful token of his presence. Solomon was standing on a scaffold made of brass, kneeling down he uttered a set prayer to God. After this he blessed the people. He then offered 22,000 oxen and 120,000 sheep. They celebrated the feast of the dedication of the altar for 7 days and the feast of tabernacles another 7 seven days. On the 15th day the celebrations were completed on the 23rd day of the 7th month when the people were dismissed to their homes. 1Ki 8:1,2,65,66 2Ch 5:3-5 6:1 8:1-11

469. On the eighth day of the seventh month, that is (Friday, October 30th.) it was the first of the seven days of the dedication. According to Levitical law the feast of atonement was held on the tenth day, (Saturday, November 1st.) Lev 25:9 At the sound of the trumpet the jubilee was proclaimed.

470. The feast of tabernacles was held on the 15th day.(Friday, November 6th.) The last day of this feast was always very solemnly kept. This occurred on the 22nd. (Friday, November 13th.) 2Ch 7:9 Le 23:36 Joh 7:37 The following day, (Saturday, November 14th.) after the sabbath the people went home.

3012c AM, 3722 JP, 992 BC

471. In the 13th year after the temple was built, Solomon finished building his own house. He spent 20 years on both of them: 7 years 5 months on the temple and 13 years on his own house. 1Ki 7:1 9:10 2Ch 8:1

472. As a reward for Hiram's good will in helping construct these houses, Solomon offered to Hiram king of Tyre 20 cities of Galilee, or Cabul which were located within the tribe of Asher. Solomon purchased these cities himself. When Hiram refused to take them, Solomon reconstructed them all himself, planting colonies of the Israelites in them.1Ki 9:10 2Ch 8:1,2

473. When Solomon had finished both houses and the wall of Jerusalem, he moved his wife, the daughter of Pharaoh, out of the city of David, into a house which he had built for her. 1Ki 3:1 7:8 2Ch 8:11 He also built Gezer, which Pharaoh his father-in-law took from the Canaanites and gave to Solomon. 1Ki 9:15-17 Gezer was located within the tribe of Ephraim.

3026c AM, 3736 JP, 978 BC

474. Shishak, also called Sefonchis (according to Egyptian Chronology) began to reign. Jeroboam the son of Nebat fled to him and continued with him till after Solomon died. 1Ki 11:40 12:2

3029c AM, 3739 JP, 975 BC

475. Solomon forsook his lusts and vanities to which he was addicted in his later days. He testified of his deep repentance in his book called The Preacher (Ecclesiastes) and made his peace with God. 2Ch 11:17 Solomon died when he had reigned 40 years. 1Ki 11:42 2Ch 9:30

476. Rehoboam, Solomon's son, was made king by all Israel in Sichem. By his harsh approach to his rule he alienated the hearts of ten tribes from him. These tribes sent for Jeroboam the son of Nebat, in Egypt to be their king. Under his leadership, they rebelled from the house of David. They killed Adoram, whom Rehoboam had sent to them, and abandoned the true worship of God. 1Ki 12:1-33 In memorial of this sad disaster, the Jews kept a solemn yearly fast on the 23rd of the third month, called Sivan.

477. From this sad division made in that kingdom, Rehoboam reigned over Judah and Benjamin 17 years. 1Ki 14:21 2Ch 12:1,2 and Jeroboam over Israel i.e. over the other ten tribes, for 22 years. 1Ki 14:20

478. Rehoboam returned to Jerusalem and conscripted 80,100 men to fight against the ten tribes. Through the prophet Shemaiah, he was admonished from God to abandon this plan. 1Ki 12:1-33 Continual war took place between the kings for the rest of their days. 1Ki 14:30

479. In the beginning of his reign, Jeroboam repaired Shechem where he was chosen king by the people. This place was destroyed by king Abimelech, 258 years earlier. Jeroboam lived there until he went over Jordan, and built Penuel. 1Ki 12:25 Finally, he built Tirzah and made that the capital of his kingdom. 1Ki 14:17 He feared that his new subjects would revolt against him if they continued to worship at Jerusalem. So he devised a new religion. He set up two golden calves, the one at Bethel and the other at Dan, for the people to worship. 1Ki 12:25-31

3030a AM, 3739 JP, 975 BC, 1 SK, 1 NK

480. NK - On the 15th day of the 8th month, (Monday, December 6th.) Jeroboam held a feast of his own creation similar to the feast of tabernacles among the Jews. On an idolatrous altar which he had built at Bethel, he offered sacrifices to his calf. 1Ki 12:32,33 At that time, God sent an unnamed prophet from Judah who foretold what judgment God would execute by Josiah on the altar and the priests that served it. This prophecy was confirmed by signs which appeared on that altar and the king himself. 1Ki 13:1-34 2Ki 23:15-20 From the beginning of this idolatrous worship and public demonstration of God's judgment there, we are to reckon the 390 years of the iniquity of Israel as spoken of in Eze 4:5

481. This prophet was deceived by another prophet of Bethel, who lied about a message from God. Contrary to the express commandment of God he ate meat at Bethel. Therefore, in his return homeward, he was met by a lion which killed him. When the news came to the prophet which had deceived him, he took the body and gave it an honourable burial. He assured his sons that what had been foretold by that other prophet, would undoubtedly come to pass. 1Ki 1:3 2Ki 23:17,18

3030b AM, 3740 JP, 974 BC, 1 SK, 1 NK

482. SK - The priests, Levities and other Israelites who feared God did not follow Jeroboam but worshipped with Rehoboam in Jerusalem. This helped maintain the kingdom of Judah for three years. This was the time they walked in the ways of David and Solomon. 2Ch 11:17

483. NK - Jeroboam continued in his revolt and excluded the priests that were of the lineage of Aaron the Levites from his worship. He made priests for the high places from men of the common people. 1Ki 13:33,34 2Ch 11:14,15 13:9 Hence many of the priests and Levites abandoned their possessions in those tribes and settled in Judah. They were followed there by those of every tribe who wanted to worship the true God. They came to Jerusalem to worship and sacrifice to the God of their forefathers. 2Ch 11:13,14,16.

3032d AM, 3742 JP, 972 BC, 3 SK, 3 NK

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:47:20 AM
 484. SK - Rehoboam, now settled in his kingdom, forsook the law of the Lord and all Israel and Judah with him.2Ch 12:1 The Jews, who should have stirred up their Israelite brothers to repentance, provoked the Lord with their own sins. They behaved worse than their forefathers. They made high places, images and groves, for themselves on every high hill and under every tree. They did all the wicked things the heathen did in their barbarous worship including those nations whom God had cast out before them. 1Ki 14:22-24

3033c AM, 3743 JP, 971 BC, 5 SK, 5 NK

485. SK - In Rehoboam's 5th year, Shishak, king of Egypt, invited perhaps by Jeroboam, (who had formerly lived with him, noted in the year, 3026 AM) led an army of 120 chariots, 60,000 horses, with innumerable footmen from Egypt. The men were from the Lubims, Sukkiims, and Cugotcha2es who entered the land of Judah. They had already captured all the rest of their fortified cites and finally came to Jerusalem. The king and his princes were brought to repentance by the preaching of Shemaiah the prophet. The king received a gracious promise of their deliverance at a high cost. They were to release to the Egyptians all the treasure of the temple and of the king's house. All the shields of gold which Solomon had made which Rehoboam remade using brass. 1Ki 14:26,27 2Ch 12:2-12

3046 AM, 3756 JP, 958 BC, 1 SK, 18 NK

486. SK - Abijah the son of Rehoboam, succeeded his father who died in the beginning of the 18th year of Jeroboam's. He reigned 3 years. 1Ki 15:1,2 2Ch 13:1,2

3047c AM, 3757 JP, 957 BC, 2 SK, 19 NK

487. SK - Abijah and his army of 400,000 men, fought with Jeroboam and his army of 800,000 men. Because Abijah trusted in God, he obtained victory against Jeroboam. He killed 500,000 of Jeroboam's soldiers. This was the highest casualty rate of any battle recorded in the Bible. Abijah captured Bethel where one of the calves was set up and Jeshanah and Ephrain, with all its towns. 2Ch 13:1-22

3049c AM, 3759 JP, 955 BC, 1 SK, 21 NK

488. SK - After Abijam's death, at the very end of the 20th year of Jeroboam's reign, Asa his son succeeded him and reigned 41 years. 1Ki 15:8-10

3050a AM, 3759 JP, 955 BC, 2 SK, 22 NK

489. This was the 10th Jubilee.

3050d AM, 3760 JP, 954 BC, 2 SK, 1 NK

490. NK - Nadab in the 2nd year of Asa, succeeded his dead father Jeroboam in his kingdom and reigned only 2 years. 1Ki 15:25

3051d AM, 3761 JP, 953 BC, 3 SK, 1,2 NK

491. NK - At the siege of Gibbethon of the Philistines, Nadab was slain by Baasha, a man from the tribe of Issachar in the third year of the reign of Asa. In the same year that Baasha made himself king over Israel, he utterly destroyed all the family of Jeroboam. He reigned for 24 years. 1Ki 15:27-29,33

3053c AM, 3763 JP, 951 BC, 5 SK, 3 NK

492. SK - God now gave 10 consecutive years of peace to the land, 2Ch 14:1,6 even to the 15th year of king Asa's reign, or to the 35th year from the rebellion of the northern kingdom. 2Ch 15:10,19 In that year, this godly king Asa put away all public idolatry, reformed his kingdom and fortified the cities of Judah against the invasion of enemies. 2Ch 14:6

3055d AM, 3765 JP, 949 BC, 7 SK, 5 NK

493. Jehoshaphat was born to Asa by his mother Azubah. Later he at the age of 35 succeeded Asa in his kingdom. 1Ki 22:42 2Ch 20:31

3063c AM, 3773 JP, 941 BC, 15 SK, 13 NK

494. In the beginning of Asa's reign, Zerah the Ethiopian mobilised an innumerable army to invade the land of Judah. This force had 1,000,000 men from the Cugotcha2es, who as it seemed came from Arabia Petrea and the desert and the Lubims, besides those who fought aloft from the chariots. Asa met this army with 300,000 men from the tribe of Judah and 280,000 from the tribe of Benjamin. He called on the name of the Lord and routed and slew that vast army and took much spoil from them. After this he was encouraged by Azariah the prophet. He assembled all his subjects and also many of the Israelites which were loyal to him. They met at Jerusalem in the third month in which the feast of Pentecost fell. They sacrificed to God from the spoil which they had taken, 700 oxen and 7000 cattle and solemnly renewed their covenant with God. Asa continued reformation of his kingdom and removed Maachah his grandmother, a great patroness of idolatry, from the honour of queen mother. He brought into the temple the things which he and his father had consecrated to God. 2Ch 14:8,9 15:1,10,11,13,16 16:8

3064c AM, 3774 JP, 940 BC, 16 SK, 14 NK

495. NK - Baasha saw Asa actively restoring religion to Judah and that many of his subjects defected to Asa so that they might be partakers in God's covenant blessings. 2Ch 15:9 He never ceased to make war upon Asa all his days. 1Ki 15:16,32 In the 36th year since the division of the kingdom, in Asa's 16th year, Baasha started to build Ramah to prevent more of his subjects from defecting to Asa. 2Ch 16:1

3064d AM, 3774 JP, 940 BC, 16 SK, 14 NK

496. SK - Asa hired Benhadad king of Syria to come and hinder the building of Ramah which he did. Using the stones and timber from the city of Ramah, Asa built Geba and Mizpah. When Hanan the prophet reproved him, for getting help from the king of Syria, he cast him into prison, and at the same time, vexed some of his people. 2Ch 16:1-14

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:47:50 AM
 497. NK - At the same time Benhadad king of Syria, marched against the cities of Israel. He destroyed Ijon in the tribe of Asher and Dan in Dan, Abelbethmaachah in the tribe of Manasseh and all the borders of Chinnereth, with all the land of Naphtali. This forced Baasha to stop building Ramah and retire to Tirzah. 1Ki 15:20,21 2Ch 16:4,5 Isa 9:1 Now this Benhadad was son to Tabrimon, the son of Hezion, 1Ki 15:18 or of Rezon the first king of Syria of Damascus from whom the name of Hadad was passed on to his posterity in the kingdom. This is noted by Nicolaus Damascenus as recorded by Josephus l. 7. of his Antiquities, c. 6 ul. 5. where, Nicolaus states:

``The third of that name seeking to wipe away the blot of the overthrow, received in his grandfather's days, marched into Judah and destroyed Samaria,''

498. Josephus understands it to be the invasion made upon Samaria, by Benhadad, in the time of Ahab. See notes on 2960 AM and 3103 AM.

3074d AM, 3784 JP, 930 BC, 26 SK, 24 NK

499. NK - When Baasha died and was buried at Terza, his son Elah succeeded him.

3075d AM, 3785 JP, 929 BC

500. NK - In the 2nd year of Elah and the 27th of Asa, Zimri destroyed Elah and his entire family. He reigned in Tirzah for seven days. But the soldiers at Gibbethon, a town of the Philistines made Omri, the general of the army, king. He came to besiege Tirzah and Zimri set fire to the king's palace and destroyed it and himself. 1Ki 16:15-18

501. The people of Israel split into two factions, one part followed Tibni, the son of Ginath, the other followed Omri. Omri's side prevailed and Omri became king. 1Ki 16:8,21,22

3077 AM, 3787 JP, 927 BC, 29 SK, 3 NK

502. NK - Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab the son of Omri, as it seems was born 42 years before her son Ahaziah reigned over Judah. 1Ki 8:26 2Ch 21:20 22:2 See Gill on "2Ch 22:2"

3079d AM, 3789 JP, 925 BC, 31 SK, 5 NK

503. NK - Omri began to reign in Tirzah over Israel in the 31st year of king Asa. 1Ki 16:23

3080d AM, 3790 JP, 924 BC, 32 SK, 6 NK

504. SK - Jehoram was born to Jehoshaphat 32 years, before his father took him as viceroy of his kingdom. 2Ki 8:17 2Ch 21:20

505. NK - When Omri had now reigned 6 years in Tirzah, he then moved the capital of his kingdom from Tirzah to Samaria. He built Samaria in the hill of Samaria, a place which he had purchased from Shemer. 1Ki 16:23,24

3086 AM, 3796 JP, 918 BC, 38 SK, 1 NK

506. Omri died and was buried at Samaria. He was a poor father but Ahab the son who succeeded him was much worse. Ahab reigned 22 years. 1Ki 16:28,29

3087 AM, 3797 JP, 917 BC, 39 SK, 2 NK

507. SK - In the 39th year of his reign, Asa was diseased in his feet. He sought for help from the physicians and not from God. 2Ch 16:12

3090c AM, 3800 JP, 914 BC, 1 SK, 5 NK

508. SK - In the end of the 41st year of his reign, Asa died and was buried in a sepulchre which he had prepared in the city of David. The tomb was filled with sweet odours and spices. 2Ch 16:13,14 He was a good father and an even better son succeeded him called Jehoshaphat. In the very latter end of the 4th year of Ahab's reign, he started to reign over Judah and ruled for 25 years. 1Ki 22:41,42 2Ch 20:31

3092c AM, 3802 JP, 912 BC, 3 SK, 7 NK

509. SK - When Jehoshaphat was established in his kingdom, he began by removing the high places and the groves. In the 3rd year of his reign, he sent out the Levites and other chief men into all cities to instruct the people. God gave him peace. 2Ch 17:7-10

3097 AM, 3807 JP, 907 BC, 8 SK, 12 NK

510. SK - Athaliah the daughter of Ahab, king of Israel, married Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. This union resulted from the marriage alliance Jehoshaphat made with Ahab. 2Ch 18:1 She had a son named Ahaziah, who at the age of 22 succeeded him in the kingdom. 2Ki 8:18,26,27 2Ch 21:26 22:2

3099a AM, 3808 JP, 906 BC, 9 SK, 13 NK

511. SK - The eleventh Jubilee.

3103c AM, 3813 JP, 901 BC, 14 SK, 18 NK

512. NK - Benhadad, king of Assyria, assembled his army together and with the assistance of 32 petty kings besieged Samaria. He was defeated by Ahab and fled. 1Ki 20:1-43

3104d AM, 3814 JP, 900 BC, 15 SK, 19 NK

513. NK - About a year later, Benhadad came up a second time as far a Aphek to fight with Israel. He was badly defeated and surrendered to Ahab. Ahab received him with all courtesy and honour and after a while let him go in peace. Ahab made a league of friendship with him. For this act, God pronounced judgment upon him by his prophet. 1Ki 20:1-43 However as a result of this league, there was 3 years of peace between the two nations. 1Ki 22:1

3105 AM, 3815 JP, 899 BC, 16 SK, 20 NK

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:48:20 AM
 514. NK - When Ahab could not get Naboth to sell him his vineyard, he was depressed. Jezebel his wife, using false witnesses had Naboth condemned to death and stoned. Ahab got possession of the vineyard. For this wicked deed, the prophet Elijah told him of the destruction which was to befall him, Jezebel and all his posterity. When Ahab trembled at this and by a timely repentance, he obtained a respite of this judgment. 1Ki 21:1-29

3106d AM, 3816 JP, 898 BC, 17 SK, 21 NK

515. SK - As Ahab had done, Jehoshaphat made Jehoram his son, viceroy of the kingdom. Jehoram the son of Ahab succeeded his brother Ahaziah 1Ki 1:18 as king over the Israelites in the 18th year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. 2Ki 3:1 He is said to have begun his reign, in the 2nd year of Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat. 2Ki 1:17

516. NK - Ahab in the 17th year of the reign of Jehoshaphat, made his son Ahaziah viceroy in the kingdom. 1Ki 22:51

3107d AM, 3817 JP, 897 BC, 18 SK, 22,2 NK

517. SK - Jehoshaphat visited Ahab at the very end of the third year of peace which Ahab had made with the Assyrians. He was invited by Ahab to go with him to the siege of Ramothgilead. After being entreated he went but barely escaped from there with his life. 1Ki 22:1-53 2Ch 18:1-34 When he returned home, the prophet Jehu, the son of Hanani reproved him for helping such a wicked king. 2Ch 19:1,2

518. NK - After Ahab convinced Jehoshaphat to go with him, he went to besiege Ramothgilead. Before he went, he asked what the outcome of the war would be from the 400 false prophets and from Micaiah, the true prophet of God. They all told him he would do well but Micaiah foretold his defeat. Ahab disguised himself but was slain in the fight. He was buried in Samaria. 1Ki 22:1-53 2Ch 18:1-34

519. After he was dead, Moab revolted from the Israelites. 2Ki 1:1 3:5 They had been in subjection to them ever since king David's days. 2Sa 8:2

3108a AM, 3817 JP, 897 BC

520. SK - When Jehoshaphat had built a fleet, he send it to Ophir for gold. Ahaziah the wicked son of Ahab went into partnership with him on this venture. At first Jehoshaphat refused the joint venture 1Ki 22:49 but later agreed to it. For so doing, God destroyed the fleet and reproved him by his prophet Eliezer, the son of Dodavah. 2Ch 20:35-37

3108b AM, 3818 JP, 896 BC

521. NK - Ahaziah king of Israel was injured when he fell through a lattice of his dining room in Samaria. He asked Baalzebub, the god of the Ekronites, if he would recover. The prophet Elijah destroyed with fire from heaven 2 captains and their companies of 50 who were sent to capture and bring him to the king. At last, he went voluntarily with the third captain that came for him. He told the king plainly that he would die. 2Ki 1:1-18 The king did die. He reigned two years, partly with his father, partly by himself. 1Ki 22:51

522. When Ahaziah was dead, his brother Jehoram, the son of Ahab succeeded him in the later end of the 18th year of Jehoshaphat and reigned 12 years. 2Ki 3:1

3108c AM, 3818 JP, 896 BC, 19 SK, 1 NK

523. Elijah was taken up into heaven in a fiery chariot. 2Ki 2:1-25

3109c AM, 3819 JP, 895 BC, 20 SK, 2 NK

524. When Edom was still under the control of Judah, the three kings from Israel, Judah and Edom united to subdue the rebellious Moabites. In this war Elisha the prophet, miraculously furnished the army with water and assured them of the victory over their enemies. Mesha king of the Moabites was besieged in Kirhareseth and tried unsuccessfully to break out with the small forces he had left. He captured the firstborn son who would have succeeded his father the king of Edom and is called king of the Edomites by the prophet Amos. Am 2:1 He offered him for a whole burnt offering upon the wall of the city. 2Ki 3:1-27

3112c AM, 3822 JP, 892 BC, 23,1 SK, 5 NK

525. SK - When Jehoshaphat was old, he desired to settle his estate. He gave the rest of his sons, many gifts and fortified cities in Judah. His oldest son Jehoram (whom he had formerly employed as his viceregent) was made consort with him in the kingdom. This was in the 5th year of Jehoram king of Israel and he reigned for 8 years. 2Ch 21:2,3,5,20 2Ki 8:16,17

3115c AM, 3825 JP, 889 BC, 4 SK, 8 NK

526. Jehoshaphat died and was buried in the city of David. 1Ki 2:50 2Ch 21:5 This good king's wicked son, Jehoram ruled alone for 4 years. When he was established in his kingdom, he slew all his brothers and many of the other princes in Judah. 2Ch 21:1-20 The Edomites revolted. They had been under the control of Judah since king David's time. 2Sa 8:14 Although they had been smitten by Jehoram, yet, according to the prophecy of Isaac, Ge 27:40 they shook off Judah's yoke for ever. Libnah, a city of the priests in the tribe of Judah, Jos 12:13 also revolted at this time. 2Ki 18:20-22 2Ch 21:8-10

3116a AM, 3825 JP, 889 BC

527. SK - Jehoram followed the counsel of his wicked wife Athaliah and set up in Judah and Jerusalem the idolatrous worship of Baal just as Ahab, his father-in-law had done. He forced his subjects to worship Baal and he was reproved by a letter written by the prophet Elijah who foretold what calamities and punishments would happen to him. 2Ch 21:11-15 These events occurred as predicted. 2Ch 21:16-20

3116c AM, 3826 JP, 888 BC

528. SK - First God stirred up against him the Philistines and Arabians. These attacked Judah and took away whatever was found in the king's house, together with his sons and wives. Since all his other sons were slain, he had only Jehoahaz left. 2Ch 21:1-20 He was also called Ahaziah and Azariah and succeeded his father in the kingdom. 2Ch 22:1,6

3117c AM, 3827 JP, 887 BC, 6 SK, 10 NK

529. SK - After this God struck Jehoram with an incurable disease in the bowels, which tormented him for 2 whole years. 2Ch 21:15,18,19

3118d AM, 3828 JP, 886 BC, 7 SK, 11 NK

530. SK - When Jehoram was afflicted with this sickness, he made his son, Ahaziah, his viceroy, in the 11th year of Jorum the son of Ahab. 2Ki 9:29

3119c AM, 3829 JP, 885 BC, 8,1 SK, 12 NK

531. When Jehoram's bowels fell out, he died a miserable death and was buried in the city of David, but without any pomp and not among the kings. 2Ch 25:19,20 After this Ahaziah his son succeeded him in the 12th year of Joram the son of Ahab and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. He followed in the steps of his wicked mother Athaliah and the house of Ahab. He set up and maintained the worship of Baal. 2Ki 8:25,27 2Ch 22:1-4

532. Ahaziah had a son by Zibia of Beersheba, whose name was Joash or Jehoash. He was proclaimed king at the age of 7. 2Ki 11:21 2Ch 24:1

3120b AM, 3830 JP, 884 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:48:48 AM
 533. NK - Jehoram king of Israel and Ahaziah king of Judah went out together with their armies to Ramothgilead against Hazael. He had recently succeeded Benhadad in the kingdom of Syria, as Elisha the prophet had foretold him. In that fight Jehoram was grievously wounded by the Syrians and he retired to Jezreel to be healed of his wounds. 2Ki 8:1-29 Meanwhile a certain son of the prophets sent by Elisha came to Ramoth and anointed Jehu the son of Jehoshaphat the son the Nimshi, king over Israel. He told him the will of God for the wiping out of the house of Ahab. As soon as Jehu was proclaimed king by the captains and officers of the army, he marched to Jezreel. There he slew both Jehoram and Jezebel.2Ki 9:1-37 Jehu sent letters to Samaria which were responsible for the death of the seventy sons of Ahab as foretold by Elisha. He took with him Jehonadab, the son of Rechab and came to Samaria. There he destroyed all the family of Ahab with all the priests of Baal. Although he destroyed Baal worship, he still maintained the worship of Jeroboam's golden calves and the associated idolatry by the Israelites for all of his 28 year reign. 2Ki 10:28,29,39

3120c AM, 3830 JP, 884 BC

534. SK - Ahaziah returned from the battle at Ramothgilead against Hazael. Later he went to Jezreel to see Jehoram the king of Israel who was recovering from his wounds. When Jehu found many of his family attending him there and various princes of Judah, he slew them all. Then he searched for Ahaziah himself who had escaped and fled to Megiddo. When he caught up with him on the way to Gur which is in Ibleam, in the tribe of Manasseh, he killed him in his chariot. Ahaziah was carried from there by his servants and was buried with his fathers in the city of David. 2Ki 9:2 2Ch 22:1-9 When Jehu was on his way back to Samaria, he met 42 men of Ahaziah's relatives heading to Jezreel. There they intended to greet the king's children but Jehu had them all killed. 2Ki 10:13,14

535. When Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab, saw that her own son Ahaziah was dead, she killed all the royal family of the house of Judah and took control of the kingdom. Jehosheba, the daughter of king Joram, and wife to Jehoiada, the high priest, took the infant Joash who was the son of her brother Ahaziah. Joash and his nurse were hid for 6 years in the temple while Athaliah ruled. Thus she spared him from the slaughter of the rest of the royal family. 2Ki 11:1-3 2Ch 22:10-12

3126c AM, 3836 JP, 878 BC, 1 SK, 7 NK

536. Jehoiada the high priest, brought out Joash at the age of 7 and anointed him king. After he had Athaliah killed, he restored the worship of the true God, destroyed the house of Baal and commanded Baal's high priest Mattan to be killed before his altars. 2Ki 11:4,21 2Ch 23:4,21 Joash began his reign in the 7th year of Jehu and reigned 40 years in Jerusalem. 2Ki 12:1 2Ch 24:1

3140c AM, 3850 JP, 864 BC, 15 SK, 21 NK

537. Amasiah the son of Joash and Jehoaddan, was born in Jerusalem because he was 25 years old when he began to reign. 2Ki 14:2 2Ch 25:1

3147d AM, 3857 JP, 857 BC, 22 SK, 28 NK

538. Joash commanded the priests to repair the temple of God using the poll tax that was gathered for that purpose. 2Ki 12:4-16 2Ch 24:4-14

3148a AM, 3857 JP, 857 BC

539. The twelfth Jubilee.

3148c AM, 3858 JP, 856 BC, 23 SK, 1 NK

540. In the 23rd year of his reign, Joash saw that the priests were quite slow in repairing the temple. Therefore he assigned the task to Jehoiada the chief priest and to others to complete that work. 2Ki 12:6-16

541. NK - Jehoahaz succeeded his father Jehu as king over Israel in the 23rd year of Joash the son of Ahaziah. He reigned 17 years 2Ki 13:1 and Hazael king of Syria cruelly oppressed the Israelites for his entire reign. 2Ki 13:3-7,22 as foretold by Elisha. 2Ki 8:12

3163c AM, 3873 JP, 841 BC 38 SK, 16 NK

542. Joash the son of Jehoahaz, was made viceroy with his father in the latter end of the 37th year of Joash king of Judah. He reigned 16 years. 2Ki 13:10

3164c AM, 3874 JP, 840 BC, 39 SK, 17,2 NK

543. After Jehoiada died, his son Zechariah the priest was stoned to death for reproving the Israelites for backsliding into idolatry. This was done by the king's command in the court of God's house. 2Ch 24:17-22

3165 AM, 3875 JP, 839 BC, 40,1 SK, 3 NK

544. SK - The next year some small bands of Hazael, king of Syria attacked Judah and Jerusalem and killed all the chief of the people. They took away all their spoil to their king. When they were gone, Joash was left very sick. His servants conspired against him and killed him in his bed in revenge for Jehoiada's death at the beginning of the 40th year of his reign. 2Ch 24:1,23-27 2Ki 12:17-21 His successor, Amasiah in the latter end of the 2nd year of Joash king of Israel, reigned 29 years. 2Ki 14:1,2 When he was established in his kingdom he killed the servants who murdered his father. However he spared their children according to the law of God as delivered by Moses. 2Ki 14:5,6 2Ch 25:3,4

545. NK - When Jehoahaz the son of Jehu had reigned 17 years, he died and was buried in Samaria. 2Ki 13:1-9 Shortly after his father's funeral, Joash visited Elisha the prophet who was lying on his death bed. Tearfully he asked counsel of him concerning the state of the kingdom. Elisha foretold that he should have 3 victories over the Syrians. 2Ki 13:14-20

3168c AM, 3878 JP, 836 BC, 4 SK, 6 NK

546. NK - Jeroboam the second, seems to have been made viceroy of the kingdom by his father Joash. He went to war and in three battles overthrew Benhadad, who succeeded his father Hazael in the kingdom of Syria. He recovered from Benhadad the cities which Jehoahaz his father had lost. Hence we may gather, that Azariah king of Judah began his reign in the 27th year of this Jeroboam. 2Ki 13:25 15:1

3178 AM, 3888 JP, 826 BC 14 SK, 16 NK

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:49:18 AM
 547. SK - Uzziah was born to Amasiah by Jecholiah of Jerusalem. He was also called Azariah and was 16 years old when he succeeded his father in the kingdom. 2Ki 15:2 2Ch 26:2

548. Amasiah became proud of his recent victory over the Edomites. In this fourteenth year of his reign, as Josephus, lib 9. Antiquit. ca. 10. states, he provoked Joash king of the Israelites to battle. In the battle at Bethshemesh he was defeated and taken prisoner. He was released when a payment of a large ransom including hostages was made. 2Ki 14:8-14 2Ch 25:17-24

549. NK - When Joash defeated Amasiah, king of Judah he took him prisoner. Joash broke down 400 cubits of the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim to the corner gate. When he had taken all the treasure from both the temple and the king's house, he returned to Samaria. 2Ki 14:13,14 2Ch 25:23,24

3179c AM, 3889 JP, 825 BC, 15 SK, 1 NK

550. Joash died 15 years before the death of Amaziah. Jeroboam his son succeeded him and reigned in Samaria 41 years. 2Ki 14:23

551. God used Jeroboam to deliver Israel. He recaptured Damascus and Hamath which rightly belonged to the tribe of Judah. 2Sa 8:6 2Ch 8:3 He restored the former borders Nu 13:21 from the entrance into Hamath to the sea of the plain. This fulfilled the prophecy of the Lord which was spoken by Jonah the prophet, the son of Amittai. 2Ki 14:25,27,28

3194c AM, 3904 JP, 810 BC, 29 SK, 15 NK

552. SK - When Amaziah discovered a conspiracy against him at Jerusalem, he fled to Lachish where he was murdered. From there he was carried to the city of David and buried. 2Ki 14:19,20 2Ch 25:27,28 Uzziah, or Azariah succeeded him in the 27th year of Jeroboam, king of Israel as reckoning from the time that he began to reign as co-regent with his father as noted in 3168 A.M. He reigned 52 years in Jerusalem 2Ki 15:1,2 and under him the kingdom of Judah prospered as much as Israel did under Jeroboam the second. As long as he followed the advice of the prophet Zechariah, he applied his heart to religious matters. God prospered him and he subdued the Philistines and his neighbouring enemies. He became mighty in his kingdom. 2Ch 26:2-16

3197a AM, 3906 JP, 808 BC 4, SK, 19 NK

553. SK - Now was the 13th Jubilee held under two most prosperous kings, under whom also lived various great prophets in either kingdom. In Judah, lived that evangelical prophet, Isaiah, the son of Amoz, Isa 1:1 and Joel, the son of Pethuel. He prophesied before Amos, as Codamanus observes because in Joe 1:20 he predicted a coming drought which Amos in Am 4:1-13 said had happened. Amos lived in Judah, among the herdsmen of Tekoa and was called to be a prophet to the kingdom of Israel two years before the earthquake which happened in the days of these two kings Uzziah and Jeroboam the second. Am 1:1 Zec 11:5

554. NK - At the same time, Jonah the son of Amittai and Hosea the son of Beeri prophesied in Israel.

555. Jonah was from Gathhepher, 2Ki 14:25 a town of the tribe of Zebulun,Joh 7:52 in Galilee of the Gentiles. Isa 9:1 This is referred to by the Pharisees who spoke with Nicodemus. Joh 7:52 "Search and know that out of Galilee, never arose any prophet." It seems that at the time the Syrians oppressed Israel, and all were vulnerable to their invasion, that they took great spoil, and no one was able to deliver them. He foretold that Joash his son Jeroboam, would deliver Israel out of their hands and avenge them of the wrong they had endured. 2Ki 14:25,26 Jonah was later sent to Nineveh, the capital city of Assyria. By his preaching he brought both the king and people to repentance .Jon 3:1-10 Mt 12:41

556. When Jeroboam was successfully ruling Israel, Hosea foretold the ruin and desolation of it. He also lived to see its ruin as he continued as a prophet to the time of Hezekiah. Ho 1:1 In the 6th year of his reign came the desolation of Israel. 2Ki 18:10

557. Amos was a third prophet taken from Judah as he kept his flocks. He was sent to prophesy to the people of Israel. Am 1:1,7,14,15 He was accused by Amasai the priest at Bethel, before Jeroboam, who commanded him to return into Judah. Amos pronounced judgment against Amasai saying

``Thy wife, shall play the harlot in the city and thy sons, and thy daughters shall fall by the sword. Thy land shall by divided by line; and thou shalt die in a polluted land. (viz. of Assyria)''

558. when Israel shall be carried away out of her own land.Am 7:10,12,13,17

3207 AM, 3917 JP, 797 BC, 14 SK, 29 NK

559. In Lydia, Ardysus of the clan of the Heraclidae, reigned 36 years (Euseb. Chron.)

3210 AM, 3920 JP, 794 BC, 17 SK, 32 NK

560. The kingdom of Macedonia, was set up by Caranus, a man of the clan of the Heraclidae.

3213 AM, 3923 JP, 791 BC, 20 SK, 35 NK

561. SK - There was an eclipse of the sun, of about 10 digits this year on the 24th day of June, during the feast of Pentecost. (12 digits indicates a total eclipse, 10 digits would be 10/12 of the sun's disk was covered.) Another eclipse occurred of almost 12 digits, 11 years later, on November 8th 3933 JP, during the Feast of Tabernacles. A third eclipse of over 11 digits happened the next year on May 5th, 3934 JP during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. (3943 and 3944 in original document) The prophesy of Amos, Am 8:8-10 is referenced as he states:

``the sun shall set at noonday and I will bring darkness upon the earth in a clear day. I will turn your festivals into mourning and all your solemn songs into lamentations.''

562. Up to this time, the early church fathers took this prophecy to refer to that darkness which came during the Feast of the Passover at the passion of our Saviour. In these three dark eclipses which came during each of these feasts, in which all the males were in Jerusalem before the Lord, that prophesy was thought to have been literally fulfilled. Among the Greeks, Thales the astronomer thought Amos was the first to predict eclipses of the sun.

(June 24, 791 BC, JD=1432685.1171, middle of the eclipse in Jerusalem - 18.89 hours GMT (for Babylon - 19.13), maximum - 0.92
Babylon - 0.63. Data taken from "Solar and Lunar Eclipses of the Ancient Near East from 3000 B.C. to 0 with Maps" by Manfred Kudlek and Erich Mickler, published in Neukirchen in 1971. Unable to confirm data using Canon of Lunar Eclipses", (-2002 - 2526), Jean Meeus, Herman Muche, 1979. Editor.)

3220 AM, 3930 JP, 784 BC, 26 SK, 41 NK

563. NK - When Jeroboam died, the kingdom seriously declined. Tumults arose which headed them toward their ultimate destruction beginning first with Jeroboam's own family and then the whole kingdom. This was foretold in Am 7:1-8:14. All was reduced to anarchy among the Israelites for eleven and an half years and there was no king during this time. This is deduced when the times of these two kingdoms are compared. In Israel we understand that the 6 month reign of Zachariah the son of Jeroboam occurred in the last 6 months of the 38th year of Uzziah. The one month that Shallum reigned was the first month of the 39th year of Uzziah. 2Ki 15:8-13

3221c AM, 3931 JP, 783 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:49:49 AM
 564. SK - Uzziah, king of Judah and his wife Jerusha the daughter of Zadok had a son named Jotham. When Uzziah was quarantined because of his leprosy, Jotham ruled in the king's house and judged the people. When Uzziah died Jotham succeeded him as king when he was 25 years old. 2Ki 15:5,33 2Ch 26:21 27:1,8 From this we can deduce that a short time later when Menahem, took over the kingdom of Israel, that Uzziah was an old man. It was at this time as he aspired to take the office of a priest that he was stricken with leprosy. This is contrary to what the Jews and Procopius Gaseus affirm, from Isa 7:1-25 that this overtook him about the 25th year of his reign. The earthquake occurred in the days of Uzziah and Jeroboam, Am 1:1 Zec 11:5 It is clear that when Jeroboam died, Jotham had not yet been born.

3224a AM, 3933 JP, 781 BC

565. SK - Eclipse of the sun, see note on 3213 AM

3224c AM, 3934 JP, 780 BC

566. SK - Eclipse of the sun, see note on 3213 AM

3228c AM, 3938 JP, 776 BC, 35 SK, 9 NK

567. In the summer of the year 3228, the first olympiad took place (according to Greek chronologers). Choraebus of Elis won the race. The Iphitean account dates it the 28th. As Julius Africanus shows out of the writings of Aristodemus Eleus and Polybius (as in the Greek edition of Eusebius by Scaliger, p.13 & p.216) states: And here ends that interval of time which by the learned Varro (as in Censorinus' book, "de die natali", reports is termed mythological because many mythological things are said to have happened. From this time on Greek history begins.

3232a AM, 3941 JP, 773 BC, 38 SK, 1 NK

568. NK - Zachariah the son of Jeroboam, began his reign in the 38th year of Uzziah king of Judah. He was the fourth and last of the family of Jehu as was foretold by God. He reigned for 6 months. 2Ki 15:8,12,10,30

569. At the end of those 6 months, he was murdered by Shallum the son of Jabesh, in the sight of the people. 2Ki 15:10 At this time the calamities foretold by Amos the prophet took place. Am 7:1-17 9:1-15

``The high places of Isaac shall be desolate and the sanctuaries of Israel made a wilderness, when I shall arise with a sword against the house of Jeroboam.''

570. Shallum the son of Jabesh, reigned one month in the 39th year of Uzziah king of Judah. 2Ki 15:13

571. When Menahem the son of Gad, was going from Tirzah to Samaria, he killed Shallum and destroyed Tiphsah with its borders. He also violently slaughtered all the pregnant women. 2Ki 15:14-16

572. This Menahem, is by Supitius Severus in his 1st book of "Histo. Sacra", goes by the name of Manes. This person is also called Manichaus later known as the heretic, in that his name means "a comforter"

3233c AM, 3943 JP, 771 BC

573. Boccaris Saites, reigned in Egypt for 40 years. (African.)

574. NK - While Menahem spent 11 months fighting to take over the kingdom, God stirred up Pul king of Assyria to invade the land of Israel. 1Ch 5:26 2Ki 15:19

575. Pul seems to have been the father of Sardanapalus, from whose name he called himself Sardan-pul just as Merodach king of Babylon, from Baladan his father, was called Merodach Baladan. Isa 39:1 The following chronologers agree that he is the same person, but call him by different names. Jul. African. calls him "Acracarnes". Eusebius, calls him "Oceazapes". Stephanus Bysantinus calls him "Cindaraxes". Strabo, Arrian and Suidas, call him "Anacyndaraxes". By others, (as we find in Atheneus, l. 2. Deiphosoph.) he is called "Anabaxares". Furthermore, I considered the number of years assigned by Africanus and Eusebius, to the reigns of him and his son. I then counted the years backwards from the beginning of Nabonassar to the end of Sardanapalus' reign. I believe both lived at the same time. This man named Pul seems to have been the same man who was converted and brought to repentance by the preaching of the prophet Jonah. This means that the men of Nineveh may have risen in judgment against this nation. God here raised up a repentant, heathen man to take vengeance on the unrepentent Israel.

576. Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver to help settle and confirm him in his kingdom. 2Ki 15:19,20 In reference to this, some refer to Ho 5:13

``When Ephraim saw his sickness and Judah saw his wound, then Ephraim went to the Assyrian and sent to king Jareb, who should defend or uphold him.''

577. When Menahem was thus confirmed in the kingdom, he was established in the latter end of the 39th year of the reign of Uzziah. He held the kingdom for 10 years. 2Ki 15:17

3237 AM, 3947 JP, 767 BC, 44 SK, 5 NK

578. Sardanapalus held the kingdom of the Assyrians for 20 years, according to Jul. Africanus. and Euseb. In his Epitaph (which is contained in Atheneus l. 12 out of Clirarchus and in Strabo, l.14 and in Arrian, 1.3. of the acts of Alexander) he is said to have built two cities in Cilicia in one day. These cities were Anchialus and Tarsus.

3242 AM, 3952 JP, 762 BC, 49 SK, 10 NK

579. SK - Ahaz the son of Jotham, was born in this year. He was 20 years old, when he started to reign 2Ki 16:2 2Ch 28:1 and reigned for 16 years. After his death, his son Hezekiah, is said to have been 25 years old, when he began to reign. Otherwise, Ahaz would only be 11 years old when his son was born. Hence, Tremelius understands that Ahaz was 20 years old not when he himself reigned, but when his father Jotham began his reign.

3243c AM, 3953 JP, 761 BC, 50 SK, 1 NK

580. NK - Pekahiah succeeded his father Menahem, who died in the 50th year of Uzziah, king of Judah and he reigned for 2 years.2Ki 15:22

3245c AM, 3955 JP, 759 BC, 51 SK, 2 NK

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:50:20 AM
 581. SK - Habyattes the elder, reigned in Lydia 14 years, (Euseb. Chron.)

582. NK - Pekah, the son of Remaliah, killed Pekahiah in his own palace in Samaria. He then reigned in Pekahiah's place for 20 years reckoning from the 52 years of Uzziah king of Judah. 2Ki 15:25,27

3246a AM, 3955 JP, 759 BC

583. SK - It was during the 14th Jubilee when Isaiah saw the glory of the Lord sitting on his throne. God was surrounded with a guard of angels singing, "Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth." The Jewish people grew more and more obstinate and blind every day lest they should understand the words of the prophets sent to them and be converted and healed. Isa 6:1-13 Joh 12:40,41

584. Isaiah's vision came in the last year of king Uzziah. Isa 6:1 He was buried in the city of David in the burying place of the kings, but apart from the rest because of his leprosy. Jotham his son succeeded him in the 20th year of Pekah, king of Israel. He reigned 16 years in Jerusalem, 2Ki 15:7,32,33 2Ch 26:23 27:1,8

585. Jotham fought a battle against the Ammonites and overthrew them. They became his tributaries for three years. 2Ch 27:5 He had two successors, Micah the Morasthite and Isaiah. Hosea executed the prophetic function. Mic 1:1 In his time also, as Josephus l. 9. Antiq. c. 11. or 12. affirms, Nahum the prophet foretold the subversion of the Assyrians and of Nineveh. This came to pass 115 years later. By that reckoning, Josephus understands that Nahum prophesied in the time of Ahaz, the son of Jotham.

3252c AM, 3962 JP, 752 BC, 7 SK, 7 NK

586. In this year Hezekiah the son of Ahaz, was born by his mother Abi, the daughter of Zachariah. He was 25 years old when he began to reign. 2Ki 18:2 2Ch 29:1

3254c AM, 3964 JP, 750 BC, 9 SK, 10 NK

587. Two towns were built in this year. Ardus was one of them. It was constructed on a very small island as Mela notes. The whole circumference of this island was taken up with this one town. Cyzicum was the second town located in Propontis.

588. Arbaces the governor of Media, scorned the effeminate ways of Sardinapalus. He conspired with Belesus the governor of Babylon by sending a battalion of 400,000 men of Medes, Persia, Babylon and Arabia. He was overthrown in three battles, but in the fourth the Bactrian soldiers defected over to him. He attacked his enemies by night and unawares and drove them from their camp. When Sardanapalus put all the command of the army into the hands of Salaemenus, his wife's brother, he was also defeated twice by the conspirators. As a result he was almost killed and all his army. When Nineveh was besieged, Sardanapalus sent three of his sons and two daughters into Paphlagonia with a great treasure. They gave it to Cotta, governor of that province. With this treasure Cotta dispatched messengers and commissioners throughout the land to conscript soldiers and provide all the necessities needed to endure a siege. (Diod. Sic. l. 2.)

3256c AM, 3966 JP, 748 BC, 11 SK, 12 NK

589. SK - Rome was founded by Romulus according to the reckoning of Fabius Pictor, the most ancient of all Roman writers. This date is confirmed according to the account of the secular games held by the ancient Romans most religiously. This happened shortly before the beginning of the 8th Olympiad, on the feast of their goddess Pales, on the 10th day of April. However the feast of Pales, according to Varro's account, was a full 5 years earlier than it is according to Fabius. The poet Ovid said of this day:

``Urbs oritur (quis tunc hoc ulli credere posses?) Victorem torris impositura pedem.'' Fal. 4.

590. That is:

A city is born,
(which who then would have thought)
That since the world
Has in subjection brought.

3257 AM, 3967 JP, 747 BC

591. In the 3rd year of the siege of Nineveh the river overflowed with continual rains. It flooded a part of the city and undermined two and one half miles of the wall. When Sardanapalus knew this, he made a huge pile of wood in his palace court and set it on fire, which burned himself, his concubines, his eunuchs and all his riches. The palace itself was also burned to ashes.

592. The conspirators entered by the breach in the wall made by the water, and took the city. They proclaimed Arbaces as their king. (Diod. l. 2. and Athena. l. 12 from Ctesias.) Therefore the kingdom of the Assyrians was destroyed. From the beginning of the reign of Ninus, they held all of upper Asia for 520 years as Herodus (l. 1. c. 95.) affirms.

593. After the kingdom fell, it was divided. Arbaces, whom Strabo calls "Orbacus" and Velleius Paterculus named "Pharnaces" freed his countrymen the Medes from the Assyrian yoke. Later, he enabled them to live according to their own laws. Herodotus, in the book previously mentioned, affirms this. Belesis, is called Baladan in the scriptures. Isa 39:1 2Ki 20:12 Agathias (l. 2. Histo. from Bion & Alex. Polyhist.) calls him "Belessas" or "Beleussus". Nicol. Damascennus, in his Eclogs, set forth by Hen. Valesius, Naminybrus. By Hipparchus, he is called "Ptolomaus". Censorinus is called "Nabonassarus." He held the kingdom of Babylon for 14 years.

3257b AM, 3967 JP, 747 BC

594. From twelve o'clock, on the first day of the Egyptian month Thoth, from Wednesday, February 26th, in the evening, in the year 747 BC, all astronomers unanimously start the calender of Nabonassar.

595. Meles in Lydia reigned 12 years, (Euseb. Chron.) of whom more is to be read about in Herodotus. (l. 1. c. 84.)

596. Ninus the younger, held the kingdom of the Assyrians (reduced now to the old boundaries). The empire was quite diminished in Sardanapalus' 19 years. Eusebius explained the errors in Chronology in many large volumes of his Greek Chron. out of Castor the Rhodian. This Ninus, for good luck, seemed to have assumed the name of the first founder of the Assyrian kingdom. His own original name was Eliam, as l. 12. Histor. Annal. and Thilgamus tell us. In the scriptures he is known as "Tilgathpilneser" 1Ch 28:20 or "Tiglathpileser". 2Ki 15:29 16:7,10

3262c AM, 3972 JP, 742 BC, 17 SK, 18 NK

597. Ahaz succeeded his father Jotham at the very end of the 17th year of Pekah, the son of Remaliah and reigned 16 years in Jerusalem, 2Ki 16:1,2 2Ch 28:1

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:50:50 AM
 598. Towards the end of the reign of Jotham, God began to stir up Resin the king of Syria and Pekah the son of Remaliah against Judah. 2Ki 15:37 Judah was terrified at the approach of these enemies and expected a quick defeat at their hands. God sent a gracious message to Ahaz by Isaiah the prophet with a promise of his deliverance and the destruction of his enemies. For a sign of his deliverance (when the incredulous king was asked what sign he wanted, he said none), God made him a promise that a virgin would bear Immanuel. He would be both God and man, or God with us, or dwelling in our flesh. With regard to his office, he is the only Mediator between God and man. 1Ti 2:5 He would bring to pass that God would "be with us" Isa 8:10 gracious and propitious to us and a very present help in trouble. Ps 46:1,2,7 Ro 8:31,32 This message was most befitting the present situation in that all promises of God in Christ, are "Yea and Amen", 2Co 1:20 to be fulfilled generally in him and for him. Besides this the land of Judah was to be privileged to be Immanuel's land. Isa 8:8 Pertaining to the flesh, he was to be born not only of the Jews but also of the very house of David. According to the prophecy of Jacob. Ge 49:10 This would happen before the sceptre would depart from Judah. That is, before Judah would cease to be a nation ruled by kings. Therefore at that time Judah need not fear the destruction of the house of David or the nation of the Jews. However, 65 years later this happened to the Northern Kingdom as predicted by Isaiah. Isa 7:1-8:22

599. For a sign of the destruction of those kings who came against Ahaz, the prophet was commanded to bring out Ahaz's son, Shearjashub. He told Ahaz that his son would eat butter and honey until he was old enough to know right from wrong. Before this happened both these kings would be dead. Isa 7:3,15,16 At the same time Isaiah's wife, a prophetess, bore him another son. God named him Mahershalalhashbaz signifying that the Assyrian would hurry and take away the spoil. They would plunder both Syrians and Israelites before the child would be able plainly to pronounce, "My father", or "My mother." So the sons of the prophets were made to serve for signs from God to the Israelites. Isa 8:3,4,18 After these prophecies Rezin and Pekah came up together to besiege Jerusalem where Ahaz was. They could not take it as was predicted by Isaiah. Isa 7:1-7 2Ki 16:5 This wicked Ahaz was no sooner delivered out of this imminent danger, but he forsook God his deliverer and walked in the ways of the kings of Israel. He set up the idolatrous worship of Baal and offered incense in the valley of Benhanan. He made his own son to pass through the fire. He offered sacrifices in the high places, upon the hills and under every green tree. 2Ch 28:2-4 2Ki 16,3,4

3263c AM, 3973 JP, 741 BC, 2 SK, 19 NK

600. SK - When Ahaz forsook God, God also forsook him. When Rezin and Pekah divided their forces, they overcame him. This they could not do when their forces were united. God gave him over into the hands of the Syrians who defeated him and carried away a great multitude of his people captive to Damascus. Also the king of Israel defeated him and slaughtered a great number of his people. 2Ch 28:5

601. At the same time, Rezin conquered Elath, which Uzziah had recovered for Judah. Rezin rebuilt it and repopulated it with Syrians. 2Ki 14:22 2Ch 26:2 2Ki 16:2

602. NK - Pekah killed 120,000 valiant men of Judah in one day. Zichri, a mighty man of the tribe of Ephraim, slew Maaseiah the king's son, Azrikam, the steward of the king's house and Elkanah who was next to the king in authority. The Israelites also carried away captive from Judah and Jerusalem 200,000 women, boys and maids. They plundered their goods and carried all away to Samaria. When warned by Hadlai a prophet of God, they released all of the prisoners and restored their goods to them in the presence of their princes and the whole congregation of Samaria. They treated them kindly and escorted them safely to Jericho. 2Ch 28:6-15

3264c AM, 3974 JP, 740 BC, 3 SK, 20 NK

603. SK - The Edomites invaded Judah and carried away many captives. The Philistines whom king Uzziah had conquered, 2Ch 26,6,7 now attacked the cities of Judah in the low countries and southern parts and dwelt there. God gave Judah over to their enemies because of Ahaz's sin and because he had led Judah into sin. 2Ch 28:17-19

604. Ahaz took all the gold and silver that was found in the Lord's house and in the treasury of the king's house. He sent it for a present to Tiglathpileser king of Assyria wishing him to come and deliver him from the kings of Syria and Israel. He came and took Damascus, and carried away all its inhabitants to Kir and killed Rezin the king of Syria. 2Ki 16:7-9 This fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, 2Ki 7:16 8:4 9:11 as well as of Amos who long before had foretold the ruin of the king of Damascus, in these words.

``I will send a fire upon the house of Hazael, which shall consume the palaces of Benhadad and I will break in pieces the bars of Damascus and root out the inhabitants of the valley of Aven, and him that beareth the sceptre out of the house of Eden and the people of Syria shall be carried away into Assyria, saith the Lord,'' Am 1:4,5

605. So the kingdom of Damascus, of Hamath came to an end. (Am 6:2 and of Arpad, Jer 49:23 Isa 10:9 36:19 37:12,13) This kingdom began with a man called Rezon, 1Ki 11:23,24 and ended with one of the same name. It lasted for 10 generations, as Nicol. Damascenes, cited by Josephus, l. 7. Antiquit. c. 6. affirms. See note 2960 A.M.

606. When Ahaz went to meet Tiglathpileser at Damascus, he congratulated him for his great victory. He saw there an altar and he sent the pattern of it to Uriah, the priest, so that he might make one like it in Jerusalem. When he returned, he and the people offered their sacrifices on it. He moved the brazen altar far from the front of the house so that it would not stand between his altar and the house of the Lord. 2Ki 16:1-20

607. NK - When Ahaz implored the aid of the kings of Assyria, (as it is said in 2Ch 28:16 "kings" in the plural, by a usual analogy, or change of the number, Ps 105:30 Jer 19:3 25:22 Isa 1:52) against Pekah, Tiglathpileser came. He led away the people of Gilead or Peraea, to wit, the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh, to Habor and Hara and the river Gozan. When he then passed over Jordan, he occupied Galilee and carried away all the inhabitants of Naphtali, who Benhadad had left, together with the men of Galilee into Assyria. 1Ch 5:26 2Ki 15:29 1Ki 15:20 Isa 9:1

3265c AM, 3975 JP, 739 BC, 4 SK, 1 NK

608. SK - When Ahaz had now made himself a servant to the king of Assyria, then he found that he had received more harm than help from him. 2Ch 28:20,21 Isaiah had previously intimated to him of this using the allegory:

``The Lord shall shave off the hair of thy head and feet with an hired razor, from beyond the river, even the king of Assyria, and it shall also consume the beard.'' Isa 7:20

609. Therefore Ahaz built a secret passage between the king's house to the house of the Lord because he feared the king of Assyria. 2Ki 16:18 Tremelius understands this to mean that for fear lest the king of Assyria would assault him from that way and break into his palace. In the midst of all of his afflictions, he sinned still more and more against the Lord. 2Ch 28:22

610. NK - When Hoshea, the son of Elah, murdered Pekah the son of Remaliah, he took over the kingdom 20 years after Jotham started to reign over Judah, 2Ki 15:30-38 or the 4th year of the reign of Ahaz. See Gill on "2Ki 15:30" However the kingdom was in civil disorder and anarchy for nine years and Hoshea had a troubled reign.

3269 AM, 3979 JP, 735 BC, 8 SK, 5 NK

611. Candaules, whom the Greek authors call, as Herodotus said, Myrsylus, the son of Myrsus was the last of the family of the Heraclydae. He reigned in Lydia for 17 years. (Euseb. Chron.)

3271 AM, 3981 JP, 733 BC, 10 SK, 7 NK

612. Nadius, or Nabius reigned over the Babylonians for 2 years. (Ptol. in Reg. Canone.)

3273c AM, 3983 JP, 731 BC, 12 SK, 9 NK

613. Chinzirus and Porus, reigned over the Babylonians, 5 years. (Ptol. in Reg. Canone.)

3274c AM, 3984 JP, 730 BC, 13 SK, 1 NK

614. NK - When Hoshea restored order in Israel, he began a peaceful reign in the latter end of the 12th year of Ahaz king of Judah. 2Ki 17:1

3276b AM, 3986 JP, 728 BC, 14 SK, 2 NK

615. NK - Tiglathpileser or Ninus the younger reigned for 19 years according to Castor and died. After him came Shalmaneser, called Evemassar as in the Greek copy of Tobias. This man seems to be that Shalman, who in the prophesy of Ho 10:14 is said to have laid waste Betharbel. The place was famous later for the defeat of Darius the Persian. This is the country of Arbella, in the land of Assyria, beneath Arpad. Against Hoshea, king of Israel, Shalmaneser came up. He made him to serve and pay him tribute. 2Ki 17:3

3277c AM, 3987 JP, 727 BC, 1,16 SK, 4 NK

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:51:23 AM
 616. After Sabacon, an Ethiopian, had taken Boccoris king of Egypt alive, he burnt him in the fire and reigned in his place 8 years. (Affica.)

617. SK - In the last year of his reign, Ahaz made his son Hezekiah viceroy with him in the kingdom. This was in the latter end of the third year of Hoshea king of Israel. Hezekiah reigned 29 years in Jerusalem. 2Ki 18:1,2

3278a AM, 3987 JP, 727 BC

618. Jugaeus or Julaeus, reigned over the Babylonians 5 years, (Ptol. reg. Canon.)

3278b AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC

619. SK - Ahaz died in this year. The prophet Isaiah foretold the destruction of the Philistines (who at that time, unjustly held a part of Judah, as was shown before, in the 3264th AM.) Isa 14:28-32 Likewise he predicted a great disaster to happen to the Moabites within three years. Isa 15:1-16:14 For fulfilment of these prophesies, see 3280 AM and 3284 AM.

3278c AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC, 1 SK

620. SK - After Ahaz died, Hezekiah, toward the latter end of the first year of his reign in the first month Abib, opened the doors of the Lord's house which his father had shut up. 2Ch 28:24 He commanded the priests and Levites to sanctify themselves and then to clean up the temple. 2Ch 29:3,4

621. They were encouraged by Hezekiah and on the first day of the first month, (Sunday, April 21st) they sanctified themselves. According to the king's command, came to cleanse the house of the Lord. On the 8th day of the some month, (Sunday, April 28th.) they entered into the porch of the temple and sanctified the house of the Lord for 8 days. On the 16th day of the first month, (Sunday, May 6th.) they finished that work. 2Ch 29:15-17

622. Early next morning (Monday, May 6th.), king Hezekiah called together all the rulers of the city. He went up into the house of the Lord together with the people. With the ministry of the priests and Levites, he offered many sacrifices upon the altar of the Lord with great joy and gladness. 2Ch 29:20-36

623. According to the law in Nu 9:10,11, the passover was delayed until the second month for the following reasons. The passover could not be kept at the same time when that meeting and the cleansing of the temple was being done. The number of sanctified priests was not enough. All the people were not gathered together from all the country to Jerusalem. Notice was sent to all the people from Beersheba even to Dan. Not only the Jews, but some also out of the tribes of Asher, Manasseh and Zebulun, came together in Jerusalem. The rest of the tribes laughed at the notice. 2Ch 30:1-12 The altars for idols and of incense were destroyed first and then thrown into the brook Kidron. They killed the Pascal lambs on the 14th day of the second month, (Sunday, June 3rd.) They kept the feast of unleavened bread for 7 days. They offered their sacrifices of thanksgiving and sang praises to the God of their fathers. 2Ch 30:13-22 As further testimony of their thankfulness to God, they continued 7 more days. This time was kept and celebrated with great glee and joy of heart. 2Ch 30:23

624. When they had finished these activities, then all the Israelites, who were present there, about the end of the second month, went out into all the cities of Judah. They broke down the images and cut down the groves and destroyed the high places and altars throughout Ephraim and Manasseh until they had finished the work. When this was done, the Israelites returned home. 2Ch 31:1

625. Hezekiah went further. He broke in pieces the very brazen serpent that Moses had set up Nu 21:9 because in those days the Israelites burnt incense to it. In contempt of it, he called it by a diminutive term, "Nehushtan", "a little piece of brass." 2Ki 18:4 He appointed the priests and Levites to their duties. He provided for them food and maintenance by establishing again the law of first fruits and tithes. 2Ch 31:1-21

626. On the 3rd month, every man brought in their first fruits and tithes and gave them to the priests. 2Ch 31:5-7

3279a AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC

627. SK - In the 7th month after the harvest of the fruits of the whole year was completed, Ex 29:16 the collection of the first fruits and tithes was completed. 2Ch 31:7 Hezekiah appointed officers for the proper distribution of them. 2Ch 31:1-21

3279b AM, 3989 JP, 725 BC, 3 SK, 6 NK

628. NK - Hoshea the king of Israel, consulted beforehand with So king of Egypt and refused to pay tribute any longer to Shalmaneser. 2Ki 17:4

629. This So or Sua, as Jerome calls him, seems to be none other then Sabacon the Ethiopian.

630. Chrysostome, in his 30th Homile on John, says that this Hoshea made an alliance with the Ethiopians. Severus Sulpicius, in his sacred History l.1 says

``that he allied with the kings of the Ethiopians, who at that time, held the kingdoms of Egypt.''

3280b AM, 3990 JP, 724 BC, 4 SK, 7 NK

631. NK - When Shalmaneser knew that Hoshea had allied himself with the king of Egypt, he first secured all the land of the Moabites. So that he might have no enemy at his rear to annoy his army, he razed to the ground their two chief cities, Arnon and Kirhareseth. This fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah foretold three years earlier. Isa 16:7-11 See Tremellius on this. Then he went through and wasted all the land of Israel and marched toward Samaria in the 4th year of Hezekiah. In the 7th year of Hoshea, he besieged Samaria for 3 years, 2Ki 17:4-6 18:9

3283 AM, 3993 JP, 721 BC, 6 SK, 9 NK

632. After Nabonasser's 26 year reign, Mardocempadus began to reign in Babylon for 12 years according to Ptolemy's Reg. Canon. By the prophet Isaiah, Merodach Baladan, is called the son of Baladan, Isa 39:1 as being Belesis, or the son, or according to a most usual Hebrewism, nephew of Nabonasar. In Mardocempadus' first year the moon was eclipsed at Babylon, according to Ptolemy in his 4th book of his great Syntaxis, c. 6. This was in the 27th of Nabonasar, 29th of the month Thoth, as the Egyptians call it, (that is toward the end of our March 19th) two and an half hours before midnight.

633. NK - Toward the end of the 3rd year of the siege of Samaria, in the 6th year of the reign of Hezekiah and 9th of Hoshea, Shalmaneser took Samaria. He carried away the Israelites into his own country and settled them in Halah, Habor and the river Gozan and in the cities of the Medes. Tiglathpileser had formerly transported to this place the inhabitants of Perea, or the two tribes and a half living on the other side Jordan. 1Ch 5:26 2Ki 17:6 8:10,11 Anarchy was in Media before the kingdom of Media was taken by "Deioces". This gave occasion to the Assyrians to invade and take over that whole country. This was the place where Tobit or Tobias the elder states that he at this time with Anna his wife and his country men, the Nepthalites, were carried away into the land of the Assyrians. There they provided grain and other food for Shalmaneser's household. Also he was carried into Media and there placed in a principal city of Media called Rages. There he deposited ten talents of silver in the hand and trust of Gabael his near kinsman and one that was carried away captive with him to the same place. /APC Tob 1:22 This was the end of the kingdom of Israel after if revolted from the kingdom of Judah 254 years earlier.

3284b AM, 3994 JP, 720 BC

634. In the second year of Merodach's reign, there was another eclipse of the moon in Babylon. This happened in the 28th year of Nabonasar, on the 18th day of the month of Thoth, at midnight. The Julian calendar dates it on Saturday, March 9th. Exactly 176 days and 20 and an half hours later, a third eclipse of the moon took place. This occurred on the 15th day of the month Phamenoth Sunday, September 1st. three hours and an half before midnight. (Ptolemy l. 4. Magn. Syntax, c. 6, and 7.)

3285 AM, 3995 JP, 719 BC

635. Seuechus the Ethiopian, Sabacon's son, reigned in Egypt for 14 years. (African,) He seems to also be called Sethos, priest to Vulcan who is mentioned by Herodotus in his second book c. 141.

3286 AM, 3996 JP, 718 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:51:59 AM
 636. When Candaules indecently exposed his wife to his courtier named Gyges the son of Dascylus, his wife ordered Gyges to murder him. As a result he married the wife of the murdered king and took over the kingdom of Lydia. This is mentioned in a poem by Archilocus from the Isle of Paros, who lived at the same time. So the kingdom of Lydia went from the clan of the Heraclidae into the clan of Merduades. This clan ruled it for 170 years. Gyges himself reigned 18 years. (Herod. l.1.) Gyges was but a bondslave as appears by that saying of Cresus his grandchild in Xenophon, (Justit.Cyri. l. 7.)

``I understand that the first of my ancestors that here reigned, was made a king and a free man both at the same time.''

637. Plato in his 2 de Repub. states that he was master of the king's cattle and his name was Gyges. In the eastern dialect this seems to have been Gug, or Gog.

3287 AM, 3997 JP, 717 BC

638. When Gyges took over the kingdom, he sent various large offerings to Delphi. He made war upon Miletus and Smyrna and took the city of Colophos by force. (Herod. l. 1. c. 17.)

639. When the Gitteans revolted, Eluleus king of Tyre, sailed there and subjected them again. Shalmaneser the king of Assyria marched with his army and invaded all Phoenicia and came against Tyre. Shortly after he made peace with them and returned home again. Not long after, Sidon and Ace (called later Ptolomais) and Poletyrus or old Tyrus, with various other cities defected from the Tyrians to the Assyrians. When only the Tyrians now stood against him, he returned a second time. In this action the Phoenicians furnished him with 60 ships, and 800 sailors. The Tyrians attacked this fleet with only 12 ships, routed all the navy and took 500 prisoners. By this the Tyrians obtained a good reputation as a naval force. Shalmaneser returned to besiege Tyre. He set guards by the river and conduits which served the city and cut them off. This hindered them from getting water. They held out for five years and at last were forced to dig wells within their city walls to get water. This is from Menander of Ephesus, in his Chronicles, translated into Greek, from the Tyrian Annals, cited by Joseph. 9. Antiq. c. ult. Eluleus is called Ayluleus by Rufinus an ancient Latin historian. Hence Scaliger calls him Eliseus. I disagree with him in this that he here says that the Cyprians were by Menander called Kitteans. However he by the name of Gitteans, understood indeed the inhabitants of Gitta, or Gath well known by that name in the Bible. 2Sa 15:18 21:19 1Sa 17:4 These were also added to Judah by Hezekiah in the very time of this Eluleus or Eliseus, as may be gathered from Josephus. He says that Hezekiah made war on the Philistines and defeated them. He added all their cities (except one) and country from Gath to Gaza to the kingdom of Judah. (9. Antiq. cap ult.) Also from 2Ki 15:18 18:8 Hezekiah smote the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territories. Isaiah prophesied against the Tyrians who at this time were grown proud and insolent by reason of their wealth and success in wars. Isa 23:1

640. When Shalmaneser died, his son Sennacherib reigned in his stead. /APC Tob 1:18 Herodotus in l. 2. calls him the king both of Assyria and Arabia too. It could be at that time that the Assyrians ruled over Peraea, or the land of Gilead and Hamath, or Ituraea and held also a part of Arabia, either Petraea, or Deserta. For that Ivah, or Ava, which Sennacherib boasted much of seems to have been conquered by him or his ancestors. 2Ki 18:34 19:13 Isa 37:13 This was a country lying in the desert of Arabia, Fram. Junius affirms based on 2Ki 17:24. The prophet Isaiah foretold the calamity which was to fall upon the Moabites by Shalmaneser, (of which I spoke in 3278 AM. and 3280 AM.). This is taken from Bersus' History of the Chaldeans as cited by Josephus. (lib. 10. c. 1.) He says that Sennacherib reigned in Assyria and also that he waged a fierce war on all Asia and Egypt.

3291c AM, 4001 JP, 713 BC

641. This war of his upon Egypt lasted 3 whole years and Palestina also joined with him in the war. This is deduced from Isa 20:1-6. Isaiah is told to take off his coat of hairy cloth (belonging to his prophetic function, as in Zec 13:4) from his loins and his shoes from his feet. He was commanded to walk up and down naked and bare foot for 3 years for a sign to the Egyptians and Ethiopians. This intimated that when that time expired, they likewise would be stripped of their clothes and go bare foot into captivity and bondage by the king of Assyria. This command the prophet is said to have received in the year when Tartan was sent by Sargon king of Assyria and besieged Ashdod and took it. Isa 20:1 Sargon is also called Sennacherib. Taran was one of his commanders. 2Ki 18:17 By Ashdod, that famous city Azotus, a city of the Philistines, we showed before from Josephus that it was conquered by king Hezekiah.

642. Hezekiah had shaken off the king of Assyria's yoke (which his father Ahaz had taken) and would no longer serve him. 2Ki 17:7 In the 14th year of his reign, toward the end of it, Sennacherib, came up against the kingdom of Judah. He besieged their fortified cities and took many of them. Isa 36:1 2Ki 18:13 2Ch 32:2 When Hezekiah perceived that he intended also to attack Jerusalem, he consulted with his princes. He plugged up all the fountains that were around the city and diverted the brook Kidron which ran through the region. Then he built up all that part of the wall which Joash the king of Israel had demolished in the time of Amaziah. He fortified the house of David, and provided arrows and shields in great abundance and set captains and colonels over the people. He called them together and he made a very short speech to them. He persuaded them to be of good courage and not to have any fear of the king of Assyria nor of his army. 2Ch 32:2-8,30

643. In those days when Hezekiah was very sick he was told by Isaiah that he would die. He poured out his tears and prayers to God and he was healed. Another 15 years were added to his life. Isa 38:1,5,21 2Ki 2:1,7 2Ch 32:24 He composed a song. First he showed the seriousness of his illness and the anxiety he had. He told of his prayer to God and then acknowledged the great benefit of his recovery received from God. Lastly he testified his faith in God, and promised to be everlastingly thankful to him.

644. It is true that in the scripture this is recorded after the story of the slaughter of Sennacherib and his army. However not precisely but with a general annotation only of the time, "In those days." For this happened before his sickness, these scriptures plainly show.

``I will add unto thy days fifteen years and will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria and I will defend this city.''

645. Isa 38:5,6 2Ki 20:6 Now if we subtract from the 29 years which Hezekiah reigned, these 15 years, we shall find that the slaughter of Sennacherib and his army happened in the latter end of the 14th year of his reign.

646. The sign of Hezekiah's recovery which God at his request gave to him, was that miraculous going back of the shadow of the sun, upon the dial of Ahaz as recorded in Isa 38:8

``Behold I will bring again the shadow of the degrees, which is gone down in the sundial of Ahaz, 10 degrees backward, so the sun returned ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone down.''

647. As Jonathan the Chaldee Paraphraser interprets, "the stone of the hours" and renders it by the hours of the clock. Yet in his commentary on this passage he observes that the Hebrew word signifies degrees. Also in 2Ki 20:9 he states:

``wilt thou that the shadow ascend 10 degrees, or that it return back 10 degrees?''

648. Nor may we ignore the Greek LXX interpretation of this passage since it is more ancient than any of these writings. It states that by these words used here, no other thing is meant in this history but the degrees of those scales or stairs which were made by Ahaz. Since it cannot be shown that until after their return from the captivity of Babylon, there was any observation or use at all of hours among the Jews. Others also attribute the invention of the Gnomon in the dial among the Greeks to men of a later date as Anaximadder or Anaximener. This I shall show later in the note on 3457 AM. However it seems that they received it originally from the Babylonians as noted by Herodotus, when he says, (lib. 2. c. 109.)

``The pole and the dial and the dividing of the day into twelve hours, all these the Greeks learned from the Babylonians.''

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:52:31 AM
 649. As concerning the retrograde motion of the Sun as mentioned in, Isa 38:8 /APC Sir 48:23 it is when the sun stood still at the prayer of Joshua the moon also stood still at the same time. Jos 10:12,13 It is apparent that with the sun the moon also, and all the frame of heaven went backward and that there was as much subtracted from the night, as there was added to the day. There was a miraculous alteration in the parts of the normal day. By divine providence things were so ordered that no harm or hinderance did happen to the constant and ever self-like motion and harmony of the heavenly bodies. This is evident by those three solar eclipses, of which I spoke earlier, from Ptolemy. The account of these if calculated from our times backward yields the same result of the times as was formerly observed by the Chaldeans and in the same manner as if no such retrogradation or going back of the sun had ever happened.

650. Now in the beginning of the 15th year of Hezekiah's reign, Merodach, or Berodach Baladan, the son Baladan, the king of Babylon, sent messengers with presents to him. They wanted to know the reason for the miraculous retrogradation of the sun which happened in the world. Hezekiah from pride and vain ostentation showed them all his treasures and pomp of riches. God presently foretold him of the captivity of Babylon which was to happen:

``Behold the days come, that all that is in thine house and that which thy fathers have laid up in store until this day, shall be carried away into Babylon; nothing shall be left, saith the Lord.''

651. He added further that his sons which were not yet born should also be carried into captivity.

``Thy sons also, that shall issue from thee and which thou shalt beget, shall they take away and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon,''Isa 39:1-8 2Ki 20:12-19

652. Nevertheless when Hezekiah with the inhabitants of Jerusalem, had humbled himself for his former pride, the fierce wrath of the Lord fell not upon them in the days of Hezekiah. 2Ch 32:25,26,31

653. Micah also the Morasthite, prophesied to the people in Hezekiah's days:

``That Zion should be plowed and Jerusalem laid in heaps and the mountain itself of the house of the Lord, as the high places in a forest'' Mic 3:12 Jer 26:18,19

(The important thing to note is that the earlier eclipse data was not disturbed by the events in Hezekiah's day. Whatever happened, effected at the very least the sun, earth and moon system. God made time go backward not just have the earth rotate backward. Otherwise the eclipse data would be thrown off for eclipses that occurred before Hezekiah's event happened. An undesigned coincidence in the sciptures verifies their authority. Of all the people in the world, it is only recorded that the Chaldeans visited Hezekiah. They were very careful in noting astronomical events and had noticed something strange as far away as Babylon. They no doubt heard that Hezekiah had something to do with it and hence they went to him to learn more of this event. In 331 BC they turned over 1903 years of astronomical observations to Callisthenes when Alexander the Great was in Babylon. Editor)

3292 AM, 4002 JP, 712 BC

654. Memnon writes that Astacum in Bithynia, was built by the Megarenses, in the beginning of the 17th Olympiad. (Biblioth Photii. p. 347.)

655. Herodotus, (lib. 2. c. 141.) tells us, that Sennacherib invaded Egypt, with a vast army and made war upon Sethon, the priest of Vulcan. This man was a weak king and famous for nothing except for being devoutly or rather superstitiously addicted to the worship of his petty god, Vulcan. Herodotus also adds that even in his time, there remained a stone image of Sethon holding a mouse in his hand. These words were engraved on the statue.

``Let every man that looks on me, Learn godly and devout to be.''

656. For his and their countries and their own priesthood's honour, the priests in that area expound it this way. Sethon who was both king and priest, had by virtue of his piety and prayers to his god Vulcan prevailed with the god. For when Pelussum, which stands in the very entrance of Egypt was besieged by the enemy, their horse bridles, and buckles of their buckler, were so gnawn to pieces by mice that the next day they fled with the loss of many of their men. However, whatever the matter was at Pelusium, the undoubted word of the prophet assures us, that the Assyrians marched far into the very heart of Egypt and led away a great many captives.

657. Nahum's prophecy against No was likely fulfilled by this expedition of Sennacherib's. No was a large and strong city in Egypt. The prophecy was:

``yet was she carried away; she went into captivity, her young children also were dashed in pieces in the top of every street, and they cast lots for their honourable men and all her great men were bound in chains'' Na 3:10

3294c AM, 4004 JP, 710 BC

658. The prophecy made by Isaiah 3 years earlier concerning the rest of Egypt was fulfilled at this time. Isa 24:1-23

``The king of Assyria shall carry away a great multitude of the Egyptians captive; and of the Ethiopians young and old prisoners, naked and barefoot'':

659. I do not see why the next two verses should not refer to the Jews.

``And they shall be ashamed of Ethiopia their expectation and of Egypt their glory: and the inhabitants of this country shall say in that day: Behold such is our expectation, whither we flee for help to be delivered from the king of Assyria and how shall we escape?'' Isa 20:5,6

660. The Assyrian messenger had a good reason to remind them of Egypt when he said:

``Now behold, you trust in the staff of this bruised reed Egypt, on which if a man lean, it will go into his hand and pierce it; for even so is Pharaoh, to all such as trust upon him,'' 2Ki 18:27

661. For we find the same simile used by God of the Egyptians and Israelites, in Eze 29:6,7 and in Isa 30:1-31:9. Here many things were spoken against the vain hope which the Jews had of help from Egypt.

``Therefore, saith he, shall the strength of Pharaoh be your shame, and your trust in the shadow of Egypt your confusion, for the Egyptians shall help in vain and to no purpose: therefore have I cried concerning this, Their strength is to stay at home.'' Isa 30:3,7

662. When Sennacherib returned from Egypt into Palestine, he besieged Lachish with all his forces. 2Ch 32:9 Hezekiah sent to him at Lachish to buy his peace and agreed with him for peace at a certain price. Therefore he drained all his own treasure of which he had formerly been so proud as well as the treasury of the temple. He paid him 300 talents of silver and 30 talents of gold. When he took the money, he broke his agreement and sent from Lachish to Jerusalem Tartan, who had now taken Azotus and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh with a large army. 2Ki 18:14-17

663. When these came to Jerusalem, they stood at the conduit of the upper pool by the highway of the fullers field. After they called out to speak with the king, Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah and Shebna the recorder went out to them. When they would not surrender the city, Rabshakeh then cried out that Hezekiah did vainly rely on God for help and that he himself was sent by God. After he reviled the God of Israel and Hezekiah his servant with many reproachful sayings, he tried to make the people rebel and defect to the king of Assyria. This they spoke loudly in the Hebrew language so that the people who stood on the wall might hear and understand what they said. This they did to frighten and cause them anxiety so that in the resulting tumult they might easily assault and take the city. Isa 36:1-22 2Ki 18:17-37 2Ch 32:9-18

664. When Hezekiah heard of this, he tore his clothes, put on sackcloth and went into the house of the Lord. He sent Eliakim, Shebna and the elders of the priests, clothed likewise in sackcloth, to Isaiah the prophet. They asked him to seek counsel of God for this sad situation and to pray to God for help. The prophet encouraged them. He said that after the king of Assyria heard a rumour, he would lift his siege and return to his country and be murdered. This all came to pass. Isa 37:1-7 2Ki 19:1-7

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:53:05 AM
 665. When Rabshakeh could not take Jerusalem, he returned to Sennacherib. He left Lachish and besieged Libnah. Isa 37:8 2Ki 19:8

666. Tirhakah king of Ethiopia did not invade Egypt and Syria as Scaliger groundlessly asserts in his notes on Eusibius (p. 72.) and in his Isagogical Canons, page 311. Rather he sent forces to assist and help the Egyptians and Jews. For the Scripture is clear, that he came to fight against Sennacherib. Isa 37:9 2Ki 19:9 This Tirhakah, Strabo (lib. 1. and 15.) calls, Tearcon the Ethiopian and further notes from Megasthenes, a writer of the history of India, that he passed over into Europe and went as far as the pillars of Hercules.

667. When Sennacherib at Libnah heard a report of Tirhakah coming, he sent his commander with railing letters to Hezekiah. He spoke of the God of Israel as if he were like one of the gods of the nations, mere works of men's hands. Hezekiah took it before the Lord in his temple and with many tears sought help and deliverance from God against the Assyrians. God answered him by Isaiah the prophet. He said that God would defend that city and that the king of Assyria should not so much as come there, but should return by the way he came. Isa 37:9-35 2Ki 19:9-34 2Ch 32:17,19,20

668. The very same night after these things happened at Jerusalem and a few days after his victory over the Ethiopians which happened about this time as some gather from, Isa 18:1-19:25 God sent his angel to their camp. He destroyed every man of valour, every commander, and chief man in the Assyrian army. The next morning there were found 185,000 dead men. After this Sennacherib shamefully broke camp and returned into his own land to rest at Nineveh. It came to pass that as he was worshipping before his god Nisroch, Adrammelech and Sharezer slew him with the sword. They fled immediately into the land of Ararat, or Armenia. and Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead. Isa 37:36-38 2Ki 19:35-37 2Ch 32:21 All this was foretold by the prophet. Isa 38:1-22 31:8,9

669. In the first chapter of the book of Tobit, there are these things found which belong to this story. When Sennacherib fled from Judah, he slew many of the Jews for the hatred he had toward the Israelites. Tobit, or Tobia the elder, stole away the dead bodies and gave them a proper burial. When he was accused of this to the king of Nineveh, he fled into hiding for a time. They plundered and spoiled of all his goods leaving him only Anne his wife and Tobias his son. After 45 days, or as the Greek copy has it, before 55 days, Sennacherib was murdered by his sons. When they fled into the mountains of Ararat, Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead. Some copies incorrectly call him Achirdon or Sarchedon. The new king set Achiacarus, the son of Hananeel, Tobit's brother, over all his father's affairs and his own. He was his steward and keeper of his accounts and the cupbearer having the privy seal and was the second man after the king.

670. Hezekiah had his son Manasseh, by Hephzibah, 3 years after his life was lengthened and 12 years before his death.

671. The Medes had up until now lived without a king. After Dejoces would not judge their causes and controversies any longer, civil disorder ensued. The Assyrians used this occasion to take possession of many cities and places in Media as I noted before on 3283 AM. The people did not like the resulting anarchy and they submitted unanimously to Dejoces. This was 150 years before Cyrus began his reign as Herodotus in his first book states quoting from Ctesias on this point. Both Dionysius, Halicarnasseus and Appianus Alexandrinus, in the beginning of his Roman Histories agree. Though Diodorus Siculus, in his second book, whether through faulty memory or poor copying puts Cyazaris for Dejoces. He is said to have been elected king over the Medes, about the second year of the 17th Olympiad according to Herodotus. For subtracting 150 years from the beginning of the reign of Cyrus which he supposed happened in the beginning of the 55th Olympiad results in the middle of the year 4154 JP or 560 BC. It follows that the 1st year of Dejoces the first king of the Medes must be in the 3rd year of the 17th Olympiad in the middle of the year 4004 JP. This allowed the latter end of the second year of the same Olympiad to have been spent in the transaction of this business and election of the new king. This is the first epoch or point of the beginning of this new kingdom of the Medes. Herodotus correctly determined and recorded this fact. The precise times of every king's reign when compared with the eclipse of the sun, which happened in the reign of Cyaxares described later in the 3403 AM. will be shown as we proceed.

3295a AM, 4004 JP, 710 BC

672. The 15th Jubilee which was the middle most of all the jubilees, was the most joyful except for the one at Solomon's dedication of the temple. The fresh memory of so great a deliverance and for the prosperity that happened made this one of the best jubilees ever. Many brought offerings and gifts to the Lord at Jerusalem and rich presents for the king. He was magnified later among all nations, and prospered in whatever he undertook to do. 2Ch 32:23,27,30

673. After this great deliverance God prospered Judah greatly. 2Ch 32:22 Isa 37:31,32 That this was a jubilee is necessary to understand the sign of God's mercy given the year before to Hezekiah:

``You shall eat saith God, this year, that which groweth of itself, the second year, that which springeth of the same; and in the third year, sow ye and reap ye and plant vineyards and eat of the fruit thereof, Isa 37:30 2Ki 19:29

674. The previous year's harvest was either gathered by the enemy which roved all over the country, (according to God's threatening, Le 27:16 De 28:33 Jer 5:17) or spoiled and trodden underfoot by them. It would be necessary for the people to live that year upon that which grew by itself. Because this year was a Jubilee, it was not lawful either to sow or reap. Otherwise, if no Sabbatical year intervened, they might have done this. Since the Assyrian army was destroyed by the angel, there was nothing to hinder them from planting a crop. But the following year when there was neither enemy to frighten them, nor Sabbatical year to prevent them, they might legally resume farming as at other times.

3295b AM, 4005 JP, 709 BC

675. After Mardosempadus, or Merodach Baladan had reigned 12 years in Babylon, he was succeeded by Arkianus in the 29th year of Nabonaser and reigned 5 years (Ptol. in Reg. Can.)

676. According to Eusub. Chron., Parion in the coast of Hellespont, near to Lampsacus was built or rather re-established by the Milesians and Erythreans who sent a colony there at this time.

3296 AM, 4006 JP, 708 BC

677. Dejoces king of the Medes built Ecbatane this year in the first year of the 18th Olympiad according to Eusebius' Greek Chronicle. This city in Ezr 6:2 is called Achmetha, but Ctesias in his Persica, as Stephanus Byzantinus states, called it Agbatam. A fuller description of the construction of it is in /APC Jud 1:1-16 where it is said that it was built by Arphaxad king of Medes. Herodotus and other writers attributed it to Dejoces. It appears that the same man was called by both names. More will be said on this in the notes on 3448 AM.

3299 AM, 4009 JP, 705 BC

678. Taracas or Tirhaka the Ethiopian reigned in Egypt 18 years. See note on 3294 AM. (Africanus.)

3300 AM, 4010 JP, 704 BC

679. After Arkianus, there was no king for 2 years.

3302 AM, 4012 JP, 702 BC

680. Belibus, or Belithus and Belelus, held the kingdom of Babylon for 3 years. (Ptol. Reg. Canon.)

3305 AM, 4015 JP, 699 BC

681. Apronadius reigned in Babylon for 6 years. (Ptol. Reg. Canon.)

3306c AM, 4016 JP, 698 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:53:36 AM
 682. Hezekiah was buried in the upper part of the sepulchres of the family of David. All Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem paid him every honour possible. 2Ch 32:33 After Hezekiah, came his son Manasseh who reigned 55 years. 2Ki 21:1 He again set up the high places which his father Hezekiah had pulled down. He built altars to all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the Lord. He made his son pass through the fire in the valley of the son of Hinnom. He used divinations and sorceries and soothsayings and set up a molten image in the house of the Lord. He made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to sin and do worse than all the nations, whom God had driven out before the Israelites. 2Ki 21:2,11 2Ch 33:2,9 He also shed much innocent blood, insomuch that he filled Jerusalem with it. In addition to his own sin, he made Judah to sin and to do that which was evil in the sight of the Lord. 2Ki 21:16 24:4 Manasseh is thought to have cut the prophet Isaiah into two pieces with a wooden saw. The Babylonian Talmud in their treatise, Justin Martyr in his Coloquie with Tryphon, Jerome upon Isa 20:57 and others of our men, explain the passage in Heb 11:37

``were sawed in pieces'',

683. as referring to Isaiah. For all this God threatened that:

``he would stretch out over Jerusalem, the line of Samaria and the plumb of the house of Ahab: and that he would wipe Jerusalem, as one useth to do, when he wipes a dish and turneth it upside down,'' 2Ki 21:13

3311 AM, 4021 JP, 693 BC

684. Rigibelus reigned over the Babylonians for one year. (Ptol. Reg. Can.)

3312 AM, 4022 JP, 692 BC

685. Mesissimordacus reigned over the Babylonians for 4 years. (Ptol. Reg. Can.)

3316 AM, 4026 JP, 688 BC

686. There was a vacancy of a king in Babylon for 8 years. (Ptol. Reg. Can.)

687. According to Herodotus, (lib. 1. c. 130) Dejoces extended the kingdom of the Medes, as far as the river Halys, 128 years before the end of the reign of Aastyages.

688. In the 23rd Olympiad, Herostratus Naucraties a merchant of Egypt, went to Paphos in the island of Cyprus. There he bought a little image of Venus about the size of the palm of a man's hand and of very ancient workmanship. By its power he was miraculously delivered from a storm at sea. He consecrated the image at Naucratis in the temple of Venus, with great solemnity. This is according to Atheneus, who was born in the same place, in his 15th book Deipnosophist. However, according to Scrabo, l. 17., there was no such town as Naucratis in Egypt at that time nor until later when it was built by the Milesians. This was in the time of Cyaxeris king of Medes and of Psamyticus king of Egypt, who both lived at the same time.

3317 AM, 4027 JP, 687 BC

689. Civil disorder increased in Egypt for there was no king for 2 years. (Diod. Sic. l. 1.)

3319 AM, 4029 JP, 685 BC

690. After this Egypt was ruled by an aristocracy of 12 men who governed the kingdom by a Common Council. This government according by Herod. (l. 2. c. 147) and Diod. Sic. (l. 1.) is said to have lasted 15 years. Tremellius is of the opinion, that the burden of Egypt, spoken of by the prophet Isa 19:5,6 refers to the drying up of the river Nile as foretold in:

``They shall want of their waters, to run into the sea, so that their river shall be dried up and turning away their waters, they shall empty and dry up their channels fenced with banks''

691. Based on Herodotus, Tremellius states:

``The 12 petty kings using the labour of this poor people, shall strive to overrule the very works of nature and shall turn away the waters of Nile. Even to make its channels dry. They did this so that they might finish their pond or lake of Marios with their Pyramides and Labyrinth solely for their lust and pleasure's sake.''

692. But Scaliger in his Canon. Isagog. understands it, that there should be there so great a drought that their river Nile in the summer season would not rise nor flow nor water Egypt as it normally did. He refers this prophesy to the earlier times of Soij or Sabbacon.

3323c AM, 4033 JP, 681 BC

693. When the family of the Babylonian kings died out, after 8 years of no kings, Esarhaddon the king of Assyria conquered them and held that kingdom for 13 years. (Ptolemy's, Can. Reg.) It appears Assaradinus is the same person as Esarhaddon. This is from the similarity in the names and by the word of the Holy Scripture. It intimates that he was king both of Assyria and Babylon at the same time. 2Ki 17:24 19:37 See note on 3327 AM.

3324 AM, 4034 JP, 680 BC

694. Ardys the son of Gyges, reigned in Lydia for 49 years. He captured Pryene and invaded Miletus. (Herod. l. 1. c. 15.)

3327 AM, 4037 JP, 677 BC

695. In Sicily, the city Gela was built and in Pamphilia, Phaselis by two brothers, Antiphemus and Lacius. (Euseb. Chron.) They consulted the oracle at Delphi concerning a place to live. It answered that the one should sail westward and the other eastward, as Stephanus Byzantinus in the word "Gela", reports, from Aristenetus on his first commentary of Phaselis. Heropythus in his book of the "Borders of the Colophonians", said concerning the building of Phaselis, that Lacius who transported a colony there, met Cylabra, a shepherd with his flock. He gave him the price of the ground where he built his city from his provisions. Philostephanus in his book entitled, "Of the Cities of Asia", gives a more detailed account of Lacius and a man from Argos. One of them went with Mopsus (the founder of the city Colophos) and whom some call Lindius, brother to Antiphemus the builder of Gela. (Lindius is said to have been of Rhodes by Herodotus l. 7. and by Thucidides l. 6.) Lacius was sent by Mopsus with another man, by the oracle and wish of Mantus and Mopsus, his mother. Because the decks of his ships were smashed in a tempest about the Chelidonian Isles, he could not arrive till late at night. There he bought the plot of ground where he built his city, as Mantus had foretold. He gave certain salt meats for it to Bylabra the owner of it. This is what he desired most from all their ship's provisions. (Athens Deipnosoph. l. 7.)

696. In this year the prophecy was fulfilled that was spoken by Isaiah Isa 7:1-8:22. In the beginning of the reign of Ahaz, within 65 years, Ephraim shall be conquered and never be a nation again. For although most of them were carried away by Shalmaneser 44 years earlier and the kingdom utterly destroyed, yet among them who were left there was some form of government. Now they ceased to be a distinct people because of the many foreigners who came to live there. Compared to the total population, the small number of the Ephraimites was not significant. A few remained in their country as appears from the story of Josiah. 2Ch 34:6,7,33 35:18 2Ki 23:19,20 There were every now and then new colonies of people sent from Babel, Cush, Halvah and Sepharvaim. These dwelt in Samaria and its cities. 2Ki 17:24 This was done by Esarhaddon king of Assyria (who was also called, Asnappar the Great and magnificent). This is evident by the confession of the Cugotcha2es in Ezr 4:2,10

697. At the same time as Israel was conquered, the same Assyrian army attacked Judah. They captured Manasseh the king, as he was hiding in a thicket. They bound him with chains of brass and carried him captive into Babylon. 2Ch 33:11 Some think this calamity was foretold by the prophet Isaiah, when he says:

``within sixty five years Ephraim shall be so broken in pieces, that it shall be no more a people. And the head of Ephraim is Samaria, is the son of Remaliah: And if you will not believe, you shall not be established,'' Isa 7:8,9

698. Jacobus Capellus has noted in his Chron. that you yourselves also shall be broken in pieces. Further, he adds that also the Jews in Seder Olams Rabba and the Talmudists, cited by Rabbi Kimchi, on Eze 4:1-17 state this.

699. In the 22nd year of Manasseh's reign, he was carried away captive into Babylon. After he repented of his sin, 33 years before his death, God restored him again to his kingdom. 2Ch 33:12,13 His captivity likely did not last very long for no notice of it is taken in 2Ki 21:1-18 It is recorded that he reigned 55 years in Jerusalem. 2Ki 21:1 2Ch 33:1

700. When the new inhabitants of Samaria did not serve the God of Israel, some were killed by lions. When the king of Assyria was told this, he ordered that one of the priests, which were brought from there in the captivity, should be sent back. When the priest returned he made his residence at Bethel. There he taught them how to worship God but according to Jeroboam's religion. They worshipped the calf at Bethel as well as their old idols. They are said to have feared God and not to have feared him. There is little difference between worshipping many gods and no God at all. 2Ki 17:25,33,41 This was the beginning of the animosity which grew later between the Samaritans and the Jews. Ezr 4:1 Ne 4:2 Joh 4:9

3329 AM, 4039 JP, 675 BC

701. According to Euseb. Chron., Chalcedon, or Calcedon, (as it is found on some old coins) was built by the Megarenses at the mouth of the Euxine Sea among the Thracians. They had possession of Bithynia in Asia. (Thucidid. l. 4. Strabo l. 12.)

3334 AM, 4044 JP, 670 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:54:08 AM
 702. Psammiticus Saits, the son of Pharaohnecho, was murdered by Sabbacon the Ethiopian and one of those twelve tyrants of Egypt. Sabbacon took over the kingdom and reigned there 54 years. (Herod. l. 2. c. 152. and c. 157.) Isaiah seems to allude to this when he says:

``And the Egyptians will I give up into the hands of lords, which shall lord it cruelly over them, till a fierce king shall come to rule them,'' Isa 19:4

703. Psammitichus was sent away and confined in the low country near the sea. He hired soldiers out of Arabia and a number of pirates from Ionia and Carions, who roved about that shore and assembled the Egyptians who sided with him. In the main battle fought near to Memphis, he overthrew the rest of those domineering lords. For their good service, the Ionians and Carions had land assigned to them to live in. This land was around the cities of Bubastis and Pelusius, which stood upon the mouth of the river Nile. From that time on, the Greeks and other foreigners were always welcome in Egypt. (Herod. l. 2. Diod. Sic. l. 1.) The same Herodotus also reports, that after a 29 year siege, this Psammiticus took by force a large city in Syria called Azotus. (ib. c. 157.) That is the city of Ashdod. I showed perviously on the note on 2391 AM that it was taken by Tartan the commander of the king of Assyria and his army in one year. It was so destroyed by Psammitichus that as the prophet Jeremiah says there was but a remnant of its people left in his days. Jer 25:20

3336 AM, 4046 JP, 668 BC

704. After Assaridinus or Esarhaddon, Saosduchinus ruled both of the empires of Assyria and Babylon for 20 years. (Ptol. Can. Reg.) In the book of Judith that was written in the Chaldee language by some Jew living in Babylon, he is called Nabuchodonosor, a name common to all kings of Babylon. However he was called the king of Assyria and is said to have reigned in the great city of Nineveh. /APC Jud 1:7 The learned Franc. Junius thinks that Saosduchinus is the same person as Merodach-Baladan of the Bible, the grandfather of that Nebucadnetzar and great grandfather of Nebuchadnezzar. Hence he thinks it was Merodach-Baladan who took king Manasseh prisoner to Babylon and released him later. For he states:

``this man was the first king of Babylon and was later made king of Assyria, succeeding in that kingdom after Esarhaddon the Great. When his brothers were found guilty of murdering their father, they were deemed unworthy of the kingdom. After this, all Asia was in a tumult from a war which lasted a long time after.''

705. The succession of Asar-Adon Merodach, Ben-Merodach and Nebuchadnezzar, first and second, is only based on Anianus, that false Metasthenus. According to Junius, Merodach was not grandfather of Nebuchadnezzar or rather Nabopolastar of Nebuchadnezzar the great. Neither was he at first only a trustee of the king of Assyria and later came to be king both of Assyria and Babylon. 2Ki 20:12 Nor did he ever succeed Esarhaddon the great in any kingdom of his, since this Mardocempadus or Merodach died 11 years before ever Manasseh became king. Also 42 years after his death, Aassaradinus or Essarchaddon left Saosduchinus to succeed him in both the Assyrian and the Babylonian kingdom as we noted from Ptolemy's Canon, Reg. If Junius, a man of no less modesty than learning, had seen this, no doubt he would have altered his opinion in this point. Therefore I thought it good in this place to have the reader note that from an event that never happened he should not seek to interpret the prophecy of Eze 31:11,18 as Junius distinguishes them. This is:

``Esarhaddon the Assyrian, was put down, or thrust out of his kingdom, by Merodach Baladan. Therefore, all defected from him and many of them fled to the king of Babylon,''

706. As in the sentence following:

``So that now the land of Assyria, was most shamefully trodden under foot and brought into contempt of all men'' (Ver 20)

3339c AM, 4049 JP, 665 BC

707. Meshullemeth the daughter of Haruz of Jotbah, bore to Manasseh his son Ammon. He was 22 years old when he began to reign. 2Ki 21:19

3344a AM, 4053 JP, 661 BC

708. This was the 16th Jubilee.

3347c AM, 4057 JP, 657 BC

709. In /APC Jud 1:1-16 we read that Nabuchadonosor, king of Assyria, in the 12th year of his reign overcome Arphaxad the king of the Medes, the founder of the city Ecbatan. This battle was in the great plain of Ragau near to Euphrates and Tigris and Jadason in the plain of the country of Erioch king of the Elicians. (We read this in the first chapter of the book of Judith which Jerome at the request of Paula and Eustochiam translated into Latin.) However, whoever first published that book in Greek with many alterations and additions of his own, tells us that Nabuchodanosor in the 12th year of his reign fought a battle with king Arphaxad. This was in a great plain near Ragau. Arphaxad was helped in the battle by all that inhabited the hill countries, all that bordered on the river of Euphrates and Tigris, and Hydaspes and that dwelt in the plain of Arioch king of the Elymeans. /APC Tob 1:5-6. After reviewing the battles mentioned before, he tells us, that he fought this battle against Arphaxad in the 17th year. He conquered all of Ecbatan and in the hill country of Ragan, thrust Arphaxad through with his own spear. When he had accomplished his aim in the war, he returned to Nineveh to feast and celebrate with his army for 120 days. According to Herodotus, Dejoces' death occurred in the 12th year of Saosduchinus' reign. One would argue that Saosduchinus and Dejoces are named Nabuchadonosor and Arphaxad in the book of Judith. In trying to render a reliable succession of kings in Media, to the fables of Cresias, Franc. Junius would need to divide the Median empire into two parts. However, Herodotus known as "the father of histories" sees no division of the kingdoms at all. Fr. Junius gives one of the kingdoms to Dejoces (also called Arioch) Jer 49:14 /APC Jud 1:6-16. The other part of Media he assigns to Artecarmins (whom Ctesias calls Articam and who is here called Arphaxed). This king Arphaxed, established his kingdom at Ecbatan to the end. He thought this to be a strong place in which he would best withstand the assault of Dejoces and all other enemies. Since no division ever was made of Media, both the name of Arphaxad and the Ecbatan kingdom should have been given to Dejoces and not to Arioch or Atticarmes. The book of Judith states that Arphaxad was the founder of Ecbatan. Herodotus and others affirm that Dejoces (also called Arphaxad) was indeed the founder. No one ever wrote that Arioch or Artecarmes built it.

710. After Dejoces died, Phraortes, his son succeeded him and reigned for 22 years. (Herodotus, l. 1. c. 102.)

3348c AM, 4058 JP, 656 BC

711. According to the Chaldee copy of /APC Jud 2:1 Arphaxad (or Dejoces) is said to be the 13th king of Ecbatan but in the Greek, the 18th). One year after Dejoces was overthrown, on the 22nd day of the first month, Nabuchadonosor made plans to subdue nations and add countries to his dominion. He made Holophernes general of all his armies. Holophernes besieged Bethhoglah, also called Bethulia, a city of Judah. While this was happening he was beheaded by Judith, a woman of the tribe of Simeon. After the death of her husband Manasseh, who died in the time of the barley harvest, she spent 3 years of widowhood in that city. The Greek copy says she was a widow for 4 years. /APC Jud 2:8,13

3349 AM, 4059 JP, 655 BC

712. In this year, Isthemus and Borysthenes were built in the country of Pontus. Also, Lampsacus in Hellespont and Abdera in Thrace, were built according to Euseb. Chron. that is, Borysthenes by the Milesians of Ionia, Lampsacus by the Pheonceans and Abdera by the citizens of Clazomene. Solinus c. 10 explains that the sister of Diomedes first built Abdera. After it fell into ruin it was rebuilt and enlarged by the Clazomenians. This took place in the 51st Olympiad which ended a year prior to this date. The leader of the Clazomene colony, was Timesius a citizen of Clazomene, (Herodotus, l.1. c. 168.). Herodotus also adds that Timesius was not able to complete the work because he was attacked by the Thracians.

3355c AM, 4065 JP, 649 BC

713. Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah had a son in Boscath, called Joash who was eight years old when he began to reign. 2Ki 22:1

3356c AM, 4066 JP, 648 BC

714. Chyladanus succeeded Saosduchinus both in the Assyrian and Babylonian kingdoms. He reigned 22 years. (Cano. Reg. Ptolemy). Alexander Polyhistor calls him Saracus (or Saracen), which means "robber", or "spoiler".

715. By the oracle of Delphi, Grinus the son of Esanius, king of the island of Thera, was commanded to go build a city in Libya. This city was in ruins because no one knew where Libya was. It is said that for 7 years there was no rain in that island. All the trees there died in that drought except one. (Herodotus l. 4. c. 150, 151.)

3361c AM, 4071 JP, 643 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:54:41 AM
 716. In this year king Manasseh returned from his captivity. He had partly restored the true worship of God, which he had formerly discredited. When he died he was buried in the garden of his own house. 2Ch 33:1-16 2Ki 21:18 According to his last will or testament, as if he repented for his former evil doings, he deemed himself unworthy to lie among his own royal ancestors. (Tremelius.)

3363c AM, 4073 JP, 641 BC

717. After Manasseh died his son Amon reigned for 2 years. Amon forsook the Lord God and offered sacrifices to all the graven images, which his father had set up and he worshipped them. He never repented of this as his father did but sinned more than ever his father had. 2Ki 21:19-22 2Ch 33:21-23

718. This wicked Amon was murdered in his house by his own servants. He was buried with Manasseh his father, in the garden of Uzzah. The people slew all that conspired against him. 2Ki 21:23,24,26 2Ch 33:24,25

719. And to him succeeded his son Josias, a child of 8 years old, and reigned 31 years 2Ki 22:1 2Ch 34:1

3364 AM, 4074 JP, 640 BC

720. Those of the isle of Thera, wearied by their seven years of drought, hired Corobius, a merchant in scarlet of the city of Itanus in the isle of Crete. He had formerly been driven by a tempest into a place called Platea, an isle of Libya. They sent him a second time with some of their own countrymen to find that isle. When they found it they left Corobius there with provisions for some months. They returned quickly to let their countrymen know what they had found. When they did not return to Platea at the appointed time, it happened that a ship of Samos, whose captain was Coleus came from Egypt. It put in there and left Corobius and his men another year of provisions. It then put out to sea again. It was caught by a strong wind and driven beyond Hercules' pillars into the main ocean and finally came to Tarteslus in Spain. (Herod. l. 4. c. 151, 152.)

721. The Thereans chose by lot from their seven towns people to establish a new colony. They sent them away to Platea in two ships under the command of one Battus, otherwise called Aristoteles, or Aristeus. (Herod. l. 4. c. 151, 152.)

722. Thales the son of Examius, was this year also born at Miletus in Ionia. This was the first year of the 35th Olympiad according to Laertius notes in Apollodorus' Chronicle.

723. After the Commerians were driven out of their dwellings by the Scythian Shepherds (called Nomads), they left Europe and went into Asia. Following the coast to Sardis, they captured all the city except the citadel. This was the time when Ardys, the son of Gyges, reigned there. (Her. l. 1. c. 15 and 130 and in his 4th book, c. 1. and 12.)

724. When the Thereans had lived in Platea for two years, they left one of their company behind and all sailed to Delphi. There they enquired of the oracle why things were no better since they came into Libya. The oracle answered that they were not yet come to the city of Libya, where they were told to go. Therefore they returned again to Platea. They took the one they left there and they established a colony in a place in the land of Libya, opposite the isle of Platea, called Aziristus. This place was surrounded with most scenic hills and a river running around it on either side. (Herod. l. 4. c. 157.)

725. In that place next to the gardens of the Hesperides and the greater Syrtus, or quicksand, the earth was covered with a shower of rain of pitch, or sulphur. Presently there grew up an herb called Sylphius or Laser i.e. Benjamin, as the Cyreneans say. This occurred seven years before the building of their city. (Theophrast. in his History of Plants, l. 6. Pliny in his Nature. Hist. l. 19. c. 3.)

3369 AM, 4079 JP, 635 BC

726. Phraortes king of the Medes perished in the siege of Nineveh with a large number of his army. His son Cyaxares reigned for 40 years after him. In the beginning of his reign, he wished to avenge his father's death. He compelled all Asia as far as the river Halys to join with him in his war against the Assyrians. (Herod. l. 1.)

3370a AM, 4079 JP, 635 BC

727. When Josiah was 16 years old, he had a son called Jehoiakim by Zebudah the daughter of Pedaiah, of Rumah. He was 25 years old when started his reign. 2Ki 23:36

728. The same year his son was born he began to seek the God of his father David. 2Ch 34:3

3370c AM, 4080 JP, 634 BC

729. Cyaxares defeated the Assyrians in battle but as he went to besiege Nineveh, a vast army of the Scythians attacked him. These were those Scythians who drove the Cimmerians from Europe. Pressing their advantage, they departed from the Lake of Meotis and left the mountain Caucasus on their left. They entered Media, under the command of their king Madois the son of Ptotothya. (Herd. l. 1. c. 104. l. 2. c. 1. and l. 7. c. 20) Mados was also called Indathyrsus the Scythian who storming out Scythia, went over the country of all Asia until he came into Egypt. Strabo states this in the beginning of his Geography from Megasthenes and Arrian in his book "Of the Affairs of Judah". Mados was the same man as Indathirsus, against whom Darius the son of Hystaspes later made such an unlucky voyage. (Herod, l. 4. c. 76. 126, 127) When the Medes were defeated by the Scythians, they lost control of Asia. The Scythians held Asia for 28 years. (Herod. l. 1. c. 104. and l. 4. c. 1.) Tremellius and Junius refer that prophecy of Na 2:5

``He (that is, Cyaxares, besieging Nineveh) shall reckon up his great men; but they shall fall in their journey. (that is) in the journey of the Scythians''

730. Their coming at this time to Asia is better called a journey through Asia rather than an established government or kingdom in Asia. In 28 years, they overran, possessed and lost Media, Assyria and all Asia.

``they shall hasten to his wall, as if they would be his protector, i.e. they shall come hastily to Nineveh, as if they had delivered it out of the hand of Cyaxares and would deliver it.''

3371c AM, 4081 JP, 633 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:55:41 AM
 731. In this year, Josiah had a son called Shallum or Jehoahaz by Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. He was made king after his father at the age of 23 years. The people chose him for king passing over his older brothers. 2Ki 23:30,31 It seems the name of Shallum was changed to Jehoahaz for good luck. The other Shallum, the son of Jabesh, only ruled one month before he was murdered by Menahem. 2Ki 15:13,14 Of the four sons which Josiah had that are mentioned in 1Ch 3:15 this Shallum was named last not Johanan the firstborn, as some have thought. It is easily deduced that Jehoahaz was not the firstborn. For it is said that he was anointed by the people. 2Ki 23:30 However the firstborn of kings were not normally so anointed because the kingdom was theirs by common right. Also, Jehoahaz was 23 years old when he was anointed king. However, three months earlier his brother, Eliakim was made king at the at the age of 25. Hence he was older by two years than Jehoahaz. This is confirmed by Josephus, in his tenth book of Antiquities, c. 6. & 7.

3373 AM, 4083 JP, 631 BC

732. Sadyattes, the son of Ardyis, reigned in Lydia for 12 years. (Herodot. l. 1. c. 16.)

733. When the Scythians had subjected all of upper Asia, they went straight into Egypt. When they came as far as Syria Palestina, Psamitichus the king of Egypt met them in person. He persuaded them by gifts and presents not to go any farther.

734. On their return, they came to Askelon which is in Syria. The greater part of the army passed through the area without doing any damage. However some stragglers at the rear, robbed the temple of Venus Urania. For this all their posterity were smitten with the emerods. (Herod. l. 1. c. 105.) In this year, which was the second of the 37th Olympiad, the Scythians invaded Syria Palestina. (Eusebius Chron.) Also Sinope, was built by the Milesians this year. It was the chief city in all the kingdom of Pontus. (Strabo 12th book) Phlegon says, (cited by Stephanus de Tribibus,) the Sinope was built by Macritius of the isle of Coos. It is certain that when the Cimmerians came to Asia after they fled from the Sythians, they built Chersonesus, in the same place where Sinope a city of the Greeks now stands. (Herod. l. 4. c. 12.) After settling in Aziristus for 7 years, the people of Thera were persuaded by the Libyans to leave. They moved to a place called Irasa and settled there near a fountain named after Apollos. (Herod. l. 4. c. 158.)

735. In the 2nd year of the 37th Olympiad, Battus built the city of Cyrene there. He reigned for 40 years and after him his son Arcesilaus for 16 years with those of the first colony only. Later in the reign of Battus, Arcesilaus, his son, went there with a great number of other Greeks who were stirred up by the oracle of Delphi. The city of Cyrene was built when Apryas reigned among the Egyptians. (Herod. l. 4. c. 159.) This is a better account of events than others have given.

3374c AM, 4084 JP, 630 BC

736. In the 12th year of Josiah's reign, he began to cleanse Judah and Jerusalem from idolatry. He destroyed the high places, groves, and altars of Baal with the images. He burned the bones of their priests upon their own altars. He even went as far as to the cites in Manasseh, Ephraim, Simeon and Naphtali and destroyed all the altars, groves and carved images he found. 2Ch 34:3-7

3375c AM, 4085 JP, 629 BC

737. In the 13th year of king Josiah, Jeremiah was called by God to be a prophet. He refused. God called him again and encouraged him with promises and signs belonging to the office and function of a prophet. He was bid to prophesy to the Jews of the calamity which was to happen there by the king of Babylon. Jer 1:2,17 28:3 At the same time, Zephaniah and others warned the rebellious people to repent which they did not. Zep 1:1 Jer 25:3-5

738. Prosias, or Prusa was built in Bithynia. (Euseb. Chron.)

3378 AM, 4088 JP, 626 BC

739. Nabopolasur of Babylon, (who was made general of the army by Saraco also called Chinaladanus, king of Assyria and Chaldea,) and Astyages, (who was made governor of Media, by his father Cyaxares,) made an alliance together. Astyages gave his daughter Amyitis in marriage to Nebuchadnezzar the son of Nabopolasur. The two men joined their forces and took the city of Nineveh with Saraco its king. (We gather this from a fragment of Alexander Polyhistors that was misunderstood by Georgius Symelius, who cites it in Grac. Scalig. p. 38. 39.) We find in the end of the book of the Greek copy of Tobit that Nabuchodonosor is called Nabopolasur and Assuerus is Astyages and is also called Ahasuerus. Da 9:1 Nineveh was taken while Tobit the younger was still living. When Shalmaneser took Samaria, he carried Tobit and his father captive to Assyria. Tobit is said to have lived 127 years. Since only 95 years passed from the captivity of Israel to this time, Tobit must still have been alive. When Josiah was reigning, (as Jerom in his commentaries upon the prophet Jonah affirms) Nineveh was destroyed. Thus the prophecies of both Nahum and Isaiah, concerning the destruction of Nineveh were fulfilled. This is also described in Eze 31:1-18

740. When Saraco was killed, Nabopolasur ruled the kingdom of Chaldea for 21 years. (Polyhistor, Berosus in his 3rd book of the Affairs of Chaldea, Ptolemy, in Reg. Can.)

3379 AM, 4089 JP, 625 BC

741. Sadyattes king of Lydia, invaded the territory of the Milesians and started a war that lasted for 6 years.

3380d AM, 4090 JP, 624 BC

742. In the 18th year of Josiah's reign, he charged Hilkiah the high priest to use the money which had been collected to repair the house of the Lord. When he was doing this he found the original book of the law, which was first laid up in the side of the Ark of the Covenant. De 31:26 This book seems to have disappeared ever since the beginning of Manasseh's reign. When he found it, he sent it by Shaphan the scribe to the king. After Josiah heard the book entirely read to him, he asked counsel of Huldah the prophetess. She prophesied to him that that kingdom should certainly be destroyed but not in his lifetime. 2Ki 22:3-20 2Ch 34:8-28 The king called the elders of Judah and Jerusalem, with the priests and prophets. He had the book of the law read to all the people and renewed the covenant between God and the people. Again, he cleansed the city from idolatry, and throughly restored the worship of God. 2Ki 33:1-14, 2Ch 34:29,30 He demolished the altar and high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat had set up. He burnt the bones of the dead upon the altar as had been foretold 350 years earlier. 2Ki 13:2 When he had destroyed the altars which the kings of Israel had built in the cities of Samaria, slain all their priests and burnt dead men's bones upon them, he then returned to Jerusalem. 2Ki 23:15-20 Even with this renewing of the covenant and general reformation of religion, the inevitable decree of desolation to follow because of the people's sins still stood. From this time of renewing is the beginning both of the 30 years spoken of in the first of the prophecy of Ezekiel and also the 40 years of the iniquity of Judah. Eze 4:6

3381c AM, 4091 JP, 623 BC

743. Josiah kept the passover in the same 18th year of his reign, on the 14th day of the first month (Monday, May 4th) in the presence of all Judah and Israel and the inhabitants of Jerusalem. He kept this with more solemnity than ever had been done by any of the kings of Israel or Judah in olden times. 2Ki 23:21-23 2Ch 35:1-19 He took away all witches and soothsayers, all images and gods and all the abominations, which were found in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem. He obeyed all the words which were written in the book of the law that was found by Hilkiah. 2Ki 33:24 De 18:9-11

3383c AM, 4093 JP, 621 BC

744. Toward the end of the 5th year of Nabopolassur, (which is the 127th from the Epoch of Nabonazar,) on the 27th day of Eygptian month of Athyr, toward the 28th of the month, the moon was eclipsed at Babylon, beginning 5 hours after midnight. (Ptol. Syntax. p. 125. Greek edition) This was on Saturday, April 22nd or the 27th of Athyr as it drew to a close. This is Ptolemy's meaning, when he says, that it was from the 27th to the 28th, lasting in all six hours after the midnight of the 27th day to the sun-rising when the 28th day was to begin.

3384d AM, 4094 JP, 620 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:56:26 AM
745. Hamutal bare to Josiah, after Shallum, or Jehoahaz, Mattaniah. He was later called Zedekiah and was 21 years old when he began to reign. Jer 51:1 2Ki 24:17,18

746. Xenophanes Colophonius, founder of the sect of the Eleatic discipline in philosophy, was born in the 40th Olymiad. (Elius Empiricus, in his first book, contra Mathematicos, c. 12.) (More correctly related from Apollodorus, as cited by Clemens Alexandrinus, l. 1. Strommat.)

3385 AM, 4095 JP, 619 BC

747. The son of Sadyattes called Halyattes the younger reigned in Lydia for 57 years. He spent the first 5 years fighting the war against the Libyans that his father had started. (Herod. l. 1. c. 17. 18, 25.)

3387c AM, 4097 JP, 617 BC

748. Jehoiakim son of Josiah, had a son, by Nehushta, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem, called Jehoiakim or Jeconiah. He was 18 years old when he began to reign. 2Ki 28:8

3388 AM, 4098 JP, 616 BC

749. Necho, the son of Psammitichus, reigned in Egypt 16 years. (Herod. l. 20. c. 159.) The Bible calls him Necho or Pharaohnecho. 2Ch 35:24 2Ki 23:29 Jer 46:2 This man began a channel from the Nile to the gulf of Arabia, which cost the lives of 120,000 Egyptians. He abandoned the work when it was half done. He sent certain Phoenicians to sail round Africa. They set sail from the Gulf of Arabia or the Red Sea. They went into the southern sea and sailed around the coast. They finally came to the strait of Gibraltar and returned into Egypt, three years after they started out. (Herod. l. 1. c. 158. and l. 4. c. 52)

3390 AM, 4100 JP, 614 BC

750. In the 12th year of the war between the Lydians and the Milesians, the Lydian army had burnt the harvest of the Milesians, as they normally did each year. It happened, that the wind caught the flames and set the temple of Minerva in Assesus on fire and burnt it to the ground. After the army returned, Halyattes, became sick for a long time. Finally he sent to consult the Oracle at Delphi. The prophetess refused to entertain his request until the temple which his men had destroyed was rebuilt. Periander the son of Cyphelus, ruler of Corinth, found out the reply and told it to his good friend Thrasibulus, king of the Milesians. He cleverly ordered that when Halyattes and his ambassadors came about rebuilding the temple, the Milesians should be feasting and revelling using all the remaining grain and supplies in the city. Halyattes expected to find that the Milesians would be starving from the long war. However, when he saw they appeared to have plenty to eat, he made peace and a league of friendship with the Milesians. Halyattes built two temples of Minerva at Assesus to replace the one he destroyed. When he got well, he sent rich presents and offerings to Delphi. (Herod. l. 1. ca.19,20,22,23,24. with Polyanus, l. 6. Stratag.)

3393a AM, 4102 JP, 612 BC

 751. The 17th Jubilee.

3393c AM, 4103 JP, 611 BC

752. Anaximander Milesius, the son of Praxidemus, was born in Ionia. See note on 3457 AM.

3394c AM, 4104 JP, 610 BC

753. By God's command, Necho king of Egypt went against the king of Assyria, who at that time made war with him and planned to besiege Carchemish on the river Euphrates. 2Ki 23:29 2Ch 35:20-22 Josephus states that he went to fight against the Medes and Babylonians, who had overthrown the empire of the Assyrians. (lib. 10. Antiq. ca. 6.) Carchemish, at the time of Sennacherib belonged to and was occupied by the Assyrians. Isa 10:5-19 However when that kingdom was destroyed, it returned to the hands of the Babylonians. Just as when king of Persia defeated Babylon and Assyria, Ezr 6:22 he was called king of the Assyrians, so when the king of Babylon defeated Assyria, was likewise called king of Assyria. In addition the heathen authors also tell us, that Babylon was in olden times part of Assyria and the Holy Scriptures state that the kingdom of Chaldea was founded by the king of Assyria.Isa 23:13 Nu 24:22 Isa 52:4 Na 9:22

754. When Josiah unadvisedly entered into this war, he was slain. 2Ki 23:29,30 2Ch 32:22,23 This happened in the valley of Megiddo which belonged to the tribe of Manasseh. Jos 17:11 Jud 1:17 (Herod. l. 2.) Herodotus refers to this story saying, Necho attacked the Syrians with an army on foot and overthrew them in Magdala. After the fight he took a great city of Syria named Cadytis. Scaliger notes that this Cadytis was actually Kadesh which is mentioned in Nu 21:16. Scaliger also believes that Magdala and Megiddo, were located near each other. Because Magdala was the more noted place of the two, the fight was said to have taken place there. In the same way it is commonly understood that the battle between Alexander and Darius at Gaugamela, is said to have been fought at Arbela since Gaugamela was an obscure place. It may be that Magdala and Megiddo were the same place since that is the place from which that other Mary obtained her surname of Magdalene. In Mt 15:39 we see Magdalam is how the name is rendered. The Syrian renders it Mageda and the old Latin translates it Magedan, which appears to be similar to Megiddo.

755. Since the good king was killed in this way and the fact that he lived postponed the Babylonish captivity from that nation, 2Ki 22:20 the last year's jubilee was turned into a year of lamentation. It almost became a common proverb, "The lamentation of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddo". Zec 12:11 Not only all the people at that time bewailed the death of Josiah, but even later, a public mourning for him was voluntarily kept. The prophet Jeremiah also, wrote a song of memorial called "Song of Threnes", or "Lamentations" 2Ch 35:24,25 In this song he bewailed the calamities which were shortly to befall that people. Jeremiah wrote:

``The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of the Lord, is taken in their pits: of whom we said, under the shadow of his wings we shall live among the heathen.'' La 4:20

756. So that we may very justly question the first verse, or poem of that book which we find in the Greek and common Latin translation but disagrees with Jerome. It is prefixed before the Threnes or Lamentations of Jeremiah.

``And it came to pass after that Israel was carried into captivity, and Jerusalem laid waste, Jeremiah the prophet sat down and wept, and made this lamentation in Jerusalem and sighing and howling, out of the bitterness of his heart, said:''

757. Whoever added this should have noted the verse:

`` Add not to his words, that he blame thee not and thou be found a liar,'' Pr 30:6

758. There was also a second Song of Lamentations for the miserable condition of the kingdom of the Jews after the death of Josiah. It was composed by the prophet Ezekiel and appointed to be sung, Eze 19:1-14

759. After the death of Josiah the people feared that the king of Egypt would invade when there was no king. They anointed as king his youngest son Shallum or Jehoahaz. He soon did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord even as his forefathers had done. 2Ki 23:30-32 2Ch 36:1 See note in 3371 AM.

3394d AM, 4104 JP, 610 BC

760. When Necho returned from Assyria, he disposed Shallum from the throne after he had only reigned 3 months. He made Eliakim his older brother king in the place of his father Josiah and changed his name into Jehoiakim. 2Ki 23:31,32,34 2Ch 36:2-4 This was a public witness that he attributed the victory he had over the Assyrians to the Lord Jehovah only. He formerly prophesied that it was God who sent him against the Assyrians. 2Ch 35:21,22 He imposed a tribute of one hundred talents of silver and one talent of gold on the land of Judah. He put Shallum or Jehoiakim in fetters at Riblah and carried him away prisoner into Egypt where he eventually died. 2Ki 23:33-35 2Ch 36:3,4 Eze 19:3,4

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:56:56 AM
 761. The prophet Jeremiah by God's appointment went to Shallum in the new king's palace. He earnestly entreated the king, his courtiers and all the people the with promises and threats from Almighty God. He foretold that Shallum or Jehoiakim would be carried away captive into Egypt.

``Weep not for him that is departed (meaning Josiah) nor make lamentation for him; but weep for him that is to depart: (that is Shallum) because he shall return no more to see his native soil.'' Jer 22:1,2,10,-12

3395a AM, 4104 JP, 610 BC

762. In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah was commanded by God to stand in the court of the temple. He exhorted the people who assembled from all the cities of Judah to bow themselves there before the Lord. It being then the feast of Tabernacles, wherein all the males out of the cities were required to appear at Jerusalem. De 15:16) He told them to repent and when they would not, he denounced the judgment of God against them saying:

``That that house should become as Shiloh: and that city should be accursed among all the nations of the earth:''

763. This resulted in his arrest by the priests and prophets and all the people that were then in the court. They accused him to be a man worthy of death, but he was acquitted and set at liberty by the public judgment of the princes and elders. Jer 26:1,2,19

3395b AM, 4105 JP, 609 BC

764. Like Jeremiah, Uriah also the son of Shemariah from Kirjathjearim, prophesied against Jerusalem and the land of Judah. When Jehoiakim the king sought to put him to death, he fled into Egypt. The king sent after him Elnathan the son of Achor and other men who overtook him and brought him back to the king. He had him killed and threw his carcass among the vilest sepulchres of the common people. However Ahikam, the son of Shaphan who had formerly been a man of great authority with king Josiah, 2Ki 22:12 2Ch 34:20 was a friend of Jeremiah. Ahikam prevented Jeremiah from being turned over to people to be killed. Jer 26:20,24

765. To these I might add the prophet Habakkuk. When he complained of the stubbornness of the Jews, God replied:

``That he would shortly send the Chaldeans into Judah'';

766. Further he declared his purpose concerning that matter:

``I will do a work in your days, which you will not believe when it shall be old unto you: For behold I will stir up the Chaldeans, a fierce nation and a swift: which shall walk through the breadth of the land, to possess a land which is none of theirs as their own inheritance. '' Hab 1:5,6

767. In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah foretold that Zedekiah should be king of Judah and Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon. He would conquer his neighbouring nations. Jer 27:1,11

3397a AM, 4106 JP, 608 BC

768. The governor of Coelosyria and Phoenicia revolted from Nabopolassar king of Babylon. When Carchemish was taken, Nabopolassar sent against them his son Nebuchadnezzar (after he made him viceroy in the kingdom) with a large army. This was done in the latter end of the third and beginning of the fourth year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah. Da 1:1 Jer 25:1.

3397b AM, 4107 JP, 607 BC

769. When Nebuchadnezzar was made viceroy in the kingdom, God revealed to Jeremiah these things. First was the defeat of the Egyptians at the river Euphrates then later in their own country. Nebuchadnezzar would make himself master of Egypt. Jer 46:1-28 The first came to pass almost immediately. Pharaohnecho's forces at Carchemish were cut off by Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, in the 4th year of Jehoiakim. Jer 46:2 The second happened after the taking of Tyre, in the 27th year of the captivity of Jeconiah. Eze 29:17-19

770. In the 4th year of Jehoiakim, which was the first of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, the prophet Jeremiah reproved the Jews for not obeying the word of the Lord. He had proclaimed this from the 13th year of king Josiah, even to that present 4th year of Jehoiakim, that is for 23 years. All that time they were stubborn and disobedient to his admonitions as well as all the other prophets whom the Lord had sent. Again he told them of the coming of Nebuchadnezzar upon them and of their captivity in Babylon which was to last 70 years. He stated that Judah and the other nations were to serve the king of Babylon.

3397c AM, 4107 JP, 607 BC

771. Lastly, the kingdom of Babylon itself would be destroyed and the land of Chaldea would be desolate. Jer 25:1,3,11,12 Many years earlier, this 70 years was mentioned by Isaiah in more obscure terms when he spoke of the destruction of Tyre. Isa 23:15,17

3398a AM, 4107 JP, 607 BC

772. In the 4th year of Jehoiakim, Baruch the son of Neriah wrote in a book according to what Jeremiah spoke. It had all the words of the Lord concerning Israel and Judah, from the time of Josiah until that day. He read them in the house of the Lord, in the audience of the men of Jerusalem, and of all the Jews who were assembled there from their cities, in the day of the fast. Jer 36:1-8 That is that solemn fast which was yearly kept on the 10th day of the 7th month, Le 16:29 23:27 Nu 29:7 five days before the feast of tabernacles. All the males from all the cities of Judah, were to appear at Jerusalem. See note on 3395 AM. Baruch was extremely amazed and afflicted in his soul, with the horror of these dreadful judgments which he had written. Jeremiah comforted him, by the word of the Lord concerning this calamity which was to be brought upon all the land by the Babylonians and assured him of his own life, in the midst of all these troubles. Jer 45:1-5 In the passage Jer 31:1-32:44 may allude to this also as well as the promises made concerning the restoration of the church.

773. When Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Judah, the Rechabites, of the descendants of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, 2Ki 10:15 for fear of the host of the Chaldeans and Syrians, left their tents and came into Jerusalem. They had dwelt in tents according to the rule of their forefather Jonadab. Jer 35:8-11 Since material in this chapter is written in the present tense, we gather that the time of the Rechabites refusing to drink wine occurred when the city was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar. Da 1:1

774. God gave Jehoiakim the King of Judah into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, with part of the furniture of the house of the Lord. Da 1:2 This was in the 9th month called Chisleu, as may be gathered from the anniversary of the fast which was kept in remembrance of this calamity and was a tradition of the Jews. Zec 7:3,5 8:19 It was kept in this month. Jer 36:9

775. Nebuchadnezzar chained Jehoiakim to carry him away to Babylon. 2Ch 36:6 Later upon submission and his promises of subjection, he let him stay in his own house where he lived as his servant for 3 years. From this time of the carrying of the king and people of the Jews into the bondage of Nebuchadnezzar, starts the 70 years of the captivity of Babylon which were foretold by the prophet Jeremiah. Jer 25:11 29:10

776. Nebuchadnezzar ordered Ashpenash, the overseer of the eunuchs, that he should carry from there the best of the children of Israel, both of royal blood and of the princes. Da 1:3 This was predicted by Isaiah the prophet to Ezekiel. Isa 39:7 They were under his care and to be educated for 3 years in the language and sciences of the Chaldeans. The best of them were to be picked to stand before the king and serve in his palace. Among those taken from the tribe of Judah, were Daniel, who was Belshazzar, Hananiah, who was Shadrach, Mishael, who was Meshach and Anani, who was Abednego. Each had his name changed at the discretion of the prince of the eunuchs, Da 1:3-7

777. Now after those Scythians, of whom I spoke before, had taken their pleasure in Asia for 28 years, Cyaxares and the Medes gave them a great feast. When they were all drunk on a certain day, he had most of their throats cut. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 106.) In addition to these certain other Scythians of the nomads or shepherds were expelled from their own country by an opposing faction. They had been entertained by Cyaxares and by him employed, partly in hunting , partly in the education of children. After this massacre, when these were poorly treated by him, they killed one of the boys which they had taken to educate. They dressed his flesh like venison and set it before Cyaxares and his guests to eat. After this they quickly fled away to Halyartes the king at Sardis for protection. When Cyaxares demanded Halyartes surrender them to him, Halyattes refused. Hence started a five year war between the Medes and Lydians. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 73,74.) Concerning the Cimmerians, (see note on 3368 AM), Halyattes drove them from all Asia. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 16.)

3399a AM, 4108 JP, 606 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:57:24 AM
 778. In the 9th month of the 5th year of Jehoiakim, there was a solemn fast before the Lord proclaimed to all the people at Jerusalem. This was in remembrance, it seemeth, of the taking of the city by the Chaldeans the year before in the same month. Baruch stood at the gate of the house of the Lord and read all the words of the Lord. These words were spoken by Jeremiah to him and written in a book. All the people who were assembled at Jerusalem from all the cities of Judah heard Baruch read the book. When the princes were told of this by Micah the son of Gemariah, they called Baruch to them. They heard him read the same book and fearing the king, advised Jeremiah and him, to hide. When the king heard part of the book read, he first cut the book through with a pen-knife and then hurled it into the fire that was in the hearth and burnt it. Jer 36:9-25 In memory of this detestable act of the king, the Jews to this day keep a fast, upon the 7th day of the 9th month called Chisleu.

3399b AM, 4109 JP, 605 BC

779. When Jehoiakim had burnt the book, he ordered Jerahmeel the son of Hammelech, Seraiah the son of Azriel and Shelemiah the son of Abdiel, to apprehend Baruch the writer and Jeremiah the prophet. God hid them and against that impious king and his kingdom, pronounced this sentence.

``...Thou hast burned this roll, saying, Why hast thou written therein, saying, The king of Babylon shall certainly come and destroy this land and shall cause to cease from thence man and beast? Therefore thus saith the LORD of Jehoiakim king of Judah; He shall have none to sit upon the throne of David: and his dead body shall be cast out in the day to the heat and in the night to the frost. And I will punish him and his seed and his servants for their iniquity; and I will bring upon them and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem and upon the men of Judah, all the evil that I have pronounced against them; ...'' (Jeremiah 36:29-31 AV)

780. Later by God's appointment, Baruch wrote again the words from Jeremiah, the same words, which he had written before and wrote many additional things. Jer 36:26-32

781. Nebuchadnezzar capitalised on his victory over Necho and took from the Egyptians all the lands they possessed between Egypt and Euphrates. From that time on, Necho did not venture out of Egypt. 2Ki 24:7 Meanwhile his father Nabopolassar, died in the land of Babylon, when he had reigned 21 years.

782. When Nebuchadnezzar heard this, he ordered the deportation to Babylon of the captives of Jews, Syrians, Phoenicians and Egyptians. His army and equipment were sent there also. He posted a small company at the nearest way through the desert and returned to Babylon before them. He was made king over all his father's large dominions. He distributed the captives when they were brought to Babylon, into various colonies as he saw fit. (Berosus l. 3. of the affairs, of Chaldea,) The vessels and other furniture of the temple Nebuchadnezzar took away with him to Babylon were put in the temple of his god, Belus. Da 1:2 2Ch 36:7 His son was named after this god. According to Abydenus in his "Assyrian History" and Brosus, he did greatly enrich and adorn that temple with the spoil which he had taken in that war.

783. The rest of the Scythians who had escaped the slaughter of the Medes returning home, were met by a great army of lusty young men. These had been born of their own wives in their long absence by their slaves. With these they fought many a sharp battle but at last, laid aside their swords. Each man took a whip in his hand, as is more fitting for the correction of slaves, and thereby made them all to flee. (Herod, in the beginning of his 4th book.)

3401a AM, 4110 JP, 604 BC

784. When Jehoiakim had lived 3 years in subjection to the king of Babylon, he rebelled against him. 2Ki 24:1

785. Daniel and his three followers refused the diet provided for them from the king's allowance. They dined only on pulse and water. However they were found to look better and of a more fair complexion than the rest which did eat of the king's food. After three years, they were brought into court to attend the king. They greatly excelled in all matters of knowledge, wisdom, and science, which the king was pleased to ask them about, above all the Magi and astronomers that were in his kingdom. Da 1:5-20

786. In the second year of his kingdom, Nebuchadnezzar dreamed of the great image made of various metals. When he forgot his dream, he asked his Magi and astronomers what his dream was and what it meant. When they could not satisfy him in so unreasonable a demand, he commanded them all to be put to death. When Daniel saw the execution being prepared and understood the reason for it, he asked the king to delay for a while. Daniel and his companions prayed to God. God revealed the dream to Daniel and the interpretation of it. He declared to the king what his dream was and also the four monarchies which were to come. This was the meaning of the image which he saw in his dream. After this the king enriched him with great gifts and made him governor of all the province of Babylon and chief over all its wise men. Moreover at his request, he made his three companions, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, principal officers in all that province. Da 2:1-49

3403d AM, 4113 JP, 601 BC

787. In the beginning of the 6th year of the war between the Medes and the Lydians, the war was stalemated. Thales the philosopher of Miletus had predicted to the Ionians that an eclipse of the sun would happen. When both the armies saw the day grow dark like the night, they stopped fighting. Later they made a peace between themselves by the mediation of Syennesis of Cilicia and of Labynitus the Babylonian (which was Nebuchadnezzar). Halyattes gave his daughter Ariena, to Astyages the son of Cyaxeres in marriage. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 74.) This eclipse as predicted by Thales, happened exactly when Cyaxeres the father of Astyages and king of the Medes and Halyattes Cresus' father and king of the Lydians were fighting together. This is confirmed by Endemus, in his "Astronomical History". Also Pliny speaks of it and gave the following reason for the eclipse: (l. 1. c. 12.)

``Among the Greeks, the first one that found out how to predict the eclipses was Thales the Milesian. He foretold the eclipse of the sun, in the 4th year of the 48th Olympiad, which was in the reign of Halyattes, ''

788. (For so is the reading in the old copy, not of Astyages, as the common edition has it) 170 years after the building of Rome. Clemens Alexan. (lib. 1. Strom.) places this fight of Cyaxares and eclipse of the sun about the 50th Olympiad. He differs greatly from the opinion of Endemus, whom he cites for it. For both the time assigned by Endemus and Pliny does not agree with Cyaxares, but with the reign of Astyages. Also from Ptolemy's, sun and moon-tables, which are the same with those of Hipparchus, it appears plainly that the sun was eclipsed in the 4th year of the 44th olympiad. That is in the 147th of Nabonasar, on the 4th day of the Egyptian month Pacon, (or Sunday, September 20th according to the Julian Calendar) 3 hours 25 minutes before noon. This eclipse was of 9 digits, (12 digits is 100%) and continued almost two hours.

3404c AM, 4114 JP, 600 BC

789. Plamnis the son of Neco reigned in Egypt for 6 years (Herod. l. 2. c. 161.)

790. The Phocenses set sail from Ionia and built Marseilles on the coast of Liguria in Italy 120 years before the naval battle at Salamis. (According to Marcianus in his Periegesis reports from Timeus.) This was in the first year of the 45th olympiad according to both Eusebius in his Chronicle and Solinus in Polyhistor. However the latter confounds this first colony of the Phocenses made in the days of Tarquinius Priscus with their later one under Servius Tullus. See note on 3461 AM. The story of the wedding which was the occasion for the building of this city, is described in detail by Atheneus, l. 3. from Aristotle. He speaks of the commonwealth of the Marseilians. Justin has a similar account in his 43rd book out of Tro. Pomp. who relates the same thing, though differing in the names of the persons concerned.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:57:51 AM
 791. Nebuchadnezzar's army of Syrians, Chaldeans, Moabites and Ammonites, attacked Jehoiakim and destroyed all of Judah. 2Ki 24:2 They took 3023 prisoners from there in the 7th year of Nebuchadnezzar. Jer 52:28

792. Astyages or Ahasuerus, Da 9:1 who married Ariena the year before had a son called Syaxares or Darius, the Mede. He was 62 years old when he succeeded Belshazzar, who was slain, in the kingdom of the Chaldeans. Da 5:30,31 Astyages, in the lifetime of his father, gave in marriage his daughter, Mandanes, who was born by his former wife, to Cambyses son of Achemenes, king of Persia. (This is according to Xenophon, who states this in his first book of the education of Cyrus.) He derives his family pedigree from Perseus. From this union Cyrus was born the next year. Hence we do not believe Ctesias, who contrary to Herodotus and Xenophon and others, states that that Astyages was related to Cyrus in any way.

3405c AM, 4115 JP, 599 BC

793. After Jehoiakim was taken prisoner by the Chaldeans, he was thrown out without a proper burial, buried like an ass. His body was dragged out of the gate of Jerusalem, according as was foretold by the prophet. Jer 22:18,19 36:30 Though in reference to the common course of nature, he also may be said to have slept with his fathers. 2Ki 24:6

794. After him, his son Jehoiachin, who was also called Coniah and Jeconiah, reigned 3 months and ten days in Jerusalem. He also did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, as his father Jehoiakim had done before him. 2Ki 24:8,9 2Ch 36:8,9 God pronounced this most dreadful decree against him:

``Write this man childless, a man which shall not prosper in his days; for none of his seed shall prosper to sit in the throne of David, nor reign any more in Judah'' Jer 22:30

795. Concerning this matter, refer to Christophorus Helvicus' book of the Genealogy of Christ. At this time, the prophecy of Jeremiah contained in Jer 23:1-40 seems to have been uttered.

796. In the same year when the former army was sent, the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to besiege Jerusalem. When Nebuchadnezzar himself came to the city while his servants besieged it. Jehoiachim the king, with his mother Nehushta, a woman of Jerusalem and his servants and officers, with all his courtiers, came forth to the king of Babylon. This happened in the 8th year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign over Babylon. He took from there all the treasure, both of the temple and of the king's house. He broke in pieces all the golden vessels and furniture, which Solomon had made for the temple of the Lord, just as the Lord, Isa 39:6 had foretold. He carried away king Jehoiachim to Babylon with his mother, his wives and his courtiers. From all of Jerusalem he took 10,000 men, the magistrates, every man of strength, all the carpenters and smiths. He left only at Jerusalem the poorer sort of people. From the other parts of the land, he carried away 7000 able bodied men and 1000 of the smiths and carpenters. These were all strong men and fit for war. They were carried prisoners into Babylon. 2Ki 24:8-16 2Ch 36:10 Jer 24:1 29:1,2 Eze 17:12 Among the captives was Mordecai of the tribe of Benjamin, the son of Jair, Es 2:5,6 and Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi. Therefore he in his prophecy starts the captivity from this time, Eze 1:2,3 which he also calls his own banishment. Eze 40:1 An Epistle, said to be Jeremiah's, is sent to those that were appointed to be carried away to Babylon. It warned them to beware of the idolatry which they should see practised in Babylon. /APC Bar 6:1-73

797. While the king of Babylon thus ravaged in Judah, God prepared a worm which in due time should eat out this spreading tree. The cry of this poor people came to the Lord.

``O daughter of Babylon, wasted with misery, happy shall he be that shall reward thee, as thou hast served us, who shall take thy children and dash them against the stones,'' Ps 137:8

798. For in this very year, was Cyrus the Media-Persian born whose father was a Persian and his mother a Mede, as I showed before. This very Nebuchadnezzar, at the hour of his death, as Abydenus has it, uttered this prophecy:

``There shall come a Persian Mule, who shall make use of your Devils, as his fellow-soldiers, to bring you into bondage:''

799. This was also foretold by that Oracle given to Croesus:

``When a mule king, shall to the Medes be born, &c.''

800. The Pythian Priests interpreted this to refer to Cyrus, who was to be born of a father and a mother of two different nations, a Persian and a Mede. (Herod. l. 2. c. 55. and 91.) But most plainly and truly Isaiah foretold, Isa 13:1,2 that the Babylonians also should have a time wherein to endure their hell of slavery. Their children would one day be dashed against the stones before their eyes. Isa 13:16 These miserably captive Jews would one day be restored to their liberty. He called their deliverer many years before by his proper name of Cyrus. Isa 44:28 45:1 God gave him the reason for this unusual revelation:

``For my servant Jacob and for Israel my chosen's sake, have I called thee by thy name and given thee a surname, though thou hast not known me,'' Isa 45:4

801. As for the age of this Cyrus, Tully in his 1st book de Divinations, cited it from Dionysius a Persian writer, in this manner:

``The sun appeared to Cyrus in his sleep, standing at his feet. When Cyrus endeavoured to take the sun in his hands three times, the sun turned aside and went away. The Magi, who are counted as wise and learned men among the Persians, said that by his three attempts to take hold of the sun meant that he should reign 30 years. This came to pass accordingly, for he started to reign at the age of 40 and lived to the age of 70.''

802. From which dream perhaps, so expounded by the magicians, Cyrus took his name; for, as Ctesias rightly says,

``Cyrus in the Persian language, means the sun:''

803. So also said Plutarch in his work on the life of Artaxerxes as well as Chur or Churshid, in the Persian poets, as it is said to this day. From the work of Tully's compared with Da 5:31 it appears that Darius the Mede or Cyaxares the son of Astyages that Cyrus' uncle was born before him. Therefore Xenophon in his book entitled, "Of the Institution of Cyrus", l. 6. coined the expression:

``seeing I am here present and am older than Cyrus, it is fitting that I speak first: ''

804. And in book 4 by the same author, when Cyrus wrote to Darius, he used these words:

``I advise you, though I be the younger of the two.''

805. Nebuchadnezzar made Mattaniah the son of Josiah, king in place of Jeconiah his uncle and changed his name to Zedekiah, meaning "the justice of the Lord". Jer 37:1 2Ki 24:17 He had made a covenant with him and had taken an oath of allegiance from him and Zedekiah, had taken an oath by God to perform it. 2Ch 36:13 Eze 17:13,14,18 By giving him this new name, he intended to remind Zedekiah of the just judgment of God if he would break the oath.

806. Zedekiah reigned a full 11 years in Jerusalem and did evil in the sight of the Lord his God. He did not humble himself before Jeremiah the prophet who spoke to him in the name the Lord but stiffened his neck and hardened his heart that he might not return to the Lord God of Israel. Jer 1:3 32:1,2 2Ki 24:18,19 2Ch 36:11-13 Indeed, all the leaders of the priests and the people of the whole land transgressed the law and polluted the house of the Lord which God had sanctified in Jerusalem. Nor would they listen to the word of the Lord, which he spoke to them by the mouth of his prophet Jeremiah and other prophets. Instead, they despised them and mocked the messengers which God sent to them until the fire of God's fury burst upon his people. Jer 37:2 2Ch 36:14-16.

807. After Jeconiah was carried away, God revealed to Jeremiah in a vision of two baskets of figs, the captivity of the new king Zedekiah and the remainder of the people. Jer 24:1,2,8,9,

808. In the beginning of Zedekiah's reign, Jeremiah prophesied the captivity and restoration of the Elamites. Jer 49:34-39 For Nebuchadnezzar had taken from Astyages, the whole province of Elam, with the city Susa on the river Ulai and annexed it to his kingdom. Jer 25:25 Da 8:1,2 Later these Elamites combined with the Medes against the Babylonians. Isa 21:2 When Belshazzar was overthrown, they recovered their state again, under Cyrus. Their chief city Susa was made by Cyrus to be the seat of the Persian kingdom. (Strabo, l. 15)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:58:20 AM
 809. When ambassadors came from the various kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre and Sidon to Jerusalem, to visit the new king Zedekiah, God told Jeremiah to give to each of them chains and whips to be presented to their masters. He commanded them all to submit to Nebuchadnezzar and stop listening to their wizards and stargazers, who advised them not to submit. He advised Zedekiah to remain loyal to the king of Babylon and to beware of the false prophets. By threats and promises he persuaded many of the people to submit to and obey the king of Babylon. Jer 39:1-18

810. When Jeconiah was carried away with the other captives, Zedekiah sent Elasah, the son of Shaphan and Gemariah the son of Hilkiah, to Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon. Jeremiah sent a letter by them which he had written to the elders and priests and prophets and the rest of the people, who had been carried from there by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. In the letter, the prophet instructed them how to behave themselves in captivity and comforted them with a gracious promise of deliverance at the end of the 70 years. He predicts the great calamities which were to fall on those whom they had left behind in Jerusalem. He foretold the miserable end which Ahab, the son of Kolaiah and Zedekiah the son of Maaseiah, the two false prophets should come to. Jer 29:1-23

3406 AM, 4116 JP, 598 BC

811. Seraiah sent letters, as it seems, by Zedekiah's messengers, when they returned from Babylon, to Zephaniah, (who was the second chief priest) 2Ki 25:18 and to the rest of the priests at Jerusalem. He denounced what the prophet Jeremiah had written to them. When this was read to Jeremiah, he pronounced a heavy judgment from God on him. Jer 29:24,32 At this time also it seems he made those notable prophecies concerning the kingdom of Christ and restoration of the church in Jer 30:1-31:40.

3407 AM, 4117 JP, 597 BC

812. Cresus was born. He was the son of Halyattes, king of Lydia and his mother was a woman of Caria. It appears that he was 35 years of age, when he began to reign. (Herod. l. 1. c. 26. and 92.)

3408d AM, 4118 JP, 596 BC

813. In the 5th month of the 4th year of Zedekiah, Hananiah a false prophet, made a false prophesy. He said that at the end of two years, all the vessels, and furniture of the house of the Lord and Jeconiah and all the people, who were carried away to Babylon would return and be brought home again. When Jeremiah mocked him, he took a yoke of wood from about Jeremiah's neck and broke it. He said:

``Thus shall the Lord break the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar, within two years precisely, from off the neck of all the nations:''

814. Jeremiah replied,

``That God, instead of that wooden yoke, would lay an iron one upon the neck of all these nations, under which they should bow, and serve the king of Babylon, Jer 28:1-14

3409a AM, 4118 JP, 596 BC

815. Hananiah the false prophet died in the seventh month according to the word of Jeremiah. Astyages, after the death of his father Cyaxares, reigned over the Medes 35 years. (Herod. l. 1. c. 130.) He is also called, Ahasuerus, Da 9:1 or Asuerus. /APC Tob 14:15

3409c AM, 4119 JP, 595 BC

816. God by his prophet Jeremiah foretold that Babylon and the land of Chaldea should be overrun and laid waste by the Medes and Persians. He comforted his people with the sweet promises of their deliverance. Jer 50:1-51:64

817. Zedekiah, in the 4th year of his reign, sent Seraiah, the son of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah to Babylon, to whom Jeremiah delivered the these prophecies of the destruction of Babylon. These were written in a book. He read the book to the people and threw it into the river Euphrates. Jer 51:59-64 His brother Baruch, son also of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah, Jer 32:12 51:59 Jeremiah's scribe, is thought to have gone to Babylon with Seraiah.

3409d AM, 4119 JP, 595 BC

818. Baruch is said to have read all the words of his own book to Jeconiah, the son of Jehoiakim and to all the captives that were then dwelling with him at that time in Babylon. This was in the 5th year, (that is after Jeconiah was carried away to Babylon) in the 7th month, at the time when the Chaldeans took Jerusalem and burnt it with fire. /APC Bar 1:2-4 Some think that this was the same month when Jeconiah gave himself up to the king of Babylon and Jerusalem was taken and perhaps partially set on fire by the Chaldeans. For I cannot agree with Severus Salpicius, who perhaps taking it from that text, states in his first book of his Sacred History that at this very time:

``Nebuchadnezzar entered Jerusalem with his army and laid both city and walls, temple and all, even with the ground,''

819. Yet the former guess of Fran. Junius, concerning the quenching of the fire, and the taking of the city is somewhat more tolerable than that of our seminary priests of Downay when they said:

``that the whole time of the taking of Jerusalem, lasted eleven years before it was wholly burnt:''

820. That is from the time, when it was taken under Jeconiah until the time it was taken under Zedekiah. This book was written in the 5th year of that interval of time. Hugo Grotius thinks that the first writer of it means here that the fifth year after the carrying away of Jeconiah. The phrase "the rest of the burning of Jerusalem", was added later by someone else who was of opinion that Baruch never went to Babylon until after the burning of Jerusalem, which happened in the reign of Zedekiah.

821. Ezekiel had his first vision from God in the beginning of the 30th year from restoration of the worship of God in the 18th year of Josiah's reign, or the 5th year of the captivity of Jehoiakim or Jeconiah, 5th day of the 4th month, (on Saturday, July 24th). He was among the rest of the company that were carried away to Babylon, by the river Chebar or Chaborra according to Strabo and Ptolemy. Eze 1:1,2,28 From here he was sent to be a prophet among the Jews of the captivity. When he came to those who dwelt at Telabib near the river Chebar, he sat down as a man distressed for 7 days. After this, God reminded him of his call with promises if he obeyed and with threats if he refused. He confirmed him with a new sign and gave him courage and boldness by his word. Eze 2:1-3:27

822. The prophet was commanded to make a drawing of the siege of Jerusalem, and to lie a long time on his side for 390 days. This was to be a type of how many days the siege of the city of Jerusalem would last and of the number of years of the iniquity of the house of Israel from the time of Jeroboam. Eze 4:1-17

3410 AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:59:08 AM
 823. Shortly after Plammis king of Egypt returned from his journey which he had made into Ethiopia, he died. His son, Apryes, succeeded him and reigned for 25 years. (Herod. l. 2. c. 161) The scriptures call him Pharaohhophra. Jer 44:30 He and a well equipped army made an incursion into the Isle of Cyprus and upon Phoenicia. He took Sidon by force and the rest of that country by the very dread and terror of his name. After a main victory at sea, over both Cyprians and Phoenicians, he returned into Egypt with a huge spoil taken from them. (Diod. Sic. l. 1.) It is reported of him, that he said that no God was able to put him out of his kingdom for he thought he made his kingdom very secure. (Herod. 2 c. 169) In Eze 39:3 (as Tremelius has noted) is in that allegorical Prosopopeia, most elegantly expressed,

``The river is mine own, for I have made for it myself.''

3410c AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC

824. When Ezekiel had lain 390 days upon his left side, he turned to his right and lay there 40 more days. This was a type of the many years of the iniquity of Judah. Eze 4:6 See also Eze 5:1-7:27

3410d AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC

825. In the 6th year of Jeconiah's captivity and 5th day of it, (which was Wednesday, September 22nd) God carried Ezekiel away by the Spirit to Jerusalem. In a vision there, he showed him the infinite idolatry practised there and the plagues which were to befall that city for this. Eze 8:1 9:1-11:25

826. According to his prediction, Pelatia, the son of Benaiah died. God comforted the godly in their captivity in Babylon by the sanctification of his presence and with his evangelical promises for the time to come. When the vision was over, the prophet was brought back by the Spirit to his people in Chaldea and there declares to them all that God had showed him. Eze 11:13-25

3411a AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC

827. God by signs and words predicts Zedekiah's flight by night, the putting out of his eyes, his going into captivity and his dying in Babylon. Also he foretells the captivity of the Jews and the calamities which they were to endure before this captivity. Eze 12:1-28 In this same year, the next 7 chapters of Ezekiel were written. From his writings we understand that Daniel's name was at that time very famous for his continual prayers which he made for the people of the captivity. Eze 14:14,20 Zedekiah did not regard the covenant and oath which he had sworn and rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar. Eze 17:15,17

3411d AM, 4121 JP, 593 BC

828. In the 7th year of Jeconiah's captivity, the 10th day of the 5th month (Sunday, August 27th), Ezekiel reproved the elders for their gross hypocrisy in coming to ask counsel of God. He prophesied of the calamity that was to come on all flesh. He pronounced God's judgment on the idolaters and comfort to the godly. Eze 20:1-23:49

3413 AM, 4123 JP, 591 BC

829. After Battus founded the kingdom of Cyrene, he was succeeded by his son Arcesilaus who reigned 16 years. (Herod. l. 4. c. 159.)

3414d AM, 4124 JP, 590 BC

830. This was a sabbatical year in which the men of Jerusalem, set their servants at liberty according to the law. Eze 21:2 De 15:1,2,12 Jer 34:8-10 The men of Jerusalem also heard that Nebuchadnezzar was approaching with his army. Nebuchadnezzar marched against Zedekiah and ravaged all the country. He took their strong holds and came before the very walls of Jerusalem. (Joseph, Antiq. l. 10. c. 10.) He had taken all the cities of Judah, except Lachish, Azekah and Jerusalem. All of these cities were besieged by all his forces. Jer. 34:1-7

3414b AM, 4124 JP, 590 BC

831. The siege of Jerusalem did not begin until the middle of winter. In the 9th year of the reign of Zedekiah on the 10th day, (Thursday, January 30th) Nebuchadnezzar with all his army came before Jerusalem. He built forts all around it. 2Ki 25:1 Jer 39:1 52:4 In memorial of this event a yearly fast is kept among the Jews beginning from the captivity until this day.Zec 8:19

832. On the same day of the siege of Jerusalem, God revealed to Ezekiel who was in Chaldea its complete destruction. This was represented to him in type to a seething pot. His wife died that day in the evening. He was told not to mourn her death. In this way he was to signify the grievous calamity of the Jews which was to surpass all expressions of grief by mourning.Eze 24:1-27

3414d AM, 4124 JP, 590 BC

833. God told the prophet Jeremiah to tell Zedekiah of the complete destruction and burning of Jerusalem brought on by the king of Babylon. Zedekiah was to be carried away prisoner to Babylon. However, he would die in peace and have an honourable burial.Jer 34:1-7

834. Zedekiah imprisoned Jeremiah for his prophecy in the king's prison house. This happened in the 10th year of Zedekiah and the beginning of the 18th year of Nebuchadnezzar. He recovered the land of Hanameel, by right of redemption. Jer 32:1-16 All things then came to pass which he foretold. These are contained in Jer 32:1-33:26

835. Pharaohhophra, also called Vaphris, came with his army from Egypt, to help Zedekiah and the Chaldeans raised the siege before Jerusalem. Jeremiah was allowed to go free during the siege and had not been thrown into the dungeon until later. Zedekiah sent messengers to Jeremiah to ask him to make intercession to God for the deliverance of the people. Jeremiah told him that the Egyptians would return to their own land and the Chaldeans would return to Jerusalem and destroy the city by fire.Jer 37:3-10

836. When the siege was raised the people took back their Hebrew servants whom they had formerly set free, because they no longer feared the enemy. They made them serve them as before, which was contrary to the law and covenant. For this barbarous act, Jeremiah reproved them, telling them if they released their servants they would escape the sword, famine and pestilence of the returning Chaldeans. He told them the Chaldeans would be returning to make war again and would take their city and burn it to the ground. Jer 34:11-22

837. While the Chaldeans were perusing the Egyptian army, Jeremiah planned to escape but he was stopped by the princes. He was taken and scourged and cast into the dungeon in Jonathan's house for a long time. Jer 37:11-16 While Nebuchadnezzar was perusing the Egyptians in the 18th year of his reign, he took 832 prisoners from Jerusalem and for safeguard, he sent them all back to Babylon. Jer 52:29

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 08:59:44 AM
838. Pittacus of Mitylene was one of the 7 wise men. He was sent against Phrynon who was surnamed the Pancratiast, which means "a man excellent in all feats of chivalry". Phrynon was an olympian who won the bell in the games at Olympus. At that time he was serving as a general of the Athenian army. He had taken two towns, Sigeum and Achilleum, from the Lacedemonians, with a Navy to Troas. In this battle, the Athenians were victorious. They took the shield of Abraeus, since the poet of Mitylene, had thrown it away in his efforts to escape. They hung it up in the temple of Minerva in Sigeum. After this, Phrynon challenged any man that dared to encounter him to a single combat. Pittacus accepted the challenge and with a little net which he had hid under the hollow of his shield, he caught him by the head and killed him with his three-forked spear. The Mitylenians offered him a large portion of land for killing Phrynon. He only accepted as much land as he could throw his spear across. On this land he built a temple and called it Pittacium. This story seems to be mangled and is imperfect in Herodotus, (l. 5. c. 95.) However that defects in him is supplied by Plutarch, in his book entitled, "De malignitate Herodoti", of the envy, or spitefulness of Herodotus, together with (Strabo, l. 13. Polyenus, l. 1.) Festus, in the word, Retiarius "a fighter with a net." and Diogenes Laetius, l. 1.) He tells us, that the Mitylenians for that service made him their sovereign, of their own accord, 20 years before he died. He states this was in the third year of the 52nd Olympiad. In carefully calculating it, I chose to place it in the 3rd year of the 47th, though Eusebius places it on the 2nd year of the 43rd Olympiad. This seems to more closely agree because in the Catalogue of the Victorious Runners who won prizes, Phrynon, is said to have gotten the bell in the 36th Olympiad. The war did not end with this duel, but their quarrel was referred to by both parties to Periander of Corinth, who was also reckoned as another of the seven wise men of the world. As an indifferent arbitrator, he ordered that each party should hold what they had in their possession. The Mitylenians were to keep the Town of Achilleum and the Athenians Sigeum. (Herod. l. 5. c. 94. 54. Strabo l. 13.) Periander out of Sosicrates shows that Laertius died 6 years after this and before the 49th Olympiad. This reveals Herodotus' error in his account of times, where he makes this peace between the Athenians and Mitylenians, toward the latter end of the Successors of Pisistratus in Athens' government.

3415b AM, 4125 JP, 589 BC

839. In the 10th year of the captivity of Jeconiah and on the 12th day of the 10th month, (on Sunday, February 1st.) Ezekiel prophesied against Pharaoh and all Egypt. Ezekiel foretold that Pharaoh would prove to be only a staff or reed to the house of Israel. Pharaoh's attempts to relieve Israel were all in vain. He predicted that Pharaoh himself would be over thrown in the desert of Libya by the Cyreraeans. (see note in the year 3430). Egypt was to be miserably wasted by the Babylonians and that desolation would last for 40 years, Eze 29:1-16

3415c AM, 4125 JP, 589 BC

840. When Nebuchadnezzar had routed the Egyptian army, he presently returned to the siege of Jerusalem about the 15th day of the 3rd month, that is , 30 days before he took it.Eze 4:5,8 Jeremiah told Zedekiah that he would be given into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar. Zedekiah then command him to be removed out of the Dungeon of the prison in Jonathan's house and taken into the court of the prison. He was to be given a roll of bread each day as long as there was any bread left in the city, Jer 37: 17,21

3415d AM, 4125 JP, 589 BC

 841. As the siege continued Zedekiah inquired of Jeremiah, but he still sent him the same answer, that both king and people must fall into Nebuchadnezzar's hands. He said if any stayed in the city they would perish by sword, famine or pestilence. However, if any would go out, and submit to the king of Babylon, they would have their lives saved.Jer 21:1-14

842. The princes cast Jeremiah into Malchiah's dungeon, which was in the court of the prison for answering the king in this way. He was delivered by the help of Ebed-Melech, one of the kings Eunuchs, and was again consulted by the king. When he still continued in pronouncing judgment against the land of Judah, he was still kept in the court of the prison until the city was taken. Jer 38:1-28 He assured Ebedmelech, in the name of the Lord; that he would be free from all harm and danger in that calamity. Jer 39:15-18

3416c AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC

843. Tyre rejoiced to see the wretched condition Jerusalem experienced by Nebuchadnezzar's hand. However, in the 11th year of Jeconiah's captivity, in the first day of the first month, Ezekiel prophesied that Tyre would also perish in like manner by the same hand and that all who saw her former wealth and bravery would be amazed. Tremellius and Pradus places this prophecy in the 5th month. This would place it in the 12th year of Jeconiah's captivity in Babylon. He also foretold the same misery for the Sidonians, Tyre's neighbours. Eze 26:1-18 At that time the fame of Daniel's wisdom was so great, even in foreign nations, that used to speak in a proverbial way "as wise as Daniel". It was from this man that God upbraided Ithobolus king of Tyre, with his pride and arrogancy of his mind.

``behold, thou art wiser than Daniel; no secret can be hid from thee,'' Eze 28:3

844. In the same year, the 7th day of the 3rd month, (Tuesday, April 26th) God revealed his will to Ezekiel, of sending and arming Nebuchadnezzar against Pharaoh, to the ruin of Egypt. Eze 30:20-26

845. In the same year also, upon the first day of the 3rd month, (Sunday, June 19th) God declared that the Egyptian, could no more avoid this determination, than the Assyrian could. Eze 31:1-18

846. Near the end of the 11th year of Zedekiah, Jer 1:3 on the 9th day of the 4th month (Wednesday, July 27th) the famine grew strong in Jerusalem. The city was broken up and the Chaldeans entered it. 2Ki 26:2-4 Jer 39:2,3 52:5-7

847. When the city was taken Zedekiah and all the men of war fled away by night.

848. The Chaldeans pursued after them and took Zedekiah. They brought him as a prisoner to Riblah where Nebuchadnezzar was. He saw his children slaughtered and he had then his eyes put out. He was enchained with steel chains and carried away from there to Babylon. 2Ki 25:4,7 Jer 39:4,7 52:7,11 The prophecies were fulfilled of him, that with his eyes he would see the king of Babylon, Jer 32:4 34:3 but he would not see Babylon although he would die there.Eze 12:13

849. On the 7th day of the 4th month (Wednesday, August 24th) Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard was sent by Nebuchadnezzar to enter the city.2Ki 25:8 He spent two days preparing provisions. On the 10th day of that month, (Sunday, August 27th) he executed his charge. He set fire to the temple and on the king's palace. He also burned to the ground all the noble men's houses, with all the rest of the houses in Jerusalem.Jer 52:13 39:8 Our country man Tho. Lydiate, thinks that fire was set on it on the 7th day; but not burnt down till the 10th. In remembrance of this calamity, the fast of the 5th month was ordained to be kept.Zec 7:3,5 8:19 This fast is observed by the Jews to this day. However it is kept by them on the 9th day and not the 10th of the month Ab. The temple was destroyed toward the end of the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign.Jer 52:12 2Ki 25:9 This was in the beginning of the first year of the 48th olympiad, in the 160th year, running of Nebonasar's account, 424 years, 3 months and 8 days, from the time that Solomon laid the first stone.

850. On the same 5th month, Jer 1:3 all the walls of Jerusalem were levelled to the ground. Nebuchadnezzar carried back to Babylon all the remaining people in the city, all those who had formerly fled over to him, all the common people of the city, all the treasure of the king and of his nobles and the furniture of the temple. Jer 39: 8,9 52:14,23 2Ki 25:10,17 2Ch 36:18-20 Thus, Judah was carried away out of her own land. Jer 52:27 2Ki 25:21 468 years after David began to reign over it. These events have been recorded from the dividing of the 10 tribes, from the tribe of Judah, 388 years and from the destruction of the kingdom of Israel, 134 years.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:02:57 AM
 The Sixth Age of the World

851. Nebuzaradan left the basest sort of the people in the land of Judah to dress the vineyards and to till the ground. The king appointed Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, a man of the same country as governor Jer 39:10 42:16 2Ki 25:1,22,23 but without any kingly title. The reason for this is, as Severus Supitius, in his sacred History, notes:

``To have some preeminence over a few miserable boors or persons, was not reckoned to be any dignity at all.''

852. Nebuzaradan took to Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah, Seraiah the chief priest and Zephaniah the second priest and the three keepers of the gate of the temple, and other principal men. They were put to death there. Jer 52:24,27 2Ki 25:18,21 Jehozadak, the son of Seraiah and who after him came to be the high priest, was carried away captive to Babylon. 1Ch 6:15

853. Jeremiah was bound with chains and was carried with the rest as far as Ramah towards Babylon. There his irons were removed and he was set free. He was given his choice of either going to Babylon and there to be honourably treated or stay in the country with those miserable wretches who were left behind. He decided to stay and was sent back with money in his purse to Gedaliah the governor at Mizpah in the tribe of Benjamin. Jer 39:11-14 40:1-6

854. The captains and companies, who fled by night when the city was first taken, 2Ki 25:4 Jer 52:7 were scattered over the country. These with all the Jews who had fled to the Moabites and Ammonites and other nearby nations, after a while returned to Gedaliah in their own country. They were given a good provision of wine and oil and other summer fruits to live on. Jer 40:7,12 2Ki 25:23,24

855. Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah, of the family of the kings of Judah was bribed by Baalis king of the Ammonites to kill Gedaliah. He came to him with ten resolute fellows to Mizpah. They were graciously entertained by Gedaliah who gave no credit to those who told him of Ishmael's treachery and died as a result. Jer 40:13-16

3417a AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC

856. In the 7th month, Ishmael with his ten companions murdered Gedaliah as well as any Chaldeans and men of arms they found in Mizpah. Jer 41:1-3 2Ki 25:25 In remembrance of this, the Jews keep a fast to this day, on the 3rd day of this month Tizri. A day or two later, the same Ishmael slew some more men, who clad in mourning apparel, brought offerings and frankincense from Sichem, Shiloh and Samaria to the house of the Lord that now lay in ruins. These were tricked into going to Mizpah, where they were murdered in the open streets. Their bodies were cast into the well of king Asa. Jer 41:4-9

857. Ishmael returned to the king of Ammon with the king's daughters and the rest of the people who were left at Mizpah as his prisoners. Johanan, the son of Kareah, met him with a band of men and took away all his prisoners and set them free. Ishmael with only eight men in his company fled to the Ammonites. Jer 41:10,15

858. Johanan and all his captains with the rest of the people remained near Bethlehem. For fear of the Chaldeans they intended to flee into Egypt. Jer 41:16-18 Many of them went to Jeremiah and desired an answer by him from God about this plan. After 10 days, he told them God's message. He exhorted them not to leave their country. He assured them that if they stayed, God would protect them there and that no harm should come to them from the Babylonians. If they went into Egypt, everyone of them would perish by sword, by famine, by other kinds of death. The common people went into Egypt according to their old custom of never obeying good counsel nor God's commands. They took Jeremiah and Baruch the son of Neriah with them to Tahpanhes. Here Jeremiah declared to them in a type, the destruction of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. Jer 42:1-43:13 (Severus Sulpicius, Sacred History, l. 2.)

3417b AM, 4127 JP, 587 BC

859. In the 12th year of Jeconiah's captivity, on the 5th day of the 10th month, (Wednesday, January 25th) when news came to Ezekiel of the taking of Jerusalem, the prophet foretold of the utter destruction of the remaining Israelites. This was after the others had fled to Egypt. Eze 32:1-16

860. In the same 12th year, in the first day of the 12th month, (Wednesday, March 22nd) Ezekiel prophesied of the grievous plague and affliction which Nebuchadnezzar would bring on the land of Egypt. Eze 33:1-16

861. On the 15th day, the same prophet predicted of Pharaoh and all the people of Egypt that they would be brought down as low as hell with the rest of the uncircumcised nations. Eze 32:17-32

862. Jeremiah prophesied of the destruction which would follow the Israelites at Migdol not far from the Red Sea, Ex 14:2 at Tahpanhes, (or Daphne-pelusium), at Noph, at Memphis and in Pathros, a country in Egypt. For a certain sign of their own misery, he gave them Pharaoh, or Apryes, king of Egypt, whom they should see brought low before their eyes. Jer 44:1-30

863. Obadiah the prophet uttered a prophecy against Edom, which shamefully gloated over the calamity of the Jews when Jerusalem was destroyed. Likewise Jeremiah did, Jer 49:7 Eze 25:12 and the authors of the Psalms, Ps 79:1-1-13 137:1-9 who wrote about the same time.

3418 AM, 4128 JP, 586 BC

864. When Cyrus had lived 12 years or more with his father in Persia, his grandfather Astyages sent for him. He and his mother Mandane went to him in Media. (Xenophon, li. 1. of the Unstitu. of Cyrus.)

3419 AM, 4129 JP, 585 BC

865. When Ithobalus was reigning in Tyre, it was besieged 13 years by Nebuchadnezzar. Josephus reports this from Philostratus and other writers of the affairs of Phoenicia. (Antiq. l. 10. c. 11. & l. 1. cont. Apion.) During these 13 years, it seems that the neighbouring nations, the Moabites, the Ammonites and Edomites, were also subdued by Nebuchadnezzar, according to the predictions of the prophets. Jer 27:1-22 48:1-49:39 Eze 25:1-17

3420 AM, 4130 JP, 584 BC

866. It was the 23rd year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign when he lay siege to Tyre, which borders the land of Israel.Jos 19:29 Nebuzaradan, captain of his guard, took away 745 remaining Jews and Israelites together to Babylon. Jer 52:30 This extreme depopulation was foretold by Ezekiel Eze 4:5,6 in reference to the iniquity of Israel lasting 350 years, which was distinct from Judah's iniquity lasting 40 years until it was ended.

3421 AM, 4131 JP, 583 BC

867. Cyrus was now almost 16 years of age. Evil-merodach, the king of Assyria's son, was about to marry a wife called Nicotris. He made an inroad, with a great army of cavalry and foot soldiers on the borders of Media. There he took his pleasure in hunting and harrowing the country. Astyages, Cyaxares' son and Cyrus' grandchild had just begun to bear arms. They marched out and met him in a battle with the cavalry and overthrew him, driving him out of his borders. (Xenophon. l. 1. of the institution of Cyrus.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:03:32 AM
 868. After this Cyrus was called home by his father Cambyses. He had one year left of schooling. Xenophon in the same book tells us this. It is also referenced in Athenaeus', 14th book Dipnosoph out of Dion that Cyrus who served Astyages as the holder of his battle-axe and later as one of his armour bearers returned into Persia. At that same time Angeres who was a musician sang a song while Astyages feasted his friends. He said:

``That a fierce wild beast, more fierce than any boar; was let go, and sent into a sunny country and that he should reign over all these provinces and should with a handful of men, maintain war against great armies, &c.''

869. Astyages tried to call back Cyrus again, but could not get him.

3422 AM, 4132 JP, 582 BC

870. Cyrus spent 17 years among boys and then he spent ten years more among the youths. (Xenophon l. 1. of the Instit. of Cyrus.)

3424 AM, 4134 JP, 580 BC

871. In the 50th Olympiad, Epitelides the Lacedemonian, won the race in running. Certain men from Cnidos, not Rhodes, avoided the hostility of the kings of Asia by agreeing to make a colony elsewhere. They made Pentathlus a Cnidian, who was of the family of Hippotas, the son of Hercules. They moved to Sicily when Egesta and Selinunte were at war with each other. Pentathlus was killed while fighting within the ranks of the Selinuntians. The rest of them made Gorgus, Thestor and Epethirsis their captains. These men were all from the same family as Pentathlus was. They set sail from there and settled in the Isle of Lipara, (Diod. Sic. l. 5.)

3429 AM, 4139 JP, 575 BC

872. Arcesilars reigned 16 years in Cyrenaica and was succeeded by his son Battus who was surnamed Eudaemon. A large multitude of Greeks were advised by the Oracle at Delphi to go to Battus. They ravaged the lands of the bordering Libyans and divided it among themselves. Before this the colony in Cyrene consisted only of those who came from the Isle of Thera whose founder was Battus. (Herod. l. 4. c. 159.)

3430c AM, 4140 JP, 574 BC

873. On the 10th day of the first month of the 25th year of the captivity of Jeconiah, (Tuesday, April 30th) Jonathan the Chaldee Paraphrast states that 14 years after the destruction of Jerusalem, Ezekiel had a vision. In this vision the temple, the city and the kingdom of the Israelites was restored. This also foretold the restoration of the church by Christ with its greatness, honour and excellence.Eze 40:1-48:35

874. The Libyans were driven out of their lands and country by the inhabitants of Cyrenaica. They put themselves under the protection of Apryes king of Egypt. He gathered a great army together and sent them against the Cyrenians. The Cyrenians camped at a place called Irasa near the fountain called Thestis. They routed the army of the Egyptians so that only a few of them were left to return again into Egypt. The Egyptians grew angry with Apryes and revolted from him. They thought that he purposely sent them on a suicide mission to be rid of them. They reasoned that he did this so that he might more easily dominate the rest that were left. (Herod. l. 4. c. 159, l. 2. 161. Diodor. sic. l. 1.)

3431 AM, 4141 JP, 573 BC

875. Amasis, also called Saits, (who was frequently spoken of by Plato in his Timaeus) was sent by his father to stop this rebellion of the people. However, they made him king instead of his father. Apryes sent Paterbanes, a noble person, to call Amasis back. When Paterbanes returned, they cut off his nose and ears, because he did not bring Amasis back with him. After this unworthy act took place, all the people defected from him to Amasis. (Herod. l. 2. c. 162.)

3432b AM, 4142 JP, 572 BC

876. Finally, Tyre surrendered to Nebuchadnezzar. It was not taken by force, and was ransacked by the soldiers. Eze 29:18,19 Therefore he replaced king Ithobains with Gaal, a man of the same country to be a petty king there. He governed them 10 years, as Josephus affirms from the Annals of the Phoenicians. (lib. 1. contra Apion.)

3432c AM, 4142 JP, 572 BC

877. In the 1st day of the 1st month of the 27th year of the captivity of Jeconiah, (Tuesday, April 21st.) God promised to give all Egypt to Nebuchadnezzar for a spoil in recompence for his long labour in defeating Tyre. Eze 29:17-20

878. When Cyrus was 27 years old, he was taken from the rank of striplings, and reckoned among the number of men, according to the discipline and use of the Persians. (Xenophon, l. 1. of the institution of Cyrus.)

879. Taking advantage of the rebellion in Eygpt, Nebuchadnezzar invaded Egypt with his army after he was solicited by Amasis to help him against his father Apryes. After he conquored it from Syene to the ends of it, he made havock of the Egyptians and of the Jews which lived there. Some he killed and he lead away the rest into captivity according to Jeremiah's prophecies. Jer 43:1-44:30 46:1-24 Eze 29:1-31:18

3433 AM, 4143 JP, 571 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:04:04 AM
 880. Pharaohhophra, or Apryes, was forced to retreat into the country of Thebez. It seems Nebuchadnezzar made Amasis his viceroy over all Egypt. Though Herodotus did not know of this for Scaliger observes in his notes, Ad Fragmenta:

``The priests of Egypt told him of such things, as he desired to know. They spoke only of things that glorified their nation, but concealed the rest. This showed their cowardice and slavery, and made payment of tribute to the Chaldeans.''

3434 AM, 4144 JP, 570 BC

881. When Nebuchadnezzar finished his conquests, he returned to Babylon. When at ease in his own palace, he had that remarkable dream of the great tree whose destiny was to be cut down. This tree represented him. The meaning of it was explained by Daniel when he could not learn it from his wizards of Chaldea. Da 4:1-37

882. Nebuchadnezzar now built up Babylon in wonderful magnificence and beauty. He built a whole new city outside the old one and enclosed all of it with a triple wall made of brick. As a favour to his Median wife called Amyrtis, (of whom I spoke in 3374 AM) king Astyages' daughter, he made that famous and so much renowned garden, born on pillars of which Berosus writes:

``He built that garden, called the Hanging Garden, because his wife desired the pleasure of the hills since she was brought up in Media.''

883. Q. Curtius said:

``It is said that a king of Syria, reigning in Babylon, built this great work at the importunity of his wife, whom he dearly loved. She desired to enjoy the pleasure of hills and woods, in that low country of Babylon and set her husband to the task of imitating the genius or spirit of Nature itself, by the amenity and pleasantness of this work.''

884. Those who would know more of the infinite magnificence and sumptuousness of this work must read the fragments which are left from Berosus and Abydenus. The former blames the Greek writers who attribute this work to Semyramis, where indeed, this and those other vast and magnificent structures were the works of this Nebuchadnezzar. So states Josephus, in his first Book centra Apion. The latter writer says plainly that those vast walls with their brazen gates were reckoned among the wonders of the world and remained to the times of Alexander the Great. Eubebius in his ninth book, De Evangelical Preparat. attributes this to Nebuchadnezzar. Clitarchus and others, who accompanied Alexander in that journey state that the circumfirence of that wall was 365 furlongs, (about 46 miles) according to the number of the days of the year. (Diod. Sic. l. 1.) They also state that every furlong's length of it was built and completed in one day. (Q. Curtius, l. 5. c. 4.)

885. Twelve whole months were no sooner past, but Nebuchadnezzar, growing proud and boastful of the magnificency of his buildings, lost his mind and was put out of his palace. He spent seven years in the woods and fields among beasts. Da 4:32,33

886. Apryes gathered an army of 30,000 mercenaries from Ionia and Caria to help him fight with his son Amasis, at Memphis. The army was routed and he was taken prisoner. He was kept for a while in the city of Sais. Not long after this, he was strangled, according to the prophecy of Jer 44:30. (Herod. l. 2. 163. and 169 and by Diod. Sic. l. 1.)

887. After his death Amasis reigned 44 years, (Herod. l. 31. c. 10.) and paid tribute all that time to the king of Babylon. The priests did not make that known to Herodotus.

3442a AM, 4151 JP, 563 BC

888. The 18th year of Jubilee.

889. At the end of 7 years, Nebuchadnezzar humbly acknowledged the power of God. He was restored both to his right mind and his kingdom. He publicly proclaimed God's great grace and mercy shown toward him and his power over all nations. Da 4:34-37

3442b AM, 4152 JP, 562 BC

890. Nebuchadnezzar died after he had foretold that Cyrus would capture Babylon. So states Abydenus (quoted by Euseb. l. 9. Prapar. Evang. c. ult.) based on the account from the Chaldeans. He departed this life after he had reigned about 20 months as viceroy in the kingdom with his father and 43 years by himself.

891. After Nebuchadnezzar, his son Evilmerodach reigned. In the 37th year of the captivity of Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, about the 25th day of the 12th month (Tuesday, April 15th), Evilmerodach ordered Jeconiah to be promoted. Jer 52:31 Two days later he took him from prison, changed his prison clothes and sat him ahead of all the princes in his court. He counted him among the king's friends and for the rest of his life, Jeconiah ate at the king's table. 2Ki 25:27-29

892. In Lydia after Haylyattes died, his son Cresus reigned for 14 years. (Herod. l. 1. c. 86)

893. After king Baal, the king of Babylon governed Tyre by judges. The first one was Ecnibalus the son of Baslacus, whom Scaliger calls. xl[m !b l[bÄynk[ He ruled 3 months. Next came Chelbes, the son of Abdeus, whom Scaliger also calls ydba !b fbklx . He ruled there 10 months according to Josephus who writes this from the Phoenician Annals, {Josephus, Apion l. 1. <1:783>}

3443 AM, 4153 JP, 561 BC

894. Abhar the high priest judged Tyre 3 months. After him, Mitgonus and Gerastratus governed them for 6 years. {Josephus, Apion l. 1. <1:783>}

895. When Croesus was living at Sardis, all the wise and learned men of Greece went to him including Solon the law maker. Solon had that famous discussion with Croesus about of the uncertainty of man's life and of all human happiness in it. (Herod. l. 1. c. 28-33) There exists at Laertius a short epistle of Solon's to Croesus that Solon wrote near the end of his life. He said that he was sent for by Croesus at the time Pisistratus governed Athens. At the same time, Aesop, a Phrygian who composed those famous fables, was sent for by Croesus to come to him at Sardis. Croesus held Aesop in great esteem. Croesus was upset with Solon and was dismissed in an uncivil manner because Solon spoke quite candidly to him. He sent him a letter stating that kings must have either very few or very pleasing words spoken to them. Solon wrote back that kings must have, either very few or very honest things spoken to them. {*Plutarch, Solon, l. 1. c. 28. 1:483,485}

896. Aesop went from Sardis to Delphi and was there most unjustly sentenced to die. Accordingly he was thrown down the rock there, called Phaedrias, about the 54th olympiad according to Trabe. That is near the end of the 4th year of that olympiad, if the times be correctly calculated. The revenge of this murder was often threatened by the Oracle there. It was later executed by Judmon, grandchild to that Judmon of the Isle of Samos. Aesop sometime had been with this slave and with Rhodope of Thracia, that famous strumpet. (Herod. l. 2. ca. 134.)

897. After Solon left Croesus, he went into Cilicia and there built a city, and called it Solos after himself. He settled certain Athenians there. In process of time, they corrupted the native language and were said to commit solecisms in their speech according to Laertius in his life reports. This place is more properly said of the Solii in Cyprus than of the Solenses in Cilicia. This is shown by Solon in his eulogies written to Philonyprus the king, recorded by Plutarch, in the life of Solon. Here Plutarch also tells us that this petty king of Cyprus made use of Solon's wit and counsel in some of his own affairs. He moved a little town formerly called Epea, into a lower ground more fit and useful for habitation and in honour of Solon, called it Solos.

898. After Solon departed, Croesus, who deemed himself the happiest man alive, found out by sad experience that all Solon had told him, of the instability of man's life and happiness of it was true. For shortly thereafter he had a dream in which he saw his son Atys thrust through with a spear. This was a portent of the violent death which was soon to happen to him. He sought diligently to prevent this and was prepared to marry him. Adrastus of Phrygia of the king's family there had slain his own brother. He was banished against his will by his father Midas, the son of Gordius, (not that old Midas, the son of Gordias king of Phrygia, whose Epitaph made by Homer and set upon his tomb, Herodutus in the life of Homer recounts). He came to Sardis and Croesus pardoned him for this accidental death. When Croesus had done this, he committed to him the care and safe keeping of his son Atys. At that time, he was requested by the Mysians to come and help kill a huge boar which destroyed the grain and other crops growing about the hill Olympus. It also often killed many of the farmers. When Adrastus aimed at the boar with the point of his spear, he accidentally gored Atys and killed him. When Croesus had pardoned him for this, he killed himself on the tomb of Atys. When Croesus lost his son, he spent two whole years mourning for him. He broke off his mourning for fear of Cyrus' growing power and by whom he was afterward conquered. (Herod. l. 1. c. 34-46.) whereof also you may see, what Hen. Valesius states in his collections (Diodo. Sic. p. 238.) and what Val. Max. states (l. 1. c. 7.).

3444c AM, 4154 JP, 560 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:04:34 AM
 899. Evilmerodach the king of Babylon, was a wicked man. He had many attempts made on his life and was murdered by Neriglissoros, his sister's husband, when he had reigned little more than two years. (Berosus l. 3. of the Chaldean Affairs, cited by Josephus l. 1. contra Apion) We read that Jeconiah king of Judah had a daily food allowance made for him for his diet until he died. Jer 52:34 2Ki 25:30 Therefore, it is most probable, that Jeconiah himself died about the same time Evilmerodach died.

3444d AM, 4154 JP, 560 BC

900. After Neriglissoros murdered Evilmerodach, he reigned 4 years. (Berosus l. 3. Chalean Affairs)

901. In the kingdom of Media when Astyages or Assuerus died, /APC Tob 14:15 he was succeeded by his son Cyaxares, Cyrus his mother's brother. (Xenophon l. 1. of the Institution of Cyrus) This was in the beginning of the first year of the 55th Olympiad, 31 years before the death of Cyrus. Daniel calls Cyaxares, Darius the Mede, the son of Assuerus.

3445 AM, 4155 JP, 559 BC

902. The king of Babylon conscripted troops from his own subjects and help from Croesus the king of Lydia with the Cappadocians, the Phrygians, Carians Paphlagonians and Cisicians, on the west. On the east he approached the Indians also to join with him in battle against the Medes and Persians. He told them that they were two great nations who were now allied together. If they were not checked, they would eventually overrun and bring into subjection all countries near and far. Cyrus was made general of the Persian army by his father Cambyes and all the counsel of the kingdom. He was sent to Media with 30,000 soldiers and 1000 commanders all of equal authority under his command. (Xenophon, l. 1. Institution of Cyrus ) When he came he was made general of the Median forces by his uncle Cyaxares who had sent for him and was placed solely in charge of the war against the Babylonians. From this time are the 30 years of his reign or principality reckoned starting from the end of the 1st year of the 55th Olympiad. (Julius Africanus, l. 3. of his Annals, from Diod. Sic.) Thallus, Castor, Polybius, Phlegon, and other chronologers also count this as the beginning of the reign of Cyrus as cited by Eusebius. (l. 10. de Prapara. Evangelica.)

903. In the spring of that year, at the close of the same year of the same Olympiad, Solon, left Philocyprus the king and the Solii. He thought to return to Athens as we find in his eulogies as mentioned before in Plutarch. However, he suddenly became sick and died in Cyprus at the age of 80 years. Laertius says this happened in the year when Hegestrates was archon or president of Athens and in the second year of Pisistratus ruling there. (Plutarch from Phanias the Ephesian)

3446b AM, 4156 JP, 558 BC

904. In the 30th year after the desolation of Jerusalem, the unknown author of 2nd Esdras claims to have had that conference with the angel Uriel. This is recorded in /APC 2Es 3:1-4:52 at what time Salathiel was captain of the people, /APC 2Es 5:16 because Jeconiah was dead.

905. When Croesus was preparing to fight with Cyrus, he sent great presents to Delphi and consulted the oracle there concerning the matter of this war. This was 3 years before Sardis was taken. (Herod. l. 1. c. 53-55, 91.)

3447 AM, 4157 JP, 557 BC

906. When the king of Armenia saw that the Babylonians were making preparations against Cyraxeres, he would neither send him aid nor pay him tribute any longer in spite of the agreement he had made when Astyages or Cyaxares had overcome and subjected him. Therefore, Cyaxares, under the pretence of a hunting trip, attacked Armenia and defeated both him and his son Tigranes in a battle. He put them under his control again. He also conquered the mountains which lie between Armenia and Chaldea and there built a strong fort. He made peace on certain conditions between the two nations. (Xenoph. l. 3. de Instit. Cyri.)

3448 AM, 4158 JP, 556 BC

907. Cyaxares and Cyrus marched against the Babylonian king, Croesus and the rest of the confederates and gained a major victory over them. The king of Babylon fell in the battle and Croesus with those which were left, broke his camp by night and fled. Cyrus who had made a league with the Hircanians who had defected to him from the Babylonians, used their help and guidance in the way to pursue the fleeing enemy. He overtook them and after another battle he defeated them. After Croesus sent away his women by night because the days were so hot, he left his camp with all his horses. The Hyrcanins fell upon the companies of the Cappadocians and Arabians and slew both their kings. Cyrus spared the lives of such as either were taken by force or had yielded to mercy. He divided the spoil of the battle among his soldiers. (Herod. l. 3, 4.)

3448c AM, 4158 JP, 556 BC

908. Laborosoarchodus, son of Neriglissorus, was much more wicked than his father. He reigned after his father for 9 months in Babylon. (Berosus.)

909. Balatorus reigned in Tyre for one year among other judges. (Phoenici. Annal.)

910. Gobrias, had an only son who was killed by that new king of Babylon in a hunting match. He and his friends defected to Cyrus. (Xen. l. 4.)

911. Cyrus came to invade the country of Babylon. He stood outside the walls of the city and challenged the new king to a duel. Gadatas, was a noble man of whom this new king was jealous because the king's wife admired him, so he defected to Cyrus. The Babylonians sought revenge for this and spoiled Gadatas' lands. Cyrus pursued them and routed their forces. Unknown to Cyrus, the Cadusii, whom he had appointed as the rear guards of his army, had laid siege to a country near the city. They were cut off by the king of Babylon. When Cyrus first revenged the death of these men, he came to an agreement with the king to allow only the soldiers to fight allowing the peasants on both sides to hold a truce. He passed beyond the city and captured three of their forts. He returned to the confines of Assyria and Media from where he started. He invited his uncle Cyaxares to come him. When he came there, Cyrus honourably received and entertained him in the pavilion of the king of Assyria, Neriglostorus. Since winter was approaching, they consulted together about the things necessary to maintain the siege, should it carry on that long. (Xenophon l. 5. & 6.)

3449b AM, 4159 JP, 555 BC

912. After Laborosoarchadus, who was disposed of by his subjects for his acts of villany, Nebuchadnezzar's grandchild by his daughter succeeded him. He was his son by Evilmerodach and called by Berosus, Nabonidus, but by Herodotus, Labynitus, by Abydenus, Mabannidochus and by Daniel, Belshazzar, also Baltazar. He reigned 17 years, according to Berosus in his third book of his Chaldee History and Ptolemy in Can. Reg.

913. In the first year of this king's reign, Daniel had a vision of 4 beasts which signified the 4 empires of the world. He also saw God overcoming all earthly powers and the sovereignty of the Son of Man in all things. Da 7:1-28

914. When Balatorus, the petty king of Tyre died, Merbalus was sent from Babylon to replace him and reigned for 4 years. (Phoenis. Annal.)

3451 AM, 4161 JP, 553 BC

915. In the 3rd year of Belshazzar, Daniel had a vision of a ram and a goat, foreshadowed the destruction of the Persian Empire by Alexander and the great misery which Antiochus would bring upon the people of God. Daniel was living at Susa in the province of Elam, upon the bank of the river Ulai. Da 8:1,2 This river surrounds the citadel of Susa and parts the provinces of Susa and Elimais. That is the Susachaeans from the Elamites, as the inhabitants of those two provinces are distinguished by Ezr 4:9 and as Pliny l. 6. c. 27. From this we know that at this time the province of Susa was not in the hands of the Medes or Persians. It was controlled by the Babylonians, under whom Daniel then lived, as I noted before in 3405 AM.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:05:42 AM
 916. Berosus tells us (in his third book of his Chaldee History, quoted by Josephus, l. 1. cont, Apion.) that those walls about the river of the city of Babylon, (which were started by Nebuchadnezzar) were fully lined with brick laid with a kind of slime, or liquid brimstone. For his mother Nicotris, an astute woman, saw the gathering storm about to break upon Babylon. She had turned the river Euphrates, which normally ran swiftly in a straight course. After drawing it through many winding channels, which she had cut for that purpose, she made it to run more slowly than it did formerly. Then she raised a huge dam on each side of the river. Upstream from the city she constructed a huge lake into which she diverted the river. Thus, she left the channel of the river dry. When this was done, she lined the banks of the river inside the city brick walls. She installed watergates in the walls around the city. She also built a stone bridge in the middle of the city. When this was done, she diverted the river from the lake to its original channel. (Herod. l. 1. c. 185, 186, 188.) The magnificence of this stone bridge which joined the king's houses, that stood on each side of the river, is described by Philostratus, in the life of Apollonius. (lib. 1. c. 18) He said that it was built by a queen that came out of Media. Hence we gather that as Nebuchadnezzar married Amyitis, so likewise his son, Evilmerodach married this Nicotris from Media.

3453 AM, 4163 JP, 551 BC

917. When Merbalus died, the king of Babylon sent Hirom, his brother in his place. He reigned in Tyre for 20 years. (Phoenic. Annal.)

3455 AM, 4165 JP, 549 BC

918. Darius the son of Hystaspis, was born. He was almost 20 years old shortly before Cyrus died. (Herod. l. 1, c. 209)

3456c AM, 4166 JP, 548 BC

919. When Croesus was made general of the army of the Babylonians and others, he crossed over the river Halys which divided the lands of Media and Lydia. Using the skill of Thales the Median philosopher, he crossed the river without a bridge and came into Cappadocia. There he took the city of Pteria and all the surrounding cities. He utterly destroyed the Syrians who had done him no wrong. Herodotus in (lib. 1. c. 72.) states that Cappadocians were called Syrians by the Greeks.

3456d AM, 4166 JP, 548 BC

920. After Cyrus had sent to the Ionians to see if they would join him or remain loyal to Croesus, he fought an indecisive battle with Croesus. The next day Croesus returned to Sardis because Cyrus did not attack him again. He intended not to fight that winter but wait for the next spring. to march against the Persians. In the meantime, he sent all his auxiliaries to their homes and sent ambassadors to those who were loyal to him, as were the Lacedemonians. He ordered them all to come to meet at Sardis in five months. When Croesus had disbanded his army, Cyrus attacked him with all his forces. When this surprise attack was made, Croesus, though greatly troubled, still went forth to fight with him with such of his Lydians as he had. He trusted mainly in his cavalry. Cyrus thwarted his design by placing his camels in front of his troops, knowing that horses cannot tolerate the smell of camels. Therefore all the horses of Croesus turned tail and carried their riders away with them. However, the Lydians left their horses and set themselves in battle array. Yet at last, after many were killed on each side they fled. The Persians followed up on this victory and attacked Sardis which they took in 14 days. Croesus was condemned to be burned. When he came to the place of execution, he cried out, "O Solon, Solon", whose wise counsel, concerning the instability of human affairs he had formerly so much despised. When Cyrus heard this he not only spared his life but took him also into his privy counsel. Cyrus arranged the funerals of Abradatos the king of Susa (who defected from the king of Babylon to him and was slain in the battle). Also he arranged the funeral of Panthea his queen who killed herself when she saw her dead husband. He made a huge and magnificent monument for them. (Herod. l. 1. c. 75-90 with Xeno. instruc. l. 7. The collections out of Diod. Sic. by Hen. Vales. p. 241. Plut. in the life of Solon. Ployan. in his stratag. l. 7. in Cyrus and Croesus and Solinus in Polyhist. l. 1.) Eusebus in his Chronicles states that Cyrus attacked Sardis, in the 28th Olympiad that is in its 1st year.

921. When Croesus sent his shackles as a present to Delphi, he complained in vain that he had been misled by the Oracle. (Herod. l. 1. c. 90, 91) When the men of Ionia and Eolia, wanted to submit to Cyrus under the same conditions that they had formerly lived by under Croesus, Cyrus declined. He granted those terms only to the Milesians, who feared what might happen to them and had previously made peace with him. (Herod. l. 1. c. 141, 143, 169) The rest of the Greek city states were fortified. They sent Pithermon of Phocca, with other ambassadors to the Lacedemonians to seek help from them which they refused to do. Yet they sent their ambassador Lachrines to Cyrus to warn him not to touch any of the Greeks in Asia. He sent them word again, that he would shortly make them stop caring for the Ionians and the rest of the Greeks in Asia and attend to their own affairs at home. (Herod. l. 1. c. 141, 152, 153)

3457 AM, 4167 JP, 547 BC

922. Thales the Milesian advised them to hold a counsel at Treos, which was a city in the centre of Ionia. (Herod. l. 1. c. 170.) Cyrus remained at Sardis and built battering rams and other equipment purposing to raze the walls of all that stood against him. The Carions sent and asked his help to settle their civil war. He sent Adusius, a Persian with an army. The Cilicians and Cyprians willingly joined this force. Adusius put an end to their difference, however he left sufficient garrisons of his own in the cities of either party. (Xenoph. l. 7. Instit.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:06:18 AM
923. At the end of the first year of the 58th Olympiad, Thales the Milesian philosopher died, (as Laertius states from of Sosicrates). Anaximander, his countrymen first observed the loxodromy, or motions of the stars in the Zodiac, as Pliny, from other authors states. (lib. 1. c. 8.) However Plutarch in his 2nd book, "de Placitis Philosophorum", has more correctly told us that that point of astronomy was known to Thales the Milesian, Anaximander's teacher. He died at the age of 64 in the 2nd year of this Olympiad according to Laertius in his "Chronicle of Appolodorus the Athenian", Further from Phavorinus' "Varia Historia", he tells of his scientific inventions. He was the first to invent the sun dial which he installed in Sparta. He also invented the horoscopes for the finding out the equinoxes and solstices for the dial to determine the hour of the day. The horoscope or instrument is used to observe the equinoxes and the tropics, or the summer and winter solstice is different from this. Pliny attributes the invention of the dial and clock to Anaximenes, his scholar, and fellowcitizen: (lib. 2. ca. 76.)

``This rule and reason of shadows, which was also called Gnomonical, or Dial work, was first discovered by Anaximenes, Anaximander's student. He was the first that set up a Sciathericum, which is a dial to show what is the time in Sparta. (See note on 3291 AM)''

924. Anaximenes the son of Eurystratus succeeded Anaximander in his school at Meletus according to Clemens. (Alexandri. in his 1st book of his Aronsat.) Following the advise of Thales, Pythagoras went into Egypt when both his teachers Anaximander and Anaximenes were dead. Polyerates of Samos sent with him a letter of commendation to Amasis king of Egypt according to Laertius in his life of Pythagorus. It seems this Amasis was surnamed by the Egyptians Somnesartcus. Pliny (in his 36th book, c. 9.) shows that in his reign Pythagoras came into Egypt. He stayed there 22 years and conversed with the priests. From them he learned his knowledge in astronomy and geometry. He was initiated into all their rites and ceremonies, according to Jamblichus, (in the life of Pythagorus, c. 3. & 4.) Therefore he was circumcised by them and after he was admitted into the secrets of their religion so that he might more freely partake of the mystical philosophy of the Egyptians. In attaining this, he was mainly indebted to Sonchedes, the chief prophet among them. (Clem. Alexan. l. 1. Strom.) I think this Sonchedes was from Sais. He talked much with Solon according to Plutarch in his life. They taught Pythagoras about Metempsuchosis, or transmigration of souls out of one body into another, according to Diodr. Sic. He was quite familiar with their books and writings about history. (Valer. Max. l. 8. c. 7.)

3458 AM, 4168 JP, 546 BC

925. Hystaspes and Adusius united forces and conquered all Phrygia bordering on the Hellespont. They captured their king and brought him prisoner to Cyrus. (Xenoph. Instit. l. 7. )

926. Cyrus committed Sardis to the keeping of Tabulus a Persian. He committed the treasure of Croesus and the rest of the Lydians to Pactyas of Lydia. He returned towards Ecbatan and took Croesus along with him. He paid little attention to the affairs of Ionia. No sooner had Cyrus left Sardis, but Pactyas immediately persuaded the Lydians to revolt from Cyrus and his governor,Tabulus. Using the king's treasure he hired soldiers from other parts and drove Tabulus into the citadel and besieged him there. When Cyrus was told this on his way he took the advice of Croesus. He sent back Mazares a Median, with a part of his army. He defeated the Lydians and made them agreeable to the rule of Cyrus. (Herod. l. 1. c. 153-157) So the nation that was famous for hard work, power and chivalry, grew soft from luxury and lost their courage and virtue. (Justin, from Trogus, l. 1. ca. 7.)

3459 AM, 4169 JP, 545 BC

927. Mazares demanded Pactyas from Cumaeans where he had sought refuge. The Cumaeans consulted the Oracle at Branchis who said that they should deliver him up. Aristodicus the son of Heraclides persuaded them not to give him up to be slain by the Persians. Since they did not want him to stay lest Cyrus come and destroy their city, they sent him away safely to Mitylene. When the Mitylenians were ready to surrender him, the Cumaeans sent a ship to Lesbos and there took him to Chios. There the Chii drew him by force from the temple of Minerva and delivered him to Mazares. The Lesbos were rewarded by having Atarneum a place in Mysia opposite Lesbos given to them. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 157-160.) Plutarch seeks to justify both the Mitylenians and the Chii in this matter in his book, of "The malignity of Herodotus", using the more ancient historian, Caron of Lampsacus. He states the matter thus:

``Pactyas hearing of the approach of the Persian's army, fled first to Mitylene. and then to Chios and there Cyrus took him.

 928. When Mazares had captured Pactyas, he marched against those who with Pactyas had attacked Tabulus. He conquered the inhabitants of Priene, partly ravaged the country lying on the Maeander River. He gave both it and the city of Magnesia for a reward to his soldiers. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 161.)

3461 AM, 4171 JP, 543 BC

929. Harpagus, who was a chief general under Cyrus, went with his army against Ionia. He fought with them (as Eusebius in his Chron. upon the 2nd year of the 59th Olympiad notes) for Mazares was dying of a disease. Harpagus (whom some erroneously call Harpalus) was made general in the place of Mazares. When Harpagus came into Ionia, he immediately besieged whatever city he came to. He took Phocaea, the capital city of all Ionia. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 162)

930. The Phoeneans abandoned the city when they saw they could not hold it. They escaped by ship with their wives and children to Chios. Seeking revenge for the loss of Phocaea, they killed all the garrison which Harpagus had left there to hold it. From there they sailed to the isles of Oenusae and then to the isle of Cyrnus or Corsica. Here, 20 years before they had made a colony and built a city called Alatia. When they had stayed five years and made all the neighbouring countries weary of them by their robbing and plundering, the Italians and Carthaginians sent a navy of 60 ships. After several naval battles, the Phocaeans won but at the cost of many lives and lost 40 ships. They moved to Rhegium in Italy and there built the city Hyela, later called Velia in the territory of Oenotria. (Herod. l. 1. c. 164-167) Also Thucides (lib. 7. of his history) confirms that the Phocaeans, which built Marseillus, defeated the Carthaginians at sea. One group built Velia and another Marseilles, in the time of Servins Tullus king of the Romans. This was more than 600 years after the coming of Aeneas into Italy as is testified by Hyginus who is quoted by A. Gellius. (lib. 10. Noct. Attica, c. 6.) Concerning this colony of the Marseillius, Isocrates mentions in his Archidamus. See note on 3404 AM.

931. When Harpagus besieged the city of the Teians, they abandoned the city and sailed into Thrace. There they built a city called Abdera. This city was begun earlier and unsuccessfully by Timesius, a man of Clazomenae. See note on 3349 AM. The rest of the Ionians, all except the Milesians who had before hand made a league with Cyrus, were conquered one by one by Harpagus. He allowed them to stay in their own country. They paid what was imposed upon them. (Herod. l. 1. c. 168, 169.) When they were afflicted in this manner, they assembled in their old common council of Ionia, called Panionium. Bias of Priene, chief of all the wise men of Greece, counselled that they should build a common navy and sail to Sardinia. There they should make a common city for all Ionians to live in and be free from this slavery and live happily. (Herod. l. 1. c. 170)

3464c AM, 4174 JP, 540 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:06:49 AM
 932. When Cyrus had subdued Asia Minor, he immediately made war on the Assyrians. He marched with his army against Labynitus or Nabonidus their king. (Herod. l. 1. c. 178, 188.) The news of this came to Babylon two full years before the city was besieged. Jer 51:46 When Cyrus was marching toward Babylon, he was delayed at the river Gnides which runs into the Tigris. For want of boats, he could not cross over it. While he stayed there, one of the white horses which were consecrated to the sun, went into the river and drowned in its swift current. Cyrus was furious about this event and stopped his march to Babylon. That summer he had the river divided into 360 channels. He intended to make it so that a woman may pass through it and not get her knees wet. (Herod. l. 1. c. 189, 190, 202. l. 5. c. 52.)

3465b AM, 4175 JP, 539 BC

933. The next year Cyrus marched to Babylon. Here Cyrus defeated, Belshazzar, or Nabonidus. The Chaldeans retreated into the city and resolved to endure a siege (Herod. l. 1. c. 190.) Jer 51: 27,28,30 which they took lightly for two reasons. First, they had more than 20 years of provisions in Babylon. Secondly, they thought there were many in Cyrus' army who favoured the Chaldeans more than the Persians. (Herod. ib. Xenophon. Instru. l. 7.)

934. Cyrus made a vast trench around the wall of the city. He cast up the earth towards his own army and made bulwarks along it. He placed guards on these and divided his whole army into 12 parts. He ordered that each part would in turn stand watch for a month. (Xenophon. ib.)

3466b AM, 4176 JP, 538 BC

935. When Cyrus had spent much time in this work with little to show for it, at last he made a ditch from the river to that vast lake which was 300 or 400 furlongs wide (40 to 50 miles wide). Belshazzar's mother, Nicotris, had dug this lake. Then he opened the mouths of this and that other ditch which he had newly built about the city and let the river flow into them. Hence he made the channel which was not more than two furlongs wide (1/4 mile) passable for his men. (Herod. l. 1. c. 190, 191. Xenophon Institut. l. 7.) Jer 51:32,36

936. Cyrus with his army went through the water gates in the wall and got into the city on a festival day while all the men were at banquets. (Herod. l. 1. c. 190, 191. Xenophon Institut. l. 7.) Jer 51:39,57 So vast was that city that as the inhabitants reported, when the outskirts of it were surprised and taken by the enemy, they who dwelt in the heart of the city, never heard of it. (Herod. l. 1. c. 191) Jer 51:31 alludes to this when it says:

``that post upon post and messenger upon messenger shall run to tell the king of Babylon, that all the outskirts of the city were possessed by the enemies.''

937. When Belshazzar and all his nobles were feasting, he ordered his servants to bring all the vessels of the house of the Lord, which Nebuchadnezzar his father, or grandfather (for he was his son's son Jer 27:7) had brought away from Jerusalem. As they glorified his idols and reproached the true God, God sent a hand to write on the wall of the room, where Belshazzar sat drinking. It wrote the number of years which the Babylonian Empire was to last and that it had been now weighed in the balance and was found wanting. Therefore it was to be transferred to the Medes. It also declared what was to happen to Belshazzar. When his wizards of Chaldea, could not read the writing, his queen advised him to send for Daniel. When he came, he read the writing and interpreted it for him. For his efforts, he was publicly proclaimed the third man in the kingdom.Da 5:1-31 Since the king's wives are said to have been present at the banquet, Da 5:2,3 and the queen to have come in afterward, Da 5:10 this is to be understood of the queen mother, Nicotris. She was the mother of this last king of Babylon, as we have already shown out of Herodotus.

938. In the same night of this banquet, Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans was slain Da 5:30 by the soldiers of Gobryas and Gadneas. (Xen. l. 7. Instr.) So the Babylonian kingdom came to an end, as had been predicted, Isa 13:1-14:32 21:1-17 34:1-17 46:1-13 Hab 2:1-20 Jer 25:1-38 50:1-51:64 and the empire transferred to the Medes and Persians. Da 5:21 6:8,12,15

939. Darius the Mede, son of Assuccus or Cyaxares, the son of Astyages, took over the kingdom as given to him by Cyrus the conqueror. Da 5:31 9:1 Cyrus had set apart the king's house and all his palaces in Babylon so that if he should come to Babylon, he would have a palace of his own to stay in. (Xenophon, Instit. l. 8.) The angel, in this first year of his reign, is said to have confirmed and strengthened him in his kingdom. Da 11:1 After this he is said to have reigned for 2 years.

940. When Cyrus had set all things in order at Babylon, he returned through Media into Persia, to his father Cambyses and Mandana his mother who were yet living. From there he returned again into Media and married the only daughter and heir of Cyaxares. For a dowry he had the whole kingdom of Media given to him. After the marriage, he left for Babylon taking her with him. At Babylon he sent governors into all his dominions. Megabyxos went into Arabia. Artacaman went into Phtygia the Greater. Chrysantas went into Lydia and Ionia. Adusius went into Carin. Pharmichas went into Phrygia Hellespontiaca, or the Less. In Cilicia and Cyprus and Paphlagonia he sent no Persian governors because they submitted to him and of their own accord helped him against the king of Babylon. However, he made them pay tribute. (Xen. Instis. l. 8)

941. All the countries which Cyrus subdued as general of the forces of Media, he added to the dominions of Cyaxares. (Xen. l. 5.) Therefore it is most likely that at the former meeting in council, he made that distribution of the governments by Cyaxares' advise. Xenophon (lib. 8.) states about Cyrus,

``It seemed good unto him, to set governors over all the nations which he had subdued:''

942. Daniel, who, as it seems went at this time with Cyrus from Babylon to Media, said of Cyaxares:

``It seems good to Darius, to set over the kingdoms,120 governors, that they should be over all the kingdoms.'' Da 6:1

943. Over all the governors he made three overseers, the principal one was Daniel. As a result the rest were envious of him and had the king make a decree that:

``for 30 days time, no petition should be made to any god or man, but to himself only''

944. When Daniel had broken this decree by praying to God, he was cast into the lion's den. He was delivered from the den with no harm done to him. Then Darius cast those plotters against Daniel into the same lion's den and published that famous decree through all his dominions, that every man should reverence and fear Daniel's God. Da 6:1-28

3467a AM, 4176 JP, 538 BC

945. From the year of the Babylonian captivity of the Jews that started when Jehoiakim was defeated in the first year of Nebuchadnezzar, until the end of the first year of the reign of Darius the Mede, was almost 70 years. According to Jer 29:10 the captivity was almost over:

``Thus saith the Lord, when the 70 years shall begin to be finished with Babylon, then will I visit you and perform my good word unto you and will bring you again to this place and when you shall call upon me to depart from thence and when you shall pray unto me, then will I hear you.''

946. Knowing the time of the captivity was almost up, Daniel prayed fervently for the remission of his own sins and of his people's and for the release from captivity. The angel Gabriel brought him an answer not only for this but also concerning the spiritual deliverance of the church to be effected at last by the death of the Messiah. He gave that famous prophecy of the 70 weeks. Da 9:12-27

947. When Cyrus had spent one whole year with his wife in Babylon, he assembled his whole army. It is said to have 120,000 calvary, 2,000 iron chariots, and 600,000 foot soldiers. When he outfitted his troops he undertook that campaign whereby he is said to have subdued all nations from Syria to the Red Sea. (Xenophon, Instit. l. 8.)

3468a AM, 4177 JP, 537 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:07:21 AM
 948. After Cyrus' father Cambyses died in Persia, Cyaxares in Media held all the empire of the east. From this year, both Xenophon, (8. Inst.) reckons the 7 years of his reign, but the Holy Scripture from the records of the Medes and Persians, reckons this the first year. It states that in this year came that famous edict of his. Thus said Cyrus king of Persia:

``Into my hand hath God given all the kingdoms of the earth.''

949. In this year, the 70 years of the Babylonian captivity ended as foretold by Jeremiah and according to the prophecy of Isaiah who mentioned Cyrus by name. Isa 44:28 45:1-3 He gave permission to all the Jews dwelling anywhere in his empire to return into their own country. Those who returned he ordered to rebuild the temple of God. They could build it as large as they wished. Hag 2:3 They could use the resources from the king's treasury. Cyrus restored all the vessels of the house of God which Nebuchadnezzar had brought from there. 2Ch 36:22,23 Ezr 1:1,2,7 5:13,14 6:2,5

950. Cyrus made Sheshbazzar the captain of the Jews who returned to Jerusalem. According to Cyrus' orders, Sheshbazzar received from Methridates the treasurer all the vessels belonging to the temple. These were to be returned to Jerusalem. Ezr 1:7,11 5:14,15 Sheshbazzar was his Chaldean name but his Hebrew name was Zerubbabel. Ezr 3:8,10 5:16

3468c AM, 4178 JP, 536 BC

951. The Jews prepared to return to their country. The poor were given an allowance to help with the costs. Ezr 1:5,6 There were 42,360 of the children of the province or poor people of the Hebrews born in Chaldea who returned. Their captain was Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel or Salathiel and their high priest, Jehu, or Jeshua, the son of Jozadak. In addition there were 7,337 proselytes, man servants and maid servants who also returned. Ezr 7:1 Ne 7:67 12:1-9 However the total sum given in Ezra is only 29,818. In Nehemiah, the sum is 31,031. Neither of these tally to 42,360 but at the end of each list the total of 42,360 was said to be the number of the whole congregation. Ezr 2:64 Ne 7:66 To tally to 42,360 the Hebrews in their great Chronicle (cap. 29) tell us that we must include in this number, those of the other tribes of Israel, who came up out of the captivity with the Jews. For even at the end of the Jewish state, there was a remnant of the other ten tribes, Ac 26:7 not only of the dispersion, Jas 1:1 and at Jerusalem, 2Ch 9:3 Lu 2:36 and other cities of Judah 2Ch 11:16 31:6 but also of those who still lived on their lands. Shalmaneser did not take everyone away from the tribes, (see note on 3227 AM concerning the history of Josiah) but he left a remnant of them, in their own country, who were later, together with the Jews and Benjamites and Levites, carried away by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon and were now set at liberty and sent back again by Cyrus. After this first year of Cyrus, all the Israelites, are said to have dwelt in their own cities. Ezr 2:70 In the 6th year of Darius, they are said to have been present at the dedication of the Temple and to have offered there 12 he goats for the sin of all Israel. Ezr 6:16,17 When Christ preached the gospel in Galilee, Mt 14:14 he fulfilled the prophesy of Isaiah that the people of Zabulon and Naphtali would see a great light. Isa 9:1,2 The chief men of their father's families came to Jerusalem and offered according to their ability toward the rebuilding of the temple, 61,000 drachmas of gold, 5,000 pounds of silver and 100 priests robes. Both the priests and Levites and the rest of the people, lived in their own cities. Ezr 2:68-70

3469a AM, 4178 JP, 536 BC

952. On the first day of the seventh month in the feast of trumpets, the Israelites all came from their cities to Jerusalem and there built the altar. Every morning and every evening they offered the daily sacrifice to God and on the 15th day of the same month, they kept the feast of tabernacles. In addition, they provided materials and workmen for the building of the temple, as Cyrus had given them permission to do. Ezr 3:1-7

3469c AM, 4179 JP, 535 BC

953. In the second year, the second month, Jair, after their return from Babylon, they appointed Levites to oversee the work of the house of God. When they laid the foundation of the temple, the old men cried who 53 years earlier had seen the old temple standing. The young men greatly rejoiced to see the new temple going up. Ezr 3:8-13

954. The Cuthaeans, the old enemies of the Jews, who had previously been settled in Samaria by Esarhaddon, cunningly offered to join them in building the temple. When the Jews refused their help, they hindered the Jews all they could in the work and discouraged the people from completing the task. Ezr 4:1-4

3470a AM, 4179 JP, 535 BC

955. This was the first sabbatical year kept by the Jews, after their return from the captivity of Babylon.

956. The Samaritans by bribing certain courtiers of Cyrus, disrupted the Jews in their work of building the temple. Ezr 4:5 From this was the reason for the 3 weeks of mourning by the prophet Daniel. He continued his fast which was begun about the 3rd day of the 1st month in the 3rd year of Cyrus through all the time of the feast of Passover. Da 10:1,4 After this on the 24th day of the 1st month, while he stood upon the bank of Hiddekel, or the River Tigris, he had the vision of the kings of Persia, of Alexander the great and his successors and their kingdoms. This is recorded in Da 10:1-12:13 and was the last vision that he had shortly before his death.

3473 AM, 4183 JP, 531 BC

957. Amasis, as it seems, defected from Cyrus. The people of Egypt who were carried away formerly by Nebuchadnezzar, after 40 years in exile they were now sent back again by Cyrus into their own country. They returned to their old kingdom toward the end of the life of Amasis. Egypt was again a kingdom, very old and ancient indeed, but the basest of all others and of no longer much use to any other country. Eze 29:11-16 Jer 46:26 Xenophon, (8. Instit. Cyr.) and also in the prologue to his whole work, states that Cyrus had Egypt in his possession. All authors agree that it was later subdued by his son Cambyses. Hence, we gather, that in the intermediate time, they enjoyed their freedom.

958. It may be that when Amasis revolted from Cyrus, that when Hirom had been king of Tyrus for a full 20 years, (who was the last king mentioned by Josephus, in his catalogue of them) he was overthrown. In his place, they had governors set over them by other nations instead of being governed by men of their own country. For the very Punic names of those kings, show that they were all of the same country as Tyre. This situation was like the Egyptians who had been ruled by Amasis.

3475b AM, 4185 JP, 529 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:08:00 AM
 959. Cyrus died at the age of 70 years. He was first made general of the Median and Persian armies a full 30 years earlier. He took Babylon 9 years before his death and reigned for 7 years and a month or so.

960. Authors differ as to how he died. Herodotus (lib. 1. c. 214), Justin from Trogus (lib. 1. c. 8) and Valer. Max. (lib. 9. c. 10.) say that he was slain in a fight against the Maslagetae or Scythians. He was decapitated by Tomyris their Queen and she threw him into a tub full of blood. She told him to satiate himself with blood with which he had so much thirsted after in his lifetime. Diod. Sic. (lib. 2.) states that when she had taken him prisoner, she crucified him. Ctesias (lib. 11) states that in a battle against the Derbicans, the nation bordering on Hyrcania, after he was wounded in the thigh by a certain Indian, he slew Amorraeus their king and his two sons. Three days later, he died. Johannes Malela of Antioch, from a forged book, attributed to Pythagoras of Samos, states that he was slain in a sea battle against the Samiaens. Xeno. (instit. l. 8.) reports that he died a natural death in his own country of Persia. He ordered his sons that they should wrap his body neither in gold nor silver, but in plain cloth, and bury him in an out of the way place. They were to call all his friends, Persians and others to his grave and having there presented them with whatever was fit to be given them at the funeral of a fortunate man, they should be dismissed. His tomb was made at Pasarges. This is stated by those who wrote the nobel acts of Alexander the Great, as Curtius, Plutarch, Arrian. According to Strabo (lib. 5 of his Geography), Aristobulus was sent by Alexander to see the tomb. He recites also this inscription found on his tomb.

``O man, I am Cyrus, who founded the Persian monarchy and was king of Asia; and therefore envy me not that I have a monument.''

961. Strabo, from Onesicritus cites a Greek epitaph written for him, (if any man will believe it), in Persian letters. It was:

``Here Cyrus I do lie, who king of kings was high''

962. It is of the same character with that one cited by Lucian, from the same Onesicritus in his discourse "De Longavis", of long lived men, that Cyrus missing at last those friends of his which his son Cambyse had taken away, he died for grief at the age of 100.

963. Cyrus left his kingdom to his eldest son Cambyses and to his younger son, Tanaoxaras, or Tanyoxareas, whom Herodotus calls Smerdis. Justin from Trogus calls him Mergis. Ctesias states he left the seigneuries or commanders, of Bactria, Choromnea, Parthia and Caramania. However, Xenophon, (Instit. l. 8.) states it was of the Medes, Armenians and Cadusians.

964. In the start of the kingdom of Ahasuerus (for by that name is Cambyses known in the language of the Scriptures) the Samaritans, who had before fought secretly to undermine the Israelites, now openly sent a letter to the king against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem. Ezr 4:6 They knew very well, what difference there was between the father and the son's nature and disposition. Cyrus was naturally kind and loving to those who were under him and the other furious by nature and sudden in his resolutions. This is noted of him in Diod. Sic. in his Excerptu, published by Henr. Valesius, (p. 238, 249) with Herodotus (l. 3. c. 89.)

3477a AM, 4186 JP, 528 BC

965. This was the 2nd Sabbatical year held by the Jews after their return from Babylon.

3478 AM, 4188 JP, 526 BC

966. As Cambapheus an eunuch controlled the king of Egypt, likewise his first cousin, Isabat an Eunuch controlled Cambyses king of Persia. Cambapheus betrayed the bridges, passages and other things to the Persians when they promised him the government of Egypt for his trouble. (Ctes. Persicor l. 3.)

967. Following up on this information, Cambyses gathered an army and a navy. His army consisted of various other nations in his empire and of Greeks from Ionia and Eolia in Asia. His naval forces came mainly from the Sidonians and Cyprians. Polycrates, the king or tyrant of Samos, furnished him with 40 warships and he used as sailors all such as he suspected for enemies at home. He hoped they would die in Cambyses' service and never return home to bother him again. (Herod. l. 3. c. 1, 19, 44.)

968. Phanes of Halicarnaslus was a chief man among the aides of Egypt and well versed in their affairs. He hated Amasis and when he saw that Cambyses was preparing to fight against Egypt, he defected to him. He told Cambyses many secrets of the land of Egypt. When Cambyses was greatly perplexed as to how to cross the desert without proper water supplies, he advised him to send to the king of Arabia, to obtain permission to pass through his country for (Herod. lib 3. c. 4,7.) without his consent, no one could get to Egypt. (Herod. l. 3. c. 88)

3479b AM, 4189 JP, 525 BC

969. The king of Arabia made a league with Cambyses through the messengers that were sent to him. He sent all his camels laden with leather bags full of water to the places where Cambyses with his army was to pass. (Herod. lib 3. c. 9.)

970. When Cambyses came with his army into Egypt, he found Amasis had died recently after he had reigned 44 years. (Herod. lib 3. c. 9. & 10.) Diod. Sic. (l. 1. Biblioth.) states that he died when Cambyses began his war in Egypt in the later end of the 3rd year of the 63rd Olympiad. His son Psammenitus, (whom Ctesias calls Amyrteus) reigned 6 months. (Herod. l. 3. c. 14.) In this time it rained at Thebes, in the upper Egypt. This is taken for a good luck., (Herod. l. 3. c. 10.)

971. When the Persians passed those sandy dry deserts of Arabia, they came to the edge of Egypt, (Herod. l. 3. c. 11.)

972. When Cambyses came to besiege Pelusium, he placed cats and dogs and sheep, and birds called Ibides and all kinds of living creatures, which the Egyptians worship for gods, in front of his army. The Egyptians did not shoot at the enemy lest they hurt their own gods. Hence Cambyses took Pelusium, got an toe hold on Egypt, (Polyenus in the 7th book of Stratag.)

973. The Greeks and Carians mercenaries who came to help the Egyptians hated Phanes who was instrumental in bringing this foreign army to Egypt. They slew his sons before his eyes and after drinking their blood started fighting with him. (Herod. l. 3. c. 11.)

974. After a sharp encounter, many were slain on both sides and the Egyptians were routed. (Herod. l. 3. c. 11)

975. Cambyses sent a Persian herald up the river in a ship of Mitylene to Memphis, where the Egyptians had fled in great disorder and confusion.

976. The herald exhorted them to surrender but the men of the city sallied out against the ship, captured and destroyed it. They tore everyone on board limb from limb. They retired into the city and later endured the siege for a short time, (Herod. l. 3. c. 13.)

977. Arcesilaus, son of Battus the lame and of Pheretima his wife, surrendered Cyrene to Cambyses and agreed to pay him tribute. (Herod. l. 4. c. 165.) The inhabitants of Cyrene, the Barcei and the Libyans who bordered on Egypt were terrified with his success against their Egyptian neighbours. They submitted to him and sent their presents to Cambyses. Cambyses took what came from the Libyans graciously. The Cyrenians were so small and sent him only 500 minae of silver. He took it and threw it among the soldiers. (Herod. l. 3. c. 13. & 91.)

978. Ten days after Cambyses had taken Memphis, he tried to humiliate Psammenites. He had imprisoned him with other Egyptians in the suburbs of the city. In contempt of Psammenites, he sent his daughter with other maidens of the Egyptian nobility with pitchers to fetch him water from the river. He sent the young son of Psammenties with 2,000 more of the same age and all principal noble men's sons with ropes about their necks and bridles in their mouths to be shamefully put to death. He did this in revenge of those men of Memphis who destroyed the ship and murdered the Mitylenians he had sent to them. He ordered that for every Mitylenian who was killed, ten of the chief of the Egyptians should be put to death. The first to die was the son of Psammenites. Cambyses would have spared him but acted too late to do so. However, Psammenites lived peacefully later with Cambyses. At last when Psammenites was convicted of stirring up the people to a new rebellion, he drank bull's blood and died. (Herod. l. 3. c. 14,15.) Cresias states however that he was sent away prisoner to live in Susa.

979. Cambyses marched from Memphis and came with his army to the city Sais. When he came to the palace of Amasis, against whom he undertook this war, he had his body to be hauled from its vault and to be brought before him. He had its carcase whipped with scourges and all kind of reproach,and contumely done to it. Then he had it consumed with fire. (Herod. l. 3. c. 16 . and Diod. Sic, in his Excerpta; published by Hen. Valesius, p. 249.)

980. Cambyses conquered Egypt, in the 5th year of his reign. He ruled there for 3 years. (Jul. African. and Euseb. in Chronic. Grec. p. 17.) He killed 50,000 Egyptians in battle and sent away 7,000 as prisoners to Susa. (Ctesias)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:08:29 AM
 981. Jamblicus reports that Pythagoras was among the rest taken to Babylon where he conversed with their wisemen. (Jambli. in his Life) Another writer of his life, namely Malchus, or Paphyrius, says, that at Babylon, he not only conversed with the other Chaldeans, but applied himself also to Zabratus who purified and cleansed him from the sins of his former life. This Zabratus is thought by some, to have been that Nazaratus of Assyria, whom Alexander, (Polyhistor I think) in his book of Pythagorical Opinions, infers that he was the teacher of Pythagoras. Some others mistaking the matter, judge him to have been the prophet Ezekiel, as Clement of Alexandra, (l. 1. Strom.) states. All this shows is that he did converse with the wise men of the Jews in Babylon. He later made use of many of their opinions in the writing of his Philosophy. These writers are of that opinion, Hermippus, in his first book of Pythagoras, quoted by Josephus (l. 1. cont. Apion.) and in his first book, of Law Makers, cited by Origen, (l. 1. cont. Celsum.) Aristobulus the Jew, a Peripatetic Phylosopher, in his first book to Phylometor, Clemens of (Alex. l. 1. Strom.). Eusebius (l. 13. Prepar. Evangel.) believes that the books of Moses were translated into Greek, before the Persian empire began. However it is far more likely that he got that part of his learning by talking with the Jews in Babylon. Pythagoras was familiar with Jewish writings according to Pyrphier in his Life, from Diogenes, "of the incredible relation made of Thule".

3480 AM, 4190 JP, 524 BC

982. Cambyses wanted to prepare a navy to go against the Carthaginians but gave it up. The Sidonians, upon whom he relied for naval service, refused to go against their own colony and kindred. Meanwhile, he sent for some of the Itchthyophgaies, from the city Elephantina. These were well versed in the Ethiopian language. He sent them as spies to the Ethiopians called Macrogis. These are generally a very long lived people and live in the parts of Africa south of Egypt, bordering the India Ocean and Red Sea. The spies went under the pretense of bearing gifts for their king and wishing to see The Table of the Sun. The king of Ethiopia in the presence of them, took his bow, and bent it and then unbent it again. He gave it them to carry to Cambyses, and asked them tell him that when his Persians should be able to easily bend such bows as those he should, then and not before, gather a huge army and fight with the long lived Ethiopians. (Herod. l. 3. c. 17.-25.)

983. Cambyses' full brother, Smerdis, or Tanyoxarces tried to bend this bow and came within two fingers breadth of the notch. None of the other Persians came that close. Out of envy Cambyses dismissed him and sent him to Persia. (Herod. l. 3. c. 30.)

984. In a rage, Cambyses ordered an expedition against Ethiopia without any provisions made for grain or food. Like a mad man, as soon as he had heard what his Ichthyophagites had said, he immediately marched away with all his own foot soldiers and ordered the Greeks to stay behind. (Herod. l. 3. c. 24.)

985. When he came as far as Thebez in Egypt, he culled out about 50,000 of his army and sent them first to rob the land, then to burn the Temple of Jupiter Ammon and to make slaves of all the inhabitants of the place. He marched on towards Ethiopia, (Id. ib. Diodor. Sic. in his Excerpta, published by Hen. Vales. p. 249.)

986. On that journey Cambyses subdued the Ethiopians who bordered on the lower parts of Egypt and lived in the city of Nisa. They kept the holy days to Bacchus. (Herod. l. 3. c. 97.) To Saba the chief house or palace of the king of the Ethiopians and the island where it stood, he called "Meroes" in memory of Meroe, who was his wife and his sister. (Strabo. l. 17. of his Geogr. Josephus. l. 2. Antiq. c. 10.) She had accompanied him into Egypt and died there. No other king of Persia before him had married their sister. Shortly after this, he married his older sister Atossa. (Herod. l. 3. c. 31.) After his death, she married Magus and after him, she married Darius Hystasphis. (Herod. l. 3. c. 68, 88.)

987. The army which went from Thebez against the Ammonians, travelled seven days over the sands and came to the city, Oasis. (This city was inhabited by those Samians, which were of the Eserionian tribe.) From there they came to a country called "the isle of the happy ones".

988. As they marched from there over the sandy plains and midway between Oasis, and Ammonia, it is said, that there arose a mighty strong wind out of the South while they were eating. It brought those shifting sands upon them and overwhelmed them all. (Herod. l. 3. c. 26. Just. l. 1. c. 9.) Plutarch in the Life of Alexander, says, that there were 50,000 men lost in that land being buried by the sand storm.

989. The army which with him against the Ethiopians, ran out of provisions after five days. When they had lost hope of any food, they cast lots and started to eat one another. When Cambyses saw this, he returned to Thebez, having lost much of his army. (Herod. l. 3. c. 25. Seneca, l. 2. c. 30.) Lucan in his "Of His Natural Questions", says,

And mad Cambyses, marching toward the east,
Came to the long-liv'd Ethiopians:
And wanting food, his own men up did eat;
And yet the head of Nile never found.

990. Cambyses returned to Memphis discharged his Greeks and shipped them home. (Herod. l. 3. c. 25.) He saw the Egyptians keeping an holy day because their god Apis had appeared to them. He thought they had done it for joy of his disastrous journey. He sent for Apis and killed it with his sword. He commanded all his priests to be scourged with whips and the rest of the Egyptians who were found keeping the holy day, were to be slain by his soldiers. Apis was wounded by him and died in the temple. The priests took the body of the beast and secretly buried it. (Herod. l. 3. c. 27-29.) Apis was a sacred bull worshipped in the temple of Ptah in Memphis.

991. The Egyptians say that Cambyses who was mentally unstable, now went stark mad. This first manifested itself when he killed his own brother. After he sent him to Persia, (as was said before) Cambyses dreamed that a messenger came to him from there who told him that Smerdis, his brother was sitting on the regal throne and touched the heavens with his head. He was astonished by this dream and immediately sent Prexaspes, his most trusted friend, to kill his brother Smerdis. When he came to Susa he had him murdered. Some say he took him on a hunting match; others report that he lured him along as far as the Red Sea and drowned him in it. (Herod. c. 23. c. 30, 36.) Justin based on Trogus, (l. 1. c. 9.) states that this charge was committed to Cometes, one of the Magi and that he did not murder Smerdes or Merges until after Cambyses was dead. Ctesias, disagrees with Herodotus. He says that Spendahates, one of the Magi, was scourged by Tanyaxares, that is, by this Smerdis' commander. He accused him to Cambyses of seeking to make himself king. By the advise of Spendahates, he was sent for from Bactria to Egypt. He was forced to drink bull's blood and died from it. Spendahates was sent back into Bactria. Because he looked like Tanyoxarces or Smerdis he ruled there in his place.

3481 AM, 4191 JP, 523 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:09:29 AM
 992. After Harpagus, Oroetes, a Persian, was made governor of Sardis and of all the provinces of Lydia, Ionia and Phrygia by Cyrus. He is said to have sent a messenger to Polycrates of Samos to ask him about a certain matter. When the messenger came, Polycrates was lying on his bed in his chamber with Anacreon the Teian sitting by him. He was that excellent lyrical poet of Ionia and who, as Clem. Alexand. says, was the first inventor of love songs. Polycrates totally ignored the messenger. Oroetes resolved revenge for this insult. He sent Myrtus, a Lydian the son of Gyges, with another message to Polycrates that for fear of Cambyses, he would defect to him with all his treasure. Polycrates heeded the message and quickly went to Oroetes in person with Democedes, a noted physician of Crotona in Italy. When he came as far as Magnesia, Oroetes took him and crucified him. He let the Samians who came with him go free. The rest of them including Democedes were made his slaves. (Herod. l. 3. c. 120-127.) Valer. Max.. (lib. 6. c. ult.) relates that he was crucified by Orontes (for so he calls him, with Tully, l. 3. de Finibius) who was governor under king Darius on the top of the mount Mycale. That is in that foreland of Ionia, which looks toward Samos. Darius at that time was one of the bodyguards to Cambyses and held no high office in the Persian empire. Herodotus states (Herod. l. 3. c. 139, 140.) that in Cambyses' expedition into Egypt, Syloson the brother of Polycrates, presented him with a most rich robe publicly at Memphis. Hence the saying: "Syloson's robe". He also says, that Polycrates came to a foul end. This happened when Cambyses was in Egypt, (Herod. l. 3. c. 120.) and Pliny assents also (Pliny l. 33. c. 1.) where he says that this happened in the 230th year after the building of Rome, which according to Varro was on the 64th Olympiad.

993. When Cambyses saw his wife Meroe grieving for her brother Smerdis, he killed her too. (Herod. l. 3. c. 31. 32.)

994. In the 7th year of Cambyses, the 225th year of Nabonasser's calendar, upon the 17th day of the Egyptian month Phamenoth, (July 16th.) one hour before midnight, the moon was eclipsed at Babylon. (Ptol. in his, Mag. Syntax. l. 5. c. 14.)

995. Cambyses shot Prexaspes' son, who was his cup bearer with an arrow. The next day he had 12 principal men of the Persians who had done him no harm, buried alive with their heads downward. He ordered that Croesus, who had been for some time king of Lydia to be executed because had in a fair and friendly manner admonished him not to do such things. He changed his mind before the execution but killed those whom he appointed to kill Croesus. Many similar mad pranks he played on Persians and his friends while he stayed at Memphis. He opened many of their sepulchres to see the bodies of those who lay buried there. He went into the temple of Vulcan where he laughed exceedingly and mocked his image. Another time he went into the temple of the Cabirie, where only the priests were to go. After jeering their images, he had them all burned. (Herod. l. 3. from c. 34-38.) The rest of their temples, he either burnt down, pulled down, defaced, or destroyed. He did the same to their obelisks. (Strabo. l. 17.)

3482 AM, 4192 JP, 522 BC

996. Patizithes one of the magi, who Cambyses had left to oversee his private estate at home, found out about the death of Smerdis. This was a closely guarded secret known only to a few Persians. He set on the throne his own brother, who was also called Smerdis and very similar in features to the dead man. He immediately sent messengers to all parts of the empire and to the rest of the army in Egypt, that from now on they should obey only Smerdes the son of Cyrus and not Cambyses. (Herod. l. 3. c. 61.) Justin (Trogus, l. 1. c. 9.) states that Cometes one of the magi who killed Merges or Smerdes, (to whom the kingdom rightfully belonged after Cambyses) set up his own brother Oropastes who also closely resembled Smerdes. However, Ctesias writes, that Bagabates the eunuch and Artasyras an Hyrcanian, who were with Cambyses in Egypt and of great authority under him took counsel while Cambyses was still living. They planned to set up as king Spendadates, one of the magi who also looked very much like Smerdes, when Cambyses died.

997. Cambyses sent to the Oracle of Butis. It answered that he should die at Ecbatane. Cambyses took this to be the Ecbatane in Media where all his treasure was.

998. As he stayed at Ecbatane in Syria, a messenger brought him word what the commandment of Patizithes was. When he heard of the conspiracy against him, he leaped on his horse, intending to march quickly with his army to Susa against the conspirators. As he was leaping, his sword fell out of its scabbard and ran into his thigh. On the 20th day after the accident, he sent for the nobles of Persia to come to him. He told them of the death of his brother and the treason of the magi against himself. He charged them that by no means were to allow the kingdom to return to the Medes for Magus was a Median. (Herod. l. 3. c. 73, 126.) Soon after this, his wound festered and he died when he had reigned only 7 years and 5 months. (Herod. l. 3. c. 62-66.) Josephus tells us that on his return from Egypt, he died at Damascus, (Antiq. l. 11. c. 3.) thus putting Damascus for Ecbatane in Syria as Herodotus had. Ctesias states that he came as far as Babylon and that there he was wounded and died. He wrote of his death and the signs leading up to it:

``When Cambyses was offering sacrifices, the beasts throats were cut and no blood came out. He was much amazed. Roxane bore to him a boy without a head and that amazed him more. The Magi told him that this portended that he should leave no successor of his own. His mother also appeared to him in a dream and seemed to threaten him with destruction, for his brother's death. This troubled him yet more than all the other signs. When he came to Babylon, he sat there whittling a little stick with a knife to pass the time. By chance he hurt a muscle in his thigh and died 11 days later. (Ctesias.) When he left Egypt, he left Aryander to govern it in his place.''

999. After Cambyses died, the Persians did not know that they had Magus for their king. They thought Cambyses' brother had indeed succeeded him in the kingdom. Perxaspes vouched for this and said that he never killed him nor was it in truth safe for him now to confess that he had killed a son of Cyrus. (Herod. l. 3. c. 66.) The ruse was easy to conceal for among the Persians it was proper that the king be rarely seen in public. (Justin. l. 1. c. 9.) So it came to pass, that this Magus or Smerdes, who impersonated Smerdes the son Cyrus, peacefully held the kingdom for 7 whole months, thus making up the 8th year of Cambyses' reign. During that time he spared no cost, to show all kinds of bounty and good will toward the subjects in all the empire. After he died Asia and all other nations except the Persians, mourned for him. He sent couriers throughout the empire and proclaimed three year's freedom from paying taxes and military service. He did this as soon as he took the title of king. (Herod. l. 3. c. 67.) He also took Atossa the daughter of Cyrus and all the rest of the wives of Cambyses. (Herod. l. 3. c. 68. 88.)

1000. Ammianus Marcellinus, (l. 23.) out of ancient books reports that after Cambyses' death, 7 Magi took over the management of the kingdom of Persia. Valer. Max. in his (9th book, c. 2. ) agrees with this also. Of them two were chief, named by Herodotus, (l. 3. c. 61. 78.) Patizithes, whom Trogus calls Cometes and his brother. He was king in name only by impersonating the son of Cyrus. He was called by Herodotus, Smerdis, by Eschylus, Mardus, by Ctesias, Spendahates, by Trous, Oropastes and in the scripture, Artaxerxes.

1001. The Samaritans sent letters to this Artaxerxes asking him to forbid the further building of Jerusalem. They said it was a rebellious and wicked place and if it was rebuilt, it would never pay tribute to the kings of Persia. Eze 4:7-16

3483a AM, 4192 JP, 522 BC

1002. Artaxerxes sent a letter forbidding the rebuilding of Jerusalem until he should so order. The Samaritans encouraged by this reply, came swiftly to Jerusalem and forced the Jews to stop building both the city and the temple, although Cyrus expressly ordered them to finish the temple. They stopped all work until the 2nd year of the reign of Darius. Eze 4:17-24

1003. While Artaxerxes held the kingdom, Oroetes the Persian, ruled at Sardis. He reproached Mitrobates, governor of Dascylium, in the continent of Asia for not having taken the Isle of Samos and annexing it to his government. In the lifetime of Polycrates, he took Mitrobates and his son Cranapes, both men of good esteem among the Persians and slew them. He committed other outrages also. He murdered a messenger sent from Darius because he told him something displeasing. (Herod. l. 3. c. 126.)

3483b AM, 4193 JP, 521 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:10:09 AM
1004. Ctesias tells us that Isabates the eunuch, who had the charge of carrying the body of Cambyses into Persia told the plot of the Magi to the army. When he was pursued by them, he fled for safety into a temple. There they decapitated him. However, Herodotus says, that 8 months after Cambyses' death, the matter was brought first to light by the cunning of Otanes the son of Pharnaspes and later more fully explained by Prexaspes. When Prexaspes was in a certain tower, he called the people to him and from there declared to them that Cambyses ordered him to murder his brother Smerdes, the son of Cyrus and that they were being ruled by the Magi. When he had said this, he threw himself down headlong among them. (Herod. l. 3. c. 68, 75.) Justin from Herodotus and Trogus Pompeius, records Otanes discovery and the distruction of the Magi as follows:

``Ostanes (who is that Otanes) sent a messenger to his daughter, who was one of the concubines of the king and inquired whether it was a son of Cyrus who was king. She replied that she did not know nor could she ask the other concubines because they were kept in seclusion from each other. Then he advised her that when her turn came to lie with him, she was to feel his head as he lay asleep. For Cambyses, or (as Herodotus has it) Cyrus had Magus' ears cut off. Later she assured him that the king had no ears. He told the princes of Persia and swearing an oath with them, they conspired against the imposter king. There were seven of them involved in this. Lest the matter be discovered, they hid a dagger in their coats and immediately went to the place where the king was. They killed those who stood in their way. At last they came where the Magi were assembled. The Magi slew two of the conspirators. Herodotus states they were only wounded. They were all laid hold of by the Magi who outnumbered them. Gobryas held one of them about the middle. His fellows could not get near to Magus to kill him for fear of hurting Gobryas. He bade them kill the Magus through his body. Fortunately, they killed the Magus, and did not harm Gobryas. (Justin. l. 1. c. 9.)''

 1005. According to Ctesias, the names of these 7 Persians (whom Jerome on Da 11:2 calls the Magi) were these, Onophas, Iderues, Naradobates, Mardonisu, Barises, Artaphernes and Darius, the son of Bystaspes. Herodotus, calls them, Otanes, Hydarves, Megabyzus, Gobryas, Aspathines, Intaphernes and Darius. Darius had recently arrived there from Susa, where his father Hystaspes, was governor. Ctesias and Herodotus tell us that the Persians always kept a yearly festival upon the day when the Magi were overthrown.

1006. Six days after the Magi were overthrown, those 7 Persians met to decide what form of government suited Persia best. Otanes advised an aristocracy, Megabyzus, an oligarchy but Darius persuaded them to adopt a monarchy. Darius' opinion prevailed and was carried by majority vote. Otanes resigned all his rights to the other six on the condition that neither himself, nor any of his descendants should ever be subject to any of them or their posterity. Only his family among the Persians were left free and not subject to the king's command provided that they broke no law of the Persians. Since he was the first to act and organised the conspiracy, they thought it fit to heap all kinds of magnificence and honour upon him and his posterity. Each year he was presented with a Median Robe. For the election of a new king, they came to this agreement. Every one of them should get on horseback a little before sunrise and whoever's horse happened to neigh first after the sun was up would be king in Cambyses' place. The horse of Darius the son of Hystaspes, by the craft and subtilty of Oebaris, neighed first. All the rest leaped off their horses and adored Darius, crying, "God save the king." (Herod. l. 3. c. 80-88.)

1007. Each of the seven had the following privileges. First, they should come to court whenever they pleased and have free access to the king, (unless he was in bed with the queen) without any notice. (Herod. l. 3. c. 84, 118.) Secondly, that they might each wear his turban differently from all other men. The king only and his heir wore their turbans upright. (Seneca l. 6. de Beneficiis c. 31., Plutarch in the lives of Theistocles and Artaxerxes) and the rest of the nobility wore them hanging backward. It was granted to them and their posterity that they should wear them pointing forward because when they went to kill the Magi, they used this as a sign between themselves. (Plutarch in his Precepts of Government.) For Darius had given this as a sign for each to know one another by in the dark. They were to turn the buckle that fastened their turbans at the back and wear it on the front. (Polya. l. Stratag. 7. )

1008. The greatest privilege granted them was that although the king had a perpetual dictatorship over them, yet each man in turn would have a kind of tribunal power with him. I deduce this from the following. First, these conspirators foresaw that they would prove burdensome (and how I ask more than in this way?) to Darius, so they bond him with an oath which was most religiously observed among the Persians. Darius swore that he would never put any of them to death, either by poison, or sword, or by any violent way, or by starving them. (Valer. Max. l. 9. c. 2.) Secondly, for that Eschylus, who was in the fight against the Persians at Marathon names two kings successively between the slaughter of the Magi and the reign of Darius, Maraphis and Artaphrenes. The first seems to be the one who Ctesias calls Mardonius and the other Artapherne. Lastly, for that in Ezra, in the edict of Darius, in the second year of his reign, for the rebuilding of the temple, we find Artaxerxes, also called by the name of "king of Persia", Ezr 6:14 to have given his consent to it in his 2nd year of his reign for the rebuilding of the temple. It is hard to understand this to mean any other than Artaphernes.

1009. In the beginning of his reign, Darius took Atossa the daughter of Cyrus, who had formerly been married to his own brother Cambyses and afterward to the Magus and made her his wife. He purposed to better establish his kingdom by marrying into royalty so that the kingdom might not seem to move to another family but rather remain in the family of Cyrus. (Herod. l. 3. c. 88. l. 7. c. 2. & Justin from Trogus l. 1. c. 10.) And he was first called Ochus, (Valer. Max. l. 9. c. 2.) yet later when he took over the kingdom of Cambyses, he took his surname also. So I conceive, that both he was that Achash-veroth, or Ahasuerus, which in the story of Esther, is said to have reigned from India to Ethiopia, over 127 provinces. His chief wife Atossa, was none other than Vashti as mentioned in the book of Esther.

1010. Ochus still continued governor at Sardis and kept a thousand Persians for guards about him. When Darius sent his royal letters by Bagaeus the son of Arton to the soldiers there, they killed him. His goods were confiscated and brought to Susa. Democedes, whom he had made his slave, a physician of Crotona, (Herod. l. 3. c. 127-129.) was also taken to Susa.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:10:45 AM
 1011. It happened later that when Darius was hunting he fell from his horse and wrenched his foot badly. The Egyptian surgeons sought to straighten it. Their methods were so violent that he could not sleep for seven days. On the 8th day, Democedes was brought in shackles to him, in a poor and ragged condition. He used such Greek somentations, that the king quickly went to sleep again and in a short time recovered. He was rewarded with rich gifts by the king and his wives, dwelt in a good house in Susa and sat at the table with the king. He had everything that his heart could wish except he was forbidden to go to Greece again. When Darius would have hung his Egyptian physicians because a Greek could do more in his cure than they all, Democedes obtained their pardon from the king. There was a certain fortune teller of Elis, who came in the company with him and had followed Polycrates to Magnesia and was brought to Susa among the rest of Oroetes' slaves. Democedes obtained his freedom. (Herod. l. 3. c. 129, 130, 132.)

1012. It happened later that Atossa, the daughter to Cyrus and wife of Darius had an ulcer in her breast. After it was lanced, it spread further and further. When Democedes had cured her of that sore, he prevailed upon her, to have the king to make war on Greece. Darius presently called 15 choice men, all Persians. He commanded them to follow Democedes and by his directions to spy out all the maritime places of Greece and bring him back again with them to him. They went into Phoenicia and from there to Sidon. There they outfitted themselves with ships and other provisions and sailed to Greece. They viewed all the seacoasts of Greece and drew maps of it. They were the first Persian spies that ever came to Greece. When they had viewed the most famous cities and places in the heart of Greece, they passed from there to Tarentum in Italy. From here Democedes stole away to Crotona where his own home was and there marrying the daughter of Milo Crotoniates, that famous wrestler. He did not return any more to Darius. (Herod. l. 3. c. 133-138., Athanaus, l. 12. Deipnosoph. and Aelian. Var. Histor. l. 8. c. 17.)

3484a AM, 4193 JP, 521 BC

1013. This was the third sabbatical year held by the Jews after their return from Babylon.

3484c AM, 4194 JP, 520 BC

1014. Mordecai the Jew, is said to have had a dream in the Greek additions of /APC Est 11:1-12 on the 1st day of the month Nisan, in the 2nd year of the reign of Artaxerxes the Great (for Ahasuerus or Darius the son of Hystaspes) concerning a river signifying Esther and two dragons portending himself and Haman, /APC Est 10:4-13

1015. In the second year of king Darius, which was in the 65th Olympiad, Haggai the prophet reproved the idleness of the Jews for not rebuilding of the temple. For not doing this was the cause of crop failures and other plagues which continually happened to them between the first and third Sabbatical years. He earnestly persuaded them to change there ways. Then, Zerubbabel, the governor of the Jews and Joshua the high priest and all the people earnestly started to rebuild the temple on the 24th day of the same month. Hag 1:1-15

3485a AM, 4194 JP, 520 BC

1016. On the 21st day of the 7th month in the same year Haggai encouraged the Jews to go on with the work with a promise of God's presence and blessing on them in it. Although the beginnings of this present structure did not compare with its glory 69 years earlier, he told them the Messiah, who was born 516 years later, would be first shown in the temple and of the peace which would flow to all nations. If they consider that fact, then they must acknowledge that the glory of this temple will excel the beauty of the former. Hag 2:1-9

1017. In the 8th month of the 2nd year of Darius, Zechariah the son of Barachiah exhorted the people to repentance. Zec 1:1-6

1018. On the 24th day of the 9th month of the same 2nd year, about halfway between seedtime, (which immediately followed the end of the sabbatical year,) and the harvest, the temple began to be built on its old foundation by Zerubbabel and Joshua the high priest, with the assistance of Haggai and Zechariah the prophets. Ezr 5:1,2 Hag 2:10,18,19

1019. On the same 24th day, the two last prophecies of Haggai, were revealed to him. One vision concerned the end of those plagues. The other was about the overthrow of various kingdoms and the exaltation of Zerubbabel. Hag 2:10-23

3485b AM, 4195 JP, 519 BC

1020. Tatnai, governor of the countries of this side the river, Shetharboznai, and the Apharsachites their associates came to Jerusalem to hinder the work of the temple. They asked the chief of the Jews by whose command they did it. They answered that they did it by the authority of the edict of Cyrus, and went on with their work. Ezr 5:3-5,13,16 The laws of the Medes and Persians were perpetual and unalterable. Da 6:8,12 Es 1:19 8:8 Therefore it was lawful for the Jews to proceed in the work without expecting any new order about it.

1021. Their enemies sent a letter containing the Jew's answer to Darius and desired that search might be made in the records at Babylon. They wanted to see if there were any such grant made by Cyrus or not and desired to know the king's further pleasure concerning this.Ezr 5:5-17

1022. The work was thus interrupted and the famine continued in Judah because the grain was not yet ripe. On the 24th day of the 11th month Sebat, in the 2nd year of Darius, the prophet Zechariah had a vision of horsemen galloping up and down over the face of the whole earth which was at rest and quiet. When the prophet asked what it meant, God made a gracious answer with many comforting words to the angel who entreated God to cease his anger and fury against the Jews, Jerusalem and cities of Judah. These 70 years are to be reckoned, from the coming of the Assyrians and the last siege laid to Jerusalem. (See note on 3415 AM) Jer 34:1 Eze 5:12,13 Zec 1:1-3:10 This exhortation which is read in, Zec 2:6,7 was sent to the Jews still remaining in Babylon. They were told to get out as fast as possible to avoid that calamity, which a while later Darius brought upon Babylon when he took it.

1023. The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of the temple was found at Achmetha, or Ecbatan, in the province of the Medes. Darius sent this and a second command in favour of the Jews to Tatnai and his fellows. They were ordered not to hinder the work of the Lord's house but help it along. The costs of the project were to be taken from the king's tribute. They were to pay the costs for the daily sacrifices that were to be offered by the priests at Jerusalem. With this new command and the encouragement of Haggai and Zechariah, they enthusiastically completed the work. Ezr 6:1-14

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:11:14 AM
 1024. I think that at this time, Artaxerxes, who Ezr 6:14 signed with Darius in this edict and shared power with him in ruling the kingdom was one of the 7 princes of Persia who slew Magus. That is he who Eschilus, (in Persis) calls Artaphrenes Hellanicus, (as his Scholiast terms him), Daphernes. According to Ctesias, Artaphernes and Herodotus, he is Intaphernes. Therefore, according to the privilege granted by Darius of seeing him without notice, he was detained by the doorkeepers of the bedchamber who told him that the king was asleep with the queen. He thought they lied to him and drew his scimitar and cut off both their ears and noses, tied the reigns of a horse about both their necks and sent them running. When they came to the king they showed him what they had suffered and why. The king sent for the rest of the seven princes individually, fearing that this might have been done by the common consent of them all. When he found this not to be the case, he executed Intaphernes and all his sons except the eldest whom he spared at his mother's petition. Herodotus relates this matter (Herod. l. 3. c. 118, 119.) as a thing that happened shortly after the execution of the Magi. However, Valer. Max. following other authors, (l. 9. c. 2.) tells us, that finding himself checked by these princes, put them all to death by a newly devised kind of punishment. He says that he made a lower room and filled it with cinders and supported the room over it with only one post. When he had feasted and filled them with food and drink, he put them all into that upper room. When they were all fast asleep, he had the post that supported the room removed and they all fell into the cinders in the lower room and died.

1025. Now though it be not very likely that they perished in this manner, yet is it very credible that he put them out of the government of the kingdom, and hence eased himself of their heavy yoke.

3485c AM, 4195 JP, 519 BC

1026. And from that time on, Darius was an absolute monarch. He is called Ahsuerus in the Scriptures. Therefore Ahsuerus, made a feast in the 3rd year, reckoned from the beginning of his reign in his palace at Susa. He wanted to show the glory of his kingdom and magnificence of his state. He invited all the governors and great men of his dominions. The feast lasted 180 days. Es 1:2-4 Pliny (l. 6. c. 27.) states that Susa was built by this Darius. This is also called Elian, (Pliny l. 13. de Anima l. c. 59.) and was embellished with magnificent palaces by him. Herodotus. (l. 5. c. 49.) tells us, that he made this his home and kept all his treasure there.

3486 AM, 4196 JP, 518 BC

1027. After this half year banquet was over, there followed another one lasting seven days. Everyone in Susa was invited. The men were sitting with the king in the court of the garden of the king's house and the women were within the palace itself with Vashti the queen, (who is Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus.) Es 1:5-9

1028. On the last day of this feast, the king being somewhat drunk, wanted to show off the beauty of his queen to the men and sent for her to come to him. She refused and by the advise of Memucan had her divorced. He was one of the seven wise men of the Medes and Persians who knew the laws and statutes of those countries. For these were the king's judges, which judged in all causes arising among the Persians and revealed all cases in point of law. (Herod. l. 3. c. 14, 31. Plutarch in the "Life of Artaxerxes") They made a law that every man after this should be master in his own house. Es 1:10-22

1029. After this a search was made for all the fair damsels that were to be found in the empire to find a new queen for the king to replace Vashti. Among the ones selected, was Hadassah, a damsel of the Jews, who was also called Esther; the daughter of Abichajile, a woman of Benjamin. Es 2:1-8

3487a AM, 4196 JP, 518 BC

1030. In the 4th year of Darius, the 4th day of the 9th month, called Chisleu, the Jews through Sharezer and Regemmelech consulted with the priests and prophets concerning the appointed fast to be held on the day of the destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem. God answered them that those fasts of the 5th and 7th months which they had observed for 70 years displeased him and reminded him of their obstancy and sins which caused that terrible desolation in the first place. Zec 7:1-14 From the destruction and the death of Gedaliah two months later (which was the reason for the fast in the 7th month), to the very time of this prophecy, we, in our Chronology, count 70 years.

1031. In Zec 8:1-23, God tells them that he would restore Jerusalem and put an end to all their former miseries and that he would change their fasts into mirth and gladness. These fasts were:

1. 4th month, 9th day when the city was taken
2. 5th month, 10th day when the temple was burnt
3. 7th month when Gedaliah was murdered and they were scattered among the nations
4. 10th month, 10th day when Nebuchadnezzar besieged the city under Zedekiah.

3489 AM, 4199 JP, 515 BC

1032. Toward the latter end of the 6th year of Darius on the 3rd day of the 12th month, called Adar, the temple was finished. At the dedication, the Israelites who returned from the captivity, celebrated with great joy and many sacrifices. The priests and Levites performed their offices and duties in the temple. Ezr 6:15-18

1033. On the 14th day of the 1st month, they joyfully celebrated the first passover in the second temple and kept the feast of unleavened bread for seven days. For God had turned the heart of Darius, king of Assyria toward them. Ezr 6:19,22 After a 20 month seige, he took Babylon, by the help of Zopyrus. He could now rightly be called king of the Assyrians as well as the Persians. (Herod. l. 3. in fin. & Justin at the end of his book.)

3490b AM, 4200 JP, 514 BC

1034. When Esther's turn came to be brought to the king Ahasuerus, she was brought from the Seraiglia to the king's chamber by Hegai the eunuch. Es 2:12-15

``The women in Persia, come round in their turns, to their husband's beds.'' (Herod. l. 3. c. 69)

1035. In the 7th year of Ahasuerus' reign, in the 10th month called Tebeth, when Esther came to the king, she found grace and favour in his eyes above all the other damsels. He put the crown of the kingdom upon her head and made her queen in the place of Vashti. Es 2:16,17 From this I gather that as Vashti was Atossa, so Esther was the one Herodotus called the virgin Artystone. He said that Darius loved with her more than all his wives and he made a solid gold statue of. (Herod. l. 3. c. 88. l. 7. c. 69.) Hadassah, which was another name given to Esther sounds much like Atossa. Herodotus makes Artystone to have been Cyrus' daughter and Atossa's sister. We do not know whether Herodotus was not so well skilled in the Persian genealogies or that the Persians themselves for very envy concealed the name of Esther.

1036. In honour of his new marriage, Ahasuerus made a most sumptuous feast for all his princes and servants and called it Esther's feast. He eased the provinces of many taxes and gave gifts according to the wealth of so great a king. Es 2:18

1037. The 19th Jubilee.

3491a AM, 4200 JP, 514 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:11:46 AM
 1038. Haman, the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, of the tribe of the Amalekites, hated the Jew Mordecai because he would not fall down and adore him as others did. He resolved for his sake to be revenged of all the Jewish nation (which was always at odds with his De 25:19) and to destroy it. To find a good time to do this, he cast pur, that is, lots before him on the first month Nisan, in the 12th year of king Ahasuerus. The lot fell on the 12th month Adar. Es 3:1-7

1039. For vacuous reasons he offered Ahasuerus 10,000 talents of silver, (which the king would not accept) and obtained a grant from him to destroy the Jews. Es 3:7-11

1040. On the 13th day of the first month, the king's edict was proclaimed in Susa and copies of it were dispatched by carriers into all the provinces of the empire. All Jews without respect to sex or age on the 13th day of the 12th month Adar were to be killed. Es 3:12-15 When this happened, Mordecai, Esther and all the Jews, humbled themselves before the Lord, by fasting and prayer. Es 4:1-17 In memory of this their posterity to this day observe a solemn fast, upon the 13th day of the month Adar, which they call Esther's fast.

1041. Esther went to the king in gorgeous apparel and was graciously received by him. She invited the king to a banquet. Meanwhile, Haman was busy having a gallows made for Mordecai. Es 5:1-14

1042. One night when Ahasuerus could not sleep, he had the records read to him. It was found that two of his servants, Bigthan and Teresh his doorkeepers, had plotted his death and that Mordecai had revealed this conspiracy to him. Thereupon he ordered that Mordecai should be highly honoured publicly by none other than Haman himself. Es 6:1-14

1043. Shortly after this, Haman was hung on the gallows he made for Mordecai. Es 7:1-10 Haman's house was given to the queen. Mordecai, her uncle who had raised her, had daily honours bestowed upon him. Es 8:1,2,15-17

1044. On the 23rd day of the month Sivan, there was an edict proclaimed at Susa and copies of it sent away speedily by carriers into the 127 provinces. It stated that the Jews on the 13th day of the month Adar, which was the day appointed for their massacre, could defend themselves and to kill any who attacked them. They could keep the spoil of any man killed. In Susa and in all the provinces there was great rejoicing among the Jews. People in various countries became Jews. Es 8:9-17

3494d AM, 4204 JP, 510 BC

1045. Happias (twenty years before the fight at Marathon, in which he served on the Persian side) was now an old man. He was expelled from Athens by the Lacedemonians and the faction of the Alemaeonidae. He left the Athenians, and went first to Sigeum and from there sailed to Lampsucus, to his son-in-law Aeanpias' father and from there went to Darius. (Thucid. l. 6.) Now Pisistratus, the son of Hippias, had committed Segeum in Troas to Hegesistratus' base son. This was a place for Hippias and later for others of the family of Pisistratus to escape to when in trouble. (Herod. l. 5. c. 65, 91, 94)

3495b AM, 4205 JP, 509 BC

1046. Upon the 13th day of the 12th month Adar, the Jews killed all those who intended to kill them by Haman's decree. In Susa and the palace, they killed 500 men together with Haman's ten sons. In the rest of the provinces, they killed 75,000 men but touched not one penny of their goods. Es 9:1-16

1047. On the 14th of the same month, the Jews in the provinces stopped killing their enemies and had a feast. They at Susa were granted one more day of vengeance by the king. They slew 300 more of their enemies; and hung the carcasses of Haman's ten sons on the gallows. Es 9:13-19

1048. On the 15th day, Jews who lived in Susa made merry and feasted. Es 9:18

1049. Mordecai began the custom of keeping a holiday in remembrance of Purim on the 14th and 15th days of the month Adar. This was established by Esther. Es 9:23-30 This is the Jew's Shrovetide, when they read the history of Esther. As often as the name of Haman is read, they rap and make a noise with their hands or mallets upon the desk in their synagogues.

3500 AM, 4210 JP, 504 BC

1050. In the isle of Naxos, some of the rich were expelled by the poor. They resorted to Aristagoras, son of Molpagoras and son-in-law and first cousin by the mother's side, to Histiaeus, Tyrant of Meletus. Histiaeus had left Aristagoras governor there in his place when Darius had honoured him by taking him to Susa. Aristagoras told the matter to Artaphernes, son of Hystaspes and brother to Darius, governor of Ionia, who lived at Sardis. He persuaded him to take over for the king, Naxos, Paros and Andros and the rest of the Cyclades, all dependents of Naxos. Darius at Susa liked the idea and next spring he furnished 200 ships for that war. (Herod. l. 5. c. 30-32.)

3501c AM, 4211 JP, 503 BC

1051. Artaphernes, made Megabates a Persian and a close cousin to him and Darius, commander-in-chief of the Persian army. He ordered him to go to Miletus with his fleet of 200 ships. He was to join forces with Aristagoras and the Ionian army, which he did. They sailed from there to Chios. A disagreement occurred between Aristagoras and Artaphernes, when they had spent four months in the siege of Naxos. Nothing came of the seige and each returned home again, accomplishing nothing. (Herod. l. 5. c. 32-34.)

3502b AM, 4212 JP, 502 BC

1052. The 70 years had elapsed from the taking of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar. This was the number of years of the bondage of that city as stated in. Isa 23:15,17 After this time, it seems they lived in freedom from any foreign subjection, until the time it was again taken by Alexander the Great.

1053. Aristagoras feared what might happen to him because he had not been able to take Naxos. He had no money to pay his army. He began to think of revolting from the Persians. It happened that exactly at that time, a messenger came from Histiaeus in Babylon. His message was written in letters made with hot irons upon the flesh of his head and now overgrown with hair. He advised Aristagoras to defect from Darius and cause all Ionia to revolt, if he could. (Herod. l. 5. c. 35. Polya. Stratag. l. 1.)

1054. Aristagoras told this to his friends and persuaded them to side with him. Hecataeus the historian tried in vain to prevent them from rebelling against the king of Persia. The conspirators sent Iarrogaras to Myletus to the army, which upon their return from Naxos, remained there and by a stratagem, won over all the principal commanders of their fleet.

1055. Aristagoras, now publicly revolted from Darius. He made a fair show of a kind of liberty to the Milesians. He took away the rulers that were in some cities of Ionia. He then went to the Lacedemonians to ask for their help but they flatly refused. (Herod. l. 3. c. 36-38, 49-51.)

3503a AM, 4212 JP, 502 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:12:20 AM
 1056. In the 20th year of the reign of Darius, 245 of Nabonassar's era, on the 28th day of the month Epiphus, according to the Egyptian calendar, (November, 29) there was an eclipse of the moon at Babylon ending about midnight. (Ptol. Mag. Syntax. l. 4. c. 9.)

1057. The Lacedemonians sent to Sigeum for Hippias the son of Pisistratus. He went to Athens on the hope they gave to him that he may be restored to power. This was all in vain and returned to Asia. He accused the Athenians of many things to Artaphernes, hoping to bring Athens under the subjection of Darius, (Herod. l. 5. c. 91, 96.)

1058. When the Athenians understood that Hippias had defamed them to Artaphernes, they sent their messengers to Sardis to persuade the Persians not to give credit to those outlaws of the Athenians. However, Artaphernes advised them that if they loved themselves and their own safety, they should call home again and receive Hippias. They refused any such conditions. It happened that Aristagoras the Melesian returned empty handed from Sparta he came to Athens and there obtained 20 ships to aid the Ionians in their war against the Persians. They made Melantho an eminent man in Athens commander. (Herod. l. 3. c. 96, 97.) This fleet, as Herodotus (Herod. l. 3. c. 98. ib.) has well noted, was the beginning of all the trouble between the Greeks and Persians. This was the beginning of all the wars which occurred between the Greeks and the Persians and which ended in the ruin of the Persian Empire.

1059. When Aristagoras returned to Miletus, he persuaded the Paeones to return to their own country. Megabuzus the governor of Thracia had carried them away from their own country on the banks of the River Strymon into Phrygia and by the authority of Darius settled them there. They took with them their wives and children and went away to the seaside. Some settled there for fear of going any farther. The rest went to Chios, from there sailed to Lesbos and to Doriscus. From there, they went by land into their own country. (Herod. l. 5. c. 98.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:13:07 AM
 3504 AM, 4214 JP, 500 BC

1060. The Athenian fleet arrived at Meletus. Five triremes of the Eretrians came with them to help the Athenians. There Aristagoras remained. He sent his own brother Charopinus commander over the Milesians and Helmophantus commander over the rest of the Ionians to fight against Sardis. The Ionians with the Athenians and Eretrians sailed to Ephesus. They left their ships at Coresus, a port of the Ephesians and marched to Sardis. They took and burnt it all except for the citadel which Artaphernes himself kept. They even destroyed the temple of Cybele. When the Lydians and Persians united forces they defended and held the market place through which ran the River Pactolus. The fearful Ionians retired to the hill Timolus next to the market and fled to their ships by night. The Persians who dwelt on that side the river Halys, gathered their forces and pursued them. They overtook them near Ephesus, fought and routed them. Many were killed including Enalcidas captain of the Eretrians. He won many garlands in many of their games and was highly commended in the poetry of Simonides. They who escaped from the battle, scattered into their various cities. The Athenians abandoned the Ionian cause from that time on, although they were earnestly entreated to help the Ionians by Aristagoras. (Herod. l. 5. c. 99-103.)

1061. Onesilus disposed of his older brother Gorgus, king of the Salaminians, and forced him to flee over to the Medes for help. Onesilus caused the whole island of Cyprus to defect from the Medes except for the people of Amathusa. When he was besieging that city, Darius received news of the burning of Sardis by the Athenians. He was very angry with the Athenians and ordered one of his attendants that as often as ever he sat eating, he should remind him three times of it by saying, "Sir, Remember the Athenians." Heedlessly, he sent away Histiaeus, the brother of that Aristagoras from Susa to Meletus who later became the ringleader of the Ionian rebellion against him. (Herod. l. 5. c. 104-106.)

1062. The Ionians sailed into the Hellespont and took Byantium with other cities in those parts. When they sailed from there, they caused many of the cities of Caria to join with them in this war against the Persians. When the city Caunus heard of the burning of Sardis, they joined them when before this had refused to. (Herod. l. 5. c. 103.)

1063. At Clazomenae, which was an island but now joined to the continent of Ionia, by a neck of land, (Strabo. l. 1.) Anaxagoras the philosopher, son of Hegesibulus was born (Olym. 70.) according to Diogenes Laertius in his life, from Apollodorus' Chronicle.

1064. While Onesilus and his army beseiged Amathusa, He received news that Artybius, a captain of the Persians, was heading to Cyprus with a very large army. Onesilus sent to the Ionians for help and they immediately sailed to Cyprus with a large fleet. The Persians left Cilicia and landed in Cyprus. They marched to the city of Salamis and sent the Phoenicians with their ships to take the point of a promontory in the island called, Claves Cyprus, i.e. the keys of Cyprus. A naval and land battle ensued. At sea that day, the Ionians behaved valiantly, especially the Samians and defeated the Phoenicians. On land while the rest were busy fighting, first Stesenor, tyrant of the Curii, betrayed his companions and then presently the men of Salamis who fought in chariots, did likewise. The whole army of the Cypriots were routed and many were killed. Among the dead was Onesilus, the author of this war and Aristocypius, king of the Solians, son of that Philocyphrus. When Solon was at Cyprus, he greatly extolled him in his poetry more than all the other tyrants. When the Ioninas heard that Onesilus was slain, and the rest of the cities of Cyprus were besieged and that Salamis welcomed back Gorgus their old king, they quickly returned to Ionia. Of all the cities of Cyrpus, Soli held out the longest. After four months, the Persians undermined the wall around the city and took it. Hence the Cypriots paid dearly for their one year of liberty and were reduced again to slavery. (Herod. l. 5. c. 108-116.)

3505 AM, 4215 JP, 499 BC

1065. The Persian leaders, Daurises, Hymaees and Otanes at Sardis who had married the daughters of Darius pursued the Ionians who had helped in the attack against Sardis. After they had routed them near Ephesus and driven them aboard their ships, they divided the rest of the cities among themselves so they could conquer them. (Herod. l. 5. c. 116.) Daurises subdued the lands adjoining to the Hellespont and took in five days the five cities, Dardanus, Abydus, Percote, Lampsacus and Paesus. He was on his way from there to the city Parios when he received news that all Caria had revolted from the king and joined with the Ionians. He abandoned his plan to take Parios and marched with all his army to Caria. (Herod. l. 5. c. 117.) Hymaees subdued the lands about Propontis and took the city of Cios in Mysia. When he heard that Daurises marched from Hellespont to Caria, he left Propontis and marched into Hellespont. (Herod. l. 5. c. 122.) Artaphernes, the governor of Sardis and Otanes the third commander attacked Ionia and part of Aeolia. In Ionia, they took the city of Clazomenae and in Aeolia, the city Cuma. (Herod. l. 5. c. 123.) After this, Anaxagoras with his men met together to decide on a place to flee to. In this meeting, Hecataeus the historian advised them to move to the isle of Leros and fortify it. They should stay there until it was safe to return to Miletus. Aristagoras advised them to sail rather to a place called Myrcinus, a city of the Edons. These people dwelt on the bank of the river Strimon which his own brother Histiaeus had formerly built. Aristagoras committed the government of Miletus to Pythagoras and with a group of volunteers he sailed from there into Trace and took control of the area he had planned to. (Herod. l. 5 c. 124-126.)

1066. When Histiaeus, the Tyrant of Miletus, was sent away from Susa by Darius, he came to Sardis. Artaphernes charged him with being the author of all the unrest and rebellion in Ionia. He escaped by night to the sea coast and sailed over into Chios. The people thought that he had been sent there by Darius to enlist their support against the Greeks and they put him in irons. When they understood that he came to help the Greeks, they quickly set him free. He immediately sent a message to Sardis, by Herminppus of Atarne, to persuade some Persians to revolt. When Artaphernes got wind of this when he captured the messenger, he killed those Persians. When this plot failed, Histiaens had the Chios escort him back to Miletus. The Milesians were glad to be rid of Aristagoras and did not want another tyrant in his place. When Histiaeus tried to secretly get into the city by night, the Mileasians wounded him in the thigh. When he was expelled from there, he returned again to Chios, (Herod. l. 6. c. 1-5.)

3506 AM, 4216 JP, 498 BC

1067. Daurises the Persian led his army against the Carians. They met at a place called Columnae Albae or the White Pillars, near the river Marsyas. Pixodorus the son of Mausolus, a man of Cyndya, who had married the daughter of Sienoses the king of Cilicia, advised then to cross the river Maeander. They should have the river behind them and await the enemy there and fight from this good position. The opposite opinion prevailed that the Persians should fight with the river at their backs. This would cut off all retreat and force the Persians to fight harder. When the Carians and Persians fought near the river Marsyas, the battle was fierce and long. The Persians lost 2,000 men and the Carians 10,000. The Carians fled to Labranda to the temple of Jupiter and there decided what to do. Should they submit to the Persians or abandon Asia? At this time, the Milesians with their allies came to help them. Thus encouraged, they fought again with the Persians who invaded them. After a longer battle than the previous one, they fled again. They and the Milesians lost very many men. After these great losses, the Carians received more help and fought with the Persians a third time. When they heard that the Persians were sacking their cities, they lay in ambush for them as they were marching to Mylasa. This was planned by Heraclides of Mylasa the son of Ibanollis. They attacked the Persians at night and slaughtered them. The Persian commander, Daurisces and Amorges, Sismaces and Myrsus the son of Gyges, were killed. (Herod. l. 5. c. 118-121.)

1068. Hymees the Persian who led his army into the country of Hellespont, defeated all the Aeolians, who lived in the region of old Troy. He also subdued the Gergithes, the rest of those ancient Teucrians. After this he became sick and died at Troas. (Herod. l. 5. c. 122.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:13:37 AM
 1069. When Histiaeus the Milesian could not get ships from Chios, he went to Mitilene. Here the Lesbians let him have eight triremes and they sailed with him to Byzantium. Here they intercepted certain ships of the Ionians, who came out of Pontus. These submitted to the leadership of Histiaeus. (Herod. l. 6. c. 5,26.)

1070. Aristagoras, Histiaeus' brother, was with his army at the siege of Mircinus, a city of the Edones. He and his men were slain by the Thracians who lied to him about granting him safe passage from the place. (Herod. l. 5. c. 126.) Thucidides, (l. 4.) reckons from this time that it was 61 years, to the starting of a colony of the Athenians by Agnon the son of Nicias, at Amphipolis. Diod. Sic. in his 12th book, says, was done in the 85th Olympiad. That period of time, we have here followed our relation of the six years (ending the year following) of the rebellion of the Ionians against the Persians.

3507 AM, 4217 JP, 497 BC

1071. All the Persian commanders united in one huge naval and land force to take the city of Miletus. Among the navy the Phoenicians were the best sailors. They were helped by the Cypriots (who were recently subdued by the Persians,) the Cilicians and the Egyptians. (Herod. l. 6. c. 6.) This threat seems to be mentioned by Diogenes Laertius in his life, in those letters which are attributed to Anaximines the Melesian, written to Pythagoras who was living at Crotona. He lived there for 20 years and then went to Metapontus and there lived the rest of his days. (Justin from Trogus l. 20. c. 4.) This was the fourth year of the 78th Olympiad, (as Euseb. has it in his Chron.) which takes up part of this and part of the next year.

1072. The Ionian fleet had 363 ships and the Persians had 600. Aeaces the son of Solyson, the tyrant of Samos and other tyrants of Ionia, who had been expelled by Aristagoras, were now in the Persian army. They tried to draw as many of the countrymen as they could from the Ionian to the Persian side. The naval battle between the Phoenicians and the Ionians happened at Lada, a little island lying opposite Miletus. Of the 60 ships that came from the isle of Samos, 50 cowardly fled home from the battle. Likewise 70 more of the Lesbian ships and others of the Ionians fled. There were 100 ships of the Isle of Chios which fought valiantly until at length having taken many of the enemy's ships and lost many of their own, they returned home with what they had left. Some were closely pursued by the enemy and ran aground at the promontory of Mycale. They escaped to the shore and after travelling all night on foot, they came safely to Ephesus. Here, the women were celebrating their feast and sacrifices called Thesmophoria, in honour of their goddess Ceres. The men of the city thought that the Chians were thieves who came to spoil them at that time. They attacked them suddenly and slew them. Dionysius, captain of three ships of the Phoenicians, captured three ships of the enemies. He did not sail to Phocaea, which he knew was about to fall to the enemy with the rest of the Ionian territories but sailed directly to Phoenicia. Here he sank a number of cargo ships, and robbed them of their valuable cargo. He then set sail for Sicily. (Herod. l. 6. c. 7-17.)

1073. When the Persians had defeated the Ionians at sea, they attacked the beleagued city of Miletus, both by sea and land. They undermined its walls with all kinds of engines of war and they utterly overthrew and razed it to the ground in the 6th year after Aristagoras began his rebellion against the king of Persia. (Herod. l. 6. c. 18.) Some of the Mileseans who escaped with certain of the Samians, started a colony in Sicily. (Herod. l. 6. c. 22.) The rest were carried away to Susa. Darius inflicted no more punishment on them and settled them in the city of Ampa on the Persian Gulf near the mouth of the Tigris River. The Persians took the plain and low grounds lying near the city of Miletus and gave the mountainous parts to the Carians of Pedasus to possess. (Herod. l. 6. c. 20.)

1074. After the taking of Miletus, the Carians were all quickly captured. Some surrendered willingly and others by compulsion. (Herod. l. 6. c. 25.) When Histiaeus the Milesian heard what happened to his city Miletus, he sailed with the Lesbians who were with him to Chios. He easily subdued them because they were greatly weakened by their heavy losses at Lada. He went from there with a strong party of Ionians and Eolians to Thasos. While he was besieging Thasos, he heard that the Persians were attacking the rest of Ionia. He lifted his siege from Thasos and he immediately sailed to Lesbos with all his forces. When he saw that his men were short of food, he sailed to the province of Atarnis and intended to forage for food there and in the country lying by the river Caicus in the province of Mysia. Harpagus the Persian was in those parts with a very large army. He attacked Histiaeus as he came from his ships at a place called Malena and took him alive and killed most of his men. After Histiaeus was brought prisoner to Sardis, Artaphernes crucified him and sent his head to Darius at Susa. Darius criticised them for not bringing him alive to him. He ordered that his head should be interred, as a man respected by him and the Persian nation. (Herod. l. 6. c. 27-29.)

3508 AM, 4218 JP, 496 BC

1075. The Persian navy wintered near Miletus. They captured the islands bordering on the continent and in less than two years captured Chios, Lesbos, Tenedos, and the rest. (Herod. l. 6. c. 31.)

1076. After the islands were taken, the Persian captains captured the cities of Ionia. When they were subdued, they selected the most beautiful boys and girls from among them and sent them to Darius. They burned the cities and their temples. Hence the Ionians were three times brought into bondage, once by the Lydians and now twice by the Persians. (Herod. l. 6. c. 31, 32.)

1077. Before the Phoenician fleet came, the inhabitants of Byzantium and of Chalcedon, which is opposite it, abandoned their cities and fled to the remotest parts of the Euxin Sea. Here they built a city called Mesembria. (Herod. l. 6. c. 33.)

3509 AM, 4219 JP, 495 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:14:10 AM
 1078. The Phoenician fleet sailed from Ionia and subdued all that lay on their left hand as you go into the Hellespont. What lay on the right hand in Asia was already subdued by the Persians. The fleet took Chersonesus and its cities except the city Cardia where until then Miltiades the son of Cimon, had been tyrant. (Herod. l. 6. c. 33, 34.) When Miltiades sailed from Cardia with five triremes for Athens, the Phoenicians pursued him and took one of his ships containing his son Metiochus. He was sent prisoner to Darius who honourably received him. Darius gave him both house and lands and a Persian woman for a wife. She bore him many children. (Herod. l. 6. c. 41.)

1079. When Artaphernes the governor of Sardis, found the Ionians fighting among themselves, he sent for some of each side to come to him. He made peace with them on certain conditions. He made them to settle their differences by arbitration rather than by killing each other and thus ruining their nation. (Herod. l. 6. c. 42.)

1080. When Artaphernes made peace, he surveyed their country by parasangs, as the Persians called every division and it contained 30 furlongs or 3.75 miles. He assigned a tribute on every such division which was paid yearly to the king. The rate was similar to what they paid formerly to Darius. (Herod. l. 6. c. 42.) That rate was first levied when Darius became king and he imposed it on all his empire (Herod. l. 3. c. 89, 90.) and before he was master of the islands. (Herod. l. 6. c. 96.) According to Herodotus, we observe that to facilitate taxing, the 127 provinces mentioned in Esther, were now by Darius reduced to 20, yet the bounds of that empire were still the same stretching from India to Ethiopia. One side was conquered by Cambyses and the other by Darius. Concerning the revenue from India, Herodotus states:

``Since the Indians were the most populous nation, more than all other men living that we know, they pay far more tribute than any other nation does, that is 360 talents of gold dust and this is the twentieth part or a Satrapie.''

1081. Since we find that when Darius was made king, he did not control India, as is evident even by Herodotus himself, (Herod. l. 4. c. 44.), therefore it is likely that when the tax rate was set by Artaphernes in Ionia, a similar tax was done all over the kingdom by the governors of each of the provinces.

1082. It would be considered then, whether that which is said in Es 10:1-3

``After this the king Ahasuerus imposed a tribute upon the land and isles of the sea;''

1083. That King Ahasuerus made all the earth and all the islands of the sea pay tribute refers to this very time. For as Thucidides, (l. 1.) tells us, (and Plato in his Menexenus confirms) that Darius, by the means of his Phoenician fleet, subdued all the islands lying in the Aegean Sea. Diodorus Siculus, (l. 12.) states that they were all lost again by his son Xerxes immediately after his defeat in Greece. It was after the 12th year of his reign that the scripture states that Ahasuerus imposed this tribute upon the isles. For in the war of Xerxes against Greece, all the islands which lay between the Cyanean Isles and the two forelands, that of Triopium in Cnidia and that other of Sumium in Attica, sent him ships. Diodorus Siculus (l. 12.) states that his successors held none of them all except for Clazomene, which was at that time a poor small island (Thucidides, l. 8.) and Cyprus. This is demonstrated by the tenor of Antalcidas' peace as recorded by Xenophon (l. 5. Hellenic.) This seems to me to be a good argument, that the Ahasuerus mentioned in Esther is none other than this Darius. For this and other such like impositions laid upon the people, the Persians used to call him "a crafty merchant" or "huckster", as Herodotus notes of him. Under Cyrus and Cambyses, his two predecessors, there was no mention of any tribute charged upon the subject but that they only brought the king presents, (Herod. l. 3. c. 89.) Also, we read in the 15th book of the Epitome of Strabo:

``The first that ever brought up paying of tribute, was Darius Lonimanus:''

1084. (mistaking the surname of Artaxerxes the grandchild and giving it to the grandfather)

``for before him, men paid their kings, from what every country yielded, as grain, horses, &c.''

1085. And Polyuenus, (Stratagem. l. 7.) states that

``Darius, was the first that ever imposed a tribute upon the people. Nevertheless, to make it more palatable to them, he had his officers set the rate first. When they imposed a very heavy tax, he took off one half of it which they willingly paid and took it for a great favour too from the king's hand''

1086. This story is mentioned also, by Plutarch in his Apothegmes of Kings and Emperors.

3510 AM, 4220 JP, 494 BC

1087. In the beginning of this spring, the king relieved all the commanders and sent away the young gentleman Mardonius, the son of Gobryas and who recently married to the king's daughter Arotozostra. He came to the seaside in Cilicia with a vast well equipped army and navy. He sent his army overland to Hellespont while he took the navy into the parts of Ionia. He put down the Tyrants in each of the cities restored their elected governments. Shortly after this, he subdued the Thasy by his fleet and the Macedonians by his army. His navy sailing from Thasus to Acanthus. While they tried to round the cape of the mount Athos, a mighty tempest destroyed 300 of his ships and over 20,000 men. While Mardonius with his army stayed in Macedonia, the Thracians, called the Brygi, attacked his camp at night. They killed many of his men and wounded Mardonius. When he had subdued Macedonia, he left and returned into Asia.

3511 AM, 4221 JP, 493 BC

1088. The next year, Darius ordered the inhabitants of Thasus, who had been accused of intending a rebel against him, to demolish the walls of their city and to send away all their shipping to Abdera. He then determined to see whether the Greeks would fight or submit to him. He sent ambassadors into Greece with the order to demand earth and water from them. He ordered his towns on the sea coast, to send fighting ships and others to send horses to him. Therefore, many in Greece and in the adjacent isles gave him earth and water. The inhabitants of the Island of Egina were the first to do this. (Herod. l. 6. c. 46. 48. 49.)

3512 AM, 4222 JP, 492 BC

1089. The Eginetae who were traitors to Greece, were presently attacked by Cleomenes, king of the Spartans. Demaratus, the other Spartan king, was expelled when a disagreement arose between him and Cloemenes. He fled to into Asia to Darius who entertained him magnificently and gave him cities and lands to rule. (Herod. l. 6. c. 49, 50. 61, 67, 70.)

3513 AM, 4223 JP, 491 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:14:40 AM
 1090. There was an eclipse of the moon at Babylon in the 31st year of Darius, 257th of Nobonasar, the 3rd day of the month Tybi (April 25th) half an hour before midnight (Ptol. mag. Syntas, l. 4. c. 9.) Darius removed Mardonius from his command because of the poor handling of the navy. He sent others to take charge of the war against the Eretrians and Athenians. These were Datys, a Median and Artaphernes, (whom the Scholiast of Aristophanes calls Artabaxus) commander of the horses, the son of his brother Artaphernes. As they were encamped in a plain of Cilicia near the sea, they repaired all the naval forces and prepared their ships to transport the horses which the tributary cities had provided. With the army and horse on board, they sailed for Ionia (Herod. l. 6. c. 94, 95.) with a fleet of 600 ships. Yet Plato in his Menexenus, counts only 300 ships and 500,000 soldiers. Lysias also confirms this number. in the Epitaph which he made, upon the Corinthian Auxiliaries. However, Emilius Probus, in the life of Miltiades, says, there were in that fleet, 500 ships; 200,000 soldiers and 10,000 horses.

3514c AM, 4224 JP, 490 BC

1091. The Persians sailed from Samos to Naxos and burned all its houses and temples. They spared Delos and went to other the islands. From there they took captive both men to serve them and their children for hostages. When the Casrystii refused to do this, they were besieged until at last they also were forced to surrender their city and themselves to the enemy. (Herod. l. 6. c. 95, 96, 99.)

1092. The Persians took Eretria after seven days siege. After spending a few days in settling things there, they sailed to the land of Attica and destroyed a great part of it. At last by the guidance of Hippias the son of Pisistratus they came to the plain of Marathon. They were defeated by the men of Athens and of Platea, under the command of Miltiades. He had taken command of the Chersonesus in Thracia. The Greeks lost 192 men, the Persians, 6400. (Herod. l. 6. c. 101, 102. 112. 117.)

3514d AM, 4224 JP, 490 BC

1093. The Persians fled to their ships many of which were sunk or captured. In both the fights, the Persians lost 200,000 men. Hippias, a former the Tyrant of Athens, died there, who had been the author of this war. (Justin out of Trogus, l. 2. c. 9.) The whole army of the Persians at this battle consisted of 300,000. (Valer. Mas. l. 5. c. 3.) Plutarch thinks it was less as he states in the beginning of his Parallels. Justin and Orosius following him and say, they were in all 600,000 men: Aemilius Probus in his Militiades, states there were 100,000 solders and 20,000 calvary. On the Athenian side there were 10,000 and of their auxiliaries out of Platea; 1,000, states Justin with Orosus. Probus assures us, that the Athenians, with the men of Platea totalled but 10,000. This significant victory happened on the 6th day of Boedromion, the 3rd month in the Attio calendar after the summer solstice according to Plutarch in the life of Camillus. When Phanippus was in charge of Athens. Plutarch has it in the Life of Aristides that in the 3rd year of the 72nd Olympiad, 4 years before the death of Darius. Likewise Severns Sulpitius, in his 2nd book of his Sacra Hisoria states the same thing. This was in the 10th year before Xerxes entered into Greece, (as Thuscidides in his 1st book of his history states and Lysias in his Epitaph of the Corinthian Auxiliaries confirms) and 10 full years before the sea fight at Salamis in the same month of Boedromion. (Plato l. 3. de Legibus.)

1094. Datis and Artiphernes returned into Asia taking with them their captives of Eretria to Susa. (Herod. l. 6. c. 119.) According to Ctesias, Datis was slain in the fight at Marathon and the Athenians refused to give the Persians his body.

3515 AM, 4225 JP, 489 BC

1095. When the Eretrian captives were brought to Darius, he had them settled in a part of the Cissian country called Anderica, 210 furlongs (26 miles) from Susa. (Herod. l. 6. c. 119.) This is described in more detail in Philostratus, in the life of Apollonius, (l. 1. c. 17.)

3517d AM, 4227 JP, 487 BC

1096. After Darius had spent 3 years in making greater preparations against Greece than before, in the fourth year the Egyptians revolted. (Herod. l. 7. c. 1.)

3519 AM, 4229 JP, 485 BC

1097. When Darius was now ready to begin his war against the Egyptians, and Athenians, he was required by the laws of the Persians to name his successor in the kingdom.

1098. Artobazanes, whom others call Artemenes, or Ariamenes was his son by Gobryas his daughter. He was born to him before he came to be king and claimed the succession by right of Primogeniture or as the firstborn. Xerxes, who was born after Darius became king by Atossa the daughter of Cyrus who founded the Persian Monarchy, was named to be the next king. (Herod. l. 7. c. 2, 3.) There was friendly rivalry between the two brothers. For more on this, see Justin, from Trogus, (l. 2. c. 10.) and in Plutarch, in the Life of Artaxerxes and in his Apothigmes and in his treatise on brotherly love.

3519c AM, 4229 JP, 485 BC

1099. When Darius had declared Xerxes to be the next king, when he was now ready to take his journey. According to Diod. Sic. (l. 11) he was on his way into Greece in the year after the revolt of the Egyptians. Toward the later end of that year he died after he had reigned for a full 36 years. (Herod. l. 7. c. 4.)

1100. After him came Xerxes, the 4th king of Persia after Cyrus. He trusted in his riches, (as they were indeed exceeding great) and stirred up his own subjects together with all his allies and friends to make war on the Greeks according to the prophecy of Da 11:2. In was not his original intention but was put up to it by Mardonius, his first cousin from Alevada, the kings of Thessaly of the family of Pisistratus and by Onomacritus, a Sorcerer of Athens. (Herod. l. 7. c. 5, 6.)

3520 AM, 4230 JP, 484 BC

1101. At the beginning of the second year of his reign after the death of Darius, Xerxes made an expedition against the rebellious Egyptians. After he had subdued them, he brought them into a harder state of bondage than they had ever felt under his predecessors. He made his brother Achaemenes, the son of Darius, ruler over them. (Herod. l. 7. c. 7.)

1102. In this year Herodotus, the historian, the son of Lyxus and Eryone was born at Halicarnassius in the province of Caria. He was 53 years old when the Peloponesian war began. (A. Gellius l. 15. c. 23.) affirms from Pamphyla. At that time, Artemelia, the daughter of Lygdamis of Halycarnassus, after the death of her husband, obtained the tyranny which her husband held. This occurred during the schooling of her young son, whose name was Psindelis, as may be gathered from Suidas, in Herodotus. She ruled over the Halicarnassians, the Coi, the Nisirians and Calydonians. After a while she came into Greece with five good fighting ships to help Xerxes in his war. (Herod. l. 7. c. 99.)

3523 AM, 4233 JP, 481 BC

1103. Xerxes gathered together from all of his empire, Egypt, Phoenicia, Cyprus, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycia, Caria, Mysia, Troas, Hellespont, Bithynia and Pontus, 1200 ships to meet him at Cuma and Phocaea in Ionia. He set out from Susa with all the troops and cavalry he could muster in the beginning of the 4th year of the 74th Olympiad. However (Diod. Sic. in the beginning of his 11th book,) merges the events of these 2 years into one and states this was done in the first year of the Olympiad. Herodotus, (Herod. l. 7. c. 21.) affirms that this preparation took place 3 whole years before this year but with a note on the previous chapter which cannot be consistent with the exact passing of the time. He says:

``from the subduing of Egypt, he took 4 years in gathering an army and in making his preparations. In the beginning of the 5th year, he began to march with a huge army:''

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:15:12 AM
 1104. He left Susa in the beginning of his 5th year, not from the subduing of Egypt but from his becoming king. Hence both Justin from Trogas, (l. 2. c. 10.) and Orosius follow Herodotus incorrectly and assign these five years. Julianus in his first Oration of the praises of Constantius, incorrectly says, that Xeres spent ten years preparing. More ingenuous than all these, (though he is not overly exquisite in his account) is Labianus. He says that between Darius and Xerxes there was ten years spent in the preparation against Greece. Since we have formerly showed from Plato that from the fight at Marathon to the fight at Salamis which was fought in the first year of the 75th Olympiad, (almost a full year after Xerxes left Susa), only ten years elapsed.

1105. At Critalis in Cappadocia, all Xerxes' forces met. From there he passed over the river Halys and came to Celaena, a city in Phrygia. Here Pythius, a Lydian, (Pliny l. 33. c. 10. says he was a Bithynian) the son of Atyis entertained him and his whole army in a most magnificent and sumptuous manner. From here, they passed by Anava, a city of Phrygia and Lough where salt was made and he came to Colossae in Phrygia. Here the river Lycus disappears underground. From there he came to a town called Cyndra in Phrygia, then to Lydia and then passed by the river Maeander. He passed the city called Callatebus and he finally arrived at Sardis. From here he dispatched his messengers into Greece to demand of them earth and water. That is he required them to surrender to him. (Herod. l. 7. c. 26-32.)

1106. In the mean time, the navy was at Eleus in Chersonesus. From here part of the army dug through the neck of the mount Athos for 12 furlongs (1.5 miles). They and the Bastinadoes were compelled to do this work. The neighbouring inhabitants were compelled to help. Bubares the son of Megabysus and Artachaeus the son of Artaeus, both Persians were appointed to oversee the work. When that neck of land was cut through and the sea let in, the channel was wide enough so that two large ships with their oars extended might pass each other without touching. (Herod. l. 7. c. 22-24.) Another part of the army built a bridge of ships over the Hellespont, where the sea from Abydus to the shore, on the other side, is 7 furlongs (a mile) wide. When the bridge was completed, there arose a fierce storm and destroyed it. Xerxes in a rage caused 300 stripes to be given to the Hellespont and a pair of shackles to be thrown into the sea to bind and fetter it with. He decapitated those who made the bridge and then employed others to work to make the bridge stronger. (Herod. l. 7. c. 33-36.)

3524b AM, 4234 JP, 480 BC

1107. In the beginning of the spring, Xerxes with his whole army left Sardis where they spent the winter and marched toward Abydus. As he was starting his journey, the sun stopped shining. There were no clouds and the air was clear. The day was turned into night. At this incredible sign, Pythius the Lyidan was terrified, (for it was no natural eclipse as the astronomical tables easily show) and besought the king that of his five sons who were in his army, he would leave his oldest out to be a comfort to him in his old age. In a rage, Xerxes had his oldest son cut in two and his whole army marched between the parts of his body. (Herod. l. 7. c. 37-39)

1108. Hermotimus, who was an Halicarnaslaean, was the most influential of all the other eunuchs with Xerxes. When he came into the country of Atarne, in the province of Mysia, he sent for Panionius of the Isle of Chios. He was a slave trader and a eunuch also. His wife and children came with him. He made the father castrate his sons and then had them do the same to their father. Thus Hermotimus was avenged of the wrong done to him. (Herod. l. 8. c. 105,106.)

1109. Xerxes and his army went from Lydia to the River Caiicus and the country of Mysia. From there they came into the country where old Hium or Troy stood. As he slept that night at the foot of the hill Ida, there arose a terrible thunder storm which killed many in his army. After this they came to the River Scamander which they drained dry. It was not able to satisfy the men and animals with water. When Xerxes was there, he went up to see the old habitation of king Priame. There he sacrificed to Minerva of Troy, 1000 oxen. The Magi that attended him offered cakes to the nobles. After this a panic fell on his army at night and he left there in the morning as soon as it was light and came to Abydus. (Heriod. l. 7. c. 42,43.)

1110. Here Xerxes took a fancy to see all his army at once. Therefore he had a luxurious hall built of fair white stone and he sat in the hall. From there he could see his navy at sea and all his army. He wanted to see a sea battle too. After that battle was done, the Phoenicians won the prize. The king took great pleasure in the battle and in the number of his men. He looked at all the sea of Hellespont covered with his ships and all the shores and plains about Abydus with his soldiers. When he considered the shortness of man's life and that none of all these men would be alive after 100 years, he wept. (Herod. l. 7. c. 44,45.) (Valer. Max. l. 9. c. 13.)

3524c AM, 4234 JP, 480 BC

1111. Xerxes sent his Uncle Arcabanus to be viceroy at Susa and there to take care of his house and the kingdom. He prepared to enter Europe. As soon as the sun was up, he held a golden vial in his hand over the sea. He prayed to the sun that nothing might hinder him in the conquest of Europe, till he had gone to its utmost bounds. When he had said this, he flung both the vial and a golden goblet and a Persian cimitre into the sea. When this was done, he sent his cavalry and foot soldiers to pass over the bridge on the right hand which was toward Pontus. On the left hand which was toward the Aegean Sea, he made all the bag and baggage, servants and carriages to pass over. It took a whole week to cross over. When all this was done, the navy sailed from the Hellspont west to a place called Sarpedon's cape. His army passed through Chersonesus to Agora and turned aside to a place called the Black Bay the mouth of the Black River. It was not able to supply enough water for all his army to drink. When they passed this river, the army marched west to Doriscus. This is the name of a sea coast and of a spacious field in the country of Thracia through which the large river Hebrus flows. Here they camped. (Herod. l. 7. c. 52-59)

1112. When the Navy came to this place, they were haled ashore. Xerxes wanted to count all his navy and army. According to Herodotus, his foot soldiers numbered 170 myriads, or 1,700,000 men. (Herod. l. 7. c. 60) His horses, besides camels and chariots, 8 myriads, or 800,000 horses. (Herod. l. 7. c. 87.) Among the commanders of his army, he mentions two of Darius' sons born by his queen Artistone. (I conceive to have been Esther.) The one he calls Arsames was commander of the Ethiopians from the south of Egypt. (Herod. l. 7. c. 69.) The other he calls Gobryas who was leader of the Maryandent and Ligyes and Syrians. (Herod. l. 7. c. 72.) Diodorus Siculus tallies his foot soldiers at 80 myriads or 800,000 men, less than half of what Herodotus says. Yet the number which Diodorus attributes to the foot soldiers, Cresias assigns to the whole army of all types. viz. 80 myriads besides the chariots. Isocrates in his Paenathenaica says that in his army of foot soldiers was 70 myriads or 700,000 men. Elian (l. 13. c. 3.) of his Various History assigns this to the whole army. Pliny counts them at 788,000 men (l. 33. c. 10) and calls Xerxes, Darius. Justin, from Trogus and Orosius, follow him, (l. 1. c. 10.) and state that Xerxes had of his own subjects, 700,000 men and 300,000 auxiliaries from his friends. Emilius Probus, in the life of Themistocles, says, that his foot soldiers were 700,000 men and his cavalry 400,000.

1113. His naval force had 1207 ships of which the Phoenicians supplied him with 300 including the ones sent by the Syrians in Palestine. (Herod. l. 7. c. 89.) By Palestine he meant all the sea coast of Syria as far as Egypt. (Herod. l. 3. c. 91.) In another place he states it had in old times been Syria Palestine (Herod. l. 3. c. 91.) and that its inhabitants were all circumcised. (Herod. l. 2. c. 104.) The Jews were also part of the Persian Empire. Josephus states that some of his countrymen were in this army against the Greeks. To prove this, he cites those verses of the poet, (Choerilus, l. 1. cont. Apion.)

His camp a nation strange to see, did follow, Who spoke the language of Phoenicia;
And did the hills of Solymi inhabit,
Near to a broad lake which on them doth border:
Whose heads were rounded and on their bald crowns,
Of a horse head the dried skin did wear.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:15:47 AM
 1114. By this, the learned Salmasius also thinks that the Jews were meant in his Linguae Hellenistacae Ossilegio. Although Scaliger, (In notes suis ad fragmenta) and Cunaeus, (l. 2. De Rep. Hebra. c. 18.) and that most learned Bochartus (in Geogra. Sacra Par. 2. l. 1. c. 6.) takes them to be the Soylmi in Pisidia.

1115. Besides these fighting ships, Herodotus tells us that he had 1207 cargo ships, some of 30 oars, others of 50 oars a piece, besides smaller vessels and ships to carry horses for a total of 3000. (Herod. l. 7. c. 97.) Diodor. Sic. says, there were more than 1207 fighting ships, for carrying horses, 850 and 3000 cargo ships of 30 oars a piece. The Poet Eschyius in Persia brings in a messenger reporting the number of those ships in this manner.

I know that Xerxes ships a thousand were;
But full two hundred and seven ships he had,
Exceeding swift ones. So the fame doth go.

1116. Whether he means that the total sum of them was a 1000 and so the 207 swift ships was part of the total or whether both sums added together to give 1207. If so this agrees best with the particular catalogue of the ships which every nation contributed to this expedition as mentioned by Herodotus. It is not clear from the poetry what the exact total should be. Ctesias seems to favour the former opinion and so does Tully in the first of his Orations against Verres. Iscocrates in his Panegyric and Panathenaic Orations, agrees with the latter. Lysius in his Epitaph, says there were about 1200 ships, plus 3000 cargo ships. Justin must be wrong when he says there were 1,000,000 ships. Herodotus determines that about 241,000 troops were in the 1207 ships which came from Asia in this way. He has 200 men in every hold plus 30 passengers from the Persians, Medes and Sacaeans for a total of 36,210 passengers. In the 3000 cargo ships he places 240,000 men and average of about 80 per ship. So the whole navy consisted of 517,610 men. The number of the army was 1,700,000 foot soldiers and 800,000 cavalry. The Arabians who had charge of the camels and the Libyans who tended the wagons totalled about 20,000. The total number in Xerxes' forces would be 2,317,610 plus horses, boys and other servants and besides those who supplied the camp with food. (Herod. l. 7. c. 184.)

1117. Xerxes marched from Doriscus into Greece. As he came to any country, he conscripted all who were fit for fighting. (Herod. l. 7. c. 118.) He added 120 ships to his navy and added 200 more troops per ship for a total increase of the naval forces by 24,000 men. Herodotus thinks that his army increased 30 myriads, or 300,000. Diod. Sic. thinks the increase was less than 200,000. So the total of Xerxes' army in European and Asiatic soldiers amounted to 2,641,610 men. He thinks that the number of boys keeping the horses, servants and sailors in the cargo ships and others, was greater than the number of soldiers. So that if that former sum should be but doubled, the number of those which Xerxes carried by sea to Sepias and by land to Thermopylae would come to 5,283,220 men. This does not include the women cooks and eunuchs for no man can tell the exact number of them. Neither could he exactly number the horses and other beasts of burden and the Indian dogs with their keepers that followed the nobles in the camp for their pleasure. Hence it is no wonder that so many rivers were exhausted from the thirst of so many people. (Herod. l. 7. c. 185-187.) Juneval states in Statyr. 10.

We now believe that many rivers deep,
Did fail the Persian army, at a dinner.

1118. Therefore the less of a wonder that both Isocrates in his Panothenaic oration and Plutarch in his Parallels report that Xerxes took over 5,000,000 men into Greece.

1119. Yet in this huge host, there was not a man as handsome as Xerxes or one that might seem more worthy of that great empire than he. (Herod. l. 7. c. 187.) Like Saul among the children of Israel, 1Sa 10:23,24 so Xerxes might well seem to have been worthy of a crown. Yet, if you speak as a king, says Justin from Trogus, you will find cause to commend his wealth, mentioned before in Da 11:2 rather than by his character, of which he states:

``there was such infinite abundance in his kingdom, that when whole rivers failed the multitude of his army, yet his wealth could never be exhausted. As for himself, he was always seen last in the fight and first in the flight. He was fearful when any danger was but puffed up with pride when there was none.''

1120. Leonidus king of Sparta with an army of 4000 Greeks, interposed himself against him and his whole army of 300,000 troops at the pass of Thermopylae in Theslaly. It was called that from the hot springs which were there. In this epitaph by Herodotus we read: (Herod. l. 7. c. 228.)

Here against three hundred thousand Persians,
Four thousand Spartans fought it out and died.

1121. For thirty myriads is 300,000 which are the number stated by Theodoret (l. 10.) was the size the whole army (Diod. Sic. l. 11.) in this very epitaph, p. 26. in the Greek and Latin edition. For, the 30 myriads have 20 myriads, which make 200,000. Yet (p. 5.) he says, that the whole army consisted of a little less, than 100 myriads or 1,000,000 troops. When referring to this fight at Thermopylae, (p. 9.) he says that 500 men held off 100 myriads or 1,000,000 troops. Justin relating the same story from Trogus, (l. 2. c. 11.) states that 600 men, broke into the camp of 500,000, or as in Orosius, 600,000 men. Isocrates in his Archidamus says, that 1000 of them went against 700,000 Persians. Instead of the 1000 mentioned by Isocrates, Justin and Orosius say it was 600 and Diodorus, 500. These are those who were left when the rest of the Greeks were sent away. They held out against the Persians to the last man including their Spartan king Leonidas. Of this number, 300 were Spartans, the rest, Thespians and Thebans. (Herod. l. 7. c. 222, 224.) They slew 20,000 of the enemy. (Herod. l. 8. c. 24.)

1122. While these things happened at Thermopylae, various naval battles occurred about Artemisium, a cape of Eubaea. (Herod. l. 8. c. 15.) Eurybiades, a Lacedemonian, was admiral of the fleet of 271 ships, besides 9 others of 50 oars a piece. 127 were sent by the Athenians and Plataeans. (Herod. l. 8. c. 1.) Yet, Isocrates, in his Areopagitical Oration, says that the Athenians supplied only 60 ships. Emelius Probus states that the whole Greek fleet had 300 ships and that 200 of them were from the Athenians. Themistocles, Herodotus, Diodorus and Probus all say this battle was a draw, neither side winning. Isocrates in his Panegyrical Oration and Elian, (l. 2. c. 25. Varia Histor.) say the Persians were decisively defeated. The day when this battle was fought, is said by Elian, to have been upon the 6th of Thargelion, which was the second month of the spring with the Athenians. This does not agree with Herodotus, who (Herod. l. 8. c. 12.) says, that this was done in the middle of summer after the end of the spring when the Olympiad games were held in spite of all the trouble in Greece. (Herod. l. 8. c. 26.) This was the 75th Olympiad. Others like Dionysius, Halicarnaslaeus, in his Roman Antiquities, (l. 9.) states that it was at that time that Xerxes made war upon the Greeks.

1123. Four months after crossing the Hellespont with his army, Xerxes came to Athens. He found it abandoned by all its inhabitants. Callias was the ruler of Athens at this time. (Herod. l. 8. c. 51.) In this year, Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, a scholar of Anaximenes the Milesian, at the age of 20 was made public reader of philosophy in Athens according to Laertius from Demerrius Phalercus in his Catalogue of the 50 Rulers of Athens. At this time philosophy was first brought from Ionia to Athens, according to Clemens Alexan. (l. 1. strom.) who states:

``when Xerxes had taken Athens, he took also a multitude of books, which Pisistratus and the Athenians had there stored. He sent them to Persia. The the rest of the city, except the Acropolis, he burned according to A. Gellius.'' (l. 17. Noct. Attica)

1124. I do not agree with him for Herodotus states plainly that all the Acropolis was burn. (Herod. l. 8. c. 53.) Likewise states Ctesias. Diod. Sic. further affirms that the temple of Minerva which was undoubtedly in the Acropolis, was destroyed.

3524d AM, 4234 JP, 480 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:16:15 AM
 1125. The further Xerxes marched into Greece the more nations joined him. The Meleinses, the Dorienses, the Locri, the Baeothians, Caristians, Andrians, Teniaus and various others sent troops. Hence his army and navy were no less at Salamis and Athens than when he first landed at Sepias and came to Thermopylae. (Herod. l. 8. c. 66.) The verses of Eschilus mentioned earlier seem also to imply this where he tells us that at the fight at Salamis there were 1000 or 1207 ships of his. Ctesias says that in that fight the Persians had 1000 ships. Plutarch in his discourse, De glor. Athen. i.e. of the glory of the Athenians, where he says that the victory of Themistocles at Salamis, was gotten with the loss of a 1000 enemy ships. At the naval battle before Salamis, the Greek fleet was far greater than when they fought at Artemisium. They had 380 tall ships of war, of which Sparta sent 16. The Athenians had there 180 (Herod. l. 8. c. 42-44,48,62.) Plutarch agrees with Herodotus about the number of the Athenian ships. (Plutarch, in the Life of Themistocles) (Herod. l. 8. c. 61.) Diod. Sic. (l. 15.) says of the Athenians that they had 200 ships in the battle. Ischylus says, that the whole number of the Greek ships in the fight before Salamis was but 300 besides ten others of an extraordinary size. However Ctesias writes that there were 700 in the Greek fleet. There they lost 40 ships and the Persian's lost 200 besides those which were taken with the men in them. (Diodor, Sic. l. 11.) Ctesias reports that the Persians lots 500 ships during that battle. Artemisia, the queen of Halicarnassus, who came to aid Xerxes, was praised by him for her heroic courage. (Justin. l. 2. c. 12.) Xerxes on this occasion was heard to say:

``That his men had played the women and the women the men, in that service''. (Herod. l. 8. c. 88.)

1126. Under the leadership of Eurybiades, the Lacedemonian and the sage and prudent counsel and great prowess of Themistocles the Athenian, the Greeks won as big a victory at Salamis as they did at Marathon. Plutarch contradicts himself as to the time when the battle at Salamis was fought. For in the Life of Lysander and in his discourse on the glory of the Athenians, he says it was the 16th day of the month Munichon, (which is the first of the months of spring with the Athenians). However, in the Life of Camylus, he says it was on the 20th day of Boedromian, which was their third month in summer. It is true that in the Bay of Saron, also called the Bay of Salamis (Strabo l. 8.) between the two islands of Salamis and Igina, there was a night battle at sea between 10 Lacedemonian ships commanded by Gorgopas and 13 Athenian ships commanded by Eunomus. This was near Zoster a cape of the isthmus of Attica. In the days of Artarxerxes' Memoir, king of Persia, of which Xenophon, in his fifth book of his history of the Greeks, mentions this:

``In a sea battle made by moon light, Gorgopas took 4 tall ships of war and drawing them after him carried them away to Egina. The rest of the Athenian fleet fled home to their port of Piraum,''

1127. It was the 16th day of that lunar month among the Athenians, when Gorgopas attacked that small fleet of the Athenians. It happened to be a full moon, which helped the Athenian fleet sail to safety with the loss only of 4 ships. Therefore the Athenians consecrated that day to Diana and kept it as a holy day to her honour. Hence Plutarch confounded this later sea battle fought at Salamis with that other one fought in the same place against Xerxes in his discourse, "Of the Glory of the Athenians". Through error he wrote of it in this manner:

``They consecrated the 16th day of the month Muichlon to Diana, because upon that day after the victory won by the Greeks, the Goddess appeared full that night.''

1128. For that the victory of the Greeks against Xerxes happened about the 20th day of Boedromion, Plutarch says in a treatise of his, "Of days..", quoted by himself in the life of Camillus. It plainly appears in Herodotus that (Herod. l. 8. c. 65.) the main day of that holy day was the 20th of the month Boedromion. On this day the mysterious Pomp of Jacchus was openly shown to the people, according to Plutarch in the Life of Camillus. Themistocles prevented his countrymen from pursuing the enemies after their defeat at Salamis when they fled. He said this:

``Now, let us stay in Greece and take care of ourselves and our families and look to the tillage and sowing of our land, since the enemy is expelled from it. When the spring comes, then will we take time to sail into Hellespont and Ionia.''

1129. Hence concludes the argument that the Persians were vanquished at Salamis not in the beginning of the spring but in the latter end of summer.

1130. After the sea battle Xerxes executed certain Phoenicians who were the first that fled and threatened the rest with punishments answerable to their conduct. For fear of this, the Phoenicians returned that day to Atrica. The night after, they sailed to Asia, (Diod. Sic. l. 11. in the 1st year of the 75th Olympiad.) Many other ships, fearing more the rage of the king than the fury of the enemy, slunk away to their homes. (Justin l. 2.c. 12.) Xerxes was terrified by this disaster at sea and committed his sons to Artemesia the queen. She transported them to Ephesus to be with Hermotimus their governor. (Herod. l. 8. c. 103,107.)

1131. Cleombrotus of Sparta, the brother of Leonidas who died at Thermopylae, built a wall across the neck of land which is called Isthmus Corinthiacus. This was to stop Xerxes from coming by land into Peloponsus. (Herod. l. 8. c. 71.) While he was offering a sacrifice against the Persians, the sun was eclipsed. When this happened, he withdrew his army which was building this fortification and he died shortly after this. He was succeeded by his son Pausanias, as first cousin and tutor of Plistarchus, a child, the son of the dead Leonidas. (Herod. l. 9. c. 10.) The Prutenian account tells us of an eclipse of the sun of 8 digits (2/3 of total) at 1:39 pm that lasted 32 minutes on the 2nd day of October.

1132. To speed Xerxes on his way out of Greece, Themistocles sent a phoney message to him from Salamis that the Greeks planned to send a fleet of ships to Hellespont to destroy his bridge. When he heard this, he made all speed to get out of Europe into Asia. (Herod. l. 8. c. 110. Diod. Sic. l. 11. in the 1st year of the 75th Olympiad and Plut. in the Life of Themistosles.)

1133. Xerxes resolved to leave. He sent his fleet from Phalerus to Hellespont to guard the bridge. He and Mardomius and his army marched speedily towards Thessalie. (Herod. l. 8. c. 107,113,115.)

1134. When Mardonius came with Xerxes into Thessalie, he chose from all his army, 300,000 men. These he kept with him to continue the conquest of Greece. Because the year was far spent, he wintered in Thessalia. (Herod. l. 8. c. 113,114.) Justin from Trogus, (l. 2. c. 13.) and Plutarch in the Life of Aristides agree with Herododus. However, Diod. Sic. states that there remained with him at least 400,000 troops.

1135. In the meantime, the Lacedemonians by the command of the Oracle at Delphi, sent a herald to Xerxes to require reparation from him for the death of their king Leonidas. He answered that Mardonius should pay them their due. After this, he left Mardonius in Thessalie and hurried to the Hellespont. He took a large number of troops for his guard. The rest he left to be brought after him by Hydarnes. (Herod. l. 8. c. 114,115,118.)

1136. The army which he left behind with Mardonius was first hit by famine then a pestilence. So many died that the highways lay strewn with the dead carcases of them. Both birds and beasts of prey followed the army by the smell whereever they went. (Herod. l. 8. c. 115. Justin l. 2. c. 13.)

1137. In Asia, the Archaeanactidae held the kingdom of Bosphorus Cimmerius for 40 years (Diod. Sic. l. 12.) in the 3rd year of the 85th Olympiad. These had their beginning from Archaeanacres of Mitylene whom are said to have built Sigaeum with the stones dug from the ruins of Troy. (Strabo. l. 13.)

3525a AM, 4234 JP, 480 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:16:44 AM
 1138. After 45 days, Xerxes came to the Hellespont. (Herod. l. 8. c. 115.) Emil. Probus states it was less time than that in his "Life of Themistocles". He says:

``that upon the way that he took six months in going into Europe, on the same way out, he spent less than 30 days returning to Asia.''

1139. When Xerxes found his bridge smashed by the winter storms, out of fear he crossed in a small fishing boat.

``And truly it was a thing worth the sight and a rare example of human frailty and change of things in this world to see him lie sulking in a small boat. A little before the whole sea seemed too little to contain him. He was destitute of a page to wait upon him whose army the very earth seemed to groan for the burden of it.'' (Justin l. 2. c. 13.)

1140. When the army which followed him under the command of Hydarves found the bridge smashed, they crossed over in boats to Abydus. On the other side they found much more food than they had on their way. They gorged themselves with food and with change of water, they died by the score. The rest accompanied Xerxes to Sardis. (Herod. l. 8. c. 117.)

1141. While Xerxes was on the way to Sardis, he sent Megabyzus to destroy the temple of Delphi. When he desired to be excused, Mattacus an eunuch did the task and returned to Xerxes. (Ctesius.)

1142. When the news came to Susa by the couriers who were sent that Xerxes had taken Athens, the Persians were so happy that they strewed all the streets with myrtle boughs and burnt frankincense in them. They set themselves wholly to sacrificing and feasting. When the news of his defeat at Salamis came, their attitude changed so that every man rent his garments and filled all places with howlings and lamentations. (Herod. l. 8. c. 99.) Ischylus described this turn of affairs in his "Life in Persia."

1143. When the remaining fleet and sailors had ferried the army from Chersonesus to Abydus, they wintered at Cuma in Eolia, (Herod. l. 8. c. 130.)

1144. Artabazus the son of Pharnabazus accompanied Xerxes with 60,000 soldiers to Hellespont. When he saw that he was safely landed in Asia, he returned and stayed near Pallene after Mardonius had wintered in Macedonia and Thessalia and had not looked after the rest of the army. While Artabazus stayed there, he found that the city of Pntidea with Pallene revolted from Persia and Olynthus was planning to. He besieged Potidea and Olynthus. When he captured Olynthus and killed all its Pottiean inhabitants, he put Critobulus of Torona, a Chalcedonian, in charge of the place. (Herod. l. 8. c. 126,127.)

3525 AM, 4235 JP, 479 BC

1145. When the Persians besieged Potidea for 3 months, a huge tide of the sea broke in upon them over their trenches forcing them to lift the seige. Many perished in that flood. When others fought to swim to safety, the Potideans went in boats and knocked them on the head. Those that escaped, Artabazus took with him into Thessalia to Mardonius. (Herod. l. 8. c. 129.)

3525b AM, 4235 JP, 479 BC

1146. In the beginning of spring, the rest of the Persian fleet which had wintered at Cuma, sailed to the Isle of Samos where others of their navy had wintered. The largest part of this navy were Persian and Median sailors. They were joined shortly after by certain commanders, Mardoutes Fitz Bargeus and Attanites Fitz Artacheus. They staying there with 300 ships to keep all of Ionia from revolting. This number includes the Ionians that were with them under their command. (Herod. l. 8. c. 130.) However, Diodorus says that there were no less than 400 ships at Samos which awaited any Ionian revolt in this a year of the 75th Olympiad.

1147. The Greek fleet consisted of 110 ships under two commanders, Leotychides king of the Spartans and Xanthippus an Athenian. They sailed to Egina where messengers came to them from Ionia begging them to immediately come and relieve them in Ionia. After a while they sailed as far as to Delos. (Herod. l. 8. c. 131,132.) However, Diodorus tells us, that after thay stayed some days at Egina, they sailed to Delos with 250 ships.

3525c AM, 4235 JP, 479 BC

1148. Xerxes is said to have built both a palace and a citadel at Celene in Phrygia. (Xen, in his Expedition of Cyrus, l. 1.)

1149. Mardonius with his army came to Athens which was not yet reinhabited ten months after it was first taken by Xerxes. Whatever Xerxes left standing, he destroyed and burnt down. From there he marched into the country of Megare, which was the farthest place west that the Persians went in Greece. (Herod. l. 9. c. 3,13,14.)

3525d AM, 4235 JP, 479 BC

1150. While the Greek fleet stayed at Delos, messengers came to them from Samos, asking their help for themselves and the rest of the Greeks who lived in Asia, against the Persians. At a council of war, Leotychides the king of Sparta resolved to liberate all the Greek cities from the Persians. They entered into a league with the Samians who came with their whole fleet to Samos and stayed near the Temple of Juno. They prepared for a naval battle against the Persians. (Herod. l. 8. c. 89,91,95. Diod. Sic. l. 11.)

1151. When the commanders of the Persian navy stayed at Samos, they heard that the Greeks were coming against them. Knowing they were no match for them in a naval battle, they allowed the Phoenician ships to sail off. The rest sailed to Micale, which is a cape in Ionia where the army was. It was left there by Xerxes to keep Ionia under submission. 60000 men were under the command of Tigranes who was the tallest and most handsome man of all the Persians. Near to the temple of Ceres of Eleusis, they drew up their ships and enclosed them with a rampart which they fortified with stones and stakes and anything else they could find there. (Herod. l. 9. c. 95,96.) They sent to Sardis and the other neighbouring places for more soldiers. With these reinforcements, they had 100,000 troops. They prepared for a battle. (Diod. l. 11.)

1152. In an engagement of cavalry between the Greeks and Persians near Erythrae in Beotia, the Persian commander Masistius was killed by the Greeks. The Greeks called him Macisias. Great lamentations were made by the Persians when he died. (Herod. l. 9. c. 20,22,24. and Plutarch, in the Life of Aristide.)

1153. The Greeks under the command of Pausanias the son of Cleombrotus, routed the Persian army of 120,000 at Platea according to Ctesias. Emil. Probus, in his Pausanias, says there were 200,000 soldiers and 20,000 cavalry. Plutarch in the life of Aristides affirms, that there were no fewer than 300,000 men. To this 300,000 Herodotus adds also, about 50,000 Greek mercenaries hired by Mardonius. (Herod. l. 9. c. 31.) Diodorus Siculus, "to the 75th Olympiad", says, that Mardonius had besides the troops left by Xerxes, also from Thracia and Macedonia and other allies over 200,000 soldiers. In total he had over 500,000 in his army. Herodotus and Plutarch affirm that the Athenians had at least 8000 men. The entire Greek army numbered 100,000 men according to Diodorus Siculus, Trogus, Pompelus and Orosius or 110,000 according to Herodotus. (Herod. l. 9. c. 29.) Plutarch says the Greeks lost 1360 men in the battle. (Plutarch, in the Life of Aristides) Diod. Sic. says they lost 10,000 men.

1154. The Persian general of the entire army, Mardonius the son-in-law, (not of Xerxes, as Imil. Probus, in the life of Pausanias) of Darius who was father to Xerxes, (as I showed before in the note on 3510 AM) was slain in this battle. He was hit by a stone flung at him by Aimnestus or Arimnestus, a man of Sparta. (Herod. l. 1. c. 63.) (Plutarch in the life of Aristides) (Pausanias, l. 1.) Ctesias was incorrect when he said that he was only hurt and so escaped for a time. Later he was killed in a hail storm when he was destroying the temple of Apollo. However, Justin from Trogus and from Justin Orosius states that Mardonius, accompanied with a very small company escaped from there as from a shipwreck.

1155. When the Persian army lost their general, they fled to a fortress of theirs made of wood. The Greeks overcame it and killed over 100,000 of them. (Diodorus Siculus,) So that of the 300,000 of them, there were not left 3000 men in addition to the 40000 who fled with Artabazus. (Herod. l. 9. c. 69.)

1156. Leotychides, who commanded the Greek navy came to Mycale to liberate the Ionians from the Persians. With his own army and their help, he obtained there a most memorable victory. He slew over 30,000 Persians besides Mardontes the Persian naval commander and Tigranes the general of the army. The two other commanders of their fleet, Artayntes and Ithramitres fled. The rest that escaped fled to the tops of the cape of Mycale. (Herod. l. 9. c. 97-104.) (Diod. Sic. l. 11.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:17:15 AM
 1157. Both these fights happened near to the two temples of Ceres of Elensis on the same day of the same month. The one battle was at Platea in Europe, early in the morning and the other at Mycale in Asia later in the afternoon. The news spread swiftly far and wide that in a few hours the news of the victory at Platea came to Mycale the same day before the battle. (Herod. l. 9. c. 99, 130.) (Justin l. 2. c. 14.) However, Diod. Sic. thinks (and that more probably) that Leotychides heard nothing at all of what was done at Platea but cunningly spread such a rumour among his soldiers to encourage them. The day of these two battles (Elim. Var. Hist. l. 2. c. 25.) says, was the 6th of the month Thargeleon, the 2nd month in the spring with the Athenians. Plutarch with more wisdom says it was in the month Boedromion which was the 3rd month in summer. It was either on the 3rd day of it (in the life of Camillius and in his discourse of the glory of the Athenians,) or on the 4th. (the Life of Aristides) This battle at Micale happened in the second year after Xerxes' first entering into Greece. (Herod. l. 7. c.80.)

1158. At this time all Ionia revolted from the Persians, (Herod. l. 9. c. 103.) together with the Eolians and their bordering Islands. (Diod. Sic. l.11.)

1159. The Greeks completely burned the Persian ships and camps. They returned to the Isle of Samos and consulted together on how to move the Ionian nation out of Asia. Diod. says they planned to move the Eolians to Greece too since they were exposed to the danger of the Persian cruelty. The Athenians feared that the Ionians, who were now an independent colony would intermix with the rest of Greece. They opposed this plan since the Ionians were also Greeks, they could count on Greece for help against the Persians. They desired that the Ionians remain in Asia. (Herod. l. 9. c. 105. Diod. l. 11. in 2nd year of 75th Olympiad.)

1160. They of Greece entered into a league with those of Samos, Chios, Lesobs and the other islands who had joined in this war against the Persians. They confirmed this with a solemn oath to last for ever. They sailed in a group towards Hellespont and on their way came to anchor first at a cape called Lectium. When an opposing wind changed to a favourable one, they passed on to Abydus. When they found the bridges there already broken down which they intended to destroy, Leotychides with his men of Peloponesus returned home. The Athenians under Xanthippus and (as Thucidides says) with their allies from Ionia and Hellespont who had revolted against the Persians, journeyed from Abydus to Chersonesus and there besieged Sestos. Artayctes, a Persian, was a wicked man whom Xerxes had made governor of that province. The town was surrounded by the strongest wall of any other towns in the area. Ocbasus a Persian, who had stored the cables used in the construction of the bridges at Cardia, left that place and came to Sestos also. (Herod. l. 9. c. 105, 113-115.)

1161. Artabuzus the son of Pharnaces, with 40000 men who fled from the battle at Plataea, travelled quickly through the countries of Phocis, Thessalie, and Macedonia, to Thracia. They took the shortest overland route to Byzantium. Many men were left behind in his march. Some were killed by the Thracians, some of hunger and some from the journey. When he arrived at Byzantium, he crossed over to Asia by ship. (Herod. l. 9. c. 65. 69, 76, 88.)

1162. Those who had saved thmselves in the top of the rock at the cape of Micale, retreated to Sardis where Xerxes still was. On that journey Masystes, one of the sons of Darius Hystaspes, had charged Artayntes one of the chief commanders of the fleet at Mycale with cowardess. When Artayntes attacked him with his sword, Xenagoras of Halicarnassus stepped in and stopped the fight and saved Masystes from that attack. For so saving Xerxes' brother's life, he was made governor of Cilicia. (Herod. l. 9. c. 107.)

1163. While Xerxes spent his time at Sardis, he there fell in love with his brother Masystes' wife. When he could not seduce her, he married her daughter Artaynta to his own son Darius hoping to get his will of her the more easily by this act. When the wedding was over, he returned to Susa, (Herod. l. 9. c. 108.) leaving part of his army at Sardis to continue the war against the Greeks. (Diod. Sic. In 2nd year of 75th Olympiad.)

3526 AM, 4236 JP, 478 BC

1164. In his flight, Xerxes burnt the Oracle of Apollo Didymeus, in Branchis, as he did all the other temples in Asia except at Ephesus. After those of Branchis handed over the treasury of their god, they all went along with him, fearing that if they stayed behind, they would have been punished for sacrilege and treason. (Strabo. l. 14. with Solinus c. 40.) Herodotus says that Xerxes left Sardis and went to Susa but Diodorus says he went to Ecbatane. Ctesias writes that he went from Babylon to Persia. Arrian in his book of Alexanders' Acts, affirms that after he came to Babylon, he demolished the temple of Belus and all other consecrated places including the Sepulchre of Belus. Strabo (l. 16.) says that he took away the statue of Belus made of solid gold twelve cubits high. When the priests opposed it and would not allow it to be removed, he slew them. (Herod. l. 1. c. 183.)

1165. While the Athenians besieged Sestos, the autumn was approaching and they had still not taken it and planned to abandon the seige. However, the people within were so driven with famine that they were boiling their bedcords for food. Artayctes and Oebasus with many of the Persians climbed over the walls by night and fled. When the inhabitants knew this early the next morning, they surrendered to the Athenians. (Herod. l. 9. c. 116, 117.)

1166. A great number of prisoners were taken at Sestos and Byzantium by the Athenians and their confederates in the army. The confederates of their own accord, offered to refer the division of the prey to Cimon, a young Athenian gentleman. He set all the persons on the one hand and all the clothes and ornaments which they wore on the other. He gave them first choice saying the Athenians would take what was left. Herophytus of Samos persuded them to take the clothes and ornaments instead of the people. Later, the friends and kinsmen of the prisoners, came from Phrygia and Lydia and redeemed those prisoners at a high price. With the money, Cimon maintained the fleet four whole months and brought much silver and gold into the treasury at Athens. This act gave him a reputation of wisdom with the Athenians. They received so much money by the bargain, they laughed at their fellows who had formerly laughed at them. (Plutarch in the Life of Cimon and Polyanus, l. 1. Straug.)

1167. When Oebasus had escaped into Thracia, the Thracians, called Absynthii, captured him and sacrificed him to their god Plestorus. His companions were killed by various ways. Artayntes and his followers were captured at Egos Potamus and carried prisoner to Sestos. By the sea side, where Xerxes had made his bridge, or as others say, on a hill near the city Madytus, there they set up gibbets and hung them there after they stoned his own son to death before his eyes. When this was done, the Athenians returned into Greece. In addition to the money, they took the cables and ornaments of the bridges, which were made over the Hellespont. They planned to hang them as trophies in their temples. (Herod. l. 9. c. 118-120.) Xanthippus left a garrison in Sestos and dismissed all strangers. He with his own companies returned to Athens. So the war of the Medes, as they call it, came to an end after it had lasted a full two years. (Diod. Sic. l. 11. in the 75th Olympiad.)

3526 AM, 4236 JP, 478 BC

1168. Bagapates the eunuch died after he had sat by the tomb of Darius for 7 years. (Ctesias)

1169. Megabysus accused his wife Amyris, Xerxes' daughter, of adultery. She very sharply blamed his daughter for it. (Ctesias) All the while, he committed both adultery and incest. Xerxes turned his lewd affection from his brother Masystes' wife, to their daughter Artaynta, whom he had now made his own daughter-in-law. He lay with her continually at Susa. (Herod. l. 9. c. 107,108.)

3527 AM, 4237 JP, 477 BC

1170. Pausanias the son of Cleombrotus was sent as general of the Greeks from Lacedemonia to free the Greek cities that were still held by the the Persians. He had 20 ships from Peloponesus and 30 more from Athens (Diodor. says 50 ships) commanded by Aristides. They sailed to Cyprus and liberated many cities held by Persians. (Thucid. l. 1. Diodor, Sic. in the 4th year of the 75th Olympiad.)

1171. When Xerxes was celebrating his coronation day, he gave his queen Ametris any wish she wanted. She asked for Masystes' wife, Xerxes brother. She had her breasts, nose, ears, lips and tongue cut off and so sent her home again. Masystes conspired with his own children to steal away to the province of Bactria. He wanted to make himself governor and incite Bactria and the Saca to rebel against the king. He was intercepted on the way by Xerxes' soldiers and he, his children and all that were in his company were killed. (Herod. l. 9. c. 108-112.) The governmant of Bactria was given to Hystaspes, the son of Xerxes. (Diod. Sic. in the 4th year of the 78th Olympiad.)

3528 AM, 4238 JP, 476 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:17:48 AM
 1172. When Pausanias returned from Cyprus, he captured Byzantium. On his own authority, he sent the Persians whom he had captured (some were close friends and kinsmen of Xerxes) home safely to Xerxes. He let on that they had escaped. All this business was negotiated by Gongylus an Eretrian. He also used him to carry letters to Xerxes that expressed his desire to marry Xerxes' daughter. In return he promised to bring Sparta and all Greece, under his subjection. Xerxes was glad for this news. He replied to him by Artabazus the son of Pharnaces. He said it would be easier to communicate his counsels with Pausanias when they were closer. Therefore he gave him the government of the province of Daseylis and recalled Magabates who was governor there before. With these hopes, Pausanias grew more insolent than before and began to live like a Persian and behaved imperiosly towards those who were in league with that state. Most of them, especially the Ionians and others who had been recenty liberated from their slavery under the Persians, defected to the Athenians and desired to serve under them. (Thucid. l. 1.)

3529 AM, 4239 JP, 475 BC

1173. When Pausanias was accused by the Spartans, he was recalled from Byzantium. He was found guilty and condemned for some small misdemeanours but acquitted of treason against the state. Nevertheless, he was removed from the government of Hellespont. On his own without asking permission he hired a ship under the pretence of aiding in the war effort for the Greeks in those parts. He wanted to advance his own interests with Xerxes. When the Athenians would not allow him to stay in Byzantium, he returned not to Sparta but stayed at Colonae in Troas. He was again accused at Sparta that he consorted with the Persians and that he was up to no good while he was in those parts. When he was accused at Sparta, he was sent for again by the Ephori. When he arrived, they threw him into prison but after a hearing he was acquitted again. (Thucid. l. 1.)

3530 AM, 4240 JP, 474 BC

1174. In Greece because of the hatred to Pausanias, the common dislike of the Lacedemonians was transferred to the Athenians. Under a pretence of revenging the wrong done to the various countries by the common enemy, the Athenians made a tax of money and ships that each city should contribute against the Persians. The cities in Greece and the Greek cites in Asia readily agreed to this for the common safety of all. The first tax amounted to 460 (not as Diodorus has it, 560) talents. It was stored in the Isle of Delos which was the common treasury of all Greece. (Thucid, l. 1. Diod. l. 11. Justin l. 16. c. 3. Plutarch and Emil. Probus, in the life of Aristides.)

1175. When Pausanias was exposed by Argilius, his homosexual lover, to whom he had committed his last letters to be sent to Artabazus, the Ephori starved him to death. (Thusic. l. 1. Diod. l. 11. Emil. Prob. in the Life of Pausanias.)

3531 AM, 4241 JP, 473 BC

1176. Artabazus, an Hyrcanian, was captain of the guard and was most trusted and had more authority with Xerxes, as his father Artasyras had previously with Darius. He conspired with Mithridares an eunuch, chamberlain to the king, (Cresias calls him Spamitres of Aspamiters) who was his close friend and kinsman. He was let into the bedchamber with his seven young robust sons at night and they slew Xerxes as he lay in his bed. In the middle of the night they went speedily to Artaxerxes and told him that Darius, (who was the eldest of the three sons of Xerxes) had killed his father so he would be king sooner. (Elian. l. 13. c. 3. relates this as if it were indeed the truth) By this lie, he persuaded Artaxerxes to have the king's guard kill his brother Darius. (Ctesias, Diod. Justin l. 3. c. 1.)

1177. By Artabanus' plot, Artaxerxes was the next king. (Ctesias) He was a man of a mild disposition and full of magnanimity to all. He was surnamed Longimanus because his right hand was longer than his left. (Plutarch in the beginning of the life of Artaxerxes.) The 7 first months of his reign are attributed to Artabanus. (Euseb. in his Chron.) It seems for that period of time, he ruled all things in Artaxerxes' name. Diodorus intimates that Artabanus was presently executed for his murder of Xerxes and Darius. Yet there was some time elapsed before this happened as appears by the more complete accounts of this by Ctesias and Justin.

3531 AM, 4241 JP, 473 BC

1178. Themistocles of Athens was suspected of the conspiracy with Pausanias for the betraying of Greece into the hands of the Persians. They searched for him and had they found him they would have killed him. Therefore he fled from Greece and came to Pydna, a town beside the Thermaic Bay of Macedonia. There he found a merchant ship going into Ionia and went aboard. A tempest carried the ship into the middle of the Athenian forces which besieged Naxos. The captain of the ship who was well paid by Themistocles, lay a whole night and a day at anchor beyond the Athenian fleet. When the tempest was over, he came safely to Ephesus. (Thucid. l. 1. Emil. Prob. in the life of Themistocles. Polyan. l. 1. Stratag.) Plutarch reports that he came to Cuma and found many sea captains wanting to capture him, especially Ergoteles and Theodorus. Xerxes had promised 200 talents to whoever would bring him his head. Therefore, he quietly left the area and came to a little town called Etas in Eolia. He hid for a few days in the house of one Nicogenes, a very wealthy man in those parts who was very familiar with several of the king's most trusted attendants. Diodorus calls him Lysitheis and says further, that he was a man of so very great wealth that when Xerxes passed that way he feasted both him and all his army in a very magnificent manner. By this good host's means, he was put into a covered wagon, such as the kings and other great men's harlots used among the Persians. He came safely into Persia according to both Plutarch and Thucidides. However, Thucidides only says, that he went the way from the sea side into Persia in the company of a certain Persian. Herodotus tells us that from Ephesus to Sardis is a 3 day's journey and from there to Susa, 3 months. (Herod. l. 5. c. 50,53,54.)

1179. Artabanus planned to kill Artaxerxes, as he had done to his father and brother. He told his plan to Megabyzus, whom he knew to be unhappy for the jealousy of his wife's supposed unfaithfulness. She was Amytis the sister to Artaxerxes. They swore secrecy to each other, but Megabysus presently went and disclosed the matter to the king who put Artabanus to death. Then also came to light, his hand in the death of Xerxes and his son Darius. Aspamitres, or Spamitres the eunuch, who was involved with him in this, was cruelly executed by certain racks and other engines in a boat. (This is described more fully by Plutarch, in the life of Artaxerxes) (Ctesias.) For Megabysus, Justin puts Becabasus, as consort with Artabanus in this plot and sets out the manner of Artabanus' death thusly:

``Artaxerxes, fearing the number of Artabanus' children, commanded all the army to be ready in the field the next day. He planned to review his troops, the number of them and also how every man could stand to his arms. When Artbanus was there present in his armour, Artaxerxes said, that his own armour was a little short for him and that he would change with Artabanus. When Artabanus at the command of the king, had taken off his armour, Artaxerxes ran his naked body through with his sword,''

1180. From the size of his armour, we may learn that Artaxerxes, was not at this time a child as Justin claims, but that he was a man and old enough that the Scripture tells us, that in the 7th year of his kingdom, he was a father of several sons. Ezr 7:23

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:18:14 AM
 1181. After Artabanus' death, there was a battle fought between his friends and the other Persians in which three of his sons were slain. Megabysus on the Persian side was seriously wounded. This grieved Artaxerxes, his sisters, Amytis the wife of Megabysus' wife and Rhodogyne and his mother Amestris. Megabyzus recovered due to the great skill of Apollonis, a doctor from the Isle of Coos. After this Bactria revolted from Artaxerxes and a different Artabanus was made governor there. Between Artabanus and them a field was selected where they parted on even terms. (Ctesias) Yet those words in the Greek are ambiguous. For either it may be meant, as I have here expressed it, according to the interpretation of it made by Hen. Stephanus. He says that there was another Artabanus made governor of Bactria instead of the former, or that there was at this time another Artabanus who was governor of that province not the same person whom the king killed. If we take the latter sense, then this revolt of the Bactrians must refer to a later time but if the first, then to the present time. For at this time, Hystaspes, Xerxes' son, was governor of Bactria according to Diodor. Sic. He was the middle brother between Darius and Artaxerxes according to Ctesias. It seems reasonable that when Hystaspes saw his younger brother Artaxerxes preferred before him in the kingdom, he would incite not only the Bactrians whom he governed but also all his other friends, to recover his right of the kingdom.

1182. Eusebius in his Chron. notes, that in the 4th year of this 76th Olympiad, (upon which we now are) Themistocles fled to the Persians. This agrees with the account of Thucidides. He places the coming of Themistocles to Artaxerxes, between the siege of Naxos and that famous victory over the Persians at the mouth of the river Eurymedon by Cimon the Athenian. He makes the beginning of the reign of Artaxerxes to happen at the same time for he says that Themistocles sent letters to Artaxerxes when he was recently crowned king. He desired his favour and offered him his service against the Greeks. From this we may fully discern that the true beginning of Artaxerxes' reign was almost a full nine years earlier than it is commonly said to have been.

(Since this was written in 1650 new evidence has been found confirming Ussher's date.

``The date commonly given for this is B.C. 445; but Ussher gave 454, and Hengstenberg and others contend that this is the true date. Hengstenberg shows in his "Christiology" how the mistake arose. Vitringa rectified the date, and Krüger, by independent enquiry, also proved the old date was wrong. Some hieroglyphic inscriptions in Egypt have shown that Artaxerxes was associated with his father in the twelfth year of the reign of Xerxes, and this information confirms the date given by Ussher and others.'' (article Seventy Weeks, p. 708, Concise Bible Dictionary, Bible Truth Publishers, 59 Industrial Road, Addison, Illinois, 60101)

Ussher correctly identifies the starting date for Artaxerxes reign at 473 BC. From this we can correctly calculate the start of Daniels 70 weeks of years. Those who use the date of 464 BC are forced to bend the Bible to fit with this incorrect date. One of the most common methods is to fudge the date of the death of Christ and to assume the that a prophetic year was only 360 days long. Nowhere does the Bible state this and at no time in recorded history did any people use a year of exactly 360 days. This is merely another attempt to bend the Bible to fit the opinions of men. The start of Artaxerxes reign is confirmed by three authorities, the Bible, Eusebius in his Chronicles and by Thucidides who was born about 4 years after this time. A threefold cord is not easily broken. Editor.)

1183. Plutarch from Phanias reports that Themistocles was brought into Artaxerxes favour by Artabanus, a colonel. According to Eratosthenes, he obtained this favour from the colonel by the means of his harlot who was from Eretria. He does not explain which Artabanus this was, whether he was the one slain by Artaxerxes or that Artabanus that Xerxes entrusted government of his kingdom 7 years earlier when he went to Greece. For if he meant the first, then Themistocles must have come to Artaxerxes within the first 7 months of being crowned king according to Euseb. If someone else then the time he came to the king might have happened in any other month of that year. This would agree well with Thucidides, where he says:

``he was brought to Artaxerxes, when he was newly crowned king.''

1184. If was the right of the office of the colonel or chiliarch, being the second officer in the kingdom, to bring those who were to be admitted into the presence of the king. (Emilius Probus, in the life of Conon) (Elian, l. 1.) (Vartius Histor. c. 21.)

1185. When Themistocles was thus graciously received by the king, a new danger presented itself. Mandane a daughter of Darius Hystaspes, lost all her children in the naval battle before Salamis. She sought revenge upon Themistocles for this. When she could not prevail with the king, or her friends and great men in the court, she stirred up the common people. When they all rushed into the court, Artaxerxes told them fairly, that he would refer the whole matter to the judgment of his lords. So by appointing a time for a hearing, he saved Themistocles from the people's hands. (Diod. Sic. l. 11.)

3532 AM, 4242 JP, 472 BC

1186. In the second battle, a strong wind in their favour helped the Persians defeat and again subject the Bactrians to Artaxerxes. (Ctesias.)

1187. Themistocles spent a whole year in learning the Persian language, laws and customs of the country. When he came to trial, he cleared himself of all the charges and endeared himself to the king as no other Greek had done before him. Artaxerxes took him on hunting trips and had him attend his private delights and recreations at home. He was admitted to the presence of Amestris the king's mother and conversed familiarly with her. He bestowed on him also, a Persian wife of noble parentage, excellent for beauty, and goodness of disposition. He had servants to wait on him and cupboards of dishes of all sorts and all other things. These were for his needs and entertainment. (Thucidides, l. 1. Diodorus Siculus, l. 11. Plutarch in the Life of Themistocles.)

1188. When Demaratus the Lacedemonian, who returned from Greece with Xerxes, displeased the king greatly when he rode into Sardis in his chariot wearing his turban upright on his head in a way reserved only for kings. Themistocles interceded for him and Artaxerxes wrath was pacified so that they became friends again. (Plutarch in Them. with Seneca l. 6. de Benesi c. 31.)

1189. When Themistocles was made governor of the province of Magnesia, he returned into Asia. (Thucid. l. 1.)

1190. On his return, he escaped an ambush planned by Epyxius, a Persian governor of the Upper Phrygia and the Pisidians. He was warned in a dream of it by Dinaymena, the mother of the gods when he was resting at noon. As a memorial, he built her a temple at Magnesia and made his own daughter Muesiptolema to be a consecrated priestess to her. (Plutarch in Themistocles) Some say it was his wife. (Strabo, l. 14.)

1191. So that Themistocles might appear in Asia with the greater honour, the king gave him besides the government of the province of Magnesia, the very city of Magnesia on the Meander River. This city paid the king yearly fifty talents. This paid the food for his table. Lampsacus in Hellespont supplied him with money to buy him wine for his meal. Myus, at the mouth of Meander paid for his second course. Neanthes Cyzioenus and Phanias and Atheneus, (l. 1. c. 27.) listed two more cities in the country of Troas, that is Percotes and Palescepsis to supply him with clothes and carpets. (Thucid. 1. Diod. l. 11. Plut. and Emil. Prob. in the life of Themistocles.)

3533 AM, 4243 JP, 471 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:18:43 AM
 1192. Cimon the son of Miltiades, who was general in the battle at Marathon, was now made general by the Athenians against the Persians. He set out from the Pyreum at Athens with 200 fighting ships bound for Caria. Ships from Ionia and other parts joined him to increase the size of the fleet to 300 ships. The coastal towns which were founded by the Greeks revolted from the Persians to him. The rest which were inhabited by the natives of the country and held by the Persian garrisons, he attacked and conquered. When he finished his work in Caria, he sailed into Lycia and did in like manner there. When they submitted to the Athenian government, he demanded ships of them and greatly increased his navy. (Diod. l. 11.)

1193. The Persians conscripted into the army what men they could from the other dominions of the kings. For naval forces, they sent to the Phoenicians, Cyprians and Cilians. The chief commander of all the Persian fleet was Tithraustes, a bastard son of Xerxes. (Diod. l. 11) Ephorus says that he was admiral of the fleet and Pherendates commander by land. Callisthenes says that Ariomandes the son of Gobryas commanded the army. (Plut. in Cimone.)

3534 AM, 4244 JP, 470 BC

1194. After the Athenians had subdued Naxos, (Thucidides, l. 1.) they and their confederates under the conduct of their general Cimon, in only one day, defeated the Persians both in a naval battle sea-fight not far from the Isle of Cyprus and also in a battle on land at the mouth of the river Eurymedon in Pamphylia. This was in the 3rd year of the 77th Olympiad. (Diod. Sic. l. 11.) He was of the opinion, (and so was Justin, l. 2. in sine,) that Xerxes was yet living contrary to what Thucidides states, who of these lived closest to that time. Therefore Eusebius is right when he says this great victory was in the 4th year of Artaxerxes. He also notes:

``Cimon obtained this victory by sea and land against the Persians, near the River Eurymedon and so the war with the Medes ended.''

1195. For from the beginning of Artaxerxes' reign (as we have put it according to Thucidedes' account) his 4th year was the same as the 3rd year of the 77th Olympiad mentioned here by Diodorus. Eusebius puts the first year of his reign with the first year of the 79th Olympiad. Hence he must of necessity have placed his 4th year with the 4th year of the same Olympiad. The best way is to set down this whole matter in the same order as we find it in Diodor and Plutarch, thusly.

1196. When Cimon had heard that the king's captains had taken up their station with a great army by land and a fleet by sea in the coast of Pamphylia, he stayed at sea so that they might not come within the Chelidonian Islands. He went with 200 ships from Cnidus and Triopium to the Greek city of Phaselites. When they would not allow his navy into their port nor defect from the Persians, he burned their country and assaulted their city. Nevertheless, at the intercession of those of Chios, who were in the fleet, peace was made on the condition that they should pay ten talents and follow Cimon in the war against the Persians. (Plut. in the life of Cimon.)

1197. When Cimon understood that the Persian fleet sailed about the coast of Cyprus, he presently set sail towards them with 250 ships against 340 of theirs. (Diod. Sic.) Though Ephorus says that the Persians were 350 and Phanodemus 600 strong. Yet these did nothing worthy of so great a navy. They that were next to the land abandoned their ships and fled to land to the army that was arranged in battle array there. The rest were attacked by Cimon, taken and killed. (Plutarch) Thucidides says that they took all 200 of the Phoenician ships and sank them. Emil. Probus (in the life of Cimon) says that he overcame and took all the fleet of the Cyprians and Phoenicians to the number of 200 ships. Diodorus states that the Athenians sank many of their ships and took 100 ships with their crew as prisoners. When the soldiers were fled from the ships into Cyprus, they took those ships without any prisoners. These verses recall this victory which the Athenians made and offered to their god. They are found both in Diodorus and also in Aristides' Platonic Oration.

For these when soldiers all were killed at land,
An hundred ships of the Phoenicians took,
All full of men.

1198. Plutarch in his little discourse of the Athenian glory, says that Cimon brought from Eurymedon about 100 Phoenician ships of war. Diodorus affirms that he took not only more than 100 but also 340 ships, that is, the whole Persian navy and 20,000 men.

1199. Cimon was not satisfied with this victory at sea. He attacked the land army of the Persians in Asia which he saw ranged on the shore near the mouth of the river Eurymedon. To better achieve victory, he dressed all his soldiers in the Persian clothes which he had taken. The Persians thought these were their navy and welcomed them. Therefore, Cimon, as soon as it was night, (and it was very dark without the moon shining) landed his men. They attacked the enemies camp and killed all they met. Pherendates, one of the two chief commanders and the king's brother's son was killed as he lay in his pavilion. The enemy was soon put to flight. (Diodorus) Commenting on this stratagem, Polyenus, (l. 1.) mentions but mistakenly says that Cimon landed his men in Cyprus and not in Pamphilia. Likewise does Julius Frontinus, in the end of his 4th book, where Conon is found written instead of Cimon.

1200. Cimon captured 80 Phoenician ships near Hydus which were not in the battle nor had even heard of it.

3535 AM, 4245 JP, 469 BC

1201. Cimon sailed from Athens with 4 ships and captured 13 Persian ships in the Chersonese of Thracia. He expelled the Persians and Thracians and took possession of the place for the Athenians. In all Asia from Ionia to Pamphylia, the Persian army was driven out. (Plut. in the Life of Cimon.) Pericles assumed the leadership of Athens. He set out with 50 ships and Ephialtes with 30 more. They sailed beyond the Chelidonian Islands in the sea of Pamphylia, never saw a Persian ship all the way, according to Plutarch from Calisthenes. Isocrates, in his Panathenaic, says, that neither a Persian war ship went closer to Greece than the port Phaselis nor any company of them by land crossed over the river Halys. However, Diod. writes that when the Persians saw the increase of the Athenian power, they started building ships faster than ever.

3537b AM, 4247 JP, 467 BC

1202. Ezra the priest, a scribe or a lawyer skilled in the law of Moses, obtained permission from Artaxerxes the king and his seven counsellors to resettle the Jewish state and to reform the religion at Jerusalem. By this grant, it was again made lawful for all the willing Jews to return. They could send or carry with them any gold or silver that either the king and his nobles or the Jews would offer to their God. There were also thereby given all sorts of furnishings for the Lord's house. The treasurers beyond the river were ordered to supply them with all other needs from the king's treasury. All who worked in the temple would be free from tribute. All the people were allowed to live according to their own laws. Ezr 7:11-26

3537c AM, 4247 JP, 467 BC

1203. In the 7th year of Artaxerxes, the first day of the first month, Ezra, with a great number of Jews, left Babylon for Israel. Ezr 7:6,7,9 8:1-14,30

3537d AM, 4247 JP, 467 BC

1204. On the 12th day of the 1st month, they left from the river Ahava and on the 10th day of the 5th month, in the 7th year of Artaxerxes' reign, they arrived at Jerusalem. They rested there for 3 days. Ezr 7:8,9 8:30,32

1205. On the 4th day of the 5th month, the gold and silver which they had brought was weighed and with the other furnishings, were put in the house of the Lord. Those who returned offered their sacrifices to God. When this was done, the king's edicts were given to the governors and rulers beyond the river who showed much favour to the people and the house of the Lord. Ezr 8:33-36

3538a AM, 4247 JP, 467 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:19:14 AM
 1206. When Ezra knew that the Israelites had intermarried with the heathen he mourned and fasted. He publicly made intersession to God, to avert his wrath on them. Ezr 9:1-15 When many of the people sorrowed for this, Shecaniah advised Ezra to direct the people that they would vow to God to put away their heathen wives and the children whom they had by them. This was done. Ezr 10:1-17

1207. Those who returned from captivity, were ordered to appear at Jerusalem within 3 days. Those that did not would be punished. Therefore all the men of Judah and Benjamin gathered in the court of the temple, on the 20th day of the 9th month. They trembled over the seriousness of the matter and because of the inclement weather. Ezra commanded every male to separate himself from his heathen wife. This they agreed to and desired that judges might be appointed to see that the orders were followed. Two priests and two Levites were appointed to help carry this out. Ezr 10:7-15

3538b AM, 4248 JP, 466 BC

1208. This examination was held from the 1st day of the 10th month to the 1st of the 1st month. In two months the matter of the heathen wives was settled. Ezr 10:16,17

3538d AM, 4248 JP, 466 BC

1209. Themistocles died a natural death at Magnesia. Others say he poisoned himself voluntarily when he saw that he could not subdue Greece as he had promised the king. (Thuc. l. 1.) Cicero says in his Laelius, that he killed himself 20 years after the death of Coriolan. According to Dionysius Halicarnassaeus, that would be in the 3rd year of the 78th Olympiad. That year has this note by Eusebius in his Chron.

``Themistocles, whom his own worth had made the conqueror, his own country's wrong made him the general of the Persians. However, so that he might keep himself from attacking it, he appointed a sacrifice at which he drank a bowl full of the bull's blood. Hence he fell as a noble sacrifice of piety, dead before the altar. So memorable was his departure from this life that it had this effect that Greece would never need another Themistocles after him.''

1210. Concerning his death, Tully in his Burtus, makes Pompo Atticus to state it this way:

``For as you now tell us a tale of Coriolan, so Clitarchus and Stratocles do the same of Themistocles. Thucidides, who was an Athenian of noble rank and an excellent man, lived not long after him. He says only that he died and that he was buried privately in some place in Attica and that there was some suspicion that he poisoned himself. Concerning him these men write that when he had sacrificed a bull, he drank the blood of it in a basin and died in that place:''

1211. Though indeed before the writing of this History by Thucidides, the Athenians themselves had heard it from Aristophanes, in Equitibus. He wrote this in Athens the 7th year of the Peloponesian war, when Stratocles was ruler of Athens. He states that Themistocles died from the drinking of bull's blood.

3540a AM, 4249 JP, 465 BC

1212. The 20th Jubilee.

3544 AM, 4254 JP, 460 BC

1213. Inaros, the son of Psammericus king of Libya (not a Lydian as Ctesias has it) journeyed from Marca a city bordering on Pharus caused much of Egypt to defect from Artaxerxes. He was proclaimed king by them and sent for the Athenians at Cyprus. These were engaged in a war with 200 ships, some of their own and the rest from their allies. (Thusid. l. 1.)

1214. When Artaxerxes heard of the Egyptian revolt, he gathered an army and a navy from all his dominions. He spared no pains nor cost in doing this. (Diodorus Siculus, 2nd year, 79th Olympiad) This is 2 years earlier than the more precise account given by Thucidides.

1215. Artaxerxes planned to head this army into Egypt but his friends persuaded him otherwise. He sent his brother Achemenes to head that expedition with 400,000 soldiers and 80 ships. (Ctesius) Diodorus agrees with him that he sent Achemenes as general in this Egyptian war but he says that he was the son of Darius and Artxerxes was his great uncle and he had only 300,000 troops. He means by this that it was Achemenes the son of Darius Hystaspis and Atossa, to whom Xerxes had given the government of Egypt after Xerxes had conquered it. (Herod. l. 7. c. 7, 97.)

3545 AM, 4255 JP, 459 BC

1216. When Achemenes (also called Achemenides) came into Egypt, he refreshed his army at the Nile River after the long march and prepared for battle. Those on the other side gathered what forces they could from Egypt and Libya and waited for the Athenians to arrive. (Diod. Sic.)

1217. The Athenians came from sea and entering the mouth of the Nile. They quickly made themselves masters of the river. (Thucid.) Inaros, together with Charamitis, who was admiral of a fleet of 40 Athenian ships defeated the Persians. Of the 50 Persian ships, they took 20 with all their men and sank the other 30. (Ctesias) But Diodorus Siculus tells us, that the entire Athenian fleet of 200 ships at Cyprus came to Egypt, not 40 ships only, as Ctesias said.

1218. Inaros with his own Egyptian troops and Athenian reinforcements, fought a battle with the Persians on land. By their sheer numbers, the Persians were winning. When the Athenians came and forced their one wing of troops to retire, many Persians were killed. The rest of the Persian army fled and many were slaughtered. (Diodor.) Of the 400,000 men who Achemenes brought into the battle, he and 100,000 of his troops were killed. He died of a wound which he received from Inaros' own hand and his body was sent to Artaxerxes. (Ctesias) Herodotus mentions (Herod. l. 3. c. 12. l. 7. c. 7.) that Achamenes a son of Darius and of other Persians were slain by Inaros a Libyan, son of Psammitichus at Papremes.

1219. The Athenians routed the Persians and took two thirds of Memphis. They attacked the other part called the White Wall, where the Persians and Medes had fled. (Thucid. and Diod.)

3546 AM, 4256 JP, 458 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:19:47 AM
 1220. When Artaxerxes heard of this great defeat, he sent Megabasus a Persian to Sparta with money to pay the Peloponesians to attack the Athenians. He thought that this would draw the Athenians from Egypt. The Lacedemonians would not take his money nor yield to any of his plans. When the king realised this, he called Megabazus home again with the money that was left. He commanded Megabyzus, the son of Zopyrus to make provisions to go to Egypt. (Thucid. and Diod.) Megabysus was formerly a general in Xerxes' army. (Herod. l. 7. c. 82.) He married Xerxes' daughter, Amytis. (Ctesias) He was the son of Zopyrus who recovered Babylon for Darius, the son of Hystaspes, according to Herodotus at the very end of his third book.

3547 AM, 4257 JP, 457 BC

1221. Artabazus and Megabyzus were made commanders for the war in Egypt. They had an army of 300,000 troops. (Diod.) Ctesias says they only had 200,000.

1222. When they came into Cilicia and Phoenicia, the commanders stayed for a time to allow the army a rest after so long a march. Meanwhile, they ordered the Cilicians, Cyprians and Phoenicians to provide the navy. They of Thrice provided 300 ships, fully manned and equipped for war. (Diod.) Oriscus was the admiral of the fleet. (Ctesias.)

1223. They spent almost a whole year in training the troops for war. The Athenians continued to besiege the fort of the White Wall in Memphis. The Persians manfully defended it and the Athenians saw no possibility of taking it by a direct attack. However, they besieged it for all this year. (Diod.)

3548 AM, 4258 JP, 456 BC

1224. When the Persian commanders in Asia had trained their troops, they marched from there through Syria and Phoenicia. Their navy of 300 ships sailed along the coast as they went. When they came to Memphis, (Diod.) their army of 200,000 was joined by 300,000 troops left by Achemenes in Egypt. They fought a fierce battle with the Egyptians and many died on each side. More Egyptians were killed than Persians. Megabyzus wounded Inaros in the thigh who fled into the stronghold, called Byblus, on the Isle of Prosopitis in the river of Nile. He was joined by the surviving Greeks but the Greek general Charamites was killed in this battle. All Egypt except that fort of Byblus defected to Megabysus.(Ctesias.)

1225. When Megabysus had driven both Egyptians and Greeks from the field of battle and out of Memphis, he besieged them in the little Isle of Prosopitis for 18 months. (Thucid. l. 1.)

3550a AM, 4259 JP, 455 BC

1226. In the 20th year of the reign of Artaxerxes, in the 9th month called Chisleu, Nehemiah was at Susa, the winter quarters of the Persian kings. (Athenaus, Despnosoph. 12.) When he received news how the wall of Jerusalem was still broken down and the gates burnt with fire, he mourned, fasted and prayed to God. He asked that God would forgive the people's sins and give him grace in the eyes of the king. Neh 1:1-11

3550c AM, 4260 JP, 454 BC

1227. In the same 20th year of the king, in the month Nisan, Nehemiah's turn came to serve as cupbearer to the king. Both the king and queen, (whom I suppose to be her whom Ctesias calls Damaspia) noticed his sorrowful appearance. He presented his request to them and obtained permission from the king to be the governor of Judah and to rebuild Jerusalem. Neh 2:1-6 This event marks the start of Daniel's 70 weeks. Da 9:24,25 (For starting date of Artaxeres reign, see note on 3531 AM <<1190>>. Editor.)

1228. Nehemiah with a commission and supplies from the king came to Jerusalem in spite of the opposition from the governors Sanballat the Horonite of Moab and of Tobiah the Ammonite. He began the work and replied to them who laughed at him for undertaking so foolish an undertaking. Neh 2:7-20

1229. The Persian commanders in Egypt made the river dry which flowed around the Isle of Prosopitis by diverting the water into another course. This left the Athenian ships aground and joined the Isle of Prosopitis to the mainland. As soon as the Egyptians saw the Athenian ships aground, they surrendered and made peace with the Persians. When the Athenians were deserted by the Egyptians, they burned their ships so they would not fall into the hands of the enemy. The Persians crossed the dry channel and took the island. When they saw the valour of the Athenians and remembering the losses they had received by them previously, they allowed the 6000 of them to return home with their possessions. (Thucid. Diod. Ctesias.)

1230. The fortunes of the Athenians in Egypt, where they had spent 6 years in war came to naught. Egypt returned under the control of Artaxerxes except for Amyrtaeus, who was king of those who lived in the low countries of Egypt. They could not take him because of the vastness of the low country and its inhabitants were most warlike. (Thucid. l. 1.)

3550d AM, 4260 JP, 454 BC

1231. Eliashib, the son of Joiakim, the son of Jehu (or Jehoshua) the high priest and the rest of the Jews, started to build the wall of Jerusalem, Neh 3:1-32 on the 4th day of the 5th month Ab. Neh 6:15

1232. Sanballat and Tobiah with the Samaritans and other enemies of the Jews, first laughed at this new work. When they saw the wall half up, they stopped mocking and consulted how to destroy the builders. When Nehemiah knew this, he first prayed to God and then ordered his men to be ready for a battle. Thus he thwarted the plans of their enemies.Neh 4:1-23

1233. When Nehemiah heard the outcries of the people, he ordered them to be freed, the slaves from their bondage and the debtor from their debt. Those who had mortgaged their lands or goods were to be freed from their debt. He set a good example by releasing his debts and all engagements of lands or goods made to him and freed the poor of public taxes. He gave liberally to those in need. Neh 5:1-19

1234. Nehemiah was not only in danger from Sanballat and other enemies abroad but also from false prophets and false brethren at home. They tried to hinder the work as much as the others did. In spite of these difficulties, the wall was finished in 52 days, on the 25th day of the 6th month called Elul. Neh 6:1-19

1235. The dedication of the wall was performed with much celebration and great joy. Neh 12:27-43

1236. Nehemiah took care of the various offices belonging to the house of the Lord. He appointed governors over the city and ordered its guards. He called the congregation together and numbered those who had returned from the captivity. He selected a number of people to live in the city with the rest of its inhabitants. Everyone according to his ability, made their various offerings to God, Neh 7:1-73

1237. When 50 Greek ships were sent to Egypt to relieve those who were there for so long, they knew nothing of what had happened to their country men. They anchored at Mendesium which is a mouth of Nile. They were attacked by the Persians from the land and the Phoenicians by sea. Most of them were killed. A few escaped to carry news to Greece. Of that great army which was there before, only a few returned into Greece again. Most were lost as they passed through the deserts of Libya to get to Cyrene. This was the sad end which came to that great expedition of the Athenians in Egypt. (Thucid. l. 1.)

3551a AM, 4260 JP, 454 BC

1238. In the feast of trumpets, in the 1st day of the 7th month, all the Jews came together at Jerusalem. The law of God was read by Ezra and expounded to them. When they heard it, they were all greatly grieved and wept. They were encouraged by Nehemiah, Ezra and the Levites to keep that feast with joy. Neh 8:1-12

1239. On the 2nd day of the same month, the elders of the families, the priests and Levites consulted with Ezra concerning questions arising from the reading of the law. They were encouraged to keep the feast of tabernacles Neh 8:13-15 outside in the fields in booths made of boughs as stated in the law. Le 23:40

1240. On the 15th to the 21st day, the feast of Tabernacles was celebrated with great care and devotion. For 7 days together, the law of God was read and the 8th day also was kept very solemnly according to the law. Le 23:36

``Neither was there the like feast of Tabernacles kept from the days of Joshua, the son of Nun, to that time and there was great joy made.'' Neh 8:17,18

1241. Of this the Jews in their Greater Chronicle, (c. 30) speak in this manner:

``It may be said that he compares this the return of the children of Israel into the land in the days of Joshua. For as in the days of Joshua they were bound to tithes, to the year of Shemite, or Remission and to Jubilees and to the hallowing of their walled towns. So now in their return in the time of Ezra, they were in like manner obliged to keep the law of tithes of the years of Shemite or Releasings, of Jubilees and to the hallowing of their walled cities. They rejoiced greatly before the Lord.''

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:20:20 AM
 1242. On the 24th of this month, the Israelites who returned, separated themselves from all strangers, made public profession of their repentance. Neh 9:1-38 They renewed their covenant with God and bound themselves to observe the law of God, his worship, Neh 10:1-39 and the law, Le 25:4 De 15:1 of the sabbath and the sabbatical year. Neh 10:31

1243. The chief heads of the people feasted at Jerusalem. The rest cast lots, according to which every tenth man would live in Jerusalem. Neh 11:1-36 1Ch 9:1-44

3551a AM, 4260 JP, 454 BC

1244. Megabyzus left Sartamah as governor of Egypt and returned to Artaxerxes with Inaros and some other Greeks. He gave them his word that they would not be harmed. Artaxerxes carefully observed this though he was incensed against Inaros for having slain his brother Achemenes. When his mother Amestris (called Amytis by Ctesias) desired vengeance on Inaros, the Greeks and Megabyzus, the king refused her request. (Ctesias)

3554 AM, 4264 JP, 450 BC

1245. The Athenians sent Cimon their general with a fleet of 200 ships of their own and their confederates into Cyprus. 60 went to Egypt to Amyrtaeus who was still in Egypt. The rest besieged Citium, a city in Cyprus. (Thucid. l. 1.) At this time Artabazus and Megabyzus commanded the Persian forces. Artabazus had his fleet of 300 ships around Cyprus. Megabyzus with the army of 300,000 troops stayed in Cilicia. (Diod. Sic. l. 12. in the 3rd year of 82nd Olympiad)

1246. Cimon sent messengers to the oracle at the temple of Ammon to ask about some secret matter. (Plutarch in the Life of Cimon)

3555 AM, 4265 JP, 449 BC

1247. In the siege of Citium in Cyprus, (as Thucidides says) Cimon died either of a natural disease, (as Emil. Probus has it) or, as others say, of a wound which he received in battle. When he was about to die, he advised those that were about him to conceal his death and to return home as fast as they could. It happened that this secret was well kept and all the Greek army returned home safely under the conduct (as Phanedemus speaks) of Cimon who had been dead a whole month. Those who were sent to consult the oracle, received the answer that Cimon was already with him. When they returned to Egypt and they understood that Cimon died at that very time when the oracle answered them. (Plutarch in the Life of Cimon.)

1248. When the Greek army returned from Egypt, they who besieged Citium in Cyprus, were short of supplies. They lifted their siege and sailed to Salamis in the same island. Here they fought with the Phoenicians, Cyprians and Cilicians, by sea and land. In the naval battle, they sunk many enemy ships and captured a 100 with all the soldiers and sailors still in them. The rest they pursued as far as Phoenicia. The Persians with the remaining ships, fled into Cilicia where Megabyzus was with the army. The Athenians sailed there as fast as possible and landed their men on the open shore and attacked the enemy. In this fight, Anaxicrates who commanded the fleet, behaved himself most courageously and died a most noble and heroic death. They defeated the Persians and slew many of the enemy. They returned to their ships and sailed home with those returning from Egypt. (Diod. Sic. in the 3rd and 4th year of the 82nd Olympiad,) as he stands corrected from Thucidides. Elian writes that the Athenians lost in Egypt 200 ships and in Cyprus 150 with all their equipment. (Elian. Variar. Histor. l. 5. c. 10.)

1249. When Artaxerxes heard of the loss of his men in Cyprus, he sought advice from his council concerning this war. It was resolved that it was for the good of the kingdom that peace should be made with the Greeks. Therefore the king wrote letters to the captains and commanders in Cyprus that they make peace with the Greeks on any terms. Hereupon Artabazus and Megabyzus sent messengers to Athens to seek peace. When the Athenians had consented to their conditions, they sent commissioners to represent them having full power and authority. The leader of the group was Callias, the son of Hipponicus. (Diod. in the 4th year of the 82nd Olympiad.) At this time, the men of Argos sent their messengers to Susa to know if Artaxerxes would honour the league they had made with his father Xerxes, or if he considered them enemies. Artaxerxes answered that the league continued and that he considered no city more friendly to him than Argos. (Herodotus, l. 7. c. 152.)

1250. The peace between the Athenians and their confederates on the one side and the Persians on the other was concluded with these conditions:

``That no Persian governor would at any time come within three days journey of the sea and that there would be no warship from either side be found between Phaselis and the Cyantan Isles:''

1251. Or as Plutarch expresses it,

``That the king would not have any warships in all the sea between the Cyancan and the Cheldonian Islands.''

1252. When the king and his council of war had subscribed to these articles, then the Athenians took an oath that they would not invade any of the king's provinces. (Diod. in the 4th year of the 82nd Olympiad)

1253. Plutarch (in the life of Cimon) says that they built an altar in memory of this peace and that they gave many honours on Callias who had been the architect of it.

3556 AM, 4266 JP, 448 BC

1254. Artaxerxes wearied for 5 years with his mother's nagging, gave Inaros the Egyptian king and the Greeks that came with him into her hand. The queen had the body of Inaros to be so racked and stretched out and wrenched several ways. He hung on three different crosses at one time. She had the 50 Greeks (for she could catch no more) decapitated. (Ctesius) Thucidides says that Inaros king of Libya was taken by treachery and crucified. Herodotus tells us, that his son Thammyras by the favour of the Persians, held the government of Egypt which his father had held before him. (Herod. l. 3. c. 5.)

1255. Megabyzus was greatly grieved by the death of Inaros and those Greeks. He asked permission to go to his own government in Syria. He had secretly sent the rest of the Greeks there. He following them there and as soon as he came to Syria he revolted from the king and gathered an army of 150,000 men. (Ctesias)

3557 AM, 4267 JP, 447 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:20:57 AM
 1256. Osiris was sent against Megabyzus with an army of 200,000 men. In the battle, Osiris wounded Megabyzus with a dart in the thigh two inches deep. Likewise, he wounded Osiris with a dart first in the thigh and then in the shoulder. As Osiris fell from his horse, Megabyzus caught him about by the middle and saved him. Many of the Persians fell and the two sons of Megabyzus, Zopyrus and Artipsyus fought valiantly that day. Megabyzus won and carefully returned Osiris to Artaxerxes who demanded his return. (Ctesias.)

3558 AM, 4268 JP, 446 BC

1257. Another army was sent against Megabyzus. The general was Menostanes, or Menostates, son to Artarius, governor of Babylon and brother to king Artaxerxes. In the battle, Megabyzus wounded Menostanes in the shoulder and in the head. Neither of those wounds were mortal, but when it happened, he and all his army fled and Megabyzus had a most glorious victory. (Ctesias)

1258. Artarius, Artoxares the eunuch, a Paphlagonian and Amestris, the queen mother, persuaded Megabyzus to come to terms with the king. After much effort, Artarius, Amytis' wife and Artoxares, who was now 20 years of age and Petisas, the son of Osiris, prevailed with him to come to the king. When he came, the king sent him word that he freely pardoned him all his past offences. A little later when the king was hunting, a lion set upon him. When Megabyzus saw the lion raised upon his hind feet, slew him with his spear. The king was angry with him because he had done it before the king could. He commanded that Megabyzus be decapitated. The intercession of Amestris, Amyris and others, spared his life and he was sent away and confined to the island of Cirta in the Read Sea (sic). Artoxares the eunuch for having spoken too freely with the king on the behalf of Megabyzus, was banished into Armenia. (Ctesias.)

3559 AM, 4269 JP, 445 BC

1259. When Herodotus read his books at Athens before the council there, he was much honoured for them, according to Euseb. in his Chron. There Scaliger notes that Herodotus wrote his books before his going into Great Greece (Southern Italy) not in Great Greece itself as some think following Pliny on this. We shall see more in the next year. But I observe that in these books mention is made often of the Peloponesian war, both in (the 7th book c. 137. and in the 9th book c. 72.) In the former reference, a thing is related that was done in the 2nd year of that war. In the later, a thing that happened in the 19th year of it at Decelaea. This is 22 years after the time consigned by Euseb. to the reading of his book at Athens. See more on this in the year 3596 and 3597.

3560 AM, 4270 JP, 444 BC

1260. In the first year of the 84th Olympiad, when Praxiteles was the governor of Athens, 12 years before the Peloponesian war began, the Athenians sent a colony into Great Greece (Southern Italy) to rebuild the decayed city of Thurii. Lysias, a youth of 15 years of age was one of the leaders in this group (Plutarch and Dionysus Halicarnassaeus in the life of Lysians the Orator) along with Herodotus who was 41 years old. Although he was born at Halicarnassus in Caria, he obtained the surname of Thurius after this because of his part in reestablishing Thurii. (Strabo, l. 14) The 84th Olympiad happened on the 310th year from the founding of Rome, according to Varro's account. In this year Pliny says that Herodotus compiled his History in Thurii in Italy, (Pliny l. 12. c. 4.) as mentioned in the previous year.

3562 AM, 4272 JP, 442 BC

1261. In this year all wars ceased throughout Asia, Greece, Sicily, Italy, Gaul, Spain and almost the entire world. (Diod. Sic. 3rd year of the 84th Olympiad.)

1262. After Nehemiah had governed Judah for 12 years, that is from the 20th year of the reign of Artaxerxes to the 32nd of the same, he returned to the king. (Ne 5:14, 13:6)

1263. In his absence Eliashib the priest, who was over the chamber of the house of God and had made an alliance with Tobiah, prepared a room for him in the court of the temple. In this place the gifts and tithes were formerly kept. The son of Joiada, the son of Eliashib the high priest, (who was a different man from Eliashib of whom I just mentioned) became son-in-law to Sanballat the Horonite after he married his daughter. When Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem with a new commission, he quickly redressed and severely punished these and other wrong doings. (Ne 13:1-31)

3563 AM, 4273 JP, 441 BC

1264. After Megabyzus had lived 5 years in exile, he fled from the Island where he was confined and feigning himself to be a "pisagas", (i.e. leper in the Persian language and one to whom no man might approach) he came home to his wife Amytis. By her and Amestris, the king's mother, he was at last reconciled to the king. He sat at the king's table as before and died at age 76. The king grieved very much for him. (Ctesias.)

3564 AM, 4274 JP, 440 BC

1265. In this year, the Samians and Milesians went to war over the ownership of the city of Priene. This was the beginning of the 6th year, (according to Thucidides) of the 30 years of peace and the league between the Athenians and Lacedemonians. It was in the middle of the 4th year of the 84th Olympiad according to Diodorus. Priene was a city in Caria, which the Samians and Milesians each claimed. The Milesians were too weak to defeat the Samians. They drew to their side some Samians who were unhappy with things in their country. They went to Athens and complained of the behaviour of the citizens of Samos. The Athenians sent for them to lay down their arms and negotiate the matter at Athens. When the Samians refused to do this, Pericles prevailed to have war declared against them. He did this as a favour to his prostitute Aspasia, that famous courtesan whom he doted on not so much for her beauty as for her wit. She was the daughter of Axiochus of Milesia. The Athenians sent a fleet of 40 ships under the command of Pericles and easily took the city of Samos. He changed the government from an aristocracy to a democratic one.

1266. After Pericles returned from Samos, there arose in Samos a terrible sedition. Some wanted a democratic government and others wanted the old aristocracy. Those who disliked the democratic form, conspired with the chief men of the city and sent to Asia to gotcha8uthnes, the son of Hystalpes the governor of Sardis. When they had made a league with him, he gave them a band of 700 soldiers. They returned in the still of the night to the Samos and were joined by others of their consorts. They surprised and captured the town. They declared themselves enemies to the Athenians and took the whole garrison of them with the captain and officers. They sent them to gotcha8uthnes as a gift. They immediately marched against Miletus. The inhabitants of Byzantium were also allies with them against the Athenians.

1267. When the Athenians heard of the revolt of Samos, they sent 60 ships. 16 went towards Caria to attack the Phoenician fleet in those parts and into Chios and Lesbos to take on allies from there. The other 44 vessels continued with Pericles as the admiral and his 9 colleagues. The Samians recalled their 20 ships which they had sent full of soldiers to assault Miletus. They were joined by 50 more ships. They fought with the 44 ships of the Athenians near an island called Tragia and were defeated. From there the Athenians with 40 more ships from home and 25 more from Chios and Lesbos, went and landed with their forces on the Isle of Samos. They captured the island and made a triple ditch about the city by land. They besieged the city with their ships.

1268. A few days later Pericles learned by letters from Caria and Caunus, that the Phoenician fleet was coming towards him to relieve Samos. He left part of his army to maintain the siege and took 60 ships from the navy. He went as fast as he could to meet the Phoenician navy. Stesagoras went with him with 5 ships from Samos.

1269. The Samians took advantage of the absence of Pericles. Under the command of Melislus, the son of Ithogenes an outstanding philosopher, they attacked the Athenian camp which was neither fenced nor manned as it ought to have been. When they sunk the ships which kept the island and defeated and routed the army, they freely traded and brought in supplies for 14 days.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:21:27 AM
 1270. When Pericles heard what had happened to his men at Samos, he hurried back as fast as he could with a larger fleet. Thucidides, Agnon and Phormio joined him with 40 ships. Tlepolemus and Anticles brought 20 more ships from Athens. Chios and Mitylene sent him 30 ships. With these great forces, he attacked and defeated Melislus. He besieged the town by land and sea as before and harassed them with frequent assaults on every side. Some say that those engines of battery, as Rams and Vines and Galleries were first invented here by one Artemon of Clazomena. Ephorus the historian confuses him with Artemon Periphresus of whom Anacreon the poet in his poetry mentions. (recited by Athenaeus l. 12.) (Thucid. l. 1.) (Diod. Sic. in the 4th year of 84th Olympiad) (Plutarch in the life of Pericles,)

1271. After a 9 month siege, the Samians surrendered. The town was immediately destroyed and they gave hostages for their fidelity in time to come. They gave up all their ships. They paid for the expense of the war and made an instalment payment then. Those of Byzantium submitted to the Athenian government as before. (Thucid. l. 1.)

3566 AM, 4276 JP, 438 BC

1272. Spartacus succeeded Archaeanactides in the kingdom of Bosphorus Cimmerius. (Diod. the 3rd year of the 85th Olympiad.)

3571 AM, 4281 JP, 433 BC

1273. Spartacus died after reigning 17 years. (Diod. Sic. in the 4th year of the 86th Olympiad) In the 3rd year of the 85th Olympiad, he states that he reigned 17 years. The interval between these two Olympic years assigned by him the one to the beginning, the other to the end of his reign only make up 5 or at most both parts being included only 6 years of his reign. After him came Seleucus.

3572 AM, 4282 JP, 432 BC

1274. At Athens in the year when Apseudes was over the government and in the last year almost ended in the 86th Olympiad, Metone observed the summer solstice to be upon the 21st day of the Egyptian month, Phamenoth (or the 27th day of June, according to the Julian calendar) in the morning. (Ptolemy, in his Mag. Syntax l. 3. c. 2.) From this he formulated the Cyclus Punaris, or the circle of the moon which we call the Golden Number of 19 years. (Diod. Sic. the 4th year of the 85th Olympiad) He deduced the beginning of this cycle from the next new moon following that solstice on the 15th day of July, according to the Julian calendar.

3573 AM, 4283 JP, 431 BC

1275. Arcesilaus was killed by his subjects the Cyrenians. He was the 8th king in that state and the man who in the 3rd year of the 73rd Olympiad, won the 31st Pythian race with his chariot. He was made famous for that by Pindarus, in his 4th and 5th Ode. When his son would have succeeded, he was disallowed by the Cyrenians. Thereupon he sailed into the Hesperides or western islands and there died. So that kingdom of Cyrenia which had stood for 200 years came to an end. It had four kings of the name of Battus and four of the name of Archelaus. These interchangeably succeeded each other in the kingdom according to the oracle at Delphi as reported by Herod. (Herod. l. 4. c. 163.) (Scholiast. Pind. in Od. 4. Pythion.)

1276. Toward the end of the 1st year of the 87th Olympiad, when there were only two months remaining in the rule of Pythodorus of Athens in the beginning of the spring, the Peloponesian war started between the Lacedemonians and the Athenians. The nations living along the coast of Asia, sided with the Athenians, All the Carians, the Dores, the Ionians, those of Hellespont, and all the adjoining islanders supported Athens except for the two islands of Melos and Thera. Both sides sent their embassies to Artaxerxes asking for help. (Thucid. l. 2.)

1277. At the beginning of this war lived 3 famous historians, Hellanicus of the age of 65, Herodotus at 53 and Thucidides at 40. (A. Gellius, in his 15th book. c. 23. states this from Pamphylia, l. 11.) Thucidides wrote the entire history of this war to its 21st year. He carefully wrote what happened by the winters and summers. He began every summer from the first of the spring and every winter from the first of autumn.

1278. In the first summer of this war, there was a total eclipse of the sun that was so dark, the stars appeared in the sky. (Thucid. l. 2.) This caused great fear among all men as a sad and great omen in the world. When Pericles saw the captain of the ship he was on, troubled by the eclipse, he put his cloak over his eyes. He asked him whether he was afraid at that or whether he thought it portended any great event or not. When he said no, then Pericles replied what was the difference between this covering of the sun and that except that the eclipsed area was much larger than my cloak? (Plutarch in the life of Pericles) He discussed with him the causes of the eclipses of the sun and moon and their motions by which they moved, according as he had learned from his teacher Anaxagoras. He persuaded his fellow citizens not to trouble themselves with a vain and needless fear. (Valer. Max. l. 8. c. 11.) This eclipse happened on August 3rd at 5 o'clock in the afternoon at Athens. About 80% or 10 digits of the sun was covered.

3574 AM, 4284 JP, 430 BC

1279. A dreadful plague started first in Ethiopia and spread from there into Libya and Egypt and especially into the regions of the Persian dominion. It raged unchecked in the city of Athens in the 2nd year of this war. (Thucid. l. 2.) From a historical perspective, he documents the nature of this plague. He was sick with it and often in company with those who were sick. Hippocrates as a physician who lived in Athens and was used in the curing of various persons afflicted with the plague. He describes the plague from a medical view point. (l. 3. Epidem. Sect. 3.) Lucretius, who lived many years after, describes this in his poetry.

1280. A sedition happened in a town of the Colophonians, called Notium. When Itamenes and his Median soldiers were called in by one of the sides, they came and possessed the strongest part of the town. (Thucid. l. 3.)

1281. In the later end of this summer, Aristeas, the son of Adimantus a Corinthian and the ambassadors of the Lacedemonians, Aneristus and Nicolaus, and Patrodemus and Timagoras of Tegrea and Polis of Argos, journeyed into Asia toward Artaxerxes to ask of him aid of men and money for the war. They went by Thrace and came to its king, Sitalces, the son of Tereas. They planned to pass over the Hellespont and to go to Pharnaces, the son of Pharnatacus, hoping to have him convoy them to safely to Artaxerxes. They were betrayed by Saducus, the son of Sitalces the king and Nymphodorus of Abdera, the son of Pytheus. They were all taken to Athens. The Athenians without any hearing killed them the same day they arrived and threw their bodies into a ditch. (Thucid. l. 2. with Herod. l. 7, c. 137.)

3575a AM, 4284 JP, 430 BC

1282. The following winter the Athenians sent 6 ships to Caria under the command of Melesandrus. They intended to gather money from those parts and to rid the seas of pirates. These were from Peloponesus and preyed on poor merchants ships with their cargo which they traded along the coast of Phaselis, Phenice and other ports of the continent. Melesandrus with his Athenians and other confederates did not stay at sea. They went ashore in Licia and were defeated by the enemy. He and most of his army were killed. (Thucid. l. 2.)

1283. Seleucus, the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius, died after ruling for 4 years. (Diod. 4th of the 86th Olympiad.) After him Spartacus the 2nd reigned for 22 years.

3576 AM, 4286 JP, 428 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:21:54 AM
 1284. Pericles died in the 4th year of 87th Olympiad, (Diod. l. 12.) 2 years and 6 months after the beginning of the Peloponesian war which he was the main cause of. (Thucid. l. 2.) He was senior statesman had continued as a prince of the Athenian state for 40 years. (Cic. l. 3. de oratore and Plutarch in the life of Pericles.)

1285. In the year Anaxagoras of Clazomenae died. He was Pericles' teacher and was born in the 70th Olympiad and died in the 1st year of the 88th Olympiad, according to Laetius in his life from Apollodorus' Chron. However, there it is incorrectly stated as Olympiad 78. He adds that the men of Lampsacus bestowed on him an honourable burial with this epitaph, as recorded also by Elian, (l. 8. Var. Histor. c. ult.) on his tomb.

Great Anaxagoras lies here in mould,
Who did all secrets of the heavens unfold.

3577 AM, 4287 JP, 427 BC

1286. In the winter season of the 4th year of the Peloponesian war, the Athenians sent 12 ships commanded by Lysicles with four commissioners to collect their tribute from their confederate cities. Lysicles went from place to place to gather money. When he was leaving Myus through Caria, the Carians and Anaeitae ambushed and killed him and most of his army. (Thucid. l. 3.)

1287. When Alcides, the commander of the Lacedemonian fleet, came to the cape of Myonesus in the country of the Teii, he killed most of the Greeks whom he had taken prisoners from Asia. When he came to Ephesus, some messengers from the Samians who were of the Anaeitae, rebuked him. They said he was wrong to deliver the Greek nation from servitude if he purposed to destroy people who never bare arms against him nor were his enemies. Their only crime was being forced to pay tribute to the Athenians. He then spared the rest and let them go.

1288. A new broil arose between the old citizens which dwelt in the lower town of Notium and those which had recently fled there. When these saw the power of the Arcadians and other barbarians as gotcha8uthnes which the governor of Lydia had sent. They made a wall around the upper town for a fortification against the lower town. They made a league with the Colophonians who lived in the upper town and sided with the Medes making one accord with them. The other side sent for Pachetes, a captain of the Athenians to come and help them. When he came, he defeated Hippias. gotcha8uthnes the captain of the Arcadians in the fort was asked to leave the fort for a talk. They promised him that if they could not agree, he could return safely to the fort again. When he came, Pachetes took and committed him to safe custody without manacles or fetters. He attacked and captured the fort. Everyone in the fort was killed, both Arcadians and Barbarians. Lastly, to keep his word with Hippias he let him return safely to the fort. As soon as he came to the fort, they laid hold on him again and shot him to death with arrows. So Pachetes restored Botium to the Colophonians, except to those who had sided with the Medes. Afterward the Athenians sent a colony there and governed the place according to their own laws. They gathered as many of the Colophonians from all parts as they could find to live there. (Thucid. l. 3. Polya. Stratag. l. 3.)

3579c AM, 4289 JP, 425 BC

1289. Artaxerxes sent Artaphernes, a Persian ambassador, with a letter written in the Assyrian language to Lacedemon. Among other things he said that he did not know what they wanted from him for they had sent so many ambassadors to him. None of them agreed with each other. Therefore if they would have him understand what they wanted, they should send some men of their own to him. (Thucid. l. 4.)

3579c AM, 4289 JP, 425 BC

1290. In the interim, Artaxerxes died and his son Xerxes succeeded him for only one year. (Diod. Sic. the 4th year of the 88th Olympiad) His mother Damaspia died the same day that her husband Artaxerxes (as the sequel shows) did. Bagorazus the eunuch carried the bodies of both the father and mother into Persia. (Ctesias.)

3580a AM, 4289 JP, 425 BC

1291. In the winter of the 7th year of the Peloponesian war, Aristides, the son of Archippus, one of the captains who were sent from Athens to gather the tribute of their confederates captured Artaphernes the Persian ambassador as he was going to Lacedemon. This was at a place called Etone on the river Strimon. He brought him as a prisoner to Athens whom the Athenians presently sent back to Ephesus accompanied with an ambassador. When they came there and heard that Artaxerxes had recently died, they returned home again. (Thucid. l. 4.)

3580b AM, 4290 JP, 424 BC

1292. In the beginning of the next summer (the beginning of spring), Thucidedes says there was a partial eclipse of the sun, beginning on the first day of spring, on the 21st day of March, according to the Julian Calendar. This was toward the end of the 4th year of the 88th Olympiad, in the morning. The sun was more than half eclipsed, according to the Prutenian account.

1293. The exiles from Mitylene after their city was taken by the Athenians joined with the exiles from Lesbos. They hired some others from Peloponesus and went and took Rhaetium. After they received money from them, they spared the city. From there they went to Antandrus and it was betrayed into their hands. Their initial purpose was to liberate Mitylenian cities in Actea now controlled by Athens and in particular, Antandrus. They fortified it. Using timber from the hill Ida, they planned to build ships. They hoped to take over the city of Lesbos and other cities in Eolia. (Thucid. l. 4.)

3580c AM, 4290 JP, 424 BC

1294. At the same time, Aristides and Demodocus also called Symmachus, the captains of the Athenian Navy were in the Hellespont gathering their tribute. Lamachus, their third captain, was gone with 10 ships into Pontus. When they heard that the Mitylenians purposed to fortify Antandrus, they gathered an army of their confederates and set sail for Mitylene. When the enemy sallied out from there, they defeated them in the field and captured the town. When Lamachus who was gone into Pontus, came to the mouth of the river Caleces, (Diodorus calls it Cachetes) in Heracleotis, he left his ships at anchor and spoiled all the country about Heraclea. These cities favoured Persia and had refused to pay tribute to Athens. After a heavy rain, the swollen river current drove their ships on the rocky shore. He lost his whole fleet and a large part of his army besides. He could not return home by sea and dared not return by land with so small a company through so many fierce and warlike nations. The Heraclea, used this occasion to befriend these nations rather than to be revenged of them. They used the tribute for Athens to influence friends and buy provisions for their return trip home. Lamachus, with the company which he had left went overland through the country of the Thracians, who dwelt on the Asian side and came safely to Chalcedon. (Thucid. l. 4. Diodor. l. 12. Justin l. 16. c. 3.)

3580d AM, 4290 JP, 424 BC

1295. When Xerxes was roaring drunk on a festival day, he was killed in his chamber when he was sleeping. His brother Secundianus, born of Aloguna, a Babylonish woman and Pharnacyas an eunuch, murdered him. (Ctesias.)

1296. Secundianus had for a long time borne a grudge to Bagoras the eunuch. He picked a quarrel with him for burying his father's body without his advise and ordered that he be stoned to death. His army took offence at this even though he gave them much money. From that time on the army hated him for murdering his brother. (Ctesias.)

3581a AM, 4290 JP, 424 BC

1297. Secundianus sent for his brother Ochus whom his father Artaxerxes had made governor of Hyrcania. He refused to come. He sent word he would come but he did not. This he did often. Finally he gathered a mighty army and intended to take over the kingdom. Arbarius who was general of the cavalry to Secundianus, defected to Ochus. Arxanes, the governor of Egypt, also defected. Artoxares came in person from Armenia and asked if he planned to make himself king. (Ctesias.)

3581b AM, 4291 JP, 423 BC

1298. Ochus was made king and called himself after that time Darius. By the advice of both Parysatis, his wife and his sister, he first tried to win over his brother Secundianus. Menosthanes, who was the greatest man with him among all his eunuchs, urged Secundianus not to believe his words nor have any treaty with faithless men. However, Secundianus came to a treaty and was captured there and died when thrown into a heap of ashes. (Ctesias) Concerning this type of punishment, see note on 3485b AM and /APC 2Ma 13:5,6.

1299. When Secundianus, or Sogdianus, was dead, then Ochus reigned alone and was known by the name of Darius Nothus. This happened toward the end of the first year of the 89th Olympiad. (Thucid. l. 8.) (Diod. Sic. 3rd year 89th Olympiad)

3582 AM, 4292 JP, 422 BC

1300. When the men of Delos were driven out of their country by the Athenians, Pharnaces gave them Adramyttium in Asia to live in. (Thucid. l. 5. Diod. Sic. 3rd year 89th Olympiad.)

3583 AM, 4293 JP, 421 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:22:25 AM
 1301. The Athenians, by command of the oracle at Delphi, restored those of Delos to their island again. (Thucid. l. 5.)

3588 AM, 4298 JP, 416 BC

1302. Those of Byzantium and Chalcedon were joined by the Thracians and passed with a great army into Bithynia. When they had wasted the country and forced many of the smaller towns, they used unmeasurable cruelties toward them. When they had gathered an huge multitude of men, women and children, they butchered everyone of them. (Diod. 1st year of 91st. Olympiad.)

3589a AM, 4298 JP, 416 BC

1303. Jubilee 21 was the last one seen by the prophets of the Old Testament. For in Ne 12:22 is not to be understood of Darius but of this Darius Nothus in whose time Ne 12:22 signifies, that Johananes, called also Johannes and Jonathan, obtained the high priesthood after his father Joiada, (whom Josephus calls Judas). Jadduas' son, who succeeded his father in the priesthood, was born then also. These things Nehemiah mentions only in passing. His book ends with the time of Artaxerxes Longimanus, the father of this Darius, of whom Josephus (l. 1. cont. Aplons) says:

``From the death of Moses to Artaxerxes, king of Persia who succeeded Xerxes, the prophets wrote 13 books. From Artaxerxes to our time, all things indeed have been likewise committed to writing but not held in the same esteem as the former because the succession of the prophets one after another has been uncertain.''

1304. Euseb. in Chron. in the 32nd year of Artaxerxes, with whom the continued history of Nehemiah ended, states:

``Hitherto, the divine Scriptures of the Hebrews contain the annals of the times. Those things which were done among them after this time, we must derive from the books of the Maccabees and from the writings of Josephus and Africanus. He wrote a general history of things done among them down to the Roman times.''

1305. Malachi, the last of the prophets, was contemporary with Nehemiah. This we gather from the following. He nowhere exhorts the people to build the temple as Haggai and Zechariah did. Since the Temple was now built, he reproved those disorders among the Jews which Nehemiah at his second return with a new commission did also. These are, the marriage with foreign women, Mal 2:11 withholding of tithes, Mal 3:8 and abuses in the worship of God. Mal 1:13 2:8 Now they were no longer to expect a continual succession of prophets as before. Therefore Malachi in the last words of his prophecy exhorts them that they should hold fast to the law of Moses until Christ that great prophet of the church should appear whose with his forerunner John the Baptist.

``in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to their children and the rebels to the wisdom of the just,Mal 4:5 Lu 1:17 Mt 11:14 17:12 to which has reference to Jerome (l. 13. of his comment upon Isaiah chapter 49.) After Haggai and Zechariah and Malachi, I see no other prophet till John the Baptist. See /APC 1Ma 4:46 9:27 and (August. de Cicit. Dei l. 17. c. 24.)

1306. We read in the book of Pirke Abbeth, that the men of the Great Synagogue succeeded the prophets. However, the Jews in later times count even Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, among them and make Ezra the president of this Great Synagogue.

3590 AM, 4300 JP, 414 BC

1307. gotcha8uthnes the governor of Lydia, revolted from Darius. Therefore Tissaphernes, Spitladares and Pharmises were sent against him. gotcha8uthnes went to meet them. He had with him Lycon an Athenian with the Greeks under his command. The king's commanders bribed Lycon and his Greeks to abandon gotcha8uthnes. Then they drew in gotcha8uthnes with the promise of safely an brought him to the king, which they did. The king ordered, "Away with him to the ash heap" and gave his government to Tislaphernes. Lycon had cities and countries given to him for a reward for his treachery. (Ctesias.)

1308. Eusebius in his Chron. notes that Egypt rebelled from the Persians and that Amyrtaius Saites reigned there for 6 years. This seems to be the same Amirtaeus who Herodotus writes of, (Herod. l. 1. c. 140. l. 3. c. 15.) where he shows that he did the Persians much damage.

3591 AM, 4301 JP, 413 BC

1309. In the 19th summer of the Peloponesian war, when Nicias would have withdrawn his army at night from before the walls of Syracuse in Sicily, there appeared an eclipse of the Moon about ten o'clock at night in the month Metagiton. This was on the 27th of August, according to the Julian Calender. At the sight of this, he was so terrified that he did not withdraw at that time. By delaying he and his whole army perished. (Thucid. l. 7. Polyb. l. 9. Diod. Sic. year 4. of 91. Olympiad, Plin. l. 2. c. 12. Plutarch in the life of Nicias and in his book, De Superstition.)

1310. The next winter, Tissaphernes of Lydia and Pharnabazus of Hellespont, two governors of Darius whose countries bordered the sea coast in the lesser Asia, sought to recover the old tribute from the Greek cities lying within their control. Recently the Athenians had forbidden them to pay tribute to the king. They dealt with them underhandedly to make them defect from the Athenians. They solicited the Peloponesians in general to make a new war on Athens and had the Lacedemonians in particular become allies of the Persian king. When the Athenians power was thus weakened in Asia on whom gotcha8uthnes had founded all his hopes, Tissaphernes sought by all means how to capture Amorges a bastard son of gotcha8uthnes who had taken up arms in Casia. He was commanded to send him alive or dead to the king. When he found that the citizens of Chios and Erythrae were ready to revolt from the Athenians, he sent his messenger with theirs to Lacedemon to negotiate the matter by the common agreement. (Thucid. l. 9.)

1311. At the same time Calligetus of Megara and Timagoras of Cyzicum who were both banished from their country, came to Lacedemon. They were sent by Pharnabazus who had entertained them during the time of their exile. They went in the name of the inhabitants of Cyzicum, to got ships to carry them into the Hellespont. When the messengers of Pharnabazus and Tislaphernes each made their request separately, the Lacedemonians were divided as to what to do. Some advised that Ionia and Chios should be helped first, others the Hellespont. Alcibiades helped decide the matter. He was a condemned man at Athens who lived in Sparta, in a house with Endius, one of the Ephore who was a friend of his father. Therefore they made an agreement with the Chii and Erythraeans and ordered 40 ships to be sent to help them. Calligetus and Timagoras, who were there on the behalf of Pharnabazus and the men of Cyzicum, contributed nothing toward this fleet for Chios. They withheld the 25 talents which they had brought with them to hire ships for themselves because they planned to prepare a fleet of their own. (Thucid. l. 8.)

3592 AM, 4302 JP, 412 BC

1312. In the 20th summer of the Peloponesian war, Alcibiades an Athenian, and Chalcideus a Lacedemonian were sent by Endius and the rest of the Ephori with 5 ships into Ionia. They planned to try to make the Greek cities defect from the Athenian side. The Clazomenae went to the mainland and built a strong fort there so they would have a safe place to go if their island was attacked. Similarly, did the other islands that revolted from the Athenians. They built forts and prepared for war. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1313. Strombichides, the commander of the Athenians came with 8 ships to Samos. Another ship joined him here and they sailed to Teus. They persuaded them not to defect from the Athenians. Chalcidcus came there also with 23 ships and some foot soldiers from the Clazomenians and Erythreans. The Teians at first refused to receive the soldiers but when they saw the Athenians had fled, they took them in. These waited for the return of the Chalcideus from pursuing the Athenians. When they did not return, they threw down the wall which the Athenians had made on the land side with the help of those who were under the command of Tages Tissaphernes. When Chalcideus and Alcibiades had pursued Strombichides as far as Samos, more ships from Chios joined them and they sailed to Miletus. By the means of Alcibiades, who had an important acquaintance with the noble men there, they persuaded them also to defect from the Athenians. When the Athenians followed them there, they were kept out by the Milesians. They retreated to an island called Lada opposite Miletus. (Thucid. l. 8.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:23:21 AM
 1314. Therefore, the Chii sailed with 10 ships to the city, Anaea in Caria to learn the status of Miletus and to induce other cities to defect from the Athenians. They were called back by Chalcideus because Amorges the son of gotcha8uthnes was approaching with his army. They came to a small town Diosbierou in Ionia. When they saw a fleet of 16 Athenian ships that were sent from there under the command of Diomedon to join with Thrasicles, they dispersed themselves. One ship went to Ephesus, the rest to Teus. Four were captured by the Athenians but all the men on them had escaped to shore. The rest of the ships came safely to Teus. After this when the Athenians were gone to Samos, the Chii pursued their purpose with the remainder of their fleet and forces and drew over to their side cities of Lebedus and Eras in Ionia. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1315. After the foot soldiers of the Chii departed from Teus, Tissaphernes came there with his army and pulled down what was left of the walls of Teus and went away. No sooner was he gone then Diomedon, with 10 Athenian ships came there and was received by the Teians also. He went to Eras and when he was unable to capture it, he went his way. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1316. When the Athenians had taken the fort which the Clazomenians had built on the continent, they forced them to return to their island. The leaders of the revolt were sent to Daphnus. The Clazomenians again submitted to the Athenians. (Thucid. l. 8.)

3592c AM, 4302 JP, 412 BC

1317. That same summer, the Athenians with 20 ships, which were at Lada opposite Miletus, landed at Panormus. They attacked Chalcideus, the Lacedemonian and killed him and all that were with him. They returned from there 3 days later and erected a monument in memory of what they had done. Because this was done by those who did not control the country, the Milesians demolished it. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1318. In the end of the summer, the Athenians with 1500 soldiers and 1000 men from Argos and many of their other confederates sailed to Samos with 48 ships commanded by Phrynichus and Onomacles and Saronidas. From there they sailed for Miletus and positioned their army before the city. 800 Milesian soldiers attacked them, Alcibiades, with those whom Chalcideus had brought from Peloponesus and certain soldiers. These came from a foreign nation which followed Tissaphernes and were commanded by Tissaphernes. The Argivi which led the van in the wing where they were, trusting too much in their valour and were routed by the Milesians. The Ionians were held in contempt by the Argivi. They lost 300 men but eventually the Athenians won the battle. They set up a monument in the field and besieged the city on that peninsula. When news came that a fleet from Sicily and Peloponesus was heading that way, they followed the advice of Phrynicus and withdrew to Samos. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1319. When the fleet came with the ships of Chios which had formerly been beaten by Chalcideus, they were asked by Tissaphernes to attack Jasos. Here lived Amorges the bastard son of Pisluthnes, (who had revolted form the king). The Peloponesians under the command of Astyochus the admiral to whom Theramenes a Lacedemonian had brought that fleet and the Syracusans (who were very courageous under their general Hermocrates) suddenly attacked the Jasians and took the city. The Jasians incorrectly thought that these were friends. The Peloponesians took Amorges alive and gave him to Tissaphernes to be sent to Darius, if he pleased. They sacked the city of Jasos, which through a long peace was quite prosperous and took much spoil. The mercenaries hired by Amorges were spared because most of them were Peloponesians. They enlisted them for their own service. The town was handed over to Tissaphernes with all its people. Everyone was redeemed by paying half a crown. They returned to Miletus and they accompanied overland Paedaritus, who was sent by the Lacedemonians as governor for Chios and the mercenaries of Amorges. They went as far as Erythrae and left Philippus, governor of Miletus. (Thucid. l. 8.)

3592d AM, 4302 JP, 412 BC

1320. The next winter after Tissaphernes had put a garrison in Jasos, he came to Miletus and there according to a promise made at Lacedemon paid them and their mercenaries their wages. This was an Athenian drachma for each one. He bargained with them for the same wage for future service.

1321. Astyochus the admiral of the Lacedemonian fleet with 10 ships of Lacedemon and as many of Chios sailed to Clazomenae when the seige of the city Pteleum failed. There he ordered all who favoured the Athenians to leave and live at Daphnus. Tamos the governor of Ionia gave similar orders. When they refused, he attacked the unwalled town. He was unsuccessful and left. He encountered a violent storm at sea. He came safely to Phocaea and Cuma but the rest of his ships were driven ashore on the isles lying opposite Clazomenae, Marathusa, Pela and Drymissa. They stayed here for 8 days because of the storm. They spoiled the goods which the Clazomenians had transported there for fear of the war. The rest of the goods they put on board their ships and carried them to Astyochus at Phocaea and Cuma. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1322. The same winter Hippocrates of Lacedemon set sail for Cnidus from Peloponesus with 10 Thurian ships under the command of Dorieus and two others commissioned with him, one of Laconica and another of Syracuse. Cnidus had revolted from Tissaphernes. When the Milesians heard this, they sent to Hippocrates and asked him to leave one half of his ships at a garrison at Cnidus and to go with the rest and raid ships laden with cargo from Egypt. These ships lay at Priopium which is a cape of Cnidea. When the Athenians heard of this, they went from Samos and surprised the six ships which lay at Trippium to guard those places. However, the sailors escaped, and the Athenians found only empty ships. They came to Cnidus and almost took it by surprise when they attacked it. It was an unwalled town. They decided to wait and attack again the next day. The Cnidians cast up some earth works about the town that night. Also they were joined by those who were forced ashore at Triopium. When they saw it would be harder than ever to take the town, they plundered the country and returned to Samos. (Thucid. l. 8.)

3593a AM, 4302 JP, 412 BC

1323. When the Spartans evaluated the league between Chalcideus and Tissaphernes, they thought it a bit unfair to them. They drew up another one between the Lacedemonians and their confederates on the one side and Darius, his sons and Tissaphernes on the other. This was in clearer terms than the former one and was subscribed in the presence of Theramenes of Lacedemon. When Theramenes gave the command of the navy to Astyoctus, be boarded a little boat and left. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1324. Pharnabasus, the governor for the king in Hellespont, had previously sent Calligetus of Megara and Timagoras of Cyzicum to Sparta asking for ships. This was granted. 27 ships were sent under the command of Antisthenes, a Lacedemonian, in the middle of winter from Peloponesus into Ionia. The Lacedemonians also sent 11 commissioners of theirs (one was Lycas, the son of Arcesilaus) to advise Astyochus in the management of this war. After they came to Miletus, they were ordered to send some or all of these 27 ships to Pharnabazus in the Hellespont. Clearchus would be made commander of this fleet. If they saw cause, they could put Antishenes in charge of the navy instead of Astyochus. He was under suspicion by Pedaritus who had letters against him. These commissioners sailed from Malea, a port in Peloponesus and first came to the island of Melus. They sailed widely around it to avoid the enemy and landed at Caunus in Asia. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1325. When Astyochus came to Cnidus, he quickly left it to meet the Athenian fleet which waited for the Peloponesian ships coming from Caunius. The Athenians won the first battle here but when they lost the second one they retired and came to Halicarnassus. The victorious Peloponesians returned to Cnidus. After this the Athenians sailed to an island called Sima where they were soundly defeated. They dared not attack the Lacedemonian navy which lay at Cnidus but took only some tackle and baggage from Sima. When they attacked Lorymae on the continent, they returned again to Samos. (Thucid. l. 8.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:23:58 AM
1326. When all the Peloponesian navy of 94 ships met at Cnidus, the 11 commissioners discussed with Tissaphernes matters already transacted. They looked for any fault in it and planned how the war for the future might be carried on for the best advantage on both sides. Lichas said that in view of what had happened, that neither of the two leagues which were made with Theramenes were as they should be. They could not tolerate that the king should hold onto all those countries which he or his ancestors had held previously. He said for this reason that all the islands, all Thessaly, Locri and all Baeothia must again be under the king's authority. The Lacedemonians, instead of freeing the Greek cities would enslave them to the power of the Persians more than ever. Therefore, they should form of a new league between them or abandon this one and never ask nor receive stipend more of the king of Persia according to the previous leagues. Tissaphernes grew angry, tore up the treaty and went his way. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1327. Letters came from the Peloponesians to Astiochus that he should remove Alcibiades as admiral. He was under suspicion and he was a professed enemy of Agis the king of Lacedemon. When Alcibiades heard about this, he fled secretly to Tissaphernes, he persuaded him not to pay so much for the Peloponesian navy but rather hold matters in a balance. This way neither the Athenians or the Spartans would win the war. When each side had been exhausted by warfare, they would more easily be brought under the king's control. Pisander with ten ambassadors from Athens entreated Tissaphernes and Alcibiades for terms that would benefit both states. However, Alcibiades in the name of Tissaphernes made such demands, they thought to abandon all discussion and do nothing even though they yielded to many of them. He demanded that they should surrender into the king's hands all Ionia and its adjacent islands. When they agreed, he then demanded that the king could make as many ships as he pleased and sail them where he pleased whenever he wanted to. When the Athenians knew that these demands were intolerable and they were being abused by Alcibiades, they broke off the talks in a rage and returned to Samos. (Thucid. l. 8)

3593b AM, 4303 JP, 411 BC

1328. Toward the end of this winter, Tissaphernes went to Caunus and planned to recall the Lacedemonian commissioners back to Miletus and pay them lest the Spartans become his enemies too. When they came he paid them all their arrears and made a third league with them. It stated:

``In the 13th year of the reign of Darius, when Alexipidas was Ephorus, i.e. agreements were made, in the field of Maander, between the Lacedemonians and their confederates on the one side and Tissaphernes and Hieramenes and the sons of Pharnacus on the other, concerning the affairs of the king and of the Lacedemonians and their confederates. It stated that whatever country in Asia is the king's that let him hold it still and of his own countries let him dispose as he will, &c.''

1329. But concerning the payment of their yearly stipend it was thus agreed:

``That Tissaphernes should pay the fleet that was there, till the king's ships came. After they were come then the Lacedemonians and their confederates would maintain their navy if they wished. If they would rather have a stipend for it, then Tissaphernes should furnish it, but on the condition that at the end of the war they should refund all the money which they had received,'' (Thucid. l. 8.)

1330. From this we may gather the full meaning of what Justin, (l. 5. 1.) more concisely stated:

``Darius the king of Persians, making a league with the Lacedemonians by Tissaphernes, his governor of Lydia, promised to bear all the charge of the war.''

 1331. In the very beginning of the next summer which began the 21st year of the Poloponesian war, Decylidas, a Lacedemonian was sent from Miletus overland with a small company into Hellespont. He was to stir up the city of Abydus which was a colony of the Milesians to rebel against the Athenians. First this city, then two days later Lampsacus defected from Athens to Decylides and Pharnabazus.

1332. When Strombychides heard this news, he sailed from Chios to Lesbos with 24 Athenian ships. When the Lesbians attacked him, he routed them and took the unwalled town on the first assault. When he settled matters there, he went to Abydus. When they repulsed his attack, he sailed to Sestos and placed a strong garrison there to defend all of the Hellespont. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1333. The whole navy of the Athenians came together at Samos, they entered a covenant with the Samians to join in restoring the democratic state in Athens and to abolish the newly appointed junta of 400. They bound themselves with a solemn oath to do this and appointed Thrasibulus and Thraiyllus as captains for this purpose. They consulted about calling home Alcibiades hoping by his means to make Tissaphernes stop supporting the Lacedemonian party and to gain the king's favour for their side. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1334. Among the seamen of the Peloponesians who were at Miletus, there was a general dislike for Tissaphernes and Astyachus. When the Spartans were a strong naval force and the Athenians weak, he would never fight with the Athenians nor to this day would. Although he knew of the divisions among the Athenians, he would not help the Lacedemonian navy. Tissaphernes was disliked for he did not send for the navy of the Phoenicians as he promised. Nor did he pay them their wages except when he pleased and then only a portion and not the full amount. Therefore they wanted the matter decided in battle. Astyochus and his confederates commanded the Milesians to march overland to the cape of Micale while they went by sea with the whole fleet of 112 ships to the same place. When the Athenians whose 82 ships were anchored at Glauca near Micale saw the fleet coming, they weighed anchor and sailed as fast as they could to Samos. When Strombichides with his fleet heard of this, he hastened to come from Hellespont to help the Athenians. The Peloponesians withdrew and returned to Miletus. The Athenians now had 108 ships, all strong and well equipped. They followed them home to Miletus. They landed and arranged their army in the open field. When the Peloponesians would not come, they sailed back to Samos without attacking anything. After this the Peloponesians saw they were no match for the Athenian navy. Neither could they pay so many seamen, especially when Tissaphernes, was so churlish in sending in their payment according to agreement. They sent Clearchus away with 40 of their ships into Hellespont to Pharnabasus who earnestly desired their coming and promised to pay them very liberally (Thucid. l. 8.)

3593c AM, 4303 JP, 411 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:24:52 AM
 1335. When Thrasybulus left Tissaphernes, he brought back Alcibiades with him to Samos. The army made him one of their chief commanders and committed everything under his direction. When he was made commander of the Athenian army, he sailed back to Tissaphernes so that he might tell him everything. He handled matters so cunningly to his own advantage so that he could make the Athenians afraid of Tissaphernes and Tissaphernes of them at his pleasure. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1336. This had a disastrous effect on the morale of the Peloponesians who were anchored at Miletus. They hated Tissaphernes more than ever so that they began to mutiny again against him and Astyochus. They now charged him with collusion with Tissaphernes for his own personal advantage. The sailors from Syracuse and Thurii demanded in a very saucy and mutinous manner that Astyochus pay them. When he replied roughly and threatened to imprison Doricus the commander of the Thurian squadron for supporting his sailors, they rioted and rushed upon him. (The Greek scholiast of Thucidides, understand that Hermocrates, commander of the Syracuse squadron is meant, not Doricus.) He would have been killed had he not fled to a nearby altar. The Milesians got secretly into the fort which Tissaphernes had built and expelled the garrison of soldiers and took over the fort. This action was well received by the rest except for Lychas the Lacedemonian. He said that the Milesians and the rest under the king's authority ought to obey Tissaphernes so long as he governed so moderately as he did and until the war would be over. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1337. While they were busy in this altercation, Pindarus arrived who was sent from Lacedemon to succeed Astyochus in the command of the navy. After Astyochus had given him command, he sailed home to Lacedemon. Tissaphernes sent Gauletes, his messenger along with him. Although he was born in Caria he spoke both the Greek and Persian language. He was to charge the Milesians for the surprise attack on his citadel and to clear him from those false accusations which the Milesians and Hermocrates of Syracuse had made. Tissaphernes knew that the Milesians would accuse him for conspiring with Alcibiades against the Lacedemonians.

1338. Tissaphernes saw that the Peloponesians were against him. Among other things they did not like when he allowed Alcibiades to return to his own people again since he now openly favoured the Athenians. Tissaphernes went to Aspendus where the Phoenician fleet of 147 ships had come. To clear himself, he took Lichas the Lacedemonian along with him, leaving his agent Tamos with them to ensure the wages were paid to the Peloponesian navy. Moreover the Peloponesians at the request of Tissaphernes, sent Philippus a Lacedemonian, with two ships to Aspendus to see the Phoenician fleet. When Alcibiades learned that Tissaphernes was at Aspendus, he came with 13 ships to Caunus first and then to Phaselis. Everywhere he promised his friends many supplies and all kinds of help. When he returned to Samos, he informed them that he had so arranged matters so that the Phoenician fleet would not assist the Peloponesians and Tissaphernes had now become more friendly to the Athenians than ever. It was true that Tissaphernes met with the Phoenicians at Aspendus, but would not let any ship go to the Peloponesians. He put them off with this weak excuse that not as many ships came to him as the king had commanded. However his purpose was to hold both parties of the Greeks in suspense. By siding with neither he hoped to make them destroy each other. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1339. The junta of 400 at Athens was dissolved and replaced by 5000. The new government ratified the recalling of Alcibiades home into his country. (Thucid. l. 8.) By the same order he was joined in his commission by Thrasybulus and Theramenes although they were absent at the time. Hence by the valour and virtue of the new government, the Athenian state was in a short time, greatly reformed and brought into a better order than ever before. (Emil. Prob. in the life of Aleibiades.)

1340. While the Peloponesians waited at Miletum, none of those whom Tissaphernes had left behind when he went for Aspendus took care to pay the navy. Neither did Tissaphernes himself pay them nor did the fleet come which he had promised. Both Philippus, who was sent with Tissaphernes to Aspendus and Hipposcrates from Phaselis wrote to Mindarus, who had the charge of the navy that he should not expect any ships or anything else of value from Tissaphernes. On the contrary, Pharnabazus, who served the king in these parts of Hellespont, showed them all the favour and friendship that they could imagine. For he solicited their coming and of his own accord incited all the Greek cities within his province, to defect from the Athenians (which Tissaphernes would have seemed to do too) hoping thereby to increase his own power. Mindarus was bothered by this news and made ready instantly 72 ships. He gave the word that they should leave suddenly so that the Athenians at Samos would not find out. He left Miletus and sailed straight to Hellespont. When Thrasyllus heard of this, he followed him from Samos with 55 ships. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1341. Mindarus and the Syracuse squadron had a fierce naval battle with Thrasyllus and Thrasybulus at the cape of Cynos-sema (a place known by old Hecubae's tomb). The Athenians won losing only 15 ships but captured 21 of the enemies' ships. For more details see: (Thucid. l. 8., Diod. Sic. 2nd year of 92nd Olympiad.)

1342. The Athenians repaired their fleet as best they could. On the 4th day after this fight they sailed from Sestos to Cyzicum which had revolted from them. When they saw 8 ships at Harpagium and Priapus which came from Byzantium, they attacked them. When they had beaten those who defended the ships from the shore, they captured the ships for their own use. They sailed to the unwalled town of Cyzicum and captured it and extorted a large sum of money from them. (Thucid. l. 8.)

3593d AM, 4303 JP, 411 BC

1343. Alcibiades sailed from Samos with 22 ships and exacted large sums of money from those of Halycarnasius. He destroyed the country of Cos and fortified the town of Cos with a wall. Since winter was now approaching, he returned with much spoil to Samos. (Thucid. l. 8., Diod. 2nd year of 92nd Olympiad)

1344. Astacus a Persian and lieutenant to Tissaphernes conceived a secret deadly hatred against the men of Delos. These were driven out of their old habitation and dwelt at Atramytrium. When he came that way, he sent for all the chief men among them as friends and confederates to come and serve the king in his wars. At the time when they were altogether eating dinner, he surrounded them with his soldiers and they killed everyone with their darts. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1345. Those of Antandrus in Eolia feared lest Astacus would do the same to them. They also disliked the heavy taxes which he imposed on them. Therefore, they sent for some Peloponesian soldiers from Abydus. They brought them secretly over Mount Ida into their city and expelled the garrison of Astacus from the citadel. (Thucid. l. 8.)

1346. Tissaphernes returned from Aspendus into Ionia and was greatly disturbed by this last attempt of Antandrus and with others of Miletus and Cnidus. There the inhabitants expelled his garrisons also. He thought himself wronged by the Poloponesians. Therefore, he feared worse things from them and was troubled lest Pharnabazus in a shorter time and with far less cost should seem to have done more against the Athenians than he had done. Therefore he planned to go in person to the Poloponesians in Hellespont to reason with them concerning their expelling his garrison from Antandrus and to clear himself from the charges against him concerning the Phoenician fleet and other matters. As soon as he was come to Ephesus, he sacrificed to Diana. (Thucid. l. 8. in fi.) Here ends the History of Thucidides which Theopompus continues for 17 more years and Xenophon for 48 years after that. (Diod. 2nd year of 92nd Olympiad.) The writings of Theopompus are lost but the latter we do have partially preserved for us. Besides the poem of his history, we lack the first two years of it. That is from the end of the summer of the 21st year of the Peloponesian war where Thucidides left off, to the end of the 23rd summer of the same war.

3594 AM, 4304 JP, 410 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:25:24 AM
 1347. Concerning the 300 ships sent back to Phoenicia, Tissaphernes cleared himself with the Lacedemonians by saying that he had received news that the coast of Phoenicia was in danger of attack by the Arabians and the king of Egypt (meaning king Amyrteus) (as Diod. Sic. has it, 3rd year of the 93rd Olympiad.) However, Thucidides states that there only came 147 ships to Aspendus from Phoenicia and that they were all sent back again by Tissaphernes contrary to his promise.

3595c AM, 4305 JP, 409 BC

1348. There was another naval battle between the Lacedemonians and Athenians at Cynos-sema. This was described by Theopompus, as a certain nameless Greek writer says, in the life of Thucidides.

3595d AM, 4305 JP, 409 BC

1349. Thymochares came to Athens with a small fleet of ships. There was another naval battle between the Lacedemonians and Athenians. The Lacedemonians under the command of Hegesandridus won. (Xen. in the beginning of his History of the Greeks. l. 1.)

1350. Not long after this in the beginning of winter, Dorieus, the admiral of the Thurian fleet from Italy sailed with 14 ships from Rhodes to the Hellespont to meet Mindarus. He was at Abydus for a meeting of all the friends and confederates of the Peloponesian nation. When Dorieus had sailed as far as Sigeum, a port in Troas, the Athenian navy at Sestos found out about his trip and destination. They sailed toward him with 20 ships. When Dorieus heard of their coming, he fled from there and beached his ships on the Rhaetaean shore. When he landed his men, with the help of the men of Dardania, they warded off an Athenian attack. When the Athenians saw that they could not prevail, they sailed back to Madytus to join the rest of their army. Mindarus who at that time happened to be at old Troy sacrificing to Minerva, saw this battle. He raced with 84 ships to the cape of Dardania to meet Dorieus and to save his ships. He also found the army of Pharnabazus ready to help the Lacedemonian navy against their enemies. The Athenian fleet of 74 ships came close to the shore of Abydus and there started a naval battle. Mindarus commanded 97 ships besides those of Dorieus. He placed the Syracusians in the left wing and he took the right wing. On the other side, Thrasybulus had the right wing and Thrasyllus the left. The fight lasted from morning to evening, neither side winning. Suddenly Alcibiades came sailing in with 18 fresh ships from Samos headed towards the Hellespont. When the Lacedemonians saw this, they fled towards Abydus. The Athenians chased them and captured 10 of their ships. A violent storm arose which prevented the Athenians from finishing off their enemies. The Peloponesians all escaped safely to shore and fled to the army of Pharnabazus that was there. During the battle, Pharnabazus rode his horse into the sea up to its saddle-skirts and fought. He commanded his army to do likewise. The Peloponesians locked their ships close together into one mass and fought against their enemies from the decks close to the shore. When the night was drawing on, the Athenians returned to Samos with 30 empty ships which they had captured and there own fleet including the damaged ships. The next morning as soon as it was light, they gathered what spoils they could from the wrecked ships of their enemies. They erected a monument to the event and then left 40 ships to guard the Hellespont. The rest of the fleet was assigned to various destinations. Some gathered their tribute money. One of their chief captains, Thrasyllus, sailed back to Athens to let them know what a victory they had. He desired a supply of men and shipping for the carrying on of the war in those parts. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1. Diod. Sic. l. 13. Plutarch in the Life of Alcibiades.)

1351. About the first watch of the night, Mindarus went back to the seaside, and gave orders for repairing his ships which were damaged in the battle. He sent in all haste to Lacedemon for fresh supplies both by land and sea. While this was happening he planned to join his army with Pharnabazus to capture the tributary cities of the Athenians, that were in Asia. (Diod. Sic. l. 13.)

3596a AM, 4305 JP, 409 BC

1352. In the mean time, Tissaphernes came into the Hellespont. Alcibiades planned to magnify himself after so glorious a victory over the Lacedemonians. He came to Tissapernes with rich presents and a princely train. Tissaphernes was in ill repute with the Lacedemonians and feared lest some accusation would be made against him to Darius. He laid hold on Alcibiades and put him in irons at Sardis. He pretended that this was the king's command and to show that he counted the Athenians as enemies. Within a month, he escaped with a fellow prisoner, Manitheus of Caria. He got horses and they escaped by night to Clazomenae. They let on that it was with the consent of Tissaphernes. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1. Plutarch in Alcibia.)

3596b AM, 4306 JP, 408 BC

1353. Toward the end of winter, Mindarus with 60 ships went to Cyzicum and joined with the army of Pharnabus. They captured Cyzicum by force. 86 ships under the command of Alcibiades, Thrasybulus and Theramenes attacked him. Mindarus was first routed at sea and then in a second fight on land in which Mindarus fought bravely and was killed. When the troops from Syracuse saw no means of escape, they set their own ships on fire. The rest of the fleet was captured by the Athenians who sailed them all to Proecannesus. This fight is more fully described (by Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1. by Diod. Sic. l. 13. by Plutarch in the Life of Alcibiades and by Polyanin, Stratag. l. 1.)

1354. The next day, the Athenians sailed from Proeconnesus to Cyzicum and they were received into the city which was abandoned by Pharnabazus and the Peloponesians. (Xenoph.) There they erected two monuments, the one for their victory at sea at the isle of Polydorus and the other for that on land where they first put the enemies to flight. (Diod. Sic.)

1355. Alcibiades stayed at Cyzicum 20 days. When he had extracted a vast sum of money from them, he departed without doing them any harm and returned to Proeconnesus. (Xenoph.)

1356. The commanders of the Athenians which remained behind at Cyzicum, came at length to Chalcedon, There they walled Chrysopolis and made it a place to gather tolls from every ship that passed by from Pontus. (Xenphon Hellen. l. 1. Polyb. l. 4. p. 312. Diod. Sic. 4th year of 92nd Olympiad) They left a garrison and a fleet of 30 ships there under the command of Theramenes and Eubulus. This was to keep the town, to watch what ships came in and out at the mouth of Pontus and to do what mischief they could to the enemy. (Xenoph.)

1357. The Athenians intercepted letters written concisely from Hippocrates, the lieutenant of Mindarus to Lacedemon to the Ephori concerning the loss they had sustained at Cyzicum. It said:

``All is lost. Mindarus is dead. Our men starve. We know not what to do.'' (Xenoph. and Plutarch.)

1358. The Lacedemonians sued for peace which was opposed by those who made a living from the war. (Justin. l. 5. c. 4.) For though the moderates of the Athenians were inclined to peace yet those who made their living by it chose to continue the war. Cleophon was one of the principal leaders of this latter group. He had spoken many proper things. Diod. Sic. elegantly expresses it:

``He made the people proud by recounting to them the greatness of their good successes, as if fortune did not bestow her favours in the war by turns.''

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:26:06 AM
 1359. Cleophon with his fiery speeches stirred up the people to a carry on the war, though to his own shame later. He made lyres and it was common knowledge that he had been a slave and kept in irons. Later by various devices came to live in Athens. At this time, he won the people over to him by his munificence and grew so bold as to openly profess:

``that he would with his own hand cut off that man's head whomever he were, that would offer to speak any more of a peace''

1360. This is according to Eschines in his Oration, De false legation, i.e. of a false embassy.

1361. The Peloponesians and their confederates from Syracuse and as many as had escaped alive from the fight, went to Pharnabazus. He courteously entertained and comforted them. (Diod. Sic. l. 13) He said they should not be discouraged by the loss of a few wooden ships since the king had more than enough wood in his kingdom to build more ships. The main thing was that the men were safe. He gave every man a new suit of clothes and two months pay in advance. He armed the sailors and placed garrisons all along the sea coast of his government. He assembled all the commanders of cities, and captains of every ship and ordered them to build as many new ships at Antandrus, as they had lost. He paid for this and allowed them to use timber from the mount Ida. When this was done, he sent to relieve Chalcedon. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1.)

3596c AM, 4306 JP, 408 BC

1362. While this navy was being built, the men of Syracuse joined with the inhabitants of Antandrus and built a wall around the town. They greatly fortified the place. In return the Antandrians gave the Syracusians free use of their city. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1.)

1363. The captains of these troops from Syracuse were exiled by their country men at home. Their general Hermocrates, accused Tissaphernes at Lacedemon and they believed him and also the testimony of Astyochus. Hermocrates returned to Pharnabazus and without even asking he received from him a large sum of money. When he procured men and ships, he returned into his own country. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1. with Diod. Sic. 4th year of 92nd Olympiad.)

1364. Parasippidas was condemned to be exiled to Sparta, because it was thought that by his plotting with Tissaphernes, he had procured all that favoured the Lacedemonian party. In a riot at the isle of Thasus he was expelled. Cratesippidas was sent to replace him and take charge of the navy at Chios. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1.)

1365. With 25 ships he wasted his time about the coast of Ionia and did nothing worth the speaking of for a long time. Later when he was paid by the exiles from Chios, he brought them home again. He routed out the 600 of the opposing faction. These lived at Atarneum, the most fortified place on the continent opposite Chios and made daily attacks on them from there. (Diod. Sic. 4th year of the 92nd Olymiad)

3596d AM, 4306 JP, 408 BC

1366. In the 93rd Olympiad, Eubotas the Cyrenian won the prize in running. Archippus was the Ephorus at Lacedemon. Euctemon was the Archon at Athens. There was a new game introduced in the Olympics. It was a race by a team of mules pulling a coach, called Eugwqizà or sugwqiz, (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1.) (Diod. Sic. l. 13.) (Pausan. l. 1.) (Eliac. Julius Africanus in Catalog. Stadionicarum) Africanus adds that in the same Olymnpiad, Polydamantes the Seotussian won the prize at wrestling. He was the same man whom Darius Nothus sent for by messengers with large gifts for him to come to him at Susa. When he came he slew three of the king's guard, who were called the Immortal Guard. (Herod. l. 7. c. 83.) These rushed in on him all at once according to Pausan in his later book Eliator. In the same book, he mentions Eubotas, surnamed Stadionicus, who when the Oracle of Ammon had foretold that he should win the prize at running, had his own statue made before hand. When he did win the prize, he dedicated his statue in testimony of this all in one day.

1367. In this year, the Medes who had defected from Darius the king of the Persians, submitted to him again. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1.) Herodotus in the beginning of his History, (c. 130.) relates how the Medes revolted from Darius. They were defeated and again brought under his control. Because he makes mention of the war at Decelaea, (Herod. l. 9. c. 71.) which was waged 5 years earlier and of Amyraeus' son reigning after him, (Herod. l. 3. c. 15.) (of whom I shall speak more in the year following), I gather that he either wrote or at least revised his History in the very later end of the Peloponesian war.

1368. In the beginning of the summer, Thrasyllus at Athens, took command of the ships committed to his charge with 5000 sailors. These were all armed as targeteers and he was to join with those other targeteers at Samos. When he had stayed there 3 days, he sailed to the coast of Pygega in Ionia. He first wasted the country in that area. He came at last with his army before the wall of the town. When some reinforcements came from Miletus, they attacked the lightly armed Athenians who were busy gathering the spoil from the country. The rest of the Athenians came to relieve their troops, and killed most of the Milesians. They gathered 200 of their bucklers from the slain and erected a monument with them. The next day they sailed to Notium and there took on supplies. They sailed to Colophas which presently yielded to them. The next night they entered into Lydia when their grain was almost ripe. They set many villages on fire. While they were scattered here and there and minded nothing but their plundering, Stages, a Persian, (the same Tages, as it should seem, which I mentioned before in the year of the world, 3592 from Thucidides) attacked them with his horse and took one prisoner, and slew seven of them. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1.)

1369. When Tissaphernes understood that Thrasyllus was ready to set sail for Ephesus to attack it by surprise, he gathered all the troops he could find. He sent about messengers into all parts, to order men to come in and defend Diana of the Ephesians. When Thrasyllus had spent 17 days in Lydia, he set sail for Ephesus. He landed his foot soldiers at Coressus, but the cavalry, targeteers and all the other soldiers, he landed on shore near a bog on the other side of the town. As soon as it was light, they approached the town in two companies. The troops in the town with the reinforcements Tissaphernes had sent them first attacked the foot solders who were at Coressus. They had routed them and pursued them to the seaside killing 100 men. After this they returned quickly and attacked those who were located near the bog. When they routed the Athenians and killed 300 of them, they erected one monument there and another at Coressus. Concerning their reinforcements, they highly rewarded the companies from Syracuse and Selinuntia because they behaved most valiantly. They promised freedom from taxes for ever to those that were expelled from their home city. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1.) Plutarch also in the Life of Alcibiades mentions a brass monument set up to mock the Athenian nation.

1370. After a truce was made, the Athenians received the bodies of their slain and buried them at Notium. They sailed away to Lesbos and Hellespont. When they anchored at Methymna, a city of Lesbos, they spied 25 ships of the Syracusians with whom they fought at Ephesus. They attacked them and took 4 ships with all the men in them and routed the rest. They pursued them as far as Ephesus. Thrasyllus sent all the prisoners which he had taken to Athens, except for Alcibiades an Athenian, first cousin to Alcibiades and a banished man. These two were executed. They sailed for Sestus where the army was. From Sestus the whole army went to Lampsacus for the winter which they reckon from the beginning of autumn. When Alcibiades at Lampsacus wanted to create one large army, his soldiers refused to be mixed with those who had served under Thrasyllus. They said:

``We who have ever been conquerors, to be counted with those that were beaten and routed but the other day.'' (Xen. Hellen. 1.)

3597a AM, 4306 JP, 408 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:26:37 AM
 1371. When Alcibiades and Thrasyllus troops had wintered together at Lampsacus, (Diodorus writes, "Labdacus") had fortified the area. They went to besiege Abydus. Pharnabazus came with a very great army to relieve it. He fought with the Athenians and was routed. Alcibiades chased Pharnabazus with his cavalry and 120 foot soldiers following him. He did not stop the chase until late in the night. After this victory, the whole army became friends and mixed with each other. They returned triumphantly into their camp from where they set out.

1372. The next day Alcibiades set up a monument and went and wasted Pharnabazus' province with fire and sword without any opposition. All the priests which he took, he let go free without a ransom. (Plutarch in Life of Alcibiades)

1373. When the Lacedemonians were upset with Tissaphernes, they sent Boeotius and other ambassadors with him to Darius. Boeotius easily obtained from Darius all that they ever wanted. (Xen. Hellen. l. 1. 7.)

1374. In the same winter Alcibiades and Thrasyllus armies attacked various countries that belonged to Darius on the continent and reeked havock there. (Xen. Hellen. l. 1. 7.)

3597b AM, 4307 JP, 407 BC

1375. Darius put his 16 year old son Cyrus the younger in charge of all the sea coast. He was born after his father became king. (Ctesias affirms this and Plutarch also in the Life of Artaxerxes.) He had the title of satrap or governor of all those countries. He headed the army that was in the plain of Castolus in Lydia. He was ordered to join with the Lacedemonians in fighting the Athenians. (Xen. Hellen. l. 1. 7.) (Expedit. Cyri. l. 1. in instio.) Justin (Justin, l. 5. c. 5.) from Trogus, says,

``Darius king of Persia made his younger son Cyrus governor of all Ionia and Lydia. It was he who restored the Lacedemonians to former strength.''

1376. Diodorus expressly states that Darius sent his son Cyrus to this very end, that in pursuing the war against the Athenians, he should relieve and help the Lacedemonians. (1st year of the 93rd Olympiad.) He also correctly states that Cyrus was made commander of all the governors by the sea coast (2nd year of the 94th Olympiad.) and (in the 2nd year of the same Olympiad) that he was made commander-in-chief, over all the provinces lying on the sea coast. It is obvious that both Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus though both satraps and governors of their provinces were both under his command.

1377. We read in Euseb. Chron. that after Amyrtaeus of Sois, Nepherites the king of a new dynasty succeeded him in the kingdom of Egypt. However we find, (Diod. Sic. 1st year Olympiad 95) that next before Nephereus or Nepherites, Psammitichus reigned in Egypt. He was descended of the family of that old Psammetichus whom Manetho places in the 26th Dynasty who was also of the Sais. {*Manetho, 1:169} So that a man may well doubt, whether this was not Pausiris the son of Amyrtaeus, who by the help of the Persians recovered his father's kingdom, as Herodotus states. (Herod. l. 3. c. 5.) Concerning the number of this and other Egyptian kings' reigns, we have already discussed in our Egyptian Chronology.

3597c AM, 4307 JP, 407 BC

1378. In the beginning of the spring when Pantacles was Ephorus in Sparta and Antigenes Archon in Athens had held office for a year, the Athenians with all the forces they could gather, sailed into Proeconnesus. They left there and camped before Chalcedon. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1.) Diodor. says that they went to Theramenes, who at that time lay before Chalcedon with 70 ships and 5000 men. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 92.)

1379. When the inhabitants of Chalcedon heard of the approach of the Athenian army, they sent away all their goods to the Thracians of Bithynia who were their neighbours. When Alcibiades heard of this, he went with all his cavalry and a part of his foot soldiers and demanded all those goods from them. He threatened force if they refused to deliver them. When he received these goods, he made peace with the Bithynians and returned to his camp before Chalcedon. He built a wooden wall before the city across the neck of land from sea to sea. When Hippocrates the Lacedemonian commander saw this, he gathered all his forces and fought with Thrasyllus. The battle was drawn for a great while until Alcibiades came in with his forces, both of cavalry and footmen. Hippocrates was killed and his men fled back into the city. While the fight continued, Pharnabazus and all his army came another way outside the wooden wall. He fought unsuccessfully to break through to rescue Hippocrates. He retired to Heracleum or the Temple of Hercules, which was in the territory of Chalcedon where his own camp was well entrenched. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1. and Plutarch in the Life of Alcibiadis.)

3597d AM, 4307 JP, 407 BC

1380. After this Alcibiades and Chersonesus went into the Hellespont to gather tribute. The rest of the commanders, (though Diodorus says, only Theramenes) came to an agreement with Pharnabazus concerning Chalcedon. He would give them 20 talents and would convoy the Athenian ambassadors safely to the king. By solemn oath they covenanted with each other that the men of Chalcedon would pay the Athenians the same tribute as they did before with all arrears. In the mean time, the Athenians would not bother Chalcedon, until the return of their ambassadors from the king and the return Alcibiades. They sent two commissioners from Chalcedon and Pharnabazus sent two more from Crysopolis. They swore to keep this covenant and pledged their support to each other. (Xenoph.)

1381. When these things were done, Pharnabazus returned and wanted the ambassadors who were to go to the king, to meet him at Cyzicum. The names of the ambassadors were Dorothius, Philodices, Theogenes, Euryptolemus, Mautitheus and Cleostratus and Pyrolochus both from the Argivans. Passipedas and other ambassadors from the Lacedemonians also went. These all journeyed to the king. Hermocrates, who was banished from Syracuse and his brother Proxenus went with the group. (Xenoph.)

1382. While Pharnabazus was escorting the ambassadors to the king, Clearchus, a Lacedemonian commander, came to him from across the sea. He wanted money to pay their army and to assemble the ships into a fleet that were scattered, some at Antandrus, some in Hellespont and some in other places. He hoped to cause trouble for the confederate states of the Athenians. He hoped to draw off their forces from Byzantium. In his absence, Byzantium was betrayed and surrendered to the Athenians. (Xenop.)

1383. As these Athenian ambassadors were on their way to the king, they met Boeotius and the rest of the Lacedemonian ambassadors returning from the king. Cyrus was with them on his way to become governor of all the sea coasts of those parts. When they saw him they asked if they might safely continue their journey to the king and if not that they be allowed to return home safely. However, Cyrus ordered Pharnabazus either to turn over the ambassadors to him or to send them home again. Since Pharnabazus did not want the Athenians to know what was planned against them, he stalled for time. Sometimes he told them that he would take them to the king and sometimes that he would send them home again. So he delayed for three years (or rather, indeed of three months) and in the end by Cyrus' consent, he sent them home. (Xenop.)

1384. Alcibiades took 20 ships from Samos and sailed into the Bay of Ceramus in Caria. He gathered 100 talents and pillaged no less than 200 ships which he had either searched or sunk. He returned to Athens where he was declared general of all their armies with full and absolute power of command and received 200 talents from of the treasury of the city, (according to Lysias, in his oration, against his son Alcibiades.) He raised an army of 1500 foot soldiers and 150 cavalry with 100 ships. (Xephon, Hellen. 1. Diod. Sic. l. 13. Justin. l. 5. c. 4,5. Plutarch and Emil. Probus, in the Life of Alcibiades.)

1385. Satyrus the son of Spartacus, ruled the kingdom of Bosphorus Cimmerius for 14 years. (Diod. Sic. year 4 Olympiad 96.)

1386. The Lacedemonians replaced Cratesipidas their admiral when his term expired, by Lysander. When he came to Rhodes, he gathered the fleet there and sailed to the Isle of Cos and Miletus. From there he went to Ephesus with 70 ships and stayed there until Cyrus came to Sardis. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1.) Ephesus welcomed him and the Lacedemonians. They were grieved by the loss of trade caused by the Persians. The Persian governors stayed most often at Miletus and attracted all the trade from them to that city. Therefore Lysander made Ephesus his residence and ordered all merchant ships to unload there. He made docks and had all ships for the navy built there. In a short time he filled their port with ships and their city with commerce and wealth. (Plutarch, in the Life of Lysander.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:27:08 AM
 1387. When Lysander knew that Cyrus came to Sardis, he and the rest of the commissioners from Sparta went there to him. He charged Tissaphernes very heavily. When the king ordered him to support the Lacedemonians to rid the sea of the Athenians, he on the contrary by Alcibiades' subordinate grew remiss. He kept back their pay from the mariners and utterly destroyed the Lacedemonian navy. Cyrus was more than willing to receive any information against Tissaphernes who was not a good fellow. Lysander befriended Cyrus. The more Lysander pressed Cyrus to do things, the bolder Cyrus was to promise that all would be done. Cyrus added that it was his father's command that it should be so and assured him that there would be no want either of effort or money on his part. For that purpose, he raised the pay of the mariners and sea soldiers from 3 soles by the day to 4. He paid the whole army all that was in arrears and advanced a whole month's pay. He paid to Lysander 10000 darics for that purpose. By this, he put heart and courage into his seamen more than ever and left the Athenian fleet almost without sailors for the most of their ships. Because of greed for better pay, they left the Athenians and went to Lysander. Those who stayed grew idle and careless in the service and mutinous and troublesome daily to their commanders. (Xenoph, Hellen. l. 1. Diodor. l. 13. and Plut. in the Life Lysander.)

1388. When the Athenians heard this they were discouraged and through Tissaphernes, they sent ambassadors to Cyrus. Cyrus refused to see them even though Tissaphernes himself spoke for them. He told Cyrus that what he did, he did upon the advice of Alcibiades. His counsel was to hold the Greeks in balance and let neither side beat the other. Allow them to continue the war and by this to consume one another to nothing. (Id. ibid.) Although the Poloponesians were supported by the Persian purse, yet the Athenians held out for 3 whole years against them. (Thucid. l. 2.) Who can wonder that the Athenian state was defeated and came to nought since the power of all the east helped in their destruction. (Justin. l. 5. c. 1.)

1389. Lysander returned to Ephesus and he rested for a while. In that time, 90 of his damaged ships were refurbished. (Xephon. Hellen. 1. ) He sent for the leaders from every nearby city and made an alliance with them. He assured them that if everything in this war went as he hoped, he would make everyone of them a prince with his own city. They were so enthused that every man was ready to do more than Lysander could reasonably require from them. He had more provisions for the war effort than he could have imagined. (Diod. l. 13.)

1390. When Alcibiades had heard that Thrasybulus was gone out of Hellespont to fortify Phocaea, he sailed to him. He left the fleet in the meantime, under the charge of Antiochus with a strict command that he should in no wise stir or fight with Lysander in his absence. However, Antiochus planned to sail to Ephesus with his own vessel and one other from Notium, as Xenophon and Plutarch state. (Diodorus says, that he selected 10 of his best ships.) He skirted along under the very noses of Lysander's ships. First, Lysander set out with a small company of ships and pursued him. When more and more ships came to help Antiochus, Lysander drew out his whole fleet and the Athenians did the same from Notium and other places. They arrived there in a disorderly way. They quickly lost 15 ships and the rest fled to saftey. Antiochus was killed in the fight. Lysander erected a monument at Notium and returned with the ships which he had taken to Ephesus. The remaining ships of the Athenians went to Samos. When Alcibiades heard what had happened, he went with his whole fleet before the port of Ephesus and there ranged it in battle array. Lysander did not stir for he had far fewer ships than the Athenians. Alcibiades returned to Samos again. (Xenoph. Helllen. l. 1. Diodor. l. 13. Plut. in the Lives of Alcibiades and Lysander.)

1391. Alcibiades sailed from Samos to Cuma. He made many false charges against them and after he took many of them prisoners, he brought them aboard his ships. The Cumeans rallied and attacked their enemies. Alcibiades was able to hold them off until the rest of those in that area came to their aid. Alcibiades returned the prisoners and was forced to flee to his ships for safety. This bothered him so he sent for more troops to Mitylene. He drew his men forth in a battalion before the walls of Cuma and dared them to come out to battle. When no man stirred, he led his men back to Mitylene after he first ravaged the surrounding country.

1392. The Cumeans sent to Athens and made their case against Alcibiades for plundering a confederate city and the surrounding area which had not offended the Athenians. When this case was made, others also complained about his conduct and misdeeds. A garrison in Samos, which did not like him, stole over to Athens and informed against him. They publicly charged him before the whole assembly of the people that he was dishonest and had secret communications with the Lacedemonians. They said he had private correspondence with Pharnabazus who assured him that if the Lacedemonians won, he would be made ruler of Athens. (Diod. l. 13.)

3598a AM, 4307 JP, 407 BC

1393. The Cumeans on the one side and Thrasybulus on behalf of the armies on the other, accused Alcibiades of many wrong doings in his administration. Colon with 9 assistant commissioners were sent to replace Alcibiades as general of the army. When he heard of this, he sailed secretly to his own lands and citadels in the Chersonesus of Thrace, (Diodor. l. 13 Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1. Plutarch in the Life of Alcibiades)

3598b AM, 4308 JP, 406 BC

1394. Lysander sent for men having leadership qualities from the nearby cities and asked them to make as many friends as he could and help him. He assured them as before that as soon as the Athenians were defeated, he would replace the democratic governments in all those cities and make each one of them a ruler in his own city. (Plut. in the Life of Lysander.)

3598c AM, 4308 JP, 406 BC

1395. The moon was eclipsed 3 hours after sunset (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1.) on the 15th of April, according to the Julian Calendar. This is verified by the astronomical calculations.

1396. When Pityas was Ephorus at Sparta and Callias, Archon at Athens, Lysander's year of command expired. Callicratidas was sent to be admiral of the navy. Although Lysander hated him, he surrendered the command of the ships but he returned the money he had received from Cyrus for the navy, to Cyrus at Sardis. He told Callicratidas to go ask Cyrus if he could have it and see how he could get money to pay the navy. This forced Callicratidas to go to Lydia to Cyrus and get money for the navy. Since he was not well known, he quickly grew impatient waiting to see Cyrus. He was put off from day to day. He said the Greeks had come to a low estate if they must now stand begging for pay from a company of barbarians. He delivered his request and left. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1. and Plut. in the Life of Lysander.)

1397. Callicratidas sailed to Miletus and got the money from them for the navy. He sailed to Chios and took the citadel of Delphinium which was held by 500 Athenians and destroyed it. After he got more money there for the sailors, he went to Teos. He slipped into the town by night and sacked it. He came to Lesbos, where he took Methymna the chief city of the island. Conon, the Athenian, hurried to their rescue but arrived too late. When he came and found the situation hopeless, he began to sail away. Callicratidas chased him with his fleet of 170 ships. He attacked and defeated him. Conon lost 30 ships and fled with the 40 that were left to Mitylene. Callicratidas followed him there and blockaded him by sea and land. While he besieged Mitylene, Cyrus sent the money to him, he asked for. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1. Diod. Sic. l. 13.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:27:40 AM
 1398. The Athenian navy of 150 ships sailed to Mitylene to break the blockade. Callicratidas, left Eteonicus with 50 ships to continue the siege and he sailed with 120 ships to the Arginuse Islands which were between Malea, the bay of Lesbos and Cape Catanis in Asia. He attacked the Athenians and was killed. The Athenians won the battle but lost 25 ships and most of the crew. A few were saved by swimming to shore. The Peloponesians lost 77 ships and fled to Chios. Most of the remaining fleet retired into the countries of Curna and Phocea. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1. Diod. Sic. l. 13.) This battle at the Arginuse Islands happened when Callias was Archon at Athens, the 3rd year of the 93rd Olympiad. This is confirmed by Xenophon and Diodorus. Atheneus affirms this in his 5th book, Delphosoph.

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1399. Cyrus killed his two first cousins, Autobezaces and Mitreus, the sons of his father Darius' sister. When they met him, they had not pulled in their hands within their sleeves. This honour was reserved for the king only. Hieramenes and his wife, the parents, as it seems, of those who were killed heard about this. They told Darius that it was a shame for him to ignore so foul a deed by his son. Therefore, Darius sent for his son to come to him pretending that he was sick. Darius was in his camp at Thamneria in the country of the Medes where he went with his army against the Cadusians, a bordering nation which had recently revolted from him. (Xenophon Hellen. l. 2.)

1400. The Lacedemonians who were scattered in the countries of Eolia and Ionia, met together at Ephesus. They sent messengers to Lacedemon to let them know how things went with them in Asia and to request that they might again have Lysander for their general. He had proved his worth in the previous year. Cyrus also joined with them in this request. Their law stated that the same man could not be twice admiral of their fleet. Therefore they gave the title of admiral to Aracus but committed the whole management of the war to Lysander as a lieutenant to Aracus. Lysander came to Ephesus and sent to Eteonicus to come to him with his ships from Chios. He was to gather from Peloponesus and other lands all the ships that he could. Lysander repaired those which he had and built new ones in the port at Antandrus. (Xenophon. Hellen. l. 2. Diodorus in the 3rd and 4th years of the 93rd Olympiad. Plutarch in the Life of Lysander.)

1401. Lysander journeyed to Cyrus and desired money from him as before. He got it after much difficulty. Cyrus made it appear to him that because he was so generous to him in the past, he was short of funds. Lysander immediately appointed sea captains over every ship and paid every ship and sailor his due. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 2.)

1402. When the Carthaginians captured Gela in Sicily, they took the huge brass statue of Apollo, which was in his temple in the suburbs of the city, back to Tyre. (Diod. year 4. Olympiad 93.)

1403. When Cyrus received his father's message, he sent for Lysander to come unto him at Sardis. He did not want him to fight the Athenians at sea until he had a far larger fleet than he had now. He promised that when he returned he would bring with him a very great navy from Phoenicia Cilicia and other surrounding areas. He committed the care of all the cities of his government to Lysander. All tributes that belonged to him, he assigned to Lysander. What was left over he said Lysander could keep for himself. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 2. Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 93. Plutarch in the Life of Lysander.)

1404. Cyrus journeyed to his father and took Tissaphernes as a friend along with him and 300 Greek foot soldiers under the command of Xenophon of Arcadia. (Xenophon de Expedit. Cyri, l. 1. p. 243, 254.)

1405. When Cyrus was gone, Lysander paid his army and went with his fleet to Ceramium a bay in Caria. He attacked the town Cedreas which was a confederate of the Athenians and captured it the next day. He sacked it and enslaved its inhabitants who were no better than a kind of half barbarous people. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 2.) However Diodorus (year 4. Olympiad 93.) states:

``Lysander, with a great number of ships attacked Thasus, a city of Caria and confederate of the Athenians. He took it by force, and cut the throats of the 800 men there. He sold the women and children as slaves and levelled the city to the ground.''

1406. He writes "Thasians" instead of "Cedrenians." These were the inhabitants of the isle of Thasus. These lived far off from there. After the defeat of the Athenians at Egos Potamos and the final ruin of Athens, the Thasians were not taken by force by Lysander but surprised by a ruse of his. This we may easily learn from a broken passage of (Emil. Probus, in the Life of Lysander,) and the complete account of the matter by (Polyenus, l. 1. Stratagem.)

3599d AM, 4309 JP, 405 BC

1407. At Miletus, a man overturned the democratic government there with the help of Lysander. In the Feast of Bacchus, they cut the throats of 40 of those those who opposed them in their own homes. Afterward in a crowded market, they seized 300 more of the richest people and cut off their heads. About 1000 of the important people who feared for their lives, fled to Pharnabazus, the Persian governor in those parts. He entertained them very kindly and gave every one of them a statue of gold. He gave them a citadel in Claudia called Clauda to live in. (I think this may be the island of Clauda mentioned in Ac 27:16.) (Dior. year 4. Olympiad 93.)

1408. The Athenians set sail from Samos and came to Chios and Ephesus. When they had wasted the king's countries in these areas, they prepared for a sea battle. Meanwhile Lysander sailed with his fleet from Rhodes and left Ionia on the right hand and went to Hellespont. He planned to blockade that strait and destroy all cities in those parts that had revolted from him. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 2.)

1409. Lysander sailed from Abydus with his fleet to Lampsacus, a confederate city of the Athenians. He was met by the men from Abydus who came by land and others under the command of Thorax, a Lacedemonian captain. They attacked the city, captured and sacked it. It was rich, full of grain, wine and other provisions. He sent away the Athenian garrison. According to his word, he allowed all freemen there to enjoy their liberty. When he had given its spoil to his soldiers, he left the place to its inhabitants. (Plutarch. in the life of Lysander.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:28:09 AM
 1410. The Athenian navy of 180 ships, was wholly surprised and taken by Lysander at Egos Potamos, in the strait of Hellespont. Barely 10 ships escaped with 3000 soldiers and their commanders. (Plutarch. in the life of Lysander.)

1411. Conon their admiral, saw the Athenian cause was now hopeless. He did not want to return to Athens for fear of the cruelty of his country men. He escaped with 9 ships only to Cape Abarinders in Lampsacus. He took from there some main masts of Lysander's ships and sailed away to to his good acquaintence, Euagoras, king of Cyprus. He sent a small ship to Athens to tell them what had happened to him at Egos Potomos. (Plutarch. in the life of Lysander, with Isocrat. in his Euagoras, Aristot. l. 2., Rhetor. Justin l. 5. c. 6. and Aristid. in Oratio. Rhodiaca.)

1412. Lysander had rifled their camp and carried away the ships, prisoners and spoils and everything else. He found the Triumphant Songs to Lampsacus for pipe and flute. The same day he sent Theopompus who had been a Milesian pirate, to Lacedon with the news of this victory. He went in the best ship with pennants and streamers flying and all other magnificent attire. Philocles the captain took 3 days to complete the journey. They had 3000 Athenian prisoners with them who had their throats cut except for Adimantus. (Xenoph. Diodor. Plutarch.)

1413. When Lysander had set all things in order at Lampsacus, he sailed to Byzantium and Chalcedon. Both cities opened their gates to him and sent away the Athenian garrisons in both places giving his word for safe conduct. When they who had formerly betrayed Byzantium to Alcibiades got away, they first went into Pontus and from there to Athens where they were all made free citizens. Lysander placed Sthenelaus, a Lacedemonian as governor of both Byzantium and Chalcedon. He returned to Lampsacus to repair his navy. (Xen. Hellen. l. 2.)

1414. Lysander expelled from every city any who favoured the Athenians and destroyed the democraties and all other forms of government he found. He left them only, Harmostae as they were called in Sparta or Moderators to govern them. Each city was divided into ten wards. He appointed ten men to rule the city. He only chose those who were formally loyal to him or would sware allegence to him. Thus he created a Decemvirate or a government of ten men in every city. These were all loyal to him and did his bidding. (Plut. and Emil. Prob. in the life of Lysander.)

1415. After Lysander had spent a little time in this, he sent word to Sparta that he was ready to sail with 200 ships. Together with Agis and Pausanias, the Spartan kings, he immediately came to besiege Athens, hoping to take it in a short time. When he found that they defended themselves beyond his expectation, he returned into Asia. There he abolished all deomocraties and established everywhere his Decemvirates or government by ten men. He killed many and forced the rest to flee for their lives. At Miletus he helped his friends destroy the democratie there. They had joined an opposing party. He most cunningly managed the matter so that he delivered no less than 800 of the democratic party to be murdered by those which stood for an aristocracy in that city. (Plutarch. in the life of Lysander.)

3600c AM, 4310 JP, 404 BC

1416. The Athenians were besieged by sea and land by the Lacedemonians. They surrendered under certain conditions. However, on the 16th day of Munichion the Attic month (the 24th of April, according to the Julian Calender) as Plutarch in his life reports, they were told that they had broken the articles because they had not demolished their walls within the 10 day time limit. Hence, it is gathered, that that peace tready was made upon the 6th of their month Munichion, that is on April 14. Thus ended the Peloponesian war after 27 years of fighting. (Thucidides in his 5th book)

1417. Shortly after this peace, Darius king of all Asia died after he had reigned for 19 years. His oldest son, Artaxerxes reigned for 43 years after him. (Diodor. Sic. year 4 Olympiad 93.) However, Ctesias who was physician to Artaxerxes, says, that Darius Ochus died at Babylon. He was succeeded by Arsacus or Arsaces who was born to him by Parysatis before he became king. When he became king, he changed his name to Artaxerxes. From respect the greatness of that king, he was surnamed Mnemon. To which also, as I conceive refers that account of (Athenaus, l. 12. Deipnosoph.) where he says that when Ochus was dying, he was asked by his oldest son by what wisdom and policy he had guided the state for so many years. He wanted to learn from the king the correct way to rule the kingdom. The old king replied that he had done it by always doing right to both God and man. Darius Ochus was often urged by his wife Parylatis, who loved her younger son Cyrus more than the older to follow the example of Darius Hystaspes. He left his first son that was born after he became king, the kingdom not the first born son who was born before this. However he would not listen to her. By his last will, he gave the kingdom to his oldest son Artaxerxes and to his younger son Cyrus all those cities and territories which he had at that time under his government in Asia. (Plutarch in the life of Artaxerxes. Justin. l. 5. c. 11.)

1418. As soon as Artaxerxes came to the throne, his wife Statyra persuaded him to take Vadiastes, who had murdered Terituchmes, her brother and husband to Amistris, who was Artaxerxes' own sister. He had his tongue to be drawn backward out of his mouth and be cut off and he was killed. He made Mitredates or Mithridates' son, (who had preserved the city Zaris for the son of Terituchmes), satrap or governor in his place. (Ctesias)

1419. Artaxerxes went to Pasargada, where according to the custom, he was to take off his robe and to put on the robe which old Cyrus had worn before he became king. He was inaugurated according to the ancient regal ceremonies by the priests of Persia. Tissaphernes brought him the priest, who had instructed his brother Cyrus in his childhood, according to the custom of his country and taught him the principles of the art of magic. He was trusted by Artaxerxes when he accused Cyrus of plotting against the king. When Artaxerxes was taking off his own robes, he attacked his brother and planned to murder him in the very temple. (Plutarch. in the life of Artax.)

1420. Artaxerxes had his brother held for he planned to have him executed. He put him in gold chains out of the respect of his royal blood. When he was to be killed, his mother caught him about the middle and then threw her hair around his neck and tied him with her hair. After many tears and lamentations she secured his pardon and position back. He was sent again to his command in Lydia and the other sea towns in Asia. (Plutarch. in the life of Artax., Xenoph. in Expediso. Cyri. l. 1. Justin. l. 4. c. Ult., Ctesias.)

1421. Alcibiades feared the power of the Lacedemonians who commanded all the sea and land. He left that part of Bithynia which belonged to the Thracians and carried with him a great quantity of silver and gold. However, he left much more behind in the citadel where he had been. As soon as the Thracians knew about his wealth, they planned to catch him and take his money. They missed him for he stole secretly away to Pharnabazus in Phrygia. He was so taken and enamoured with Alcibiades' gentle behaviour that no man was so close to him as Alcibiades was. Hence he gave him the citadel of Grynium in Phrygia. He made 50 talents a year in tribute from the place. (Plut. and Emil. Prob. in the life of Alcibiades.)

1422. The Lysandrian feast and games were instituted in honour of Lysander. When Antimachus and Niceratus contested in Poetry, Lysander gave the garland to Niceratus. Antimachus was so disappointed that he burnt his own poem. The youth, Plato, cheered him and told him that ignorance harmed only the ignorant themselves, as blindness did the blind. (Plut. in the life of Lysander, with Diod. Sic. 4th. year 93rd Olympiad, from Apollodorus.)

3600d AM, 4310 JP, 404 BC

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:28:38 AM
 1423. In the next Olympiad after the capture of Athens by Lysander, Crocinas a Thessalian won the prize in running. This was the 94th Olympiad. Xenephon (Xeneph. Hellen. 2.) states that there was an eclipse of the sun which the astronomical calculations show happened on the morning of September 3.

3601a AM, 4310 JP, 404 BC

1424. When Cyrus returned safely into Lydia, he remembered how his brother had shackled him and began to plan how he might avoid future problems with his brother and how he might make himself king. Therefore he gathered as many Greek soldiers as possible and made various excuses to gather a great army from many nations. He planned a surprise attack on his brother. (Xenoph. Exped. Cyr. l. 1. Plutarch in the Life of Artaxerxes.) He sent Lysander a gift of a ship made all of gold and ivory, 2 cubits (a yard) high. He congratulated him with this gift for the great sea victory he had. Lysander put the present in the treasury of Brasidas and Acanthians. (Plutarch in his Lysander) Lysander came to him at Sardis to deliver a present from all the confederate cities. Among these things was perhaps that jewel or necklace, which Elian. (Var. Histor. l. 12. c. 1.) says, was sent to him from Scopas the younger from Thessaly. Cyrus welcomed him and showed him his orchard which he had laid out and planted himself. He entertained Lysander with a discourse on husbandry as recorded by Xenophon in his Oesonimies, in the person of Socrates.

1425. Among the Persians, Satabarzanes accused Orontes for keeping company with Parysatis, the king's mother. His other wife had always been faithful to him. Therefore Orontes was executed. Parysatis grew unhappy with her son and had Mithridatis that son of Terituchnes' son to be poisoned. (Ctesias.)

1426. When Alcibiades learned that Cyrus intended to make a war against his brother with the Lacedemonian's support, he planned to go quickly to Artaxerxes. He wanted to be the first to expose this treason and hoped to get some reward for himself as Themistocles had done before him. He also wanted the king's help to free his country of Athens from their Lacedemonian bondage. Meanwhile, Critias, one of those 30 tyrants, whom Lysander had set over the Athenians to rule them, told Lysander to have Alcibiades killed or all that he did at Athens would be undone. Lysander did nothing until a cipher was brought him from Lacedemon ordering him to kill Alcibiades. Lysander sent to Pharnabazus to let him know that unless he immediately gave him Alcibides either dead or alive, the league between the king and the Lacedemonians would be broken and war would break out again. Pharnabazus sent Susamithres' uncle and Magaeus, (whom Emil. Probus calls Bagoas) to murder Alcibiades while he was in a certain place in Phrygia called Melissa near the mountain of Elophois. He was preparing for his journey toward the king.

1427. The people of the country whom they had hired to kill him, dared not attempt it directly. In the dead of the night they put a great pile of wood around the house where he was sleeping and set it on fire. When Alcibiades escaped they shot arrows at him which killed him. They carried his head to Pharnabazus. His sweet heart wrapped the rest of his body in her own gown. (A little before he had dreamed that he was wrapped in it.) She buried the body in the same fire which the house was burned with and gave him as honourable a funeral as she could afford. (Ephorus l. 17. cited by Diod. year 1. Olym. 94. Aristot. Histor. Animal. l. 6. c. 29. Cic. l. 1. de Divina. Valer. Max. l. 1. c. 7. Justin. l. 5. c. 8. Athen. Deipnosaph. l. 13. Plutarch and Emil. Prob. in their lives of Alcibiades.)

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1428. Clearchus a Lacedemonian was a tyrant of Byzantium. He was overthrown by his own people under the leadership of Panthoedas. He stole away by night and came into Ionia. He learned that Cyrus planned to attack his brother. He befriended Cyrus and was made general of all his forces. Cyrus found that he was a proud, courageous and daring man. He gave him 10000 dracmas. He raised forces and marching from Chersonsus and attacked the Thracians that bordered northward upon Hellespont. Because it seemed to the advantage of the Greeks, therefore the cities of Hellespont contributed willingly to the support of the army. So that these forces were maintained secretly for the service of Cyrus. (Xenophon de Expedit. Cyri. l. 1. Diodor. year 2. Olympiad 94.)

3601c AM, 4311 JP, 403 BC

1429. Lysander brutally wasted the province of Phrygia and other places under the government of Pharnabazus. Therefore he complained about this at Lacedemon where he was held in great esteem and much beloved because he had much wealth and always supported their state against its enemies. Therefore the Ephori were greatly displeased with Lysander. They killed Thorax, his good friend because they found that he had a store of money in his house. They sent their cypher to Lysander and recalled him from Asia. Hereupon Lysander entreated Pharnabazus to write letters to justify him. This he publicly did. These were so well done that Lysander could not have wished for better. Since he had other letters already written, he inserted them into the bundle when they were sealed. He sent them away by Lysander to Lacedemon for the Ephori. Thereby, he was made to be the accuser against himself. (Plut. and Emil. Prob. in their lives, of Lysander and Polyanus, l. 7. Stratagem.)

1430. Not long after this, he was permitted by the Ephori to travel to visit the temple of Jupiter Ammon. He pretended that it was to pay the vows which he had made before he entered into certain battles which he had fought in their service. However the real purpose was to bribe the priests there for his own ends. To that end, he carried with him a large sum of money. There he had an old friend of his father, King Lybis. In memorial of that friendship his father named his younger brother, Lybis. The chief priest of that oracle would not be bribed and informed against him at Sparta. When he returned to Sparta, he was called into question for it but was acquitted by the court. (Diodor. year 2 of the 94th Olympiad, Plutarch and Emil. Probus in their lives of Lysander.)

3602 AM, 4312 JP, 402 BC

1431. At this time all the cities of Ionia, except Miletus which was under the government of Tissaphernes, defected to Cyrus. When Tissaphernes was residing at Miletus, he learned that the Milesians were also inclined toward Cyrus. He thwarted their purpose by killing some of them and expelling others. When these came to Cyrus, he graciously received them. He immediately gathered an army by land and sea to restore to them their city. (Xen. De Expedit. Cy. l. 1. p. 244.) Among his army was Socrates of Achaia with 500 foot soldiers and Pasio of Megara with almost 700 more. (Xen. De Expedit. Cy. l. 1. p. 245) Cyrus' admiral, Tamos an Egyptian, blockaded Miletus with 25 ships. (Xen. De Expedit. Cy. l. 1. p. 252.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:29:46 AM
 1432. Cyrus sent to Artaxerxes requesting that he would entrust those cities to him rather than with Tissaphernes. His mother supported him in this. When the king learned that there was no treason in this action, but Cyrus had kept an army only to oppose Tissaphernes, he was content that they should forget past differences. For Cyrus duly sent to Artaxerxes the tribute from those cities, which Tissaphernes had formerly held. (Xen. De Expedit. Cy. l. 1. p. 241.)

1433. This Cyrus was never king either of Persia or Babylon. He is the man, whom Geor. Harvartus fancies was the king who after the end of the Babylonian captivity, allowed the Jews to return home with their governor Zerubbabel and Joshua, or Jeshua, the son of Jozadak the high priest. However, it was Artaxerxes Mneonon who was then king of Persia, and Johannes, who in Ne 12:11,22,23 is called Johanan and Jonathan, was the high priest of the Jews. The governor of the Jewish nation was a certain Persian Lord, whom Josephus Antiquit. (l. 11. c. 7.) says was called Bagoses a captain of another Artaxerxes as Rasinus translates him. That is another descendent from Artaxerxes Longimanus of whom Josephus had spoken in the next precedent chapter. But the relationship which he makes between these men is this:

1434. Jesus was brother to Johannes the high priest whom Bogoses was a close friend and promised to bestow the next high priesthood on him. Confident of Bogoses' support, Jesus became very bold. First he had an argument with John and then a public brawl with his brother in the very temple. He provoked John so much that his brother slew him in the place. When this happened, Bagoses came and profaned the temple by entering it. He said that the high priest had already polluted it with his own brother's blood. For the next 7 years he vexed the Jews for that murder and lay a heavy fine upon them. Before they offered their daily sacrifice, they should pay (not for every year, as the common translations of Josepheus and from them Salianus have it) but for every lamb, 50 drachmas. This punishment continued only as long as that Johannes was the high priest. We determine this happened in the reign of Artaxerxes Mnemon, not Artaxerxes Ochus. With the beginning of Artaxerxes Mnemon's reign we therefore reckon this because we find mentioned Johannes or Johanan (though not then the high priest) in Ezr 10:6 Ne 12:23. For between the 7th year of Artaxerxes Longimanus to which that history of Ezra refers and the end of the 7th year of Artaxerxes Mnemon's reign (before which we suppose and take for granted, that this Johannes did not die) there was at least 70 years according to our account. So he died after living over 90 years and his son Jaddus succeeded him in the priesthood and held it to the reign of Alexander the Great. He died about the age of 83, if we suppose that he was born the end of Darius Nothus' reign. This is an aside. We now return to the history of Cyrus the younger, who died before he was 22 years old.

3603 AM, 4313 JP, 401 BC

1435. Cyrus sent messengers to Lacedemon and asked them that as he from time to time had supported them with men and money against the Athenians, so now they would send him men. He bragged that if they sent them footmen, he would give them horses, if horsemen, chariots, if they had lands, he would give them towns, if towns, cities for their reward. For their wages, they would have it not by number but by weight paid to them. Hereupon, the Lacedemonians determined what he asked for was right and that this war be to their advantage. Ignoring the fact that this war was against Artaxerxes, they planned to send him aid hoping to ingratiate themselves to Cyrus. If things did not go as planned they had a good excuse to Artaxerxes that they had decreed nothing against him in person. The Ephori sent letters to their admiral at Samos to do whatever Cyrus required. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3. Diod. Sic. year 4 Olympiad 94. Justin l. 5. c. ult. Plutarch in the Life of Artaxerxes.)

1436. Therefore the Lacedemonian admiral with his ships sailed to Ephesus to meet with Tamos the Egyptian, admiral to Cyrus and offered Tamos his services to the best of his ability. He joined his fleet with Tamos' fleet. They sailed around the coast of Ionia to Caria so that Syenesis the governor of those lands, would not move to hinder Cyrus in his march by land against his brother. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3., Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94., Xenophon, Cy. l. 1. p. 248, 252.) Diodorus says, that Samos, the Lacedemonian admiral at Samos, had 25 ships and Tamos had 50. Upon the more accurate testimony of Xenophon, in his book of this journey, undertaken by Cyrus, Tamos had only 25 ships and Pythagoras the Lacedmonian, 35, (for he makes him to be the other admiral and not Samos)

1437. Cyrus with his army of foot soldiers resolved to march into upper Asia under the pretence that he went against the Pisidians who often attacked areas under his control. Thereupon he sent for Clearchus the Lacedemonian, Aristippus of Thessaly, Xenes of Arcadia, the banished of Miletus, the army which besieged Miletus. He sent Proxenus a Boeotian with all the speed he could make to the Greeks and others to come quickly to Sardis. (Xenoph. de Exped. Cy. l. 1.)

3603b AM, 4313 JP, 401 BC

1438. When Tissaphernes determined that a much greater force was being assembled then an attack on the Pisidians would require, he hurried away with 600 cavalry as fast as he could to Artaxerxes. When he knew what was happening, he prepared for war. (Xenoph. de Exped. Cy. l. 1.)

1439. Cyrus left some of his trusted Persian friends to manage affairs at Lydia. He entrusted his good friend Tamos, the Egyptian admiral to take care of the cities of Ionia and Eolia in his absence. He marched with his army towards Caria and Pisidia under the pretence that certain persons in those parts were unruly. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94.)

``But how Cyrus gathered his army, marched against his brother, how the battle was fought and how Cyrus perished in it and how those Greeks who went with him, came back again safely to the sea, i.e. into Asia Minor, Themistogenes of Syracuse has recorded. Xenophon states this in the beginning of the third book of his Greek History. If we compare this part of the history with Plutarch's book, (de Gloria Athenicusium), he says that Xenophon wrote a history of himself. He recorded how he was a captain and what exploits he did. Then he said that Themisogenes of Syracuse had written it, thus giving away the glory of this his writing to another man so that the things therein written of himself, might find the more credit in the world.''

1440. And another place in Suidas, he shows:

``That the Expedition of Cyrus, which commonly goes with Xenophon's History of the Greeks and some other pieces concerning his own country, were all of Xenophon's own writings.''

1441. For indeed, these books of the Expedition of Cyrus went before with the rest of his Greek Histories. In the end of it, he plainly says, that the writer of it was present at all those events. Therefore the work itself, which is everywhere full of Xenophon's noble acts, is attributed to him not only by Plutarch but long before him by Cicero, Dionysins, Halicarnassaeus, Hermogenes, Laertius, Athenaeus and (not to speak of our Divines, Eusebius, and Jerome) by Arianus of Nicomedia. Themistogenes also had the nick name of New Xenophon as we read in Photius and Suidas because he compiled the discourses of his teacher Epictetus in 4 books, as Xenophon had done for those of his teacher Socrates. Also, as Xenophon had written that Expedition of Cyrus in 7 books, so he had written the Expedition of Alexander in 7 books. Although Xenephon in his Expedition of Cyrus which has a brief preface to every book but not to the set in general as Laertius has noted. Where as in every book except the 6th, Themistogenes made a preface using a summary of the previous books which Xenophon did not do in his books. Themistogenes has details in those books which do not flatter Xenophon. Therefore, I am rather inclined to think that these books were written by Themistogenes and not by Xenophon. However, I followed the authority of those ancient writers. I have all along cited him by the name of Xenophon, as they have done before me.

1442. Now of those five points mentioned by Xenophon (Xenop. Hellen. l. 3.) and said to have been written by Themistogenes the first four are entirely in the first book of this Expedition of Cyrus.

1. The gathering of his army.
2. Their marching into upper Asia and coming to the place where they fought.
3. The details of the battle.
4. The fall of Cyrus in that battle.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:30:26 AM
1443. Cyrus left Sardis, where Xenophon had met him after being sent for from Athens by Proxenus the Boeotian. There he volunteered for the action, as we find in the 3rd book and came to Celaenae in Phrygia. He stayed there 30 days. During that time Clearchus and other Greek commanders came from various parts to him. They assembled a force of 11,000 foot soldiers and about 2000 targeteers.

3603c AM, 4313 JP, 401 BC

1444. From Celaenae, Cyrus came with his army to the bank of Cayster. He received money from Epiaxa the wife of Syenesis the king of Cilicia. (Cyrus was formerly thought to have been too familiar with her.) He paid his army the 3 back months he owed them plus the next month in advance. Epiaxa arrived at Tartius in Cilicia 5 days before Cyrus. She persuaded her husband Syenesis to come there also and to give Cyrus a vast sum of money toward the support of his army. Both Ctesias and Diodorus add, that Syenesis, like a wise man, supplied both Cyrus and Artaxerxes with the necessities for the war. For having two sons, he sent one of them to Cyrus with a competent number of men for his service. However he had sent away the other privately before to Artaxerxes to let him know that with such an army as Cyrus had, he dared not oppose Cyrus but publicly joined with him. Nevertheless he was loyal to Artaxerxes and would defect to him as soon as he could find an opportunity. Cyrus stayed 20 days at Tarsus where the Greek companies told him plainly that they would march no farther. Clearchus by his tact, changed their mind so they marched to Issus. This was the remotest city of Cilicia where Cyrus' fleet met him bringing him 700 foot soldiers, but Diodorus says 800. The Lacedemonians had sent these men to Cyrus under the command of Chirosophus. Also 400 foot soldiers who had formerly served Artaxerxes under their captain Abrocomus came into his camp. However, Abrocomus left Phaenicia with 300,000 men and marched to Artaxerxes and arrived 5 days before the battle. By leaving the place where he was, Cyrus passed the straits of Syria and without halting came to the place of the pending battle. He travelled from Ephesus to that place in 93 days and marched 535 parasanges or about 2000 miles or over 21 miles a day.

1445. According to Plutarch, the battle was fought at Cynaxa which is about 63 miles from Babylon. According to the 2nd book of the Expedition of Cyrus, that the fight was about 383 miles from Babylon. Jacobus Capellus, thinks it should be read, "from Susa". In the army of Cyrus there were about 13,000 Greek soldiers although Justin. (l. 5. c. ult.) says, there were not more than 10,000. Of these, there were 10,400 foot soldiers and 2500 targeteers. From the other nations, 100,000 men and about 20 hooked chariots. Artaxerxes had 900,000 men and 1500 hooked chariots. However, Ctesias Cnidius, who was in the battle is quoted by Plutarch and Ephorus who is cited by Diodorus state there were only 400,000. In the battle 15,000 soldiers of Artaxerxes died according to Diodorus and 3000 on the side of Cyrus. However, Ctesias in Plutarch states that Artaxerxes lost not more than 9000 soldiers and not more than 20,000 died that day. This battle was fought the 4th year Olympiad 94. when Xenaenetus was archon in Athens and one year before Socrates was put to death there. (Diogenes Laertius, in the life of Socrates)

1446. In this battle the two brothers met and Artaxerxes was first wounded through his coat of armour. Ctesias helped him recover from this wound. Cyrus carried on with good success against his brother, fearing no danger and was slain by an unknown hand in the battle. Artaxerxes spent his rage upon the dead body of his brother. He severed his head from the body of him and cut off the hand from the arm that had wounded him. He carried it about in a triumphant manner. When his sorrowful mother came to Babylon she tearfully gathered up his remains and buried them there. The battle between the two brothers is more fully described by Plutarch, from Ctesias and Dinon.

1447. When the king came to rifle his camp, he found and took the concubine of Cyrus. She was a woman much renowned for her wit and beauty. (Xenoph. l. 1. p. 270. Exped. Cy.) She was a Phoecaean who was born in Ionia the daughter of Hermotimus. Her name was Mitto but was changed by Cyrus to Aspasia because she seemed equal to Aspasia the Miletian, who was the mistress of Pericles. See note on 3564 AM. Artaxerxes was anxious to get her. When she was brought to him all bound, he grew exceedingly angry with those who had brought her and laid them in irons. She was most highly esteemed of all the 360 concubines he had and he doted on her the most. (Plut. in the lives of Pericles and Artaxerxes. Ilian. Var. Hist. l. 12. c. 1. Justin. l. 10. c. 2.)

1448. The Greeks on the other side did not know that Cyrus was dead so they kept on fighting. In their quarter they beat back Tissaphernes and all his forces with a squadron of about 6000 Greeks according to Isocrates. In his Panegyric, he adds:

``that they were not of the best Greeks but the mere refuse of them and such as could no longer live in their own homes. These now in a strange country, forsaken of their companions, betrayed by their companies and bereft of their captain whom they followed to this war.''

1449. The king came with most of his army to rescue Tissaphernes. He entered their camp and rifled it. However, when the Greeks returned from the pursuit of Tissaphernes, they recovered their camp and drove the king from it. They spent the night there with no food and went hungry the next day too. This is the end of Xenophon's first book of Cyrus' Journey.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 09:30:46 AM
1450. The second book describes how these Greeks under the command of Clearchus planned to return home again. Tissaphernes promised to escort them back with his own forces and to guide them. He broke this promise. He rounded up Clearchus, with Proxenus, Agias and Socrates with 20 more captains and 200 soldiers to be murdered. Ctesias also in his Persian History, (which the author of this book of the voyage of Cyrus had undoubtedly read) had formerly told us how cunningly Tissaphernes worked. Using Menon, a Thessalian and by his promises he captured Clearchus and the rest mentioned in the group. They were put in irons and sent to the king at Babylon. Ctesias tells how he was the physician to Parysatis, the king's mother. Through her he was able to help Clearchus while he was in prison. Through her request to the king, the king had promised that Clearchus would not be harmed. However, by the instigation of Statyra his queen, the king had Clearchus and all the rest of the commanders except Menon to be butchered. All the bodies were thrown out and devoured by wild beasts and birds. Only the body of Clearchus was covered and preserved by a huge sandhill caused by a strong wind. (Ctesias in the collections of Photius and Plut. in the life of Artaxerxes.)

3603d AM, 4313 JP, 401 BC

1451. In Xenophon's 3rd and 4th book, he narrates the journey back to Greece of the rest of the Greeks whom Tissaphernes did not capture. Xenophon had the soldiers choose new captains to replace the ones they lost. Xenophon was chosen to replace Proxenus. He describes their journey through many enemy countries and how they endured the very cold winter and many hardships and dangers. Finally they returned home safely. This account is found in Diodorus Siculus, (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94.) and in Isocrates' Panegyric.

1452. For his good service in this war, Artaxerxes gave Tissaphernes all the governments which his brother Cyrus held in addition to what he had before. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3. Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad, 94.) He lavished many other expensive gifts and favours on him. Lastly, he gave him his own daughter for a wife. Tissaphernes was his most confident friend and servant. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94.)

1453. For 10 days, Parysatis, the king's mother tortured the Carian who mortally wounded Cyrus in the thigh. She had his eyes pulled out and boiling lead poured in at his ear holes until he died. Mithridates, who first wounded Cyrus and bragged that he had killed him, was put between two boats. He lay there for 17 days until he was eaten out with worms. Parysates won Bagabaeus, the king's eunuch from the king at a dice game. It was he who ordered Cyrus' head and right hand to be cut off. She had him flayed alive and then his body was laid across three crosses and his flayed skin hung near it. After this by the humble suit of the king, Parysatis stopped mourning for her son Cyrus. (Ctesias and Plutarch in the life of Artaxerxes.)

1454. Parysatis had the queen Statyra, her daughter-in-law poisoned. Statyra had a trusted maid servant called Gingis or Gigis. Dinon says she willing helped in the death of Statyra. Ctesias said she did it against her will. The one who gave the poison was called Bellitara by Ctesias and Melantas by Dinon. There is a little bird in Persia called Rhintaces or Rhindaces which has no excrements at all but all its guts are full of fat. One of these birds, Parysatis cut in two with a knife and gave the poisoned half to Statyra as they sat at dinner. This is what Ctesias thinks happened. However, Dinon says that it was Melanta not Parysatis, who served her the poisoned bird. When the Queen died in extreme torments after this, the king suspected his mother for it. She was well known for her cruelty and implacable disposition of nature. He had the servants and carvers to be questioned and used the rack on them. Parysatis kept Gingis a long time in her own chamber and though the king required her yet would she not give her up to justice. At last Ginges desired to steal secretly to her own home by night. Artaxerxes captured her and punished her as a poisoner. He did not harm his mother but when she asked permission to go to Babylon, he gave it to her. However, he told her that while she lived, he would not come there. (Plutarch, in the life of Artaxerxes.)

1455. Aristo, with some others, surprised the city of Cyrene. In the battle they slew 500 of the principal men of the inhabitants. The rest escaped. These joined with some 3000 of the Missenians, whom the Lacedemonians at this time had expelled from their country. They fought in an open field with those who had taken their city. In the fight, many of the Cyrenians on both sides were killed. Almost all the Missenians were killed. When the fight was over, the Cyrenians agreed with an oath to forget the past and live together peacefully. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 94.)

3604a AM, 4313 JP, 401 BC

1456. Tissaphernes (Diodorus incorrectly writes Pharnabazus) was sent by Artaxerxes to take charge of all the governments in Asia Minor. He also wanted all the cities of Ionia. (Xenoph, Hellen. l. 3. Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 95.)

1457. When Tissaphernes came, all the governors and cities who had followed Cyrus were afraid and sued for peace. Tamos the Egyptian who was the most important of these, was governor of Ionia. (See notes on 3593 & 3603b AM.) He loaded his fleet with all his treasure and his sons except Gaus, (who later became the king's general) and sailed to Egypt. He visited Psammyticus the king and was confident of good treatment because of how he had treated Psammyticus in the past. However, Psammyticus disregarded past favours done to him and butchered him and his children to get the ships and treasure which he had brought. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 95.)

1458. The Greeks (of whom I spoke before) departed from Trapezus which was the first Greek city they came to. It is situated on the coast of the Euxine Sea in the country of Colchos. After a 3 day march, they came to another Greek city in the same country of Colchos. It was also a sea town as was the former town and was called Cerasunta. They stayed there 10 days and numbered their men. Only 8600 remained of the 10000 they started with. The rest were lost. Either they were killed by the enemy in the battle or they died in the snow or of other sicknesses on their return journey. From there, they went through the countries of the Mosynaecori, the Chalybes and Tybarenians and came to a Greek town called Catyora, a colony of the Synopians. 8 months or rather, as the order of the history implies, 5 months after the battle in the country of Babylon. They journeyed from there to this place in 122 days and marched 620 parasanges or 4650 miles (about 38 miles per day). They stayed here 45 days. (Exped. Cy. l. 5.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:00:41 AM
 3604b AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC

1459. During their stay here, they got their provisions partly from the market of Colyora and partly by plundering the countries around Paphlagonia. On the other hand, the Paphlagonians, if they found any of them straggling from the camp, they attacked them. Finally, Corylas, who was governor of the Paphlagonians, made peace between them. Afterward these Greeks were transported by ship by the men of Heraclea and Synope. They came to Harmone, a port of Synope where they stayed 5 days. From there they went to Heraclea in the country of the Myrianden. It was a colony of the city of Megara. They came to a peninsula called Acherusia and divided themselves into three companies.

1460. The 4500 plus foot soldiers of the Arcadians and Achaeans were transported by ship by the Heracleans. They hurried aboard hoping to surprise the Thracians who inhabited Bithynia so they might get all the more spoil. They landed at night at Calpe which is in the middle of their sea coast. They went to the next towns and villages about 6 miles up the country. When these Thracians were attacked, they fought back and killed many of the Greeks. One regiment of them with their colonel Smicrates was entirely cut off. Only 8 soldiers and their captain Hegesandrus escaped in another company. The rest fled to a hill for safety and were besieged by the Thacians.

1461. Chirosophus with 1400 foot soldiers and 700 targeteers, (who were Thracians and had followed Clearchus on that journey) went from Heraclea all along the country by foot. He finally came into Bithynia. Not feeling well, he with his men sailed to Calpe.

1462. Xenophon with his brigade of 1700 foot soldiers, 800 targeteers and about 40 cavalry came by sea into a country which separates the Thracians of Bithynia from the country of the Heracleans. He marched through the centre of the country and came and rescued those who were besieged in the hill by the Thracians. Finally they assembled again as one body at the port of Calpe. (Exped. Cy. l. 6.)

1463. Chirosophus died here and was replaced by Neo, an Asinian. When he saw his troops hungry and short of supplies, he gathered 2000 men and went foraging all over the country of Bithynia. Pharnabazus sent his cavalry to help the Bithynians. He hoped to keep these Greeks out of his lands. On the first attack, the cavalry killed at least 500 Greeks and the rest fled to a hill for safety. Xenophon rescued them from the enemy and they all returned safely to the camp before sunset. When Spithridates and Rhathines came with more troops to help the Bithynians, the Greeks won a notable victory and erected a monument in memory of it there. They returned the 7 or 8 miles to their camp by the seaside. After this victory, their enemies provided for their own safety by driving their cattle and carrying away their families and goods to more remote parts. When the Greeks passed through Bithynia, they found nothing of use to them. They returned back a day and a night's journey into Bithynia again. They found and brought from there some prisoners, sheep and other provisions for their own needs. After 6 days, they came to Chrysopolis, a city of the Chalcedonians and stayed here 7 days. They sold their plunder here. (Exped. Cy. l. 6.)

1464. Pharnabazus feared that these Greeks would make war on his country. He arranged with Anaxibius, the Lacedemonian admiral to ship them all out of Asia to Byzantium. When Anaxibius returned from there with Xenophon into Asia, he received word at Cyzicum from Aristarchus the new governor of Byzantium. Polus was appointed admiral in his place and he was on his way as far as Hellespont. Therefore he sailed from thence to Patros. He sent to Pharnabazus and requested the money which he had promised him for shipping the Greeks from Asia. When he did not get it, he planned with Xenophon to hastily carry the Greeks back again into Asia. Pharnabazus prevailed upon Aristarchus, the governor of Byzantium so that he thwarted that plan. Since the winter was not over, Xenophon hired himself to Senthes the king of Thracia. The cold was so extreme that many Greeks lost their noses and ears from frostbite. (Exped. Cy. l. 7.) Diodorus tells us that some Greeks returned into their own country but almost 5000 followed Xenophon into Thracia. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad 95.) Hence, it appears, that his number is incorrect where he says that only 3800 men came to Chrysopolis. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94.)

3604c AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC

1465. The Ionian and other Greek cities throughout Asia did nor accept Tissaphernes' government. They wanted their freedom and feared Tissaphernes because they had always preferred Cyrus over him. They sent messengers to the Lacedemonians asking them for help. Since they were the protectors of all Greece, they wanted them to take over so that their country could be free from war and they could have liberty as other Greeks. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3. Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymipiad 95.)

1466. This petition was very welcome to the Lacedemonians. Like most men, the more they had the more they wanted. They were not content to have doubled their empire by taking over Athens. Now they wanted to control all of Asia too. (Justin. l. 6. c. 1.)

1467. Therefore, the Lacedemonians promised them aid in the first message they sent back. They immediately sent to Tissaphernes to ask him not to make war on the Asian Greek Cities. Out of contempt for them, he wasted all the region around the city of Cuma and took many prisoners. Then he came with his army and besieged the city. Because the winter was coming, he could not take it at that time. So he set a great ransom on the prisoners and abandoned his siege. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymipiad 95)

1468. After this Thimbron went into Asia with an army of 1000 newly made citizens of Laconia, 4000 of Pelopnoesus and 300 Athenian cavalry. The cavalry had formerly served the 30 tyrants of Athens. The city desired that this group should be wasted by foreign services rather than be kept at home to do greater mischief. When Thimbron, came into Asia, he increased his army by troops from the confederate cities there. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3.) At Ephesus, he added 2000 more troops from these cities for a total army of about 7000 men. He marched about 15 miles into the country and took Magnesia on his first assault. It was a city under Tissaphernes' government. From there he went to Tralles a city of Ionia and began to besiege it. Since its location was very strongly fortified, he left it and went back to the unwalled town of Magnesia. He feared that as soon as he was gone, Tissaphernes would take it again. He moved it to a hill nearby called Thorax which was a more easily defended position. He plundered the enemies' country and greatly enriched his army. When he heard that Tissaphernes was coming down upon him with an army of cavalry, he retired to Ephesus. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymipiad 95) He was not a match for the cavalry and dared not stay in the plain. He thought it enough if he were able to keep the countries where he was from being plundered by the enemy.

1469. When the Greeks under Xenophon had served Senthes 3 months in Thracia, Charminus and Polynicus were sent from Thimbron to tell them that he needed their help in Asia against Tissaphernes. He would pay each soldier a daric a month. Each captain of a company would be paid 2 darics and every colonel 4. Xenophon told them that he personally planned to return home. Most of the army came to him and earnestly asked him not to leave them until he had led them to Thimbron. Therefore, he went aboard with them and sailed to Lampsacus. There he met and conferred with Euclid, the Phliasian poet. After they passed through the territory of Troas, they came to Pergamus. Xenophon was entertained by Hellas the wife of Gongylus of Eretria and her two sons, Gorgius and Gongylus. By her counsel, he went to capture Asidates the Persian. This he failed to do and exposed himself and his men to great danger. Finally by chance, his soldiers captured him with his wife and children and cavalry and all that they owned. They were very rich. Thimbron came and received the army from Xenophon. He added these troops to the rest of the Greeks in his army and he led them against Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus. (Exped. Cy. l. 7.)

1470. Here ends the 7 books of the Expedition of Cyrus. The writer of it, whomever he was, was present for all these events. He concludes his book, with this epilogue. The king's governors in the counties which we passed through, were these:

``Artimas of Lydia, Articamas of Phrygia, Mithridates of Lycaonia and Cappadocia, Siennesis of Cilicia, Dernes of Phenicia and Arabia, Belesis of Syria and Assyria, Rhoparas of Babylonia, Arbacas of Media, Teribazas of Phasis and Iberia, the Carduchi, the Chalybes, the Azacrones, the Colchi, the Mosynacci, the Coeti. The Tybareni had no governors but were all free people. Corylas was governor of Paphlagonia, Pharnabazus of Bithynia, Seuthes was king of the Thracians, on the European side.''

1471. The whole journey, going and coming, lasted 215 days. They travelled 1150 parasanges, or 4282 miles (4313 miles allowing 3.75 miles per parasange.) The whole expedition lasted 15 months.

3604d AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC

1472. When Thimbron was strengthened with these new troops he dared to pitch his camp in the fields under Tissaphernes' nose. Pergamus voluntary surrendered to him. Likewise did Tenthrania and Halisarnia which were commanded at that time by Eurysthenes and Procles, the descendants of Demaratus of Lacedemon. Gorgins and Gongylus, the two brothers mentioned previously had already joined him. One held Gambrius and Palegambrius, the other Myrina, and Grinium and Thimbron captured the other weaker places by force. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:01:16 AM
 3605 AM, 4315 JP, 399 BC

1473. Thimbron besieged Larissa, a town in Asia called Egyptia when it would not surrender to him. While he besieged it with little effect, the Ephori at Sparta sent him letters stating that he should leave Larissa and march to Caria and on to Ephesus. Dercylidas, an excellent engineer and for his wit he was surnamed Sisyphus, was on his way to take command of the army. When Thimbron returned to Sparta, he was there accused by various confederate cities, for allowing his army to plunder them. Therefore he was banished from the city. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3. Diod. Sic. 2nd year of the 95th Olympiad.)

1474. Mania was a woman of Dardania, of manly courage. After the death of her husband Zenis, she had managed very well the government of Eolia under Pharnabazus and had taken in various sea towns, as Larissa, Hamaxitus and Colone. She was most treacherously murdered by her son-in-law Midias when she was about 40 years old. Her 17 year old son was murdered with her. Midias seized the two strong towns, Scephis and Gergitha where she had stored most of her treasure. The garrisons in the rest of the towns remained loyal to Pharnabazus. Midias sent messengers to Pharnabazus with great presents desiring that he might manage the whole government of those parts upon the same terms that Mania did. This was for nought. Pharnabazus answered that he should never rest if he did not avenge the murder of Mania. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3. Polyae, l. 8. in Tania, or Phania, for so by a misprint Mania is called.)

1475. Dercylidas saw that he had to deal with both Pharnabazus and Tissaphernes, two great commanders each supported by a large army. When he saw that they were at odds with one another, he made peace with Tissaphernes (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3. with Justin l. 6. c. 1. where yet Hercylidas is put for Dercylidas.)

1476. After Dercylidas had first conferred with Tissaphernes, he marched to Eolia without plundering the country. Eolia was under Pharnabazus' government. He had an old grudge against Pharnabazus for an insult he received from him while he commanded at Abydus under Lysander. Larissa, Hamaxitus and Colonae surrendered to him without a fight. (Note that here Diodorus Siculus has Arista instead of Larissa.) Neandrus, Ilium also surrendered to him. The Cocylitae did not fight with him. Cebrene, a very strong and fortified city did not wish to be assaulted and also surrendered. He left a large garrison there and he immediately marched with the rest of his army to Scephis and Gergithe. Midias feared the very inhabitants of that place and Pharnabazus. He went out with hostages to parley and to seek to join forces against a common enemy. Dercylidas laid hold of him and told him plainly that there was no hope of any friendship between them unless he would set free all the citizens of those places which he held to live according to their own laws. He marched into Scepsis with him and there offered sacrifice to Minerva. He expelled Midias' soldiers and persuaded the inhabitants to defend their newly acquired liberty. He next went to Gergithe with his army. When Midias desired that he would at least leave him that city, he ignored Midias' request. Midias ordered the gates to be opened and Dercylidas entered the city. He found the money which Mania had there, sufficient to maintain an army of 8000 men for almost a whole year. He took the money and sent back Midias to live as a private citizen at Scepsis. Xenophon tells us, that in 8 days, he took 9 cities. Diodorus (Diod. Sic. 2nd year of the 95th Olympiad), writes that what by force and tricks he used to take over all the cities and country of Troas.

1477. There was a quarrel between Artaxerxes and Euagoras the king of Salamis in the isle of Cyprus. He had expelled from there Abdemon Thyrsius who was governor of the place and one who was a good friend of Artaxerxes. Theopompus, (Excerpta Photii, num. 176.) calls him, Abdymon Cityces. This quarrel was settled by the mediation of Conon the Athenian, who had lived with Euagoras and Ctesias the Cnidian, who had long lived in the court in Persia. The condition was that Euagoras would pay a certain tribute to Artaxerxes and also a gift was sent to Satibarzanes. Ctesias also sent letters to Euagoras to make amends with Anaxagoras a king of the Cyprians. Other similar letters were written by Euagoras and Conon. Ctesias has all these inserted into his History of the Persian Affairs.

1478. When Dercylidas had gone this far into these parts, sent to Pharnabazus, to know whether he wanted war or peace. Pharnabazus was afraid what might happen to Phrygia where he lived. Phrygia bordered Aeolia, which was now controlled by Dercylidas. Therefore, Pharnabazus wanted a truce. (Xenophon Hellen. l. 3.)

3606a AM, 4315 JP, 399 BC

1479. When this truce was concluded, Dercylidas marched into that part of Bithynbia which the Thracians held and there spent the winter. Pharnabazus liked this because the Thracians of that country often made inroads on Phrygia and Dercylidas plundered that part of Bithynia at will. He had plenty of provisions for the winter. (Xenophon Hellen. l. 3.)

1480. About 200 Odrysian cavalry and 300 targeteers were sent from Senthes, the king of Thracia, to help Dercylidas. When they first arrived, they forraged Bithynia and were almost cut off there. After this they stayed close with the Lacedemonian army and heavily plundered the territories of the Bithynians. (Xenophon Hellen. l. 3.)

1481. When spring was coming, Dercylidas moved from Bithynia and came to Lampsacus. Three ambassadors from Sparta, told him that his command was extended for another year. The Ephori of Sparta told the army there, that in the former time the soldiers had been extremely injurious to their confederates. They were commended for their good behaviour. He replied that it was the same soldiers who followed Cyrus in his wars but that they were under new commanders. This was the reason for the change of behaviour. When this was done, Dercylidas sent the ambassadors from Ephesus to take their journey through the Greek cities and countries in those parts. He told them how glad he was that they would find them all in so peaceable and prosperous estate. (Xenophon Hellen. l. 3.)

3606c AM, 4316 JP, 398 BC

1482. When the ambassadors left, Dercylidas sent again to Pharnabazus, to know whether he would extend the truce from the previous winter or if he wanted war. Pharnabazus wanted to continue the truce. Therefore, Dercylidas passed with his army over the Hellespont and came into the Chersonesus of Thracia. This city contained 37 furlongs which he enclosed with a strong wall. This work started in the spring and was finished before the beginning of autumn. (Xenophon Hellen. l. 3. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 95.) Contrary to his custom, Diodorus combines the events of two years in one passage.

1483. Conon the Athenian wrote his letters from Cyprus to Artaxerxes, concerning his own affairs. He desired these to be presented to him, either by Zenon of Crete, a dancer, or by Polycritus of Mendes a physician, or in their absence, by Ctesias, who was likewise a physician. It is said that when this letter came into Ctesias' hands, he added his own letter with it. Conon asked the king to send Ctesias to him, as an important man for the king's service in those parts especially in matters pertaining to the sea. Ctesias wrote that the king of his own accord sent and employed him in that service. Plutarch, (Plutarch in Artaxerxes,) wrote concerning the letters of Conon to the king and to himself and the speech which he gave to the king to understand the matter. These he has inserted into his own history. He relates also that at the same time when the Lacedemonians had sent ambassadors to the king, he committed them to custody and kept them there.

1484. After Pharnabazus made truce with Dercylidas, he journeyed to the king and charged Tissaphernes before him. He said that Tissaphernes had not opposed Lacedemonian's army when it came into Asia. Instead, he supported them there at the king's expense. He told the king that it was a shame that the king's war should not be pursued to a conclusion. Rather, his enemies should not be bribed with money and but driven out with armies. He persuaded the king to supply a fleet and make Conon the Athenian the admiral. He together with the advice of Euagotas the king of Cyprus persuaded the king to give 500 talents to Pharnabazus for this purpose. The king commanded him to commit the charge of the Phoenician fleet to Conon and to make him commander-in-chief, over all his naval matters. (Diod. Sic. year 2 of the 95th Olympiad, with Isocrates in his Euagoras and in his Oration ad Philip. and Pausanias, in Attices and Justinus, l. 6. c. 1.)

1485. When Pausanias returned from the court, he made Conon admiral of the seas. He made many generous promises on the king's behalf. Conon was not fully furnished with a fleet. He took the 40 ships he had ready and sailed into Cilicia. There he prepared for war. (Diod. Sic. year 2 of the 95th Olympiad)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:01:51 AM
 3606d AM, 4316 JP, 398 BC

1486. Ctesias was sent by Artaxerxes to the seaside. He went first into Cnidia his own country and from there to Sparta. He says toward the end of his History which as Diodorus says ended with the third year of this 95th Olympiad.

1487. Dercylidas returned from Chersonese into Asia. As he reviewed the cities he found that the bandits of Chios had taken over Atarne. They were using this as a base to make inrodes upon Ionia and lived on the spoil they found. Although Atarne was well fortified and contained much food, he besieged it for 8 months. (Xenophon, Hellenic. l. 3.)

3607 AM, 4317 JP, 397 BC

1488. When Atarne surrendered, he put Dracon of Pellene in charge of it. He supplied the city with ample provisions so that he could use it for a good place to retreat to. He went to Ephesus. (Xenophon, Hellenic. l. 3.)

1489. When the ambassadors from Ionia came to Sparta, they stated that if Caria where Tissaphernes resided was invaded, they thought that Tissaphernes would quickly grant them permission to live according to their own laws. The Ephori wrote to Dercylidas that he should march to Caria with his army. Pharaces their admiral was to sail the fleet into those parts also. (Xenophon, Hellenic. l. 3.)

1490. At this time Pharnabazus went to Tissaphernes because Tissaphernes was the chief general and to let Tissaphernes know that he was ready to join with him in making war on the Greeks. Therefore they went to Caria to settle matters there. When they had put garrisons there, they returned to Ionia. Dercylidas heard that they had crossed the river Meander. He conferred with Pharaces and showed him that he feared lest Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus would both attack Ionia which now had no of garrisons. Then, Dercylidas crossed over the Meander also. (Xenophon, Hellenic. l. 3.)

1491. In the Persian army there were 20,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 cavalry. Dercylidas' army had about 7000 men. (Diod. Sic. 2nd year of the 95th Olympiad) The soldiers from Peloponesus were prepared to fight. The ones from Priene and Achilium, the isles and the other towns of Ionia were cowards. They abandoned their weapons in the grain which grew abundantly in the fields lying upon the Meander and fled. However, Tissaphernes remembered how well the Greeks who were in Cyrus' army had fought against himself and imagined that all Crecians would likewise be cowards. Therefore he did not attack them as Pharnabazus wanted to. He sent to Dercylidas and desired to come to talk with him. After an interchange of hostages, they met to discuss a peace treaty. Dercylidas demanded, that the king should allow all the Greek cities to be free. Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus demanded that the Lacedemonian forces should withdraw from the countries of the king's dominions and their commanders from the cities. A truce was to continue until Dercylidas could receive an answer from Sparta. Likewise Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus waited for an answer from the king. So both armies withdrew. The Persians returned to Tralles and the other to Leucophris. (Xenophon, Hellenic. l. 3.) (Diod. Sic. 2nd year of the 95th Olympiad)

3608 AM, 4318 JP, 396 BC

1492. Now a certain man called Herodas of Syracuse in Sicily was living at that time with a ship captain in Phoenicia. He noticed that war ships were arriving daily. Others were being outfitted and others were being constructed. A navy of 300 ships was being prepared. Herodas boarded the first ship bound for Greece and went to Sparta. He told them that a large fleet was being made ready at Phoenicia. The purpose and destination of this fleet, he did not know. The Lacedemonians were much troubled by this news. Agesilaus one of their two kings was asked by Lysander to go with an army into Asia against the Persians. He was to take with him 30 men of Sparta whom they would choose to manage that war. The first man they picked was Lysander. He hoped to use this occasion to restore the Decemvirates throughout all the cities in Asia which he had set up before. The Ephori later had abolished these and ordered every city to live according to their own laws. So Agesilaus took 2000 of the newly made citizens of Sparta and 6000 from their confederate cities with provisions for six months. They sailed from Geraeium a port in Eubaea, with all the forces that he could gather and came to Ephesus. He did this so quickly that he landed there before Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus heard that he had set out. Thereby it came to pass, that he found them all unprepared for his arrival. Xenophon in (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3.) and in his Oration, of Agesilaus with Plutarch and Emil. Probus, in their several lives of Agesilaus and Pansa in Laconicis. Pansa says that he landed first at Sardis.

1493. Agesilaus raised 4000 more soldiers at Ephesus. He had an army of 10,000 foot soldiers and 400 or (as the Latin translation has it) 4000 cavalry. To this a rabble of other men who followed the camp for pillage. These were as numerous as the army. (Diod. Sic. year 4 of the 95th Olympiad.)

1494. Tissaphernes sent to him to know why he came into Asia. He replied that he came to restore freedom to the Greek cities. Tissaphernes desired him to wait for 3 months so that he might send to the king. He assured him of a favourable reply from the king. Agesilaus sent Heripadas, Dercylidas, and Migialius to him to take an oath of him that he meant no guile but would do what he possibly could to procure the peace which he had promised. On behalf of Agesilaus, they would swear to Tissaphernes to keep the truce if Tissaphernes would keep his part of the bargain. Tissaphernes disregarded his oath and sent to the king to increase his army. Although Agesilaus knew well what he intended to do, yet he kept the truce. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3. and in his book of Agesilaus; with Plutarch and Emil. Probus. in Agesil.)

1495. While Agesilaus stayed at Ephesus, civil disorder broke out in the cities. Neither the democratic government was obeyed which the Athenians set up nor the Decemviral which Lysander had set up. All became suitors to Lysander who was well known among them that he would obtain from Agesilaus for them what they desired. Hereupon it was that Lysander always had a large court of attendants and suitors about him so that Lysander now seemed to be king and Agesilaus a private citizen. This was a thorn in Agesilaus' side. Therefore he began to take the administration of matters from Lysander's hands and to reduce his authority. Then he sent him on an errand into Hellespont. When Lysander found that Spithridates, a Persian, (Plutarch calls him Mithridates) was under Pharnabazus, he desired to speak with him. After a conference Lysander persuaded him with his children and such wealth as he had and 200 calvalry to defect from Pharnabazus. Spirthrides left what he had safely at Cyzicum and came with his son to Lysander. He escorted them to Agesilaus who was glad to see him. Spirthides told Agesilaus exactly how things were with Pharnabazus. (Xenoph. Hellen. 3. and Plut. in the life of Agesilaus and Lysander.)

1496. When Tissaphernes got more troops from the king, he became insolent and proclaimed war against Agesilaus unless he would leave Asia. Agesilaus was glad for this and ordered his men to prepare for war. He sent to the Ionians, Eloians and those of Hellespont to send to him at Ephesus all the troops they could spare. Tissaphernes thought that he would march into Caria but Agesilaus went with his army into Phrygia. In a suprise attack on the cities there, he obtained a vast some of money and other provisions from them and so came safely and without halting near to Daseylium. His cavalry scoured the country ahead of the army. They met with the cavalry of Pharnabazus and were routed. In that encounter they lost 12 men and 2 horses. When Agesilaus with his foot soldiers came to their rescue, the Persians on the other side retired having only lost one man. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3. and in his Agesilaus, with Plutarch and Emil. Probus in their Agesilaus likewise.)

1497. Agesilaus spent most of that summer plundering Phrygia and the nearby countries. He enriched his army with plunder. Toward the autumn he returned to Ephesus, (Diod. Sic. year 1 of the 96th Olympiad) and there spent the winter. (Emil. Prob. in his Agesilaus.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:02:41 AM
 3609 AM, 4319 JP, 395 BC

1498. Nephereus or Nepherites reigned in Egypt for 6 years.

1499. The Lacedemonians sent to Nephereus to join them against the Persians. Instead, he sent them a gift of tackle and 100 war ships and 30,000 bushels of wheat. (Diod. Sic. year 1 of the 96th Olympiad.) Justin calls him Hercinion and so does Orosius. He relates the matter in this manner. The Lacedemonians' ambassadors asked for naval help from Hercinion They received 100 war ships and 600,000 bushels of wheat, (Justin l. 6. c. 2. and Orosius l. 3. c. 1.)

1500. Pharax the admiral of the Lacedemonian fleet, set sail from Rhodes with 120 ships and came to Sasanda a citadel in Caria about 19 miles from Caunus. He sailed from there and attacked the town of Caunus and Conon the Athenian who had 40 ships there. When Artaphernes and Pharnabazus came with an huge army to relieve Caunus, Pharax lifted his siege and returned with all his fleet to Rhodes. After this, Conon assembled 80 ships and sailed toward Chersonesus. At the same time the Rhodians kept out the Poloponesian fleet and revolted from the Lacedemonian state. They received Conon with all his fleet into their port and city. It happened that the Egyptian fleet which knew nothing of this change of affairs, boldly anchored off the island with all their cargo of wheat which was sent to the Lacedemonians. Conon with the Rhodians attacked them and brought all their men and cargo into the port and stored the grain there. (Diod. Sic. year 1 Olympiad 96.) The soldiers rebelled against Conon because the king's officers defrauded them of their pay. They asked for their pay the more boldly, because they were used in so great a service and served under so great a commander as Conon. (Justin. l. 6. c. 2.)

1501. Agesilaus knew that he was no match for the enemy in the plains without sufficient cavalry. He raised more troops. He ordered throughout all the confederate cities that such of them as were rich and did not want to fight themselves should send to him a horse with a rider in his place. When the spring was coming, he commanded all his army to assemble at Ephesus. He carefully trained both cavalry and foot soldiers for war. During this preparation, he made the city of Ephesus seem more important than before. He made it the centre of the war effort. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3. and in his Agesilaus: and Plutarch and Emil. Pro. in the same man's life.)

1502. A whole year had elapsed since Agesilans came from Sparta. The 30 commissioners assigned to him returned to Sparta. Lysander the head of the commissioners returned with them. 30 others were sent to replace them of whom Heripidas was the leader. From these Agesilaus chose Xenocles and another one to lead the cavalry and Scythes to command the foot soldiers of the newly made citizens of Sparta. Heripidas was to lead them who had served under Cyrus. Migdon was over those who were sent by the cities of Asia. Agesilaus let it be known that he would march into the strongest part of the enemies' country so that they be mentally prepared for a fierce battle. Tissaphernes thought that he had done this to amuse him a second time and to keep him at home. He marched directly into Caria commanding his cavalry to stay behind and hold the plain of Maeander. However Agesilaus did indeed, exactly what he had said and his whole army attacked the country of Sardis. When he had marched for 3 days and saw no enemy, he gathered from there a huge stock of all kinds of provisions for his army. On the 4th day the enemies' cavalry was spotted. They found the Greeks scattered abroad and busy plundering the country. They attacked and killed most of them. When Agesilaus came to their rescue, he saw that the enemies' foot soldiers had not arrived. Since he was fully prepared, he attacked the enemy near the River Pactolus and won a great victory. He captured their camp. He found riches amounting to more than 70 talents of money. He transported all their camels into Greece. At this time, Tissaphernes stayed at Sardis. Therefore, he was charged by the Persians to be a deserter.

1503. That is according to Xenophon. However, Diodorus, states that Tissaphernes was present in the fight with 10,000 cavalry and 50,000 foot soldiers. Agesilaus came down from the hill country of Sipalus and overran all the plain around Sardis. He pillaged the land and destroyed a garden of Tissaphernes. It was enclosed and set with all sorts of trees and other things for pleasure, infinitely sumptuous and of most exquisite workmanship and beauty. Agesilaus turned from there and sent Xenocles with 14,000 to lie in ambush midway between Sardis and Tybarnae to intercept some Persians who were to pass that way. In this second battle with the Persians, he defeated them and killed over 6000 men. He took a great multitude of prisoners and captured their camp that was full of wealth. After all this, Tissaphernes fled to Sardis and Agesilaus returned to the seaside with his army. Pausanias also in his Laconica, writes, that Agesilaus fought with Tissaphernes in the plain country of Hermus and there defeated the cavalry and foot soldiers of the Persians. This was the largest Persian army since the time when Xerxes went into Greece or when Darius went into Scythia. It is best to trust Xenophon's account who was not only a reader to Agesilaus, (as Cicero 3 de Orators affirms,) and was very intimate and familiar with him. (as Emil. Pro. Says in the Life of Agesilaus and Diogenes Laertius, in the Life of Xenophon reports) Moreover, he was with him in all this war in Asia and the next year returned with him to Greece.

1504. Conon the admiral of the Persian fleet had often sent letters to the king asking for pay for the navy. When this failed, he went personally to the king. Pharnabazus also encouraged him to accuse Tissaphernes of treason to the king. Therefore, Colon committed the charge of the navy to Hieronimus and Nicodemus (both of Athens) in his absence. He sailed into Cilicia and from there came to Thapsacum in Syria. He went on a barge down the river Euphrates to Babylon. There he talked with Tithraustes the Chiliarch who held the highest position next the king. Colon showed him who he was and that he desired to speak with the king. He could not be admitted to the presence or speak with the king without adoration, that is by prostrating himself before the king. Therefore he did his business with him by letters and messengers. He was successful. The king declared Tissaphernes to be a traitor and ordered Conon to take charge of the war against the Lacedemonians and to pay the navy using whomever he pleased to choose for that office. He was highly rewarded for his service and sent to the sea with authority to order what shipping he needed from the Cypriots and Phoenicians. These ships would guard the sea before the next summer and Pharnabazus was assigned to him for an assistant as Colon requested. (Diod. Sic. year 1. of the 96th Olympiad, Justin l. 6. c. 2. Emil. Pro. in the life of Conon.)

1505. Concerning the Cypriots, it is to be noted that at the very time while there passed courtesies and presents between Artaxerxes and them, the king intended to make war against them. It lasted 10 years before it ended, 8 of which he spent in preparations for it. This we shall show later when we come to the fourth year of the 98th Olympiad, from Diod. Sic. He speaks of the cause of that war, of which 8 years, it seems that only 6 were spent in preparation. At this time, Isocrates made his Panegirical oration in which he mentions many vain attempts made upon Euagoras by Artaxerxes. He says:

``He made war on Euagoras who was governor of one poor city in Cyprus and one who had formerly served him and became his vassal and lived on an island. He suffered a great loss at sea and had no more than 3000 targeteers to defend his state with. Yet, weak as he was, the king has not been able to have his will of him, though he has now spent six whole years in a war against him.''

1506. Parysatis, the queen mother, urged the king on against Tissaphernes. She hated him because of what he did to her son Cyrus. The king committed the war to Tithraustes and gave him letters for the cities and commanders in those parts ordering them all to do whatever Tithraustes required of them. (Diod. Sic. year 1. of the 98th Olympiad.)

1507. When Tithraustes left, the king gave him two letters. In the one for Tissaphernes, he requested him to continue the war against the Lacedemonians. In the other, he sent to Ariaeus the commander of Larissa requiring him to help Tithraustes in the murder of Tissaphernes. Tithraustes delivered to Ariaeus as soon as he came to Colossae in Phrygia. When Ariaeus had read them, he sent for Tissaphernes asking him to come to Colossae. He wanted to consult with him about the king's matters especially concerning the war against the Greeks. Whereupon Tissaphernes suspected nothing and left his army at Sardis. He came quickly to Colossae with a troop of 300 Arcadians and Milesians and stayed at the house of Ariaeus. When he went to take a bath he laid aside his sword. Ariaeus with his servants seized him and put him into a closed coach and sent him away as a prisoner to Tithraustes. He took him as far as to Celaena and there cut off his head and sent it to Artaxerxes. Artaxerxes ordered it carried to his mother who was exceedingly glad to see it. So were all the Greek women, whose husbands had followed Cyrus in his war and were afterward killed by Tissaphernes' treachery. (Diod. Sic. year 1. of the 98th Olympiad, Polyanus stratagem. l. 1. Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3. and in his book of Agesilaus. and Plut. in the lives of Artax. and Agesilaus.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:03:17 AM
1508. Tithraustes sent messengers to Agesilaus to let him know that Tissaphernes who had started this war, had been punished for it. He stated that now the king had a good reason to withdraw his army from Asia and to leave the cities there to the use of their laws and pay the king their former tribute. Agesilaus told Tithraustes that he could not do this without the consent of his country. Finally, they came to this agreement, that he with his army would withdraw into Pharnabazus' country and would receive 30 talents to support them there until he received instructions from Sparta. (Xenophon Hellen. l. 3.) However, Diodorus writes, that after a parley Thithraustes and Agesilaus made a truce for 6 months. Xenophon in his book written to glorify Agesilaus, added that when Tithraustes offered him a great sum of money, if he would withdraw out of the king's territories, Agesilaus replied:

``Tithraustes, it is more honourable with us that a general to enrich his army rather than himself and to take spoils from his enemies rather than rewards.''

 1509. While Agesilaus marched toward Phrygia which was under Pharnabazus' command, he received a Scytala or a letter from the magistrates of Sparta. They said that he should take charge of the navy as well as of the army. He should appoint as admiral of the navy whomever he saw fit. Whereupon in a short time, he raised a navy of 120 ships from the public contributions of the cities and the generousity of private citizens who desired to reward him personally. He appointed as admiral, Pisander, his wife's brother. He was a man desirous indeed of praise, honour and courage but unskilled in naval matters. (Xen. Hellen. l. 3. Plut. in his Agesilaus. Pausan. in his Laconica.)

1510. Pisander went away to the navy and Agesilaus continued on his way into Phrygia. Tithraustes knew that Agesilaus had no intention of leaving Asia but rather hoped to vanquish the king's forces right there. He sent Timocrates of Rhodes (for so Plutarch also calls him in his Laconical Apophthegmes, however the name of Hermoerates has crept in, in his life of Artaxerxes) into Greece with gold of the value of 50 talents of silver. He bribed the chief cities to conspire together, in a common war on the behalf of the Athenians against the Lacedemonian party. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3. Plut. in his Artax. Pansanias in his Laconica and Messenica.)

3610a AM, 4319 JP, 395 BC

1511. About the beginning of autumn, Agesilaus entered into Phrygia which was under Pharnabazus' government. He pillaged all that country and took over all its cities either by force or voluntary surrender. He was persuaded by Spithtidates to march into Paphlagonia and to cause them to revolt from the Persians. Coyts its king, was previously sent for by Artaxerxes but would not go. He joined with Agesilaus. Spithridates persuaded Coyts to give 1000 cavalry and 2000 foot soldiers to assist him. Agesilaus rewarded Spithridates for this by procuring Cotys' daughter for his wife. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4. and in his Agesilaus and Plutarch likewise in his.) Agesilaus was always very desirous to reward his friends as it appears by that Epistle Laconically written and attributed to him.

``If Nicias has not done you wrong, forgive him: if he has forgive him for my sake, however forgive him.''

1512. (Plutarch in his Agesilaus and in his Laconical Apophthegmes.)

1513. He marched from Paphlagonia to Dascylium where Pharnabazus' palace was. Around there were many towns full of provisions. Here he spent the winter and maintained his army. (Xen. Hellen. l. 4.)

3610b AM, 4320 JP, 394 BC

1514. When his soldiers were foraging, they were not as wary as they should have been of their enemy because up until now they had never been bothered by them. By chance, Pharnabazus attacked them with two hooked chariots and 400 men as they were pillaging the area. The Greeks saw him and rallied into a troop of 700 men. Pharnabazus put his hooked chariots in the front, followed them with his cavalry and ordered them to drive into the middle of them. When the chariots had broken in and disordered them, his cavalry attacked killing 100 of them. The rest fled back to Agesilaus who was not far off with his foot soldiers. (Xen. Hellen. l. 4.)

1515. Three or four days later, Spithridates found that Pharnabazus was with his army in a spacious unwalled town called Caije about 20 miles from there. He told Heripadas, chief of the council of war, about this. Spithridates asked Agesilaus to give him 2000 foot soldiers, 2000 targeteers and as many cavalry that would voluntarily go with him. Less than half of each type of soldiers went with him. However, he set out with those which he had as soon as it grew dark. He came upon Pharnabazus at the very dawning of the day and slew the Mysians who happened that time to be on guard. The whole army was terrified and fled. Spithridates entered their camp and there took much booty including Pharnabazus' pavilion with all his luxurious furniture and wealth. Pharnabazus feared the Greeks and like the Scythian nomads, moved his camp here and there, never staying long in any one place. His main concern was that the enemy would not know where to find him. Heripedas made a rigourous search for the spoil. His soldiers stripped Spithradates and his Paphlagonians of all there plunder. After this, they spent all the next night taking what they could and went to Sardis to Araeus. He had formerly revolted from the king and served against him. In this Asian expedition, Agesilaus was more troubled by this departure of Spithridates, Megabates his son whom Agesilaus exceedingly loved and of these Paphlagonian troops. (???) (Diod. year 1, 98th Olympiad and Plutarch in his Agesilaus.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:03:46 AM
 1516. After this, Agesilaus and Pharnabazus came to a parley by the mediation of Apollophanes from Cyzicum who was a friend of both of them. They tried to come to an agreement. Pharnabazus (as Xenophon has it in his oration concerning Agesilaus) openly stated that unless the king would make him absolute and sole commander of the army, he would revolt from him. If he could command all the forces then he would fight the war against Agesilaus as long as he could. Agesilaus told him that he would quickly depart out of his territory and not trouble him as long as he could find business elsewhere. As soon as Pharnabazus left, the son of his wife Pharapyta came running to Agesilaus and entered into a league of friendship with him. They gave each other gifts as tokens of their love. (???) (Diod. year 1, 98th Olympiad, and Plutarch in his Agesilaus.)

1517. When spring came, Agesilaus came into the plains of Thebes and pitched near the temple of Diana Astyrina. There he gathered an exceedingly great store of wealth. He outfitted his troops to march into the upper countries. He did not doubt that the countries which he left behind him would defect from the Persians. (Xenophon. l. 4. Hellen.) His fame was very great in Persia after spending two years in that war. (Plutarch, in his Agesilaus.)

3610c AM, 4320 JP, 394 BC

1518. The Lacedemonians learned that the Persians were bribing the principal cities in Greece to unite and revolt against them. They sent Epicidas to Agesilaus, to recall him to defend his own country. Although, Agesilaus was bothered by being taken from this great war, he wrote that he would obey their command. (Plutarch, in his Agesilaus.) He sent this letter to the Ephori which Plutarch inserted among his Apophthegmes.

``Agesilaus to the Ephori, greetings: we have subdued a great part of Asia, routed the barbarians and provided a great store of arms in Ionia. However because you have set a certain day to return by, I will obey your command and peradventure be back before that day. For I am king not for myself, but for you and our confederates. For a king is truly a king, when he is commanded by the laws, Ephori and the other magistrates of the city.''

1519. It is said also that he told his friends in jest that the king had driven him from Asia with 30,000 archers. He meant that Timocrates' agent had distributed 30,000 golden darics, which were stamped with archers among the leaders of every city to create a common war against the Spartans, (Plutarch in his Laconical Apophthegmes and in his Artaxerxes., c. 15. 5:43)

1520. When Agesilaus returned, he left Euxemus behind him to be commander-in-chief with 4000 soldiers to assist the Ionians if needed. So that he might return with a good army, he promised great rewards and honours to those cities and commanders who would send him the best cavalry and foot soldiers. Hence he made them all jealous of one another to see who could supply the best troops for him. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4.)

1521. When Xenophon returned with Agesilaus into Boeotia to fight against the Thebans, he deposited half the gold which he had obtained on his expedition with Cyrus, at Ephesus with Megabyzus, the treasurer of the temple of Diana. He knew that by going with Agesilaus to battle he might be killed. He was killed later at Coronaea. Therefore, Xenophon ordered the treasurer that if he survived the battle he wanted the gold back. Otherwise all of it was to be consecrated to the goddess Diana. The rest of his gold he sent as offerings to Apollo at Delphi. (Expedit. Cy. l. 5. and Diog. Lacrtius in Xenophonte.) Agesilaus consecrated a tenth of all that he had obtained in his two years of war in Asia to Apollo at Delphi. This amounted to about 100 talents. (Xenoph. and Plutarch, in their several lives of Agesilaus.)

1522. When Agesilaus had crossed the sea at Hellespont, he received news of the victory which the Lacedemonians had near Corinth. Thereupon, he sent back Dercylidas into Asia to inform the Ionians. This was to encourage them and strengthen their loyalty to the Lacedemonian party. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4. and Plut. in his Agesilaus.)

3610d AM, 4320 JP, 394 BC

1523. About this time the famous naval battle happened at Cnidus near the hill called Dorius. (Pausan, in the 2nd book of his Eliaca) Eubulus or Eubulis was governor at Athens. He took office at the very beginning of the 3rd year of 96th Olympiad according to Lysias, a very good author in his Oration concerning the acts of Aristophanes.

1524. The commanders of the Persian fleet lay near to Doryma in Chersonesus with more than 90 ships. Pharnabazus commanded the Phoenicians and Conon the Athenian commanded the Greek squadron. Pisander, (for whom Periarchus is incorrectly written by Diodorus) the Lacedemonian admiral sailed from Cnidus with 80 ships and came to a place called Physeus in Chersonesus. After he left there, he came upon a part of the king's fleet. He won the first battle with them. When the rest of the king's fleet came to their rescue, the friends of the Lacedemonians cowardly fled to land. Pisander with his ship attacked the thickest part of the enemy and slew many of them but died heroically in the fight. Conon with his men pursued the Lacedemonians hotly to land and took no less than 50 of their ships. The rest fled and returned safe to Cnidus. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4. Diodorus year 2 of the 96th Olympiad. Justin l. 6. c. 3. Emil. Probus in the life of Conon.)

1525. When Agesilaus was now ready to invade Boeotia, he received news of the defeat of the Lacedemonian fleet and of the death of Pisander, his wife's brother. At that very instant, the sun was eclipsed and looked like a half moon. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4. and Plut. in his Agesilaus) This happened on August 14th 394 BC, as appears by the astronomical accounts.

1526. After this great victory at Cnidus, Pharnabazus and Conon expelled all the Lacedemonian governors and garrisons from all the islands and sea towns. They were told that they would never put any citadels in their towns but that they should hence forth live according to their own laws. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4. Hellen.) First the Coi, then the Nisaeans, then the Teians, and those of Chios defected from the Lacedemoians. Then they of Mitylene, of Ephesus and Erythrae, did so also. Almost immediately, all the rest of the cities defected from the Lacedemonians. Some expelled the Lacedemonian garrisons, set up and maintained their own government. Others put themselves into Conon's hands. From that time on, the Lacedemonians lost the sovereignty of the seas. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 96.)

1527. Dercylidas, an old enemy of Pharnabazus, at this time was at Agidus. He did not yield to Pharnabazus' commands as the others did but having made a grave and pithy speech to the inhabitants. He urged them to remain loyal to the Lacedemonians. When other commanders were expelled from there cities, they came to Dercylidas and were warmly received. Those that did not come voluntarily, were invited to come. When a multitude of them were come, Dercylidas went over to Sesus on the other side and there wooed all who were expelled from their commands on the European side. He encouraged them as he had done to the rest on the Asian side. He told them that in Asia itself which from the beginning belonged to the king, various places, as the small town of Temneus, Egae in Eolia and other places remained loyal and did not yield to the king. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:04:14 AM
 3611a AM, 4320 JP, 394 BC

1528. When Pharnabazus planned to attack Ephesus, he turned over 40 ships to Conon. He ordered him to meet him at Sestus. He himself sent threatening letters to both places telling them that unless they expelled the Lacedemonians he would count them as his enemies. When they refused, he commanded Conon to blockade them by sea. Pharnabazus went and wasted all the country about Abydus. When they still refused to yield to him, he left and went home. He ordered Conon to deal with the cities bordering on the Hellespont. He was to assemble the greatest fleet that they could possibly make by next spring. So the winter was spent making this fleet.

3611b AM, 4321 JP, 393 BC

1529. At the beginning of spring, Pharnabazus assembled a mighty fleet and hired any ship he could. Pharnabazus took Conon with him and went through the middle of the islands of the Aegean Sea and came to Melus one of the Sporades. From there he could easily land in Laconia the country of the Spartans.

3611c AM, 4321 JP, 393 BC

1530. When Pharnabazus had wasted the country, he planned to return into Asia. Before he went, Conon prevailed with him to leave the navy with him. With it he would go to Athens and would repair the long walls and fortify the port of Poyroeum. He said that this would greatly trouble the Lacedemonians. Pharnabazus approved of this plan and gave him money to do that work. Conon came to Athens with 80 ships and started to repair the walls both of the city and port. He gave 50 talents that he received from Pharnabazus, to his fellow citizens. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4., Diod. Sic. year 2. and 3. of the 96th Olympiad. Plut. in his Agesilaus and Laconical Apophthegmes. Justin l. 6. c. 5. Emil. Prob. in the life of Conon.)

3611d AM, 4321 JP, 393 BC

1531. When the Lacedemonians heard that the Athenians were rebuilding their walls, they sent Antalcidas to Tiribazus, another chief commander of the king who lived at Sardis. He wanted to make Tiribazus their friend and to mediate a peace between him and them. The Athenians also sent Conon and various others to him as did the Boeotians, Corinthians and those of Argos. Now when they all came before Tiribazus, Antalcidas told him that he was come to sue for a peace between the king and his country men as the king desired. To that end, the Lacedemonians would not fight with him for the Greek cities in Asia but would be content if all the islands and other countries outside Asia might be free and live according to their own laws. When all the rest of the messengers disavowed that motion, the meeting broke up and every man returned home again. Although Tiribazus saw that it was not safe for him to make a league with the Lacedemonians without the king's consent, yet secretly he furnished Antalcidas with money to build up their navy again. He did this so that the Athenians and their confederates might be the more agreeable to a peace with the king. He imprisoned Conon at Sardis charging him guilty of everything the Lacedemonians said of him. They said Colon had used the king's soldiers and money only to get towns and cities for the Athenians and to restore Ionia and Eloia to them. After that, Tiribazus made a journey to the king to inform him of the Lacedemonians' purposed treaty and to tell the king what he had done to Conon and why he had done it. He then wanted direction from the king as to what to do. (Xen. Hellen. l. 4. with Plut. in his Laconical Apophthegmes: an in his Agesilaus. Diod. Sic. 3rd year of the 96th Olympiad: Emil. Prob. in the life of Conon.)

1532. After Saryrus, King of Bosphorus died, his son Leuco reigned for 40 years. (Diod. Sic. 4th year of 96th Olympiad.)

1533. Parysatis the king's mother, had her trusted servant, hide slips of palm trees in the heap of sand and dust that buried the body of Clearchus as I mentioned earlier. Now after 8 years, a beautiful grove of palm trees grew which shaded all the place, as Ctesias reports in his Persica. He adds that when the king knew of this he greatly repented for killing Clearchus, a man whom the gods themselves respected. (Ctesias, in the Excerptions of Photius, and Plut. in the life of Artaxerxes.)

1534. Some write that Conon was carried away prisoner to the king and executed. (Isocrates in his Panegyric.) However, Dinon, an historian and of great authority in Persian matters says that he escaped from prison. Dinon did not know if this happened with or without Tiribazus' knowledge and consent. (Emil. Prob. in his Conon.)

3612 AM, 4322 JP, 392 BC

1535. While Tiribazus was with the king, the king sent Struthas into lower Asia to take charge of the naval affairs. The Lacedemonians knew that Struthas hated them for the many injuries which Alcibiades had inflicted on the Persians in those parts and that Struthas favoured the Athenian party and their confederates. Therefore, they sent Thimbron to attack him. Thimbron sailed to Ephesus. From there and other places, on the Meander and from Priene, Leucophrye and Achillium, he plundered the king's neighbouring countries. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4.) He took over Ioadae and Coressus, a mountain 5 miles from Ephesus. He had 8000 men whom he had brought with him in addition to those which he raised in Asia. He often made incursions from there and wasted all provinces and nearby places that were under the kings control. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 97.)

3612 AM, 4322 JP, 392 BC

1536. After a while, Struthas, with a large company of cavalry, 5000 foot soldiers and almost 12,000 targeteers camped near the Lacedemonian army. When Struthas knew that Thimbron did not keep military order in sending his men out for service, he sent some cavalry into the plain country. He intended that they would attack whomever they found. When he saw Thimbron send out forces in small numbers and not in military order to relieve them that were attacked, then Struthas and his main body of his cavalry, all in good battle array, attacked them. Thimbron and his dear friend Thersander were killed in the first attack. Thersander was an excellent minstrel and a very good soldier. Hereupon, the rest of the Greeks fled. The Persians chased them. Some they killed, others were captured and only few Greeks escaped to Cnidus and other Greek cities. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 97)

3613 AM, 4323 JP, 391 BC

1537. Ecdicus was sent by the Lacedemonians with 8 ships to help the bandits of Rhodes. He came to Cnidus and found that the Rhodians were very strong on land and sea and had a fleet twice as big as his. Therefore he stayed at Cnidus without attacking them. (Xenoph. Hellen. 4. Diod. year 2. Olympiad 97.)

1538. In the same fleet, the Lacedemonians sent Diphridas with orders to land in Asia and to man all those cities which had adhered to Thimbron. He was to assemble the remaining troops from Thimbron's defeat and any other soldiers he could get. He started the war anew against Struthas. It was his good fortune to capture Tigranes, Strathus' son-in-law as he was going with his wife to Sardis. He let him go after extracting a large sum of money from him which he used to pay his army. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4.)

1539. Euagoras the king of Salamis in Cyprus, ruled almost the entire island through the exploits of his son Protagoras. (Isocrates in his Euagoras.) The rest of the island, he took over partly by force and partly by persuasive words. The inhabitants of Amathusa, Solos and Citium sent to ask for help from Artaxerxes. They charged Euagoras with the killing of Argyris who was, while he lived, a confederate of the Persians and undertook to help the king get the whole island under his control. Artaxerxes wanted to check Euagoras and desired to control Cyprus so he could use it as a base to defend Asia. He ordered an attack against Euagoras and sent away the ambassadors. He ordered that all his sea towns in Asia to start building and outfitting all the ships they could. Artaxerxes went through the cities of upper Asia and raised a large army. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 97.) He made Antophradates, the governor of Lydia the general of the army. and Hercatonnus the commander of Caria, the admiral of the naval forces. (Theopomp. in Biblioth. Photis, p. 176) Instead of making war against Euagoras, Hercatonnus secretly gave him money to hire mercenaries. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 97. and year 3. Olympiad 98.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:04:44 AM
 3614c AM, 4324 JP, 390 BC

1540. When the Lacedemonians saw that Ecdicus did not have enough forces to help their friends, they recalled Telentias from the bay of Corinth and sent him with 12 ships to replace Ecdicus. Telentias was to support as best he could the Rhodians who favoured the Lacedemonian party and to repress their enemies. When Telentias came to Samos he added more ships to his fleet. From there he sailed to Cnidus and dismissed Ecdicus. He set sail for Rhodes with a fleet of 27 well furnished ships. (Xen. Hellen. l. 4. with Diod. Sic. year 2. 97th Olympiad.)

1541. As he was on his way to Rhodes he came upon Philocrates who was sailing from Athens to Cyprus with 10 ships to help king Euagoras. Telentias took these and carried their spoil to Cnidus where he sold it. So it happened that they who were enemies to the king of Persia, plundered them who were going to make war against the king. (Xen. Hellen. l. 4.)

3614d AM, 4324 JP, 390 BC

1542. The Athenians saw that the Lacedemonians were recovering their naval power. They sent Thrasybulus with a fleet of 40 ships against them. He sailed first into Ionia and gathered money from their confederates. He found that all the cities in Asia welcomed him because of that correspondence which was between the king and them. Therefore he set sail for Byzantium and farmed out the collection of the 10% duty on all ships that passed through that strait. When he made a league of friendship with the Chalcedonians, he returned from the Hellespont. (Xen. Hellen. l. 4. with Diodor. year 1. Olympiad 97.)

1543. After this he returned into Asia with his fleet and he sent for the required tribute from those of Aspendus which they paid. He anchored his fleet at the mouth of the river Eurymedon. However, some of his company went up into the country and plundered their goods. The men of Aspendus were furious and waited for a chance to strike back. When it came, they attacked and killed many of them including Thrasybulus while he was sleeping in his tent. This act terrified the Athenian captains and they quickly boarded their ships and sailed to Rhodes. The Athenians immediately sent Argyrius to replace Thrasybulus. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4. Diodor. year 3. Olympiad 97.)

3615 AM, 4325 JP, 389 BC

1544. Although the Lacedemonians had little reason to find fault with Dercylidas' actions, yet they sent Anaxibius to replace him in the government of Abydus. Anaxibius was in favour with the Ephori and promised to do wonders if he might be furnished with men and money. Therefore they gave him 3 ships and money to hire and pay 1000 sailors. When he came to Abydus, he raised the land forces with the money which he brought. He caused various cities of Eolia to defect from Pharnabazus. He wasted the enemies' country. When he got 3 more ships, he troubled the Athenians which sailed along that coast. If he happened to find any of their ships straggling from the rest, he captured and brought them to Abydus. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4.)

1545. When the Athenians heard of this, they sent Iphicrates who recently returned from Corinth, with 8 ships and 1200 targeteers, to maintain what Thrasybulus had gotten. He sailed into those parts against Anaxibius. When he came into Chersonesus both he and Anaxibius established a company of pirates and land robbers, to carry on the war for them. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 4.)

3616 AM, 4326 JP, 388 BC

1546. Anaxibius went to Antandrus with his mercenaries and his own country men and 200 foot soldiers from Abydus. There he was very kindly welcomed and entertained. Meanwhile Iphicrates placed ambushes for him in the mountain passages before Anaxibius could return from there to Abydus. The vessels which had carried Iphicrates over at night, Iphicrates ordered to row up the Hellespont that men might think that he was on-board and that he was going as his custom was to collect money. The men of Abydus who led the troops came into the plain which lies near a place called Cremastes, (where there are gold mines) and the rest were coming down the steep hill and Anaxibius with his Laconian troops followed them. Iphicrates with all his men, rose out of their ambush and attacked them. Anaxibius was thus entrapped, fought courageously and died along with 12 other Lacedemonians' governors of various cities. The rest fled and Iphicrates pursued them to the very gates of Abydus. Of these, 200 died in addition to 50 foot soldiers from Abydus. Iphicrates returned into Chersonesus. (Xen. Hellen. l. 4. in. fi.)

1547. The Lacedemonians sent Hierax to replace Teleutias as admiral of the fleet. Teleutias returned home. He was dearly loved and admired by his troops. (Xenophon Hellen. l. 5.)

3617 AM, 4327 JP, 387 BC

1548. Shortly after, the Lacedemonians sent Antalcidas to replace Hierax hoping that they would please Tiribazus. When Antalcidas came to Ephesus, he left Nicholochus' lieutenant there. Antalcidas and Tiribazus went together to the king to conclude the peace which was then being disturbed. (Xen. Hellen. l. 5. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 98.)

1549. To secure Abydus, Nicolochus sailed from Ephesus and on the way he landed at Tenedos. He wasted their country and extracted a sum of money from them and then went on his journey to Abydus. Meanwhile the Athenian captains, who were at Samothrace Thasus and other places nearby hurried to come to the relief of Tenedos. When they found that Nicolochus had safely arrived at Agidus, they left Chersonesus with 32 ships and besieged him as he stayed at Abidus with 25 ships. (Xenoph. Hellen l. 5.)

1550. Chabrias with 800 targeteers and 10 ships was publicly sent by the Athenians to help Euagoras. He did not leave the place till he had subdued the whole island for him. By this the Athenians became famous in the world, (Xenoph. Hellen l. 5. and Emil. Prob. in the Life of Chabrias.) Lysias the orator, in his oration upon Aristophanes, mentions the embassy sent from the Cypriots to the Athenians asking for aid.

1551. Artaxerxes detested the Lacedemonians and always said (as Dinon reports) that they were the most impudent of all men living. However, when he saw Antalcidas, the Leonidas and the Calicratidas dance before him, he fell infinitely in love with him. When Antalcidas was eating supper, Artaxerxes sent him a garland made of roses and saffron from his own head. It was dipped in a most costly ointment. He was to wear it for the king's sake. Antalcidas replied:

``Sir, I take and thank you for this noble gift and favour but the perfume of its ointment mars the natural scent and fragrance of the flowers.''

1552. (Plut. in his Artax. and in his Polopidas and in his Sympos. l. 7. ques. 8. Athenaeus Deiphos. l. 2. Elia. Varia, Histor. l. 14. c. 39.)

1553. Tiribazus returned from the king with Antalcidas when he had made a firm league and alliance in case the Atheninas and their confederates would not partake in that peace which he had negotiated. When Pharnabazus went to the king who was in upper Asia, he married the king's daughter. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 5.)

1554. When Antalcidas returned, he heard that Iphicrates and Diotimus besieged Nicolochus in Abydus with all their fleet. Antalcidas went there by land and sailed at night. He let on that he was summoned to Chalcedon. However, he besieged the port of Percope. When 4 captains on the Athenian side heard that Antalcidas sailed for Chalcedon, they planned to follow him upon the trade route to Proeconesus. As soon as they sailed by, Antalcidas sailed back to Abydus. By this stratagem, he placed 12 swift ships in an ambush and intercepted 8 ships which Thrasybulus the Athenian brought from Thrace to join the main Attic fleet. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 5.) Polyanus, l. 2. Stratag. in Antalcida.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:05:23 AM
 1555. Antalcides received 20 ships from Syracusae and other parts of Italy which were brought him by Polyxenus and others. From Ionia, Pharnabazus sent ships. He also received ships from Atiobarzanes, his old friend. With his fleet of 80 ships he was absolute master of the sea. Thereby he forced those ships which came from Pontus and were bound for Athens to discharge their cargo in a port friendly to the Lacedemonian party. (Xenoph. Hellen. l. 5.)

1556. When Tiribazus had summoned all to come that would subscribe to the peace treaty of Artaxerxes, all the Greek cities sent their ambassadors. He showed them the document with the king's seals attached. He had it read to them:

``The King Artaxerxes thinks it reasonable that the cities which are in Asia as also the islands of Clazomena and Cyprus should be under his government. All other Greek cities, regardless of size, should be free and live according to their own laws. This excludes Leminus, Imbrus and Scirus, which are under the control of the Athenians. Those who shall not receive this peace, I will with those who agree to his peace, wage war by land and by sea with ships and with money.''

1557. The ambassadors returned to their respective cities with the terms of the peace. Although they were grieved to see the Greek cities in Asia under subjection, they accepted the peace. (Xen. Hellen. l. 5. Isocrates in Panathen, Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 98. Plutarch in Agesil. and Artaxers. and in his Laconical Apophtheg. Aristides in his Leutric. 1 and 2.) This peace was proclaimed 19 years after the sea battle at Egospotamos and 16 years before the battle at Leuctra in Boeotia. (Polyb. l. 1.)

1558. When this peace was made, Agesilaus, (according to Xenophon) was very earnest to see that the terms were observed. The Lacedemonians appointed themselves defenders of the peace in Greece. Artaxerxes wrote a letter to Alcibiades which he sent by a Persian with Callias a Lacedemonian. He offered Alcibiades both hospitality and friendship. Alcibiades declined the offer and told the king's messenger to tell his master that:

``He need not trouble himself to write letters to him. For if he continued a good friend to the Lacedemonians, they would be good friends. But if he did any ill to them, he should not think that any of his letters should win him his friendship.'' (Plutarch in his Laconical Apophthegmes.)

1559. In those articles of Antalcidas' peace, formerly related from Xenophon, who could not be ignorant of its terms, we find that not all the islands bordering on Asia but only two were given to the king. However Plutarch in the life of Artaxerxes, seems to think otherwise. These islands were Clazomenae (which as I showed before, 3504 AM and 3509 AM was then an island) and Cyprus. The nature of this peace now drew Chabrias from Cyprus, when he had already subdued it for Euagoras. Euagoras armed almost every man in the island and mustered a huge army against Artaxerxes. When Artaxerxes had made peace with the Greeks, he ordered all his forces to prepare for the conquest of Cyprus. (??) (Diod. Sic. 2 year, Olympiad 98.)

3618 AM, 4328 JP, 386 BC

1560. Artaxerxes mustered 300,000 foot soldiers and prepared 300 ships to attack Euagoras, the king of Cyprus. Orontes, the son-in-law to the king was the general of the army. The admiral of his fleet was Tiribazus. These two assumed their positions at Phocia and Cuma. They first sailed to Cilicia and from there landed in Cyprus. They waged a fierce war against Euagoras. He procured supplies from the Egyptians, Tyrians, Arabians and others who were enemies of the Persians. He had a fleet of 90 ships of which 20 were from Tyre and the rest were his. He had 6000 foot soldiers and a huge number of auxiliaries from other parts. Since he had plenty of money, his army grew exceedingly large. (Diod. l. 15. year 3. Olympiad 98.)

1561. Euagoras encouraged a number of pirates he had at his command, to attack the enemy cargo ships. Some they captured, others were sunk and the rest dared not sail for fear of them. When the food ran out for the Persian army, some of the mercenaries killed their commanders and the whole army was in rebellion. Hence the officers of the army and Gaus the chief officer at sea were barely able to quiet them. Whereupon, the whole navy sailed for Cilicia and brought food from there for the camp. Acoris king of Egypt supplied Euagoras all the grain, money or other provisions that he could wish for. (Diod. l. 15. year 3. Olympiad 98.)

1562. Euagoras knew that his fleet was far too weak for the enemies. Therefore he furnished 60 more of his own ships and had 50 more sent to him from king Acoris. His fleet now totalled 200 ships. In the first encounter by land, he defeated the Persians and routed them again at sea. He suddenly attacked their fleet as they were sailing to Citium and sunk some of them and captured others which were separated from the main body of the navy. When the admiral of the Persian navy and the rest of the commanders had time to recover, they counter attacked and the battle was fierce. At first Euagoras had the upper hand. When Gaus attacked with all his forces and personally fought very courageously, Euagoras' men fled with the loss of many of his ships. After the Persians won, they assembled their land and naval forces at Citium. When they outfitted, they went to besiege Salamis, the chief city, by land and sea. (Diod. l. 15. year 3. Olympiad 98.)

1563. Immediately after the fight Teribazus went into Cilicia to carry the news of the victory to Artaxerxes. Euagoras left Salamis to be defended by his son Pythagoras. (Protagoras perhaps, of whom I formerly made mention from Isocrates in 3613 AM.) He committed the charge of the whole isle to him. Euagoras escaped by night with only 10 ships and sailed to Egypt. He persuaded Acoris to make a war upon the Persians with all the power he could. (Diod. l. 15. year 3. Olympiad 98.)

3619 AM, 4329 JP, 385 BC

1564. Euagoras returned to Cyprus but with far less money than he expected. When he found Salamis strongly besieged and himself abandoned by his confederates, he sent to Tiribazus to ask for peace. Tiribazus who was commander-in-chief, replied that he would grant peace provided that he would surrender all Cyprus except Salamis into the king's hand and pay the king's tribute. He would submit to the authority of the king. As hard as these conditions were, Euagoras agreed to them only he would be subject to the king as one king is to another not as a slave to his master. Tiribazus rejected this. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.)

1565. Orantes the other commander-in-chief who envied the position of Tiribazus, secretly sent letters to the king, his father-in-law. Among other matters, he accused Tiribazus of planning a rebellion. Also that he had secretly made an alliance with the Lacedemonians and used all means to win over to himself all the main captains and commanders of the army. The king believed these lies and ordered Orontes to seize Tiribazus and send him to him. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:06:10 AM
 1566. Orontes feared Tiribazus but devised this plan. There was a house which had a great vault in it. Over this vault he placed a bed and removed its bottom. He covered it over with tapestry and many costly covers. Then he asked Tiribazus to come to him, pretending that he wanted a conference about some urgent matters. When Tiribazus came in, he sat down on the bed and fell through into the vault. He was caught and sent bound in chains to the king. (Polyan. Stratag. l. 7.)

1567. Now Orontes commanded all the forces in Cyprus. He saw that Euagoras had taken fresh courage and endured the siege more stoutly than before. His soldiers were discontented by Tiribazus' misfortune. When Orontes received no commands he abandoned the siege. He granted Euagoras a peace on the terms Euagoras had purposed to Tiribazus. These were that he would pay a yearly tribute to the king, he would continue to be king of Salamis and as a king he would be obedient in all things to the king. Hence this war in Cyprus ended, which had lasted 10 years of which 8 years were spent in preparations and only 2 years in the war. The king had spent 50,000 talents on it. When all was done, Euagoras was in the same state as he was when the war began. (Isocrates in his Euagoras, Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.)

1568. Gaus, vice-admiral of the navy and son-in-law to Tiribazus, feared lest he be thought to know of Tiribazus' plans that he might meet the same fate as Tiribazus. He thought of defecting from the king. With wealth and soldiers enough and having the loyalty of the chief captains of the navy, he confederated with Acoris king of Egypt and the Lacedemonians to make war on Artaxerxes. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.)

1569. Artaxerxes followed the example of Cambyses, (Herod. l. 5. c. 25. Valer. Max. l. 6. c. 3.) and had certain of his judges to be flayed alive and their skins hung over the judgment seats. He did this so that they who judged would know what hung over their heads and might be the more careful to do justice to his people. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.)

3620 AM, 4330 JP, 384 BC

1570. Artaxerxes lead an army of 300,000 men against the Cadusii, a people lying between the Euxine and the Caspian Sea, (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 98. Plut. in Artaxerxes.) In this war, many important men died on each side. One on the king's side was Camislates, a Carian who was a brave and valiant man. The king had made him governor of the part of Cilicia, which lies next to Cappadocia and is inhabited by the Leucosytians. In honour of him, the king made his son Datames, governor in his place. He also did great exploits for the king in this war, (Emil. Prob. in the Life of Datames.)

1571. Artaxerxes' army in this war was very short of supplies. So much so that a man could hardly buy the head of an ass for 60 drachmas. Teribazus, who lived then as a poor neglected and contemptible soldier in the army, relieved them in this manner. There were at that time two kings of the Cadusians and they kept their camps separated. Therefore Teribazus told his plan to Artaxerxes. He went to one of the kings and sent his son secretly to the other. Each deceived the king and persuading him that the other king had secretly sent to Artaxerxes to make a peace with him for himself and to leave the other out. Hereupon, each king sent ambassadors, the one with Teribazus, the other with his son to the king and he made peace with them both. So the war was ended. (Plut. in Artaxerxes.)

1572. Upon this, the king referred the case of Teribazus to three honourable persons. He made his innocence so obvious and showed that his services to the king were so great, that they declared his innocence. After this, the king held him in very high esteem and heaped great honours on him. Orontes was condemned as a false accuser and thrust from the king's favour. He was counted as an ignominious person after that. (Diod. Sic. year. 4. Olympiad 98.)

1573. While Gaus was in Cyprus, the Greeks who served under him there, wrote letters against him and sent them to Ionia. To find out who they were, and what they wrote he did the following. He prepared a ship with sailors. He had the captain say that he was sailing for Ionia. The ship stayed for a while to get as many letters aboard as possible and at last set out. Shortly it turned back into a creek not far from the place where it set out from. Orontes went there on foot. All the letters aboard were given to him. After Gaus had read them and found out who had sent them, he had them all executed by torture. (Polyan. Stratag. l. 7. for "Gaus" is incorrectly written "Alos" and "Glos.")

3621 AM, 4331 JP, 383 BC

1574. After Gaus had provoked the Egyptians and Lacedemonians to war against the Persians, he was killed. I do not know how nor by whom and his plans came to naught. After his death, Tachos got an army and built the town Leuca on a high hill that bordered on the sea. He also built a temple for Apollo. Shortly after this he died. The Clazomenians and the men of Cuma disagreed over who owned this town. The Clazomonians were quicker and took control of it. So all rebellions in Asia ceased. After the death of Gaus and Tachos, the Lacedemonians abandoned Asia and had nothing more to do with it. (Diod. Sic. year. 2. Olympiad 94.)

3622b AM, 4332 JP, 382 BC

1575. When Pharnostratus was governor of Athens, in the month Possideon in the 366th year of Nabonassar's account on the 26th day of the Egyptian month, Thoth, at 5:30 am December 23rd 383 BC, there was a small eclipse of the moon observed at Babylon. (Hipparch. in Ptol. in his great Syntax. l. 4. c. ult.)

3622c AM, 4332 JP, 382 BC

1576. In the same man's time, in the month Scirrophorion and in the same year of Nabonassar, on the 24th day of the month Phammenoth at 6:30 pm June 18th 382 BC another lunar eclipse was observed at Babylon. (Hipparch. in Ptol. in his great Syntax. l. 4. c. ult.)

3623a AM, 4332 JP, 382 BC

1577. When Evander was governor of Athens, in the month of Possideon, in the 367th year of Nabonassar's account, the 16th day of the month Thoth, at 9:30 pm December 12th 382 BC there was a third lunar eclipse observed at Babylon. This was a total eclipse. (Hipparch. in Ptol. in his great Syntax. l. 4. c. ult.)

3627 AM, 4337 JP, 377 BC

1578. Acoris king of Egypt bore an old grudge against the king of Persia. He gathered a huge army of aliens, especially from Greece. He made Chabrias the Athenian the general of the army. He, without any orders from or consent from Athens, assumed this charge in Egypt and prepared all he could for this war against the Persians. Artaxerxes made Pharnabazus general of his army for this war. When he had made many preparations for it, he sent messengers to Athens and there charged Chabrias for offering his service to the Egyptians. Thereby they would lose Artaxerxes favour. He desired that they would send to him Iphicrates their general. The Athenians who were mainly desirous to endear the king to them and to keep Pharnabazus as their good friend, sent for Chabrias from Egypt and gave Iphicrates orders to go and help Pharnabazus. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 100.)

1579. Iphicrates had the charge of 12,000 mercenaries committed to him by Artaxerxes. By continual training and exercise, he made them expert in the art of military affairs. Later among the Romans a skilful soldier was commonly called a Fabian soldier after Fabius and likewise in Greece a good soldier was called an Iphicratian soldier after Iphicrates. (Emil. Prob. in Iphicrates,) Pharnabazus spent many years in preparing for this war. One time when Iphicrates found Pharnabazus a man so voluble in his speech and so slow in his actions, he asked him the reason why. Pharnabazus said the reason was because I am master of my words, but the king of my actions. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad. 101.)

1580. Hecatonus Mausolus was made a governor of Caria and so ruled for 24 years. (Diod. Sic. year 4 of Olymp. 106.) He married Artemisia, the older of his two sisters. (Strabo. l. 14.)

3628 AM, 4338 JP, 376 BC

1581. After Acoris died, Psammuthis reigned 1 year in Egypt.

3629 AM, 4339 JP, 375 BC

1582. After him, came Nepherites, the last of the dynasty of the Mendesians, and reigned 4 months. Then arose the first of the dynasty of the Sabennitae, called Nectanabis who reigned 12 years.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:06:44 AM
1583. Artaxerxes was now ready to make war on Egypt. To get more aid from Greece, he sent his ambassadors there to encourage them to make a general peace among themselves. The terms were that every city should from that time on live according to their own laws and they should have no garrisons among them. All the cities of Greece accepted this, except the Thebians. (Diod. Sic. year. 2. Olymp. 101.)

3630 AM, 4340 JP, 374 BC

1584. When Artaxerxes' army was assembled at Acon in Syria, he had 200,000 troops under Pharnabazus and 20,000 Greeks under Iphicrates. In the navy, excluding cargo ships, he had 300 ships with 3 banks of oars and 200 of 30 oars a piece. The first type are called trireis in Greek, the other teiacitioui. In the beginning of the summer, i.e. in the first of the spring, the Persian navy sailed for Egypt and came to the frontier town near Syria called Pelusium. They found it exceedingly well fortified by Nectanabis. Hence they put out to sea again and when they were out of sight, they steered for Mendesium, a city on one of the mouths of the Nile. There the shore runs a great way out from the land. They landed 3000 men and Pharnabazus and Iphicrates went to surprise a fort that stood on the very mouth of the river. When they came there, 3000 Egyptian cavalry and foot soldiers came to defend the place. There was a fierce skirmish between them. At last, the Egyptians were overwhelmed with the number of Persians which came thronging from the ships to help their troops. They were totally surrounded and were slaughtered. Many of them were taken and the rest fled to a little town nearby. Iphicrates' men pursued them and entered pell mel with them into the gate and captured it. They rased it to the ground and carried away its inhabitants as prisoners. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 101.)

 1585. Iphicrates advised them to go presently by water to assault Memphis, the main city of all Egypt. It had no garrison and he thought they should attack it before the Egyptian forces came in to defend it. Pharnabazus did not agree. He would stay until his army came and so they could attack them with less danger. By this delay, the Egyptians had enough time to get supplies into Memphis and from there they made various attacks on the small town which the Persians had seized as I had said before. They skirmished frequently with them and slaughtered many of them. When the time of the year came, the Nile flooded all the country around there and helped fortify Memphis. Therefore the Persian commanders thought it foolish to fight against nature and withdrew from there for the present. So all those huge preparations came to naught. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 101.)

1586. As soon as they returned to Asia, Iphicrates lost favour with Pharnabazus. Iphicrates feared that he might be thrown into prison as happened to Conon. Therefore, he sailed secretly to Athens by night. Pharnabazus sent for him and charged that he was the reason why Egypt was not conquered. The Athenians replied that they would punish him if they saw fit. Shortly after this, the Athenians made him the admiral of all their fleet. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 101)

1587. Nicocles an eunuch in Cyprus, murdered Euagoras and made himself king of Salamis according to Diodorus in this year's account. Euagoras was murdered by an eunuch, (Aristotle 5. of his Politic, c. 10.) but states that his name was Thrasydaeus. We learn from Theopompus (Biblioth. Photii. n. 176.) that Euagoras, by this eunuch's help got to lie with the daughter of Nicocreon. He was that tyrant of Cyprus, who (Plutarch in his life) invited Isocrates to supper and that was the cause of his death. Nicocles was Euagaoras' own son according to Isocrates. He had 20 talents from Nicocles for his written oration that he sent to him. (Plutarch in the life of Isocrates) We still have his oration addressed to Nicocles concerning the functions of a king. Another oration entitled Nicocles concerns Nicocles' duties as a prince. A third oration called Euagoras, is a funeral oration made for him. Nicocles in this very year solemnified his father's funeral in a costly and magnificently pompous manner. He held all types of games of music, dancing, wrestling, ship fights and cavalry battles for the funeral. Therefore Isocrates wrote this oration to him in praise and commendation of his father. He hoped that this would serve both Nicocles and his sons and children after them as an example and exhortation of well doing.

``Supposing, that this will serve both you and your children, and the other descendants of Euagoras for utmost encouragement to your well doing,'' (Isocrates in his Euagoras.)

1588. Hence we may amend that error in Diod. Sic. and say truly that Euagoras was murdered by Thrasidaeus an eunuch and that his own son Nicocles succeeded him in the kingdom of Salamis.

3633 AM, 4343 JP, 371 BC

1589. When Alcisthenes was governor at Athens, the Greek cities resumed their infighting. Artaxerxes sent ambassadors to urge them to obey the peace treaty and live peacefully with each other. All the Greek cities except Thebes swore an oath to keep the peace. When the peace was made and agreed to by the Athenians, Lacedemonians and Artaxerxes, Iphicrates was recalled with his fleet. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 102. with Xenoph. Hellen. l. 6. and Diony, Halicarnas. in the life of Lysias.)

1590. Plutarch (in the life of Agesilaus), shows that this peace was concluded and made among the Greeks at Lacedemon on the 14th day of the month Scirrophorion with the Athenians and in the last month of Arcisthenes' governorship at Athens on Thursday, July 16, 371 BC.

3634 AM, 4344 JP, 370 BC

1591. The Lacedemonians were badly defeated at Leuctra by Epaminondas. They immediately sent Agesilaus to Egypt and Antalcidas to Artaxerxes to get money. Artaxerxes rejected Antalcidas' request with much scorn and indignation. When he returned he starved himself to death because he had been so spitefully used by Artaxerxes and he feared what the Ephori would do to him. (Plut. in Artax.)

3635 AM, 4345 JP, 369 BC

1592. Artabarzanes sent Philiscus of Abidus, who was one of Artaxerxes' lords to Greece to resolve matters between Thebes and their confederates and the Lacedemonians. Philiscus summoned them all to Delphi. Thebes was adament that Messene should not be under the Lacedemonian jurisdiction. Philiscus was so offended by this that he left 2000 of his best soldiers to assist the Lacedemonians against Thebes. Philiscus returned to Asia. (Xenoph. Hellen. 7. Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 102.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:07:13 AM
 3636 AM, 4346 JP, 368 BC

1593. When Thebes controlled Greece, they thought it good to send their ambassadors to the king of Persia. For this purpose they called their confederates together and pretended that Euthycles of Lacedemon was already with the king. They sent to the king, Pelopidas from Thebes, Antiochus the athlete from Arcadia, Archidamus of Eleus, a town in Thrace and one other from Argos. When the Athenians heard this, they sent their ambassadors, Timagoras and Leontes, to the king. Among them all Pelopidas was the most gracious in the king's eyes and next to him was Timagoras. All of the others were most honourably treated by the king. (Xen. Hellen. l. 7.)

1594. Ismenias from Thebes was joint commissioner with Pelopidas in this embassy. When he was brought by Tithraustes the chiliarch into the presence of the king, he was asked to prostrate himself before the king. He dropped his ring before him and presently fell all down and recovered his ring. The king thought he did this to honour him and gave him whatever he asked. (Plut. in Artax. Elia. Var. Hist. l. 1. c. 21.)

1595. At the same time, Timagoras the Athenian sent a confidential letter by Bubaris' secretary to the king. For his trouble he received 1000 darics. Timagorous had a rich supper sent him at his lodging. Whereupon the king's brother Ostanes, said to him: (??)

``Remember Timagoras this supper. For it is not sent you for any lowly purpose.''

1596. This sounded like he was upbraiding Timagoras for some treasonous purpose in him rather than congratulating him for the gift sent to him. (Plut. in Artax.) It is also said that the king gave Timagorous 80 cows because he was so sickly and the cattle would give him milk on his journey home. The king also gave him a costly bed and furniture along with some servants to make it because the Greeks were not skilled in such matters. Moreover the king had him carried all along to the seaside in a litter because of his weakness. The king gave those who carried him 4 talents for their work. (Plut. in Artax. and in his Pelopidas) In (Athena. l. 2.) we are told that Timagoras, after his prostration to the king was treated with great honour by the king. He adds only: (??)

``that the king sent him some dishes from his own table.''

1597. Concerning the costly bed and furniture and the men to make it, (as if the Greeks knew not how to make a bed,) that were sent by Artaxerxes, he says it was to Timagoras of Crete or Eutimus of Gortyna in Crete, as Phanias in the Peripatetic calls him.

1598. Pelopidas by his gracious behaviour with the king, got letters from the king stating that the king ordered that Messene should be exempt from Lacedemonian jurisdiction and the Athenians were required to withdraw their ships. If they did not obey, the king proclaimed open war against both of them. If any city refused to follow him in this war then that city would be the first of all other cities to be made an example of. When Leontes spoke publicly that it was time for the Athenians to look for new friends instead of the king, Artaxerxes asked that if the Athenians did not like it, they should come and state the reasons why not. (Xen. Hellen. l. 7.)

1599. When the ambassadors came home, the Athenians took Timagoras and decapitated him for his prostration to the king. They were insulted that the grovelling flattery of one of their citizens should subject the whole honour of the Athenian state to the domineering power of the Persians. (Valer. Max. l. 5. c. 3.) (In the text, "Darius" is written by mistake for "Artaxerxes.") Others say that it was for his base acceptance of the king's gifts. For more of this see (Plutarch in his Artax. and Pelopidas.) Xenophon says that he was accused by his companion Leontes of not lodging with him and communicated all his counsels with Pelopidas. This no doubt was the main cause for his execution.

1600. Thebes summoned all the cities of Greece to hear the king's letters read. They were publicly read by the Persian that brought them. He first showed them the king's seal on the letters. The letters stated that all who would be friends to the king and Thebes were required to take an oath for the observance of the contents of those letters. The delegates and later the cities refused to take that oath. Hence that mission to Artaxerxes and the sovereignty of Greece engineered by Pelopidas and Thebes came to naught. (Xen. Hellen. l. 7.)

3638a AM, 4347 JP, 367 BC

1601. Jubilee 22.

3638d AM, 4348 JP, 366 BC

1602. Artaxerxes sent other ambassadors into Greece to require them to stop these wars and to make a peace among themselves. In the end, he prevailed with them. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 103.)

1603. Eudoxus the Cnidian, surnamed "Endoxos", that is "the famous", was in his prime at this time. He went to Egypt with Chrysippus a physician, and carried with him letters of commendation from Agesilaus to Nectunabis who commended him to the priests there. After spending time with Iconupni of Heliopolis, (whom Clemens Alexan. in the first book of his Stromat. calls Conuphis) Apis the bull came to lick his cloak. Whereupon the priests said, that he would become very famous but it would not be long lived. (Phavorinus in his commentaries) When Eudoxus had stayed in Egypt for 16 months, he shaved himself all over to his very eye brows and wrote the Octocris, as some say. This we have in our discourse on the Macednian and Asiatic year. (c. ult.) From there he is said to have travelled to Cyzicum and Propontis and to have spread his philosophy in those parts. He finally came to Mausolus. (Diog. Laertius in his Eudoxus,) Others say that Eudoxus went with Plato to Egypt and they both studied 13 years with the priests there. (Strabo, l. 17.)

3639 AM, 4349 JP, 365 BC

1604. At Heraclea in Pontus, the common people wanted all debts to be cancelled and all lands equally shared among them. The nobility sent to Timotheus, Prince of Athens and also to Epaminondas of Thebes for help against them. When they refused, they recalled Clearchus home whom they had formerly exiled and begged his help to repress the common people. (Justin l. 16. c. 4.)

3640 AM, 4350 JP, 364 BC

1605. Clearchus used the dissention among the people as an occasion to become ruler of the city. He dealt secretly with Mithridates king of Pontus. He was an enemy in Greece. Clearchus agreed with Mithridates that when he was called home, he would betray the city into Mithridates' hands and control it after this as governor under Mithridates. When Clearchus set a time to deliver the city into Mithridates his hand, Clearchus captured Mithridates and those that accompanied him when they came to take over the city. Clearchus threw them into prison and let them go when he had extorted a huge sum of money from them. So instead of maintaining the rich men's cause against the people, he made himself a patron of the common people against them. He stirred up the common people against them and behaved cruelly toward the nobility. When the people had made him ruler Clearchus cast 60 of the chief of them (for the rest were fled) into prison. After first taking away their goods, he had them executed. (Justin l. 16. c. 4.) He followed the example of Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse and he ruled the city for 12 years. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad 104. with the Collections of Photius in his Biblioth. from Memnon the Historiographer of Heraclea, n. 224.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:08:01 AM
 3641 AM, 4351 JP, 363 BC

1606. Tachos, whom Polyanius (l. 7. Stratgem.) calls "Thamos", Aristotle (l. 2. of his Oeconomics) "Taos" and Julius Africanus, "Teos", reigned in Egypt for 2 years.

1607. With this year Xenophon concludes his 7 books of his Greek history. Anaximes Lampsacenus concludes the first part of his history. He starts from the birth of the gods and creation of mankind and ends with the battle of Manthinea in which Epaminondas was killed. The history is in 12 volumes and records almost all things that happened among either the Greeks or the barbarians. (Diod. year 2. Olympiad 104.) In the second part he sets down all the deeds of Philip of Macedonia and his son, Alexander the Great. (Pausa. 2. of his Eliaca.)

1608. After Mithradates king of Pontus died, Ariobarzanes, the governor of Phrygia under Artaxerxes, seized the kingdom of Pontus and ruled it for 26 years. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104. and year 4. of Olympiad 110.)

1609. When Clearchus the tyrant of Heraclea found that the chief men of Heraclea who had fled from there stirred up all the neighbouring cities and states against him, he freed all their slaves. He gave them their masters' wives and daughters in marriage and threatened death to those that would not. By this he made those slaves more loyal to him and made them more hostile to their masters. Many women reckoned these forced marriages to be worse than death itself. Therefore before their wedding, many murdered their husbands to be and then killed themselves. At last the nobles had a battle with Clearchus. He won and took the nobles as prisoners and led them in a triumph through the city in the sight of all the people. Then he put some of them in irons, others on the rack and others he put to death. He left no part of the city free from the sight and sense of his cruelty. (Justin l. 16. c. 5.)

3642 AM, 4352 JP, 362 BC

1610. The Lacedemonians became the enemies of Artaxerxes when he claimed to be their friend and yet ordered them to withdraw from Messene and to make it a distinct member in the league of Greece. (Xenoph. in his Agesulaus, and Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 104.) Ariobarzanes, the Governor of Phrygia joined with the Lacedemonians. He, as I said before, after the death of Mithridates had taken over the kingdom of Pontus. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.)

1611. Autophrades, the governor of Lydia besieged Ariobarzanes in Assos, a city of Troas. However, he lifted his seige and fled in fear when Agesilaus, who was now old, came into Asia only to raise money for his country. Cotys, who besieged Sestus and was under Ariobarzanes' command, lifted his seige also. Mausolus who besieged Assus and Sestus with 100 ships was persuaded to withdraw and he returned home with his fleet. Ariobarzanes, (??) a friend of the Lacedemonians, furnished Agesilaus with money for his country and sent him on his away. (Xenoph. in his Agesilaus,) Polyanus (l. 7.) mentions the siege of Ariobarzanes by Autophrates in Adramytium.

1612. Mausolus, called his friends together and told them that unless Artaxerxes was given an excessive sum of money, he would take away his country which he held by inheritance from his father. His friends thought the country brought him, in an instant, an infinite sum of money. (Polyenus l. 7. Stratag.) compared with (Aristot. in his Oeconomics:) However they saw that he was not going to yield to Artaxerxes. Mausolus allied himself with those governors and captains who were rebelling against Artaxerxes. At this time all of Ionia, Lycia, Pisidia, Pamphilia and Cilicia were in rebellion against him. In addition, the Syrians, Phoenicians and almost all that bordered on the Asiatic sea rebelled. Also, Tachos king of Egypt, proclaimed open war against Artaxerxes and was busy everywhere building ships and raising forces for the war. Many of these came from all of Greece and Tachos formed an alliance with the Lacedemonians. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.)

1613. When all these rebellions happened at once against Artaxerxes, he lost half of his revenues. The remainder was not enough for the war considering that he was to support a war against the king of Egypt, all the Greek cities and countries in Asia. Also he had to war against the Lacedemonians and their confederates, namely the governors which held the sea towns and regions in all Asia under their command. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.)

1614. The king of Egypt sent for Agesilaus, promising to make him general of his army. (Xenoph. in his Agesilaus.) He was sent there by his country and used the money from Tachos to hire mercenaries. He loaded his ships with 1000 foot soldiers and took with him 30 Spartan commissioners for his War Council. (Plut. in his Agesilaus: and Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.) When the news of his landing came to the courtiers in Egypt, they strived to be the first to send him presents. When they came to him, they scorned him. They saw no attendants about him but only a decrepit and wearisome old man, lying along on the beach sloven-like and of a small stature. They loathed his sordid and insulant behaviour all the more when they saw that he selected only some grain and veal from all the rich foods they sent him and threw away the dainties, sweet meats and precious ointments to his soldiers. (Plut. and Emil. Prob. in his Agesilaus.) The king of Egypt did not keep his promise and did not make him the general of his army. (Xen. in his Agesilaus.) He derided him for the smallness of his stature and said that whoever spoke the old proverb was correct:

``The hills were great with young and delivered a mouse.''

1615. which when Agesilaus heard, he said in a rage,

`` I will one day seem a lion to him.'' (Athenae. l. 14. with Plutarch)

1616. Chabrias the Athenian, was not sent by public authority as Alcibiades was. Tachos persuaded him to serve him as a private citizen. (Diod. Sic. and Plutarch.) When Chabrias saw the king was short of money, he advised him to take what money he could from the rich and promise them to be paid from his yearly taxes. By this means, Tachos gathered an enormous sum of money without injuring anyone. (Polya. Strat. l. 3.) Aristotle (l. 2. of his Oeconomics.) numbers this as but one of the many schemes he had for raising money at this time.

1617. They who rebelled in Asia, made Orontes the governor of Mysia, their commander-in-chief. When he received enough money to pay for 20,000 mercenaries for one year, he captured those who had contributed the money and sent them as prisoners to Artaxerxes. He than betrayed various other cities, forts and mercenaries to the king's officers that the king had sent into those parts. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 104.) Polyanus mentions this war by Orontes and Autophradates and other officers of the kings. (Polyanus l. 7. Stratag.) Diodorus assures us that in the last year of Artaxerxes Mnemon both Autophradates and Orontes and other commanders defected from him. Therefore, we must conclude, that Autophradates stood for his son Artaxerxes Ochus and that it was Orontes which made the war against him.

1618. Artabazus, who commanded Artaxerxes Mnemon's army, attacked Cappadocia. Datames the governor of that province attacked Artabazus with a strong body of cavalry and 20,000 mercenaries on foot. Then Mithrabarzanes his father-in-law and general of his cavalry stole away from him at night with all his cavalry and fled to Artabazus. Mithrabarzanes and his troops were well paid for this treachery. For it happened that they were attacked and hewed in pieces by both the armies from each side. Diodorus adds, that when Artaxerxes was told that Datames had brought Artaxerxes this noose as a joke. Artaxerxes quickly tried to rid his hands of him and shortly after this, Artaxerxes had him secretly killed. However, it appears from Emil. Prob. that Datames lived long after this. He acknowledges that Datames' affairs were carried out in an obscure way. Hence he says, that he was most careful determining what happened. This he does in such a way as to easily discern that what he did was all in the reign of Artaxerxes Ochus.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:08:32 AM
1619. Rheomithres was sent by the alliance of Persian governors to Egypt. He received 500 talents and 50 ships and returned with them to Leucas in Asia. When he sent for many of the governors and leaders to come to him there, he siezed them and sent them all away as prisoners to Artaxerxes. By this act, he re-ingratiated himself with the king who was previously displeased with him. (Diod. Sic. year 3 Olympiad 104.)

3643a AM, 4352 JP, 362 BC

1620. When Tachos was fully prepared for war, he put Agesilaus in command of the 10,000 Greek mercenaries. His fleet of 200 ships was under Chabrias who was very skilful in naval affairs. (Polya l. 7. Stratag.) His 80,000 Egyptian foot soldiers where under Nectanabus, his brother or sister's son. (The Greek word is ambiguous.) Tachos was commander over all these forces. Although Agesilaus tried to persuade him to prosecute the war by his officers and to stay in Egypt, yet he refused. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.) Nevertheless, Agesilaus, against his better judgment went with him by sea to Phoenicia. (Plutarch in his Agesilaus.)

1621. While the Egyptian fleet lay in Phoenicia, Nectanabus was sent to capture some principal cities of Syria. Nectanabus made an agreement with the one whom Tachos had left for governor of Egypt and Nectanabus proclaimed himself king of Egypt. He bribed the army commanders with expensive gifts and promised the soldiers many things so they would side with him against his father. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.)

1622. Tachos was now utterly deserted by his own subjects and also by Agesilaus whom he had formerly offended by that base jest he made of him. Fearing the worst, Tachos fled from there to Sidon in Phoenicia and from there to the king of Persia. (Xenophon and Plutarch affirm and Theopompus and Lysias of Naucratis, in his affairs of Egypt, both cited by Athensus in l. 14 c. 4.) Diodorus and Elian say further that he was very graciously entertained by Artaxerxes. Although I cannot believe Diodorus that Artaxerxes presently made him general of all the forces which he had then raised to make a war upon Egypt and that he returned with them to Egypt and was there reinstated as king by Agesilaus. Neither can we believe (Elian, l. 5. Var. Histor. c. 1.) where he tells us that Tachos had formerly lived frugally at home and now he died by gorging himself with food after the Persian manner. Lynceus or Lyceas, whom I mentioned before, teaches us, that his Egyptian diet was far more sumptuous than that of the Persian one. (cited by Athenaus, l. 4. c. 10 Deip.)

1623. After this another man made himself king in Mendes with an army of 100,000. (Plut. in his Agesilaus.) Now there were 2 kings in Egypt. Agesilaus followed Nectanabus whom he thought most favoured the Lacedemonians. (Xen. in Agesilaus.) He was with him in a long siege in a citadel. Nectanebus grew impatient of being confined and wanted to risk a battle. Agesilaus left him and stayed behind in the citadel until the whole citadel was quite surrounded with siege works and the enemy all around them except for a little place where there was yet a passage through. Then Agesilaus sallied out into that narrow passage and made his way through with a great slaughter of the enemy. He had their siege works at his back so that they could not surround him. (Plut. in Agesil. Polya. Stratag. l. 2. with Diod. year 3. Olymp. 104.) Diodorus writes "Tachos", instead of the king of "Mendes."

3643b AM, 4353 JP, 361 BC

1624. Agesilaus defeated the other king who hated the Greeks and took him prisoner. He restored Nectanabus to his kingdom and made him a loyal friend of the Lacedemonians. (Xenophon in Agesilaus.) However, Emil. Prob. attributes this restitution of the king to Chabrias. The reason for this was that it was done jointly by the Lacedemonians and Athenians. Now from this time until Nectanabus was put out of the kingdom was 12 years according to Diodorus. Hence the length of his reign was 12 years not 18, as Africanus and Eusebius have it.

1625. Nectanabus entreated Agesilaus very earnestly to spend that winter with him. However he hasten home for Sparta was engaged in a war and he knew they needed money and maintained a foreign army. Therefore Nectanabus dismissed Agesilaus very honourably and gave him besides all the other gifts, 230,000 or, as Emil Probus has it, 220,000 talents. (Plut. in Ages.)

1626. When Agesilaus got this money, he hurried home in the dead of winter. He feared lest the Lacedemonians would spend the next summer idle and do nothing against their enemies. (Xen. in Agesil.) A storm cast him on a deserted shore called "Menelai Portus", that is "Port of Menelaus" lying between Cyrene and Egypt. There he fell sick and died. His friends lacked wax and preserved him with honey and carried him to Sparta. (Plutarch and Emilius Probus, in Agesilaus,) Diodorus says that his body was buried there in a most royal manner. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 104.)

 3643c AM, 4353 JP, 361 BC

1627. Ochus, the lawful son of Artaxerxes, had his brother Arsames murdered who was born from a concubine and dearly loved by his father. He had Harpates the son of Titibazus murder him. When Artaxerxes heard what had happened to his much beloved son, took it to heart and died from grief. (Plut. in Artaxerxes.)

1628. Ochus knew that his father was highly respected by his people when he was alive. If the news of his death got out, Ochus would not be respected at all. Therefore, he had all the princes and nobles and others that were around him keep the death of his father secret for 10 months. In the meantime he sent letters into all the provinces in the king's name with his seal on them, requiring that every man accept Ochus for their king. (Polya. l. 7. Stratag.)

1629. Heraclea the wife of Clearchus the tyrant of Pontus bore him a son whom he called Dionysus. The son lived 55 years. (Athenaus, l. 12 and Mnemonin in the collections of Photius, c. 5.)

3644 AM, 4354 JP, 360 BC

1630. When all men had acknowledged Ochus for king, he announced the death of his father and commanded a public mourning to be made for him according to the Persian manner. (Polia. l. 7.) He assumed the name of his father, "Artaxerxes." (Diodor. Valerius Max.) Then he filled his court with the blood of his kindred and nobles without respect to kin, sex or age. (Justin. l. 10. c. 3.) He caused his own sister, whose daughter he had married, to be buried alive with her heels upward. An uncle of his with more than 100 children and grandchildren was brought into a court and there shot to death with arrows. (Valer. Max. l. 9. c. 2.) If seems this uncle was the father of Sisygambis who was the mother of Darius the last king of the Persians. She was the queen that Curtius states (Curtius, l. 10. c. 8.) had her father and 80 brothers executed by Ochus in one day.

3646 AM, 4356 JP, 358 BC

1631. The states of Chios, Rhodes, Byzantium and Chos, revolted from Athens at the same time. This was called "Bellum Sociale", i.e. the confederates war. When the Athenians besieged Chios, the Athenians received help from their own confederates and Mausolus the petty king of Caria. (Demosthenes in his Oration of Peace and of the Rhodians liberty, Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad, 105.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:09:01 AM
 3648 AM, 4358 JP, 356 BC

1632. In the first year of the 106th Olympiad, (as it is rightly read in Eusebius' Chron. from Fuxius' copy, corrected by Arnaldus Pontacus) Alexander was born to King Philip at Pella in Macedonia. Alexander was called "the Great" because he conquered all Asia. He lived 32 years and 8 months according to Arianus' report from Aristobulus and died in the end of year 1 Olympiad 114. in the month before the month of Thargelion according to the Attic calendar as we shall see when we come to that year. It follows that he must have been born in this year and that in the third month called Boedromion in the Attic calendar. Hence those who (as in Elian Variar Histor. l. 2. c. 25.) have said that he was born and died in the sixth day of the month Thargelion are incorrect. Plutarch (in the life of Alexander) says, that he was born on the 6th day of the month Hecatombeon, called Lous by the Macedonians. There was a good reason why they who lived at that time recorded that he was born on the 6th day of the month Lous. At that time the month Lous with the Macedonians was the same time as Meton's Boedromian. This appears in King Philip's Epistle to the Peloponesians, as we have already showed in our discourse in the first chapter of the Macedonian and Asiatic years. The historians and other writers of later times did not note this and found the Syro-Macedonian month Lous in Calippus to coincide with the month Boedromion among the Athenians. Hence they thought that Alexander had been born upon the 6th day of the month Boedromion.

1633. This is the source of the error of Plutarch, which he corrects later by making a more grievous mistake. He says:

``The same day that Philip took Pitidaea, there came to him three reports: one from Pharmenion that he defeated the Illyrians, the second, that he had won the race with his horses at Olympius and the third that his son Alexander was born.''

1634. For we learn from Demosthenes, in his oration against Leptines, and Diodorus, year of 3rd Olympiad 105. that Polydaea was not taken this year, but two years earlier. If it had been so that Alexander had been born in the 105th Olymp. and upon the 6th day of Hecatombaeon, it is incredible that he should not have heard of the birth of his son a great deal sooner than he could possibly have done of winning the race of Olympus. For that race was to be run on the day of the full moon and the decision made on the race on the 16th day of the same month. This we are taught by the old Scoliast of Pindarus, upon his 5th Ode or Hymn of his Olympics. Justin from Trogus tells us more clearly: (l. 12. c. 16.)

``The same day on which Alexander was born, news came to him of two victories he had, the one about the battle in Illyrium and the other in a race at Olympus where he sent his chariot with four horses to run.''

1635. These reports appear to agree with each other. Although I grant that it may be not improbable that Alexander's birth was in the summer season of that year wherein the Olympic games were held at Olympus in Elis. However the testimony of Aristobulus, to whom Alexander was so well known in person, is so firm and strong an argument to me of the day on which he was born. Hence I have no doubt that Philip his father was informed of the race won by him at Olympus before his son was born.

1636. The same day that Alexander was born, the temple of Diana at Ephesus burned. Hence came the joke either from Timaeus, as Cicero has it, or from Hegesias the Magnesian according to Plutarh says that:

``Diana being away from home that night to do work at Olympius could not save her own temple, (Cit. l. 1. de Natura deorum and l. 1. de Divina and Plut. in his Alexander.)''

1637. When the one who started the fire was put on the rack, he confessed that he did it on purpose. He wanted to be world famous for destroying so famous and excellent a work. Hence by the common council of all Asia, it was decreed that no man should ever after mention him. (Valer. Max. l. 8. c. 14. Aul. Gell, l. 2. c. 6.) However, Theopompus in his History mentions him. It was either Erostratus, as we read (in Strabo. l. 14. and Solinus c. 4.) or Lygdamis, as Hesychius, "In the word Lygdam."

1638. The priests in Ephesus at that time thought that the burning of this temple was but the harbinger of some greater evil to follow. They ran up and down as if they had been mad and cut their faces, saying, that some great calamity was that day born against all Asia. (Plut. in Alexan.)

3648 AM, 4358 JP, 356 BC

1639. Artabazus rebelled against Ochus. He joined his forces with those of Chares the Athenian and defeated an army of 70,000 Persians. Chares gathered enough spoil to pay for all his army. The king took up this matter with the Athenians. They heard a rumour that the king was about to send 300 ships to help their enemies against whom Chares at that time was fighting. They quickly agreed to a peace with their enemies so that war between them and their confederates, called "Bellum sociale", was ended. (Diod. Sic. year 1. and 4. of the 106 Olymp.)

3650 AM, 4360 JP, 354 BC

1640. Leuco, the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius, died. He was succeeded by his son Spartacus who reigned 5 years. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 106.)

3651 AM, 4361 JP, 353 BC

1641. When Artabazus was abandoned by Chares and the Athenians, he resorted to the Thebians. They sent him 5000 men under Pammenes. Pammenes with this army went over into Asia and joined with Artabazus' forces. Together they overthrew the king's army in two great battles. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 106.)

1642. When Clearchus the tyrant of Heraclea in Pontus was celebrating the feast of their god Bacchus, he was murdered in the 12th year of his reign. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 106.) The man behind the murder was Chion of Heraclea, the son of Matris, a scholar of Plato's and a cousin of Clearchus. Also in on the plot were Leonides and Antitheus both scholars in philosophy, as was Euxenon. Also in on this were some 50 others of Clearchus' allies and relatives. They waited for the time when the tyrant was busy and attentive with the sacrifice with the rest of the people. Then Chion ran him through with his sword. He fell grievously tormented with pains and haunted with the apparitions and ghosts of those whom he had most barbarously murdered and died the next day. Most of the conspirators, if not all, were either shortly cut in pieces by his guard although they stoutly defended themselves. Those that escaped were captured shortly after and died after horrible torture which they endured with incredible constancy and patience. (Memnon in Excerpt. c. 2. Justin. l. 6. c. ult. and Suidas in Clearchus.) See also the Epistles attributed to this Chion, as written by him to his mother Matis.

1643. Satyrus, brother to Clearchus, succeeded him in that government and reigned 7 years. He was not content with the death of the conspirators but executed all their children although they were innocent of their father's deeds. He was left as guardian and protector of Timotheus and Dionysius' brother's children. He was very respectful of them. Although he had a wife whom he loved very dearly yet would he have no children by her, least they might in time prove dangerous to his brother's children. (Memnon in Excerpt. c. 3.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 10:09:33 AM
 3652 AM, 4362 JP, 352 BC

1644. In the 4th year of 106 Olymp. not in the 2nd year of the 100th Olympiad, as is incorrectly reported by (Pliny lib. 36. c. 5. and 6.) Mausolus the Dynasta or petty king of Caria, died. Artemisia, his sister and wife, succeeded him and reigned for 2 years since her husband had no children. (Diod. and Strabol. 14.) From the fervent love she had of the memory of him, she took his bones after they were burnt and beat them to a powder. This was mingled with a most precious perfume and put into her drinking water. She was zealous to be the living and breathing tomb of her deceased husband. (A. Gill. l. 10. c. 18. Valer. Max. l. 4. c. 6.)

1645. In the 107th Olympiad (not in the 103, as Suidas in Thoidectes has it) Artemisia proclaimed a contest for all to come and show their wit and art in praise and honour to her dead husband. Various illustrious men came to this contest: Theopompus from Chios, the best man of all the scholars of Isocrates, (Diony. Halicarnasseus in his Epistle to Pompeius) Theodectes a poet of tragedies from the city of Phaselis in Lycia and also a scholar of Isocrates and Naucrates Erythtaeus from Naucratis in Cyrenia. These were all mentioned by Photius (in Biblioth. c. 176, 260.) Plutarch (in his life of Isocrates) and other writers say that Isocrates entered the contest too. However this was not the Isocrates from Athens, but another by the same name. He was his scholar and successor in his office according to Suidas, from Callisthenes the Orator. In that contest of wits, Theopompus, as some say, and as others, Theodectes the Tragedian, who left a tragedy entitled "Mausolus", won the prize. (A. Gell. l. 10. c. 18. Suidas, in Theodecters and Isocrates.) Although it seems that everything did not happen as Theopompus expected because when he was later writing a history, he states in it that:

``Mausolus never spared for any villany if he might get money by it.''

1646. In all likelihood, he would never have written this if things had happened there according to his expectation. (Snidas in Mausolus.)

1647. Theopompus (of whom I have spoken before) who was an historian and Theodoctes a Tragedian, I must mention what is reported by Demetrius Phalereus in Aristeas (and from him by Josephus, (l. 12. anti. c. 2. and by Euseb. de Prapar. Evengel. l. 8. c. 3. and 5. and in his discourse of the Septuagint Interpretation.)). Theopompus wanted to insert some things from the books of Moses into his history but lost his mind for 30 days. During this time when his sanity returned, he earnestly sought God to reveal to him the reason why this great judgment was upon him. In a dream it was told him that it was because he was about to mix those divine oracles with his human studies and publish them to the world. When he abandoned that idea, he was restored to his right mind again. When Theodectes planned to use some things from the Holy Writ into his tragedy he was writing, he suddenly lost his sight. When he realised the reason for this, he asked God's mercy and he was restored to his perfect sight again.

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1648. Artimisia wanted to perpetuate the memory of her husband. She had built a stupendous tomb for him at Halicarnassus that was considered one of the seven wonders of the world. However she pined away at last and died of grief. (Cicero. Tuseul. Quest. l. 3. Strabo. l. 14. A. Gell. l. 10. c. 18.) To make this tomb most grand, she had the most famous and skilful workmen in the world order the construction: Scopas, from the east, Bryaxis, from the north, Timotheus from the south and Leochares from the west. Although she died before the work was finished, yet they did not stop the work until it was completed. They knew that by so doing they would also immortalise their own names and glory in it. (Pliny l. 36. c. 5. with Vitruvins in the Proeme of his 7th book;) Therefore ever after this even in Rome, every sumptuous and magnificent building was called a "mausoleum". (Pausan, in his Arcadica.)

1649. After her death her brother Idrieus or Hidrieus headed the government of Caria for 7 years. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.) He was the second son of Hecatomnus and married Hecatomnus' second daughter Ada, his own sister, according to the law of Caria, (Strabo. l. 14. Ariannus, of the Gests of Alexander, l. 1.)

1650. When Thebes was running out of money to carry on their war against the Phoenicians, they sent ambassadors to Ochus and received 300 talents from him. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.)

1651. The Phoenicians and especially the inhabitants of Sidon had been badly abused by Ochus and revolted from him. They sent to Nectabenus king of Egypt and formed an alliance with him in a war against the Persians. They prepared a large fleet of ships and had many foot soldiers. They cut down the king's garden and orchard and burnt the hay that was provided for the king's stable. They killed those Persians that had wronged them. Therefore the governors of Syria and Cilicia made war on them. Tennes the king of Sidon, received from the king of Egypt, 4000 Greek soldiers under the command of Mentor of Rhodes. These combined with his forces and routed the Persians and drove them from all Phoenicia. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.)

1652. The petty kings of the 9 cities of Cyprus who were subject to the king of Persia followed the example of the Phoenicians and agreed with each other to defect from the king. Each of these kings prepared for war and made himself absolute sovereign each in his own city. Artaxerxes Ochus ordered these kings to be subdued by Idricus. He recently became king of Caria and by long tradition of his ancestors was loyal to the kings of Persia and helped in their wars. He sent into Cyprus 40 ships containing 8000 mercenaries under the command of Phocyon the Athenian and of Euagoras who formerly had been a king there. These began by attacking the strongest city first and besieged Salamis. Many came to the battle from Syria and Cilicia which lay opposite Cyprus. They hoped to get much spoil from the battle. The army of Phocyon and Euagoras was twice as big as before. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.)

1653. Artaxerxes Ochus mustered an army of 300,000 foot soldiers and 30,000 cavalry with 300 ships and 500 cargo ships to carry provisions. He left Babylon and went toward Phoenicia and the seaside. Mentor, whom the Sidonians had made commander over the Greek mercenaries, was frightened by his coming. He sent a man called Thessalion to Artaxerxes, offering first to betray all the Sidonians into his hands and later to help him conquer Egypt. When Thessalion had delivered his message and received the king's promise, he kissed his hand to seal the agreement. He returned to Mentor and told him of the king's promise. The Sidonians knew nothing of this. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.)

1654. Meanwhile, Ochus sent his ambassadors into Greece their help against the Egyptians. The Athenians and Lacedemonians answered him, that they would keep the peace made with him, but were unable to help him at this time. However, Thebes sent him 1000 foot soldiers under the command of Lachetes. Argos also sent him 3000 men with no Greek appointed to be over them because the king wanted to have Nicostratus to command them. He was a high spirited man and he imitated Hercules by fighting with a lion's skin wrapped about him and carried a club in his hand. The Greeks who dwelt on the seacoast of Asia, sent him 6000 men. The total Greek forces were 10,000 men. Before they arrived, the king had advanced past Syria to Phoenicia and had pitched his camp not far from Sidon. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.)

1655. Tennes the king of Sidon, joined with Mentor in his treason and assigned him to the guard of a certain quarter in the town and left him to manage the betrayal on that side. Tennes with 500 men went out of the city and pretended that he would go to the common meeting of Phoenicia. He had in his company 100 of the principal councillors of the city. He gave these to be butchered by Artaxerxes who were the authors of that defection from him. Shortly after 500 more of the chief of the Sidonians came to Artaxerxes to beg for mercy with olive branches in their hands. Artaxerxes had them all shot with arrows as he had done to the former group. He understood that according to Tennes the king that the city would be unconditionally surrendered to him. The Greeks which he bribed, opened the gates to let the king into the city and so betrayed the city to Artaxerxes. Once he was in, he saw that Tennes was of no further service to him and had his throat cut. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.)

1656. The Sidonians had burned all their ships before the king came so that no one could escape by ship. When the city was taken, each man shut himself up in his own house with his wife and children and then set his house on fire. Over 40,000 perished in the fire. Mixed with cinders of the place was molten silver and gold. The king sold this for many talents. The rest of the cities in the area were terrified and surrendered to the king. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.)

1657. From there the king went and captured Jericho. (Solinus c. 35.) He took many along with him from Judah to serve him in his war against Egypt. This we gather from Aristeas' book of the Septuagint Interpreters and also in the Epistle of Ptolemy Philadelphus to Eleasarus, it is said:

``that many of the Jews were carried away into Egypt by the Persians, while they bare the sway there.''

1658. This saying of his is to be referred to this time of Artaxerxes Ochus. Also that place in Justin, where he says, (l. 36. c. 3.) if there is any truth in either of them:

``that Xerxes was the first of the Persians that subdued the Jews''

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:11:42 PM
 3654 AM, 4364 JP, 350 BC

1659. While Salamis was besieged by Phocyon and Euagoras, all the rest of the cities submitted to the Persians. Only Protagoras king of Salamis held out against them. Euagoras wanted to be restored to his father's kingdom in Salamis. Some men treated him poorly and made accusations against him to the king. Euagoras saw that the king favoured Protagoras over him and gave up in his request to be restored to the kingdom. He went and cleared himself of all charges before the king. He did this so well that the king gave him a far better dynasty in Asia. At last Protagoras voluntarily submitted to the king and held the kingdom of Salamis peacefully after that. (Diodor. year 3 Olympiad 107.) This Euagoras of whom we now speak, it seems was the grandchild of another Euagoras who died 24 years before by his son Nicocles. For that Euagoras the elder, had a son Nicocles who succeeded him in the kingdom of Salamis. Another called Protagoras, appears from Isocrates. This younger Euagoras who succeeded Nicocles, seems to have been put from his kingdom by Protagoras who was his uncle. He received a better territory than Salamis from Ochus. But by his misdeeds there, he was forced to flee again into Cyprus. He was captured and executed as a malefactor according to Diodorus.

1660. Eusebus in Chron. shows that in this 3rd year of the 107th Olympiad, Ochus forced Nectanebus to flee into Ethiopia and took over all Egypt. He put an end to the kingdom of Egypt. This time was the period of Manetho's Commentaries concerning the history of Egypt and how Egypt was captured by Ochus. Diodorus in this year gives a long account of this.

1661. After Orchus destroyed Sidon, the auxiliary forces came to him from Argos, Thebes and the Greek cities in Asia. He united all his forces and he marched to the lake of Sirbonis. Most of his army perished in the bogs of Barathra because they had no guides. From there he marched to Pelusium at the first mouth of the Nile River. It was held by a garrison of 5000 men under Philophron. Here the Greeks encamped close to the city and the Persians camped 8 miles off. Ochus divided the Greeks into three brigades each of which was to have two commanders, one a Persian and the other a Greek. The first brigade, the Boeotians, were commanded by Lachertes a Theban and Rosaces a Persian, governor of Ionia and Lydia. The second one, the men of Argos, were commanded by Nicostratus a Greek and Aristazanes a Persian. The third brigade was under Mentor, who betrayed Sidon and Bagoas an eunuch of Persia. To each of these Greek brigades were added various companies and troops and sea captains with their squadrons of ships. On the other side, Nectanebus had in his army 20,000 auxiliary Greeks and as many to help him from Libya and 60,000 from his own country of Egypt who were called "Warriors". He had an exceeding large number of river boats, outfitted to fight in the river Nile if required. When he had supplied every place with reasonably sufficient garrisons, he with 30,000 Egyptians, 5000 Greeks and one half of his Libyans, defended the passages which lay most open and easiest for invasion.

1662. When things were thus ordered on both sides, Nicostratus who commanded the Argivians, obtained some Egyptian guides whose wives and children were kept as hostages by the Persians. With his pprtion of the ships, he crossed over one of the channels of the Nile that would be most out of sight from the Egyptians, When the closest garrisons of the Egyptians knew this, they sent to cut them off, over 7000 under Clinius who was from the Isle of Cos. In that encounter, the Greeks on the Persian side slew almost 5000 men on the other side along with their commander Clinius. When Nectanebus heard of this slaughter, he with his army he had about him retired to Memphis to secure that place. Meanwhile Lacrates, who commanded the first brigade of the Greeks, hurried to attack Pelusium. He drained away the water that ran around Pelusium by a ditch that he cut. He raised a mount on the very channel of the old river and there planted his batteries. The Greeks within courageously defended the place. However when they heard that Nectanebus had left the field and retired to Memphis, they sued for peace. Lacrates told them and bound it with an oath that when the town was surrendered, they with their belongings would be all sent to Greece. When they heard this they surrendered the town.

1663. Mentor who commanded the third brigade, saw that all the cities were manned with two nationalities, the Greeks and Egyptians. He spread a rumour that Artaxerxes planned to deal most graciously with those who willingly submitted to him. The rest would be treated like those in Sidon. Everywhere the Greeks and Egyptians strived to be the first to surrender their cities to the Persians. Bubastus was the first city to surrender to the Persians, followed by all the rest of the cities. They settled for the best terms they could.

1664. Meanwhile when Nectancbus was at Memphis, he heard how all the cities defected to the Persians. Despondent, he gathered all the treasure he could and fled to Ethiopia. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad. 107.) Others report, that he shaved his head and disguised his appearance. He went to Pelusium and from there sailed to Philip king of Macedonia at Pella. (see the Excerpta, Barbaro-Latina, published by Scaliger, p. 58. the Chronicle of Alexandria, or Fasti Siculi, published by Raderus, p. 393. Cedrenus in the Basile Edition, p. 124. and Glycas, p. 195. from Psendo-Callisthenes' fabulous history of the Deeds of Alexander.)

 1665. When Artaxerxes Ochus had possessed all of Egypt, he dismantled all the fortifications of the main cities and destroyed their temples. He got an infinite amount of treasure. Moreover, he took away all their records from their most ancient temples. The priests bought these again by paying a great some of money to Bagoas the Eunuch. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad. 107.) Ochus also is said to have derided their ceremonies and their god, Apis. (Severus Suppicitsus in his sacred History, l. 2.) The Egyptians called him an ass for his poor behaviour and spirit. Therefore, he violently took their god Apis the bull and sacrificed him to an ass. (Elian. Varia. Histor. l. 4. c. 8.) Then he ordered his cooks to prepare the bull for dinner. (Suidas in Ochus.)

1666. After this Ochus rewarded his Greeks who helped him win this victory with wealth and honour, each man according to his deeds. He sent them all away to their own country. He left Pherendates as his viceroy in Egypt. After so great a conquest, he was covered with glory and loaded with spoils. He returned to Babylon with his army, (Diod. Sic. year 3 Olympiad 107.) where he also took many Jews as prisoners. He settled most of them in Hircania which bordered on the Caspian Sea. Georgius Syncellus, from Julius Africanus reports in this:

``Ochus the son of Artaxerxes, made a journey into Egypt. He led away some Jews as captives. He settled some of them in Hircania near the Caspian Sea and the rest in Babylon. There they continue to this day as many Greek writers report.''

1667. Hecataeus Abderia also, in his first book, De Judais, cited by Josephus, in his 1st book Contra Apionem, mentions many tens of thousands of Jews who were carried to Babylon. Later they were settled in Hircania. Paulus Orosins also writes: (l. 31. c. 7.)

``Ochus, who is also called Artaxerxes, after his great and long war in Egypt was ended, carried away many of the Jews. He commanded them to settle in Hircania near the Caspian Sea. Here they continue to this day and prosper and increase in population. It is thought that they will one day break out from there into some other quarter of the world.''

1668. This opinion seems to have no basis except of the passage in /APC 2Es 13:40-46 concerning the ten tribes who were carried away by Shalmaneser, of the Jews, of certain Hebrews shut up I know not where and of a river Sabbation. Petrus Treccensis in his scholastical history, (Esth. c. 5.) and from Vincentius Bellovacensis in his Specul. Histor. (l. 30. c. 89.) mentions these ten tribes. They were later closely confined in the Caspian Mountains. But these things do not agree with Josephus, whom he alleges for his author. Rather they agree with the writings of that false Gorion and Methodius and even with those fictitious accounts from the Mahometan's Koran, concerning Alexander.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:12:20 PM
 3655 AM, 4365 JP, 349 BC

1669. Ochus rewarded Mentor of Rhodes with 100 talents in money and very rich furnishings for his house. He made Mentor governor over all the Asiatic shores with full and absolute power to suppress all rebellions which happened in those parts. This great grace and favour he used well. Previously Artabazus and Memnon made war against Ochus (See notes on 3648 AM and 3651 AM) and were driven from Asia. They fled to Philip king of Macedonia and lived with him. Philip secured pardons for Artabazus and Memnon from the king who sent for them both to come to him with all their families. Artabazus had by Mentor and Memnon's sister, 11 sons and 10 daughters. With so numerous a progeny, Mentor was exceedingly delighted and as each son grew up Mentor made them officers in the Army. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 107.)

1670. Hermias, the archon of Atarne, was in rebellion against Ochus and had many strong cities and citadels under him. Mentor invited him to a peace conference and promised him that he would get him a pardon from the king. When Hermias came. Mentor captured him and took his signet ring. He sent letters in the name of Hermias that required the captains and garrisons everywhere in his dominion to surrender to the ones carrying these letters. This they did immediately. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 107. and Polyanus Stratag. l. 6.) In like manner he did the same with all the other rebels of the king. Some he took by force and others by tricks. He brought them all under the king's subjection again. He periodically sent the king Greek mercenaries. He managed the government with great wisdom, valour and loyalty to the king. (Diod. Sic. year 3. and 4. Olymp. 107. and Demosthenes in his Oration, contra Aristocratem.)

1671. When Spartacus the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius was dead, his brother Parysades succeeded him in the kingdom and held it for 38 years. (Diod. Sic. year 4. of 107. Olympiad.)

3656 AM, 4366 JP, 348 BC

1672. In the 1st year of the 108th Olympiad, when Theophilus was archon in Athens, Plato died who was the philosopher and founder of the old academia. (Hermippus in Laertius, Dionysius Halicarnasseus, in his Epistle to Ammeus concerning Demosthenes and Atheneus l. 5. c. 13.) The saying of Numenius the Pythagorean as reported by Hesychius the Milesian, (in Numenius):

``Whatever Plato said concerning God and the world, he stole it all from the books of Moses.''

1673. Hence came that famous saying of his, reported by Hesychius and his follower Suidas. Even before them Clememens Alexandrinus (Stromat. 1.) said of him:

``for what is Plato, but Moses put into good Greek?''

1674. He says that Plato translated many things from the books of Moses and put them into his own writings. Aristobulus the Jew (See note on 3479 AM) said the same so that I shall not try to defend the authority of Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Ambrose, Theodoret, Johannes Philoponus, writing on the Hexameron and other Christians.

1675. After Plato died, Aristotle, who founded the sect of the Peripatetic Philosophers, travelled to Hermias the eunuch and ruler of Atarve, of whom I spoke in the previous year. He lived with him for 3 years, according to Laertius from Apollodorus' Chronicle and Dionysius in his previously cited Epistle to Ammeus. Strabo (l. 13.) tells us, that he lived at Assos, which was under the dominion of Hermias and Assos is mentioned in Ac 20:13. Aristotle was closely related to Hermias because he married Pythiades the adopted daughter of Hermias. She was either the natural daughter of Hermias' sister or brother. I know not if Aristotle the Peripatetic (as we find in Euseb. de Preparat. Evangel. lib. 15.) from the affection he had for Hermias married her after the death of Hermias. While he remained in Asia, he met a Jew who was a man of great learning and temperance. He came from upper Asia to the seaside. There he talked in Greek with Aristotle and any others who wanted to hear him. (Clearchus of Solos a principal scholar of Aristotle, as cited by Josephus, l. 1. contra Apionem., in his 1st book "de Somno." i.e. "of sleep.") So that perhaps to this Jew it is that the Peripatetic sect of philosophers owe so many of their good sayings. They follow closely the words of Moses and the prophets as our Clement of Alexandria affirms from Aristobulus. (l. 5. Strom.)

3658 AM, 4368 JP, 346 BC

1676. Satyrus, the ruler of Heraclea in Pontus turned over the government to Timotheus, the oldest son of his brother Clearchus. Shortly after this, Satyrus was striken with a most grievous and incurable disease. A cancer grew in his groin which never stopped growing inward until he died at the age of 65 years. He ruled Heraclea for 7 years. (Meknon in Excerpt. c. 3. ) Timotheus took his younger brother Dionysius into the government and appointed him to be his successor in case he should die. (Meknon in Excerpt. c. 4.)

3659 AM, 4369 JP, 345 BC

1677. Memnon of Rhodes, a Persian commander mentioned earlier, sent for Hermias the eunuch and ruler of Atarne. He came suspecting nothing for he was invited as a friend. Memnon seized him and sent him as a prisoner to the king who hanged him. The philosophers, Aristotle and Xenocrates, a Chalcedonian who was born in Bithynia were with Hermias. They got away and escaped from the Persian territories. (Strabo. l. 13.) When Aristotle had lived with Hermias 3 years he went to Mytilene when Eubulus was archon at Athens, in year 4. of the Olymp. 108. (According to Laertius from Apollodorus' Chronicles and also Dionys. Halicarnas. in his Epistle to Ammaeus mentioned previously.) There is also extant in Laertius an Epigram of Aristotles, on a statue of Hermias at Delphi:

``Him did the king of Persia stay Contrary to Jove's law or reason, Not by force or bloody fray, But by a friend's detested treason.''

1678. Therefore I thought it fit to insert this here that no man might think that Aristotle was in anyway party to his death. This they might incorrectly think based on those words of Tertullian where he says that Aristotle made his friend Hermias to leave his place in shame.

3660 AM, 4370 JP, 344 BC

1679. Idrieus, Prince of Caria died. His enormous wealth is noted by Isocrates (Oration to Philip of Macedonia). His wife Ada who was his sister, succeeded him and ruled for 4 years. (Strabo, l. 14. Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp.) In Asia it was common after the time of Semiramis, for wives to succeed their husband's in their kingdoms. (Aria in Exped. Ales. l. 1. p. 24.)

3664 AM, 4374 JP, 340 BC

1680. Pexodarus the youngest son of Hecaromnus, expelled his sister Ada and ruled for 5 years. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 109.) He left her the revenues from only the town of Alinda to live on.

1681. Pexodarus sent for Orontobates a Persian lord, to make him his consort in the government of Caria. He gave him his daughter Ada for a wife. (Aria. l. 1. Strabo l. 14.)

1682. Philip king of Macedonia and his army of 30,000 men besieged Perinthus, a town in Thracia that was on the Propontus. They were well equipped with battering rams and other devices and they constantly tried to destroy the walls so the inhabitants had no time for rest or respite. The king of Persia was becoming alarmed by Philip's success. He ordered his commanders and governors in Asia to send to relieve Perinthus. They were to send all they could which they did. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 109.) This was the main reason Alexander gave in a letter to Darius why he invaded Asia. (Aria. l. 1. p. 41.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:13:36 PM
 3666c AM, 4376 JP, 338 BC

1683. When Artaxerxes Ochus had reigned for 23 years, he became sick. Bagoas was the eunuch and chief man under him as chiliarch of the kingdom. Bagoas gave him poison to kill him. Artaxerxes' physician helped Bagoas do this. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 104. and year 2. Olymp. 111., Severin Sulpitiscs. Histor. Sacra l. 2.) Bagoas was an Egyptian and so hated Ochus for killing their god Apis that he revenged that sacrilege (as Sulpitius speaks) done to his nation by killing the king. He cut his flesh into gibbets and threw it to the cats to eat. I do no know what he put into the coffin in place of his flesh. From his thigh bones he made belts and handles for swords and by this represented his propensity to blood and slaughter. (Elian. Varia. Histor. l. 6. c. 8.) When Artaxerxes was dead, Bagoas was the most powerful man in the kingdom. He made Artaxerxes' youngest son Arsen the king and executed all his brothers. The young king would have no one left to help him and would be forced to depend on Bagoas all the more. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 107. and year 2. Olymp. 111.)

1684. Timotheus the tyrant of Heraclea in Pontus, died 15 years after his father Clearchus. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 110.) For his great kindness, he was not called any more a tyrant, but a gracious lord and saviour. His body was honourably interred by his brother and successor Dionysius. All sorts of justs, tiltings and wrestlings were done. Some were performed then as time permitted and some later which were done with greater pomp and magnificence than the former ones. (Memnon in Excerpt. c. 4.)

3667 AM, 4377 JP, 337 BC

1685. At the general assembly of all Greece at Corinth, Philip king of Macedonia, was made general of all the Greek forces. He had absolute power over them to make war against the king of Persia. Presently, he started to make many preparations for the war. He assessed the number of soldiers to be levied from every city and then returned into Macedonia. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 110.)

3668c AM, 4378 JP, 336 BC

1686. The next spring, Philip sent three of his captains into Asia, Parmenio, Amyntas and Attalus, with part of his army. They were to plunder the king's countries and to liberate the Greek cities. (Justin. l. 9. c. 5. Diod. year 1. Olymp. 111.)

1687. When Bagoas the eunuch knew that Arsen plotted revenge against him, he killed Arsen and all his children in the 3rd year of his reign. When the king's family was utterly destroyed, he set up Darius, a his friend and the son of Arsamis who was a brother to Artaxerxes. Darius claimed the crown as next of kin. (Diod. Sic. l. 17. year 2. Olympiad 111.) However Justin (l. 10. c. 3.) speaks of him in this manner:

``Codomannus, in regard for his outstanding virtue, was made king by the people and the name of Darius was given him for majesty's sake.''

1688. Alexander the Great, in Q. Curtius, (l. 6. c. 4.) uses these words:

``For Darius did not come to the crown by succession but by the mere procurement and favour of Bagoas the Eunuch.'',

1689. Again in a letter Alexander sent to Darius, (Arianus (l. 2. p. 41.) he charges him:

``As a murderer Bagoas had Darius made king. Darius got that kingdom wrongfully and not according to the laws of the Persians but by great injustice.'':

1690. Strabo says: (l. 15.)

``When Bagoas had murdered Arsen, he set up Darius who was not of the king's blood in his place.''

1691. Lastly, Plutarch in his first book, "of the fortune of Alexander", introduces him as speaking to Fortune in this manner: (for so it should be, in his printed copies)

``Darius who was a slave and a courier of the kings, thou (Bagoas) madest king of the Persians:''

1692. Also Hesychius tells us in his Lexicon: "Astandes", means "carrier" Suidas states:

``"Astandae" and "Angati", in the Persian language, are those who carry letters from post-house to post-house until they come to the place of their destination.''

1693. So Darius was one of them who in Es 8:14 are called ~ykrtfta and as ajatdud. In Elian it is written for augaidud so for dulhd. We are there to read dild, from the same place in Plutarch.

1694. Bagoas planned to poison Darius also. When the plot was discovered, Darius sent for him. When he came, he was ordered to drink of it. When he refused, Darius had it poured down his throat. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 111.) He told the people that he had killed him in self-defence. (Q. Curtius l. 6. c. 6.)

3668d AM, 4378 JP, 336 BC

1695. When Philip was yet living, Darius planned to attack him in Macedonia. (Diod. Sic. l. 17.)

1696. Sanballat, a Cuthaean, from whom the Samaritans had their beginning, was made governor of Samaria by Darius. He gave his daughter in marriage to Nicasus the son of Manasses brother to Jaddus the high priest at Jerusalem. He hoped by this marriage to be held in better esteem with the Jews. (Joseph. Antiq. l. 11. c. 7.)

1697. Philip, king of Macedonia was celebrating the marriage of his daughter Cleopatra with Alexander the king of Epeirus at Egaeas. He was murdered by Pausanias, the son of Cerastes, of Orestis, a place in Macedonia. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 111. Justin l. 9. c. 6. Joseph. l. 11. c. 8.) Alexander in his letter to Darius stated that his father was murdered by assassins hired by Darius and paid with a huge sum of money. (Q. Curtius l. 4. c. 1., in Arria. l. 2. p. 41.)

1698. A little before Philip was killed, Neoptolemus a tragedian is reported by Diod. (l. 6.) to have sung an ominous song before him. This very song was later sung before Caligula the emperor on the very day when he was murdered, according to Suetonins in his life reports.

``Muester, the actor sung and acted that very song which before Neoptolemus the actor did in a play when Philip, the king of Macedonia, was killed:''

1699. Josephus did not understand this part of the Roman history too well. (l. 19. Antiq. c. 1.) Later he had spoken of Muester and the song which he sang. Rusinus translates it thus in Latin and I to this effect in English saying:

``The actor danced the fable of Cynuras in which both Cinyras and his daughter Marrha were killed.''

1700. Josephus draws from this that they were both killed on the same day.

``It is known that the murder of Caligula happened on the same day as Philip, the son of Amyuntas king of Macedonia was slain by one of his friends called Pausanias as he was going into the theatre.''

1701. So some men place both these murders on January 24th. However the time of Philip's death is best known by the time when Alexander succeeded him in his kingdom.

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:14:36 PM
 1702. After the death of Philip, Pythodemus, as Arrian or Pythodorus, (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad 111,) calls him, was archon in Athens. Alexander succeeded his father at age 20. (Plutarch and from Trogus, Justin) Although Arianus, in the beginning of his History of Alexander says that he was about 20 years old when, after his father's death, he journeyed into Peloponesus. This may lend some doubt to him being 20 years old. Nothing is said of how long the interval was between his father's death and his journey there. The exact age is determined from the time of his death as mentioned at the end of the same history. It is said that he lived 32 years, 8 months. Of that time, he reigned 12 years and 8 months. Subtracting 12 years and 8 months from of the total age gives a result of exactly 20 years to the month. It appears that Philip died at the end of the Macedonian month Daesis. (I shall in due time publish these.) I therefore gather that Alexander began his reign about the 8th month before the 1st of the month Dii. Hence Philip was murdered about the 24th of September in which month of ours the month Dii begins. This I have documented in my discourse on the solar year of the Macedonians and Afiaticks. It was not the 24th of December.

3669 AM, 4379 JP, 335 BC

1703. Alexander came to Peloponese and followed his father's example. He summoned all the cities of Greece to Corinth. He was by the general vote of all the Greeks there except the Lacedemonians, made general in his father's place to go against the Persians. (Justin l. 11. c. 2. Diodorus l. 17. Arrian l. 1. p. 1.)

1704. He returned from there into Macedonia, in the very beginning of the next spring. He went through Thrace and attacked the Illyrians and the Thribulli. (Arrian. l. 1.) In a battle on the bank of the Danow, he defeated Syrmus, the king of the Triballi. (Plut. in Alex.) Meanwhile, he had news that the Athenians, Lacedemonians and Thebans, were defecting to the king of Persia. The instigator of this was Demosthenes the orator who had been bribed with a vast sum of money from the Persians. He made a speech and assured them that Alexander with all his forces were defeated by the king of the Triballi. (Justin. l. 11. c. 2. with Eschines in his Oration cont. Ctesiphontem.) Further, the Athenians by certain of their officials sent Demosthenes' letter to the Athenian captains in Alexander's army. They asked Attalus, one of the 3 captains sent by Philip into Asia to revolt from Alexander. Like the other Greeks, they revoked their order making Alexander the general of the Greek forces. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111. with Demosth. his Oration for Ctesiphon.)

3669d AM, 4379 JP, 335 BC

1705. Memnon the commander from Rhodes, was sent into Phrygia with 5000 soldiers. After passing by the hill Ida, he suddenly attacked the city of Cyzycum. He was unable to defeat it but wasted their territories and returned loaded with a vast amount of spoil from there. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.)

1706. When Pexodarus was dead, his son-in-law, Orontobates succeeded him in the kingdom of Caria by the authority of the Persian king. (Strabo. l. 14 Arrian. l. 1. p. 24.)

1707. When Alexander had conquered those barbarous people he returned to Greece. The country was all in a turmoil. On his way, he befriended the Thessalonians and journeyed through the pass of Thermopylae. He won the Ambracia to him by his kindness. He and his army went into Boeotia and camped before Cadmaea, which was held by a garrison of Macedonians. The Atheninas sent their officials to ask his pardon which he gave them. However, Thebes refused his pardon when he offered it. Therefore he besieged the city. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111., Plut. in Alexan.)

1708. He sent Hecateus with an army into Asia to capture Attalus. Attalus sent the letter which he had received from Demosthenes to Alexander, with a very detailed excuse and justification for his actions. Nevertheless Hecataeus followed his commission and captured him. He sent him packing into another world. So the Asian Macedonian army had peace and the rebellions ceased. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.)

1709. Parmenio, who was always loyal to Alexander, took Grinium by force and sold all its townsmen for slaves. From there he went and besieged Pitane. When Memnon approached, he so frightened the Macedonians that they lifted their siege. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.)

1710. Callas, with a Macedonian army and other mercenaries, fought with the Persians in the country of Troas. His small forces defeated the Persians and forced them to retire to Rheteum. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.)

3670a AM, 4379 JP, 335 BC

1711. Alexander laid Thebes in Boeotia level with the ground, (Diod. year 2. Olymp. 111.) in October which was the time when the "Mysteries" were kept in Athens. They did not observe that holy solemnity that year because of what happened. (Plut. in Alexan. and Arrian. l. 1.) 90,000 men in Thebes were killed and 30,000 were sold for slaves. All went to ruin except only the houses of the priests, his father Philip's friends and Pindarus the poet. (Elian. Varia. Histor. l. 13. c. 7.)

1712. Alexander at a common council of Greece was chosen general a second time to go against the Persians. Alexander went to visit Diogenes the philosopher. (Plut. in Alexan.)

3670b AM, 4380 JP, 334 BC

1713. When he returned to Dios a town in Macedonia, (Arrian. l. 1. p. 11.) all his thoughts were upon the conquest of Asia. In his sleep the likeness of the High Priest of Jerusalem appeared to him, who bade him be courageous and bold. He was to quickly enter Asia with his army and that he would conduct his armies in the conquest of the Persian Empire. (Josephus, Antiquit. l. 11. c. 8. s. 5.)

3670c AM, 4380 JP, 334 BC

1714. Therefore in the very beginning of the spring, Alexander left his own home and after a 20 day march, he came to Sestus. From there his army crossed over into Asia. (Arrian. l. 1.) (Euaenetus was then the archon at Athens.) This was 11 years before he died according to Clement of Alexandria as he notes from the most ancient chronologies. (l.1. Strom.) That is, this was the 3rd month before Ctesicles came to be archon in Athens. In which time, Diod. Sic. places his trip into Asia in the 3rd year of his reign. Zosimus follows Diod. Sic. without noting his error. (l. 1. Histor.) It was in the second year of his reign, year 2, Olymp. 111.

1715. He left Antipater behind in Europe with 12,000 foot soldiers and 11,500 cavalry to tend to matters there. Alexander with 60 ships sailed to Troas, (Diod. year 2. Olymp. 111.) but ordered Patmenion to transport the largest part of his foot soldiers and cavalry from Sestus to Abidus. This he did with the help of 160 ships and a number of cargo ships. (Arrian. l. 1.)

1716. Even those who were present do not agree on how many men Alexander took into Asia. In (Polybius l. 12. c. 663. in fi.) Calisthenes states he had 4500 cavalry and 30,000 foot soldiers. In Plutarch, in his discourse of Alexander's fortune, Aristobulus is alleged to say that he had 30,000 foot soldiers and 4000 cavalry. Ptolemy the son of Lagus and later king of Egypt says there were 30,000 foot soldiers and 5000 cavalry. Anaximenos of Lampsacus says there were 40,000 foot soldiers and 5500 cavalry. Livi (l. 9.) agrees with Aristobulus and says there were 4000 cavalry. Diodorus, (l. 17.) Justin (l. 11 c. 6.) and Orosius, (l. 3. c. 16.) agree with Calisthenes that there were 4500 cavalry. Although (Arrian. l. 1.) says, that he had more than 5000 cavalry. Diodorus has a total of 5100 when you sum his numbers. In the number of foot soldiers he says there were 30,000 and agrees with Calisthenes, Aristobulus and Ptolemy. Livi says there were more than 30,000 foot soldiers. Arrian says that there were not many more than 30,000 soldiers. Justinus and Oronus make it to be 32,000. Concerning the number of 40,000 foot soldiers which Calisthenes and Anaximenes mention, Julius Frontinus assigns to his whole army in this way.

``Alexander of Macedonia, with 40,000 men, all veteran soldiers, trained under his father Philip attacked the whole world and slew an infinite number of his enemies.'' (Frontin. Stratag. l. 4. c. 2.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:15:41 PM
 1717. To pay his army, Aristobulus says Alexander took only 70 talents of money. Duris says he had only 30 days' of provisions. Sicritus adds, that he went in debt 200 talents to pay for his army. (Plutarch in his life and in his book of the fortune of Alexander.)

1718. As soon as he landed on the Continent, Alexander was the first of all of them to throw a spear on shore. This signified his taking possession of all Asia. He leaped on shore and danced about in his armour. He offered sacrifice and besought the gods:

``that those lands might willingly receive him for their king:''

1719. Then he went and sacrificed to the ghost of Achilles, from whom he was descended on his mother's side and to Ajax and other Greek heros who died in the war of Troy. (Diodor. Justin, Arrian) He commended the very good fortune of Achilles in two points. First he had so true a friend about him as Patroclus. Secondly, he had a man like Homer to sing his praises. (Plut. in Alex. Cic. pro. Archia Poeta. and Arrian. l. 1.)

1720. When he came into Ilium, he sacrificed to Pallas of Troy. He hung his own arms in her temple and took from there in place of them, some other arms from the chancel. They were there from the time of the of the Trojan war. (Diodor. Arrian.) Among the other relics they showed the lute of Paris. Alexander said, he would have thanked them if they could have showed him the lute of Achilles by which he had sung the praises of famous men. (Plut. in Alex. Elia. Variar. Hist. l. 9. c. 38.)

1721. From Ilium he went to Arisbe to join his whole army that had crossed over by sea. The next day he passed by Percota and Lampsacus. He camped at the Prosactium River. (Arrian. l. 1.) He planned to utterly destroy Lampsacus and its inhabitants for he thought they had or were planning to defect to the Persians. He saw Anaximines the historian, a man very well known to him and to his father, coming to meet him. He guessed his errand and swore first saying:

``whatever he desired of him, that he would not do.''

1722. Then Anaximines replied:

``Sir, I beseech you to destroy Lampsacus.''

1723. Alexander was caught in his own net by the wit of the man. Though much against his will, he went his way and spared the place. (Valer. Max. l. 7. c. 3. Pausan. in his Eliaca. l. 2. Snidas, in the word, Anaximenes.)

1724. After much difficulty and danger, Alexander crossed the Granion River in Phrygia and planned a battle with the Persians in the plain of Adrastia. Justinus and Orosius say the Persians had 600,000 foot soldiers and 20,000 cavalry. Arrian some what improbably adds that besides the mercenaries there were less than 20,000 foot soldiers. Diodorus is more cautious and says, that the Persian cavalry was more than 10,000 and the army was under 100,000 men. 20,000 Persian foot soldiers and 2500 cavalry died in the battle according to Plutarch. Diodorus reports that they lost 10,000 foot soldiers and no less than 2000 cavalry and had more than 20,000 taken prisoner. Arrian' account states that the Persian cavalry lost 1000 men and their foreign mercenaries were almost all killed. 2000 were taken prisoner. Orosius' account is quite fantastic when he says there were 400,000 slain. (l. 4. c. 1.)

1725. In this fight Alexander who wore that armour which he had taken from the temple of Palas at Ilium, had his head piece cut in pieces to his very hair. Plutarch from Aristobulus states he lost 25 cavalry and 9 foot soldiers. However, Justin and Orosius say that 120 cavalry and 9 foot soldiers died. According to Arrian, Alexander lost about 25 men in total who were all Macedonians. Lysippus made brass statues of them. Others say that he lost 60 cavalry and 30 foot soldiers. The next day, Alexander had these men buried with all funeral rights. This great and memorable victory opened the way to the empire of all Asia. It happened in the month Daesius with the Macedonians and on the 6th of Thargehon with the Athenians or Sunday, May 20th 334 BC in year 2 of the Olympiad 111. This we have discussed in detail in our discourse on the Macedonian and Asiatic Solar year. (c. 1. pg. 4, 5, 11.)

1726. When Alexander had rested his army, he marched forward through Lydia and came to Sardis. The city with all it provisions and treasures, was voluntarily surrendered to him by Mithrinnes, or Mithrenes, its governor. (Diodorus, Arrian.)

3670d AM, 4380 JP, 334 BC

1727. He went to Ephesus and replaced the oligarchy with a democratic government. He assigned all the tributes which were formerly paid to Darius, to Diana. The Ephesians cried out for justice against those who had robbed the temple of Diana. They demolished the statue of Philip which was set up there. They took Syrphaces, his son, Pelagon his son and the children of the brother of Syrphaces and stoned them to death. (Arrian. l. 1.) Moreover they enlarged and beautified the temple itself which was burned down by Erostratus on the night when Alexander was born. They appointed Dimocrates the architect to oversee the work. Alexander later used him to build Alexandria in Egypt. (Julius Solinus, c. 40) Artemidorus mentions (Strabo l. 14.) that Alexander promised to pay for the construction of the temple if the Ephesians would allow him to take the credit as the builder of the work, but they refused.

1728. While Alexander stayed at Ephesus, ambassadors came to him from Magnesia and Tralles and surrendered their cities to him. He sent to meet them, Parmenion with 2500 foreign foot solders and 2500 of his Macedonian troops, with 200 cavalry from his auxiliaries. He sent also Alcimalus the son of Agathocles, to the cities of Eolia and Ionia, which were held before by the Persians with about the same number of troops as he had sent with Parmenion. Everywhere, he abolished the oligarchies in their cities and set up democratic governments. He gave them permission to live according to their own laws and abolished the tribute they paid to the Persians. (Arrian. l. 1.)

1729. He stayed at Ephesus and sacrificed to Diana. With his whole army in battle array, he went in a procession to her. The next day he went to Miletus with the rest of his foot soldiers, archers, agrians, the cavalry from Thrace and aides of his confederates and his own troops. (Arrian. l. 1.) There the Persians who escaped from the fight at Granicum had fled with their general Memnon. (Diodor.) 3 days before they arrived, Alexander had sent Nicanor with 160 ships to capture of the isle of Lada, opposite Miletus. He held it with 4000 men from Thrace and other nations so that when the Persian fleet of 400 ships came there, they could not get to the mount of Micale. (Arrian. l. 1.)

1730. Alexander besieged Miletus by land and sea and battered their walls. They finally surrendered to him. The 300 Greek mercenaries had fled from there to a nearby little island. Alexander took and enlisted them among his own troops. He gave the Milesians their freedom and all the non-Greeks there he either killed or sold for slaves. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111. Arrian. l. 1.)

3671 AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC

1731. Alexander dismissed his fleet of 160 ships (182 ships according to Justin. l. 11. c. 6. s). He retained 20 Athenian ships to carry his battering rams with. (Justin. l. 11. c. 6. s)

1732. Memnon of Rhodes, sent his wife and children to Darius, as a pledge of his loyalty and was made general of all his army. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111.)

1733. Alexander marched with his army into Caria. Everywhere he went, he proclaimed liberty to all the Greek cities. He said they could live by their own laws and be free from Persian tribute. He made it clear that this war was to liberate of the Greeks from Persian rule. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111.)

1734. While he was on his way, Ada met him. She had been expelled by her brother Pexodarus from the kingdom of Caria. She surrendered her city Abinda which was the strongest place in all Caria. She desired to be restored to her grandfather's kingdom and promised further to help him take the rest of the forts and cities of that country. These she said were in the power of her close friends. She adopted Alexander for her son. In return he gave her the town of Abinda and he proclaimed her queen of Caria. He bid her claim Caria and did not refuse to be called her son. Whereupon all the cities of Caria sent their officials to him. They gave him crowns of gold and offered him their service in whatever he would ask them to do. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111. Strabo, l. 14. Arrian. l. 1. Plut. in Alexander.)

1735. Orontobates a Persian, held Halicarnassus a city of Caria, ever since the days of his father-in-law, Pexodarus. Memnon of Rhodes the Persian general, had joined him with all his forces. Alexander encamped before its walls and began to assault and batter it very intensely. Ephialtes an Athenian, behaved valiantly in the defence of the city. When he and others were slain at the breaches in the wall, then Memnon and the Persian princes and captains placed a strong garrison of their best soldiers in the citadel. They then sailed with the rest of the people and all their belongings to the Isle of Cos near to Rhodes. When they were gone, Alexander cast a trench and built a strong wall on it around the citadel. He razed the city to the ground. He left garrisons there and in other parts of Caria. He placed Ptolemy over 3000 foreign soldiers and 200 cavalry. He left the government of that whole country of Caria to his adopted mother, Ada. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 111. Arrian. l. 1.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:16:35 PM
1736. Alexander gave his Macedonians who had married wives shortly before they started on this journey, leave to go and spend their winter months with them. They could leave Caria to rejoin their wives. He appointed Ptolemy the son of Seleucus who was one of his captains, to be their commander. He sent with him Caenus the son of Polemocrates and Meleager the son of Neoptolemus who were recently married. He ordered them that when they returned they should bring all the newly married troops to him and with them as many cavalry and foot soldiers as possible from the country where they wintered. (Arrian. l. 1. and Q. Curtius in the beginning of his 3rd book.)

1737. Alexander sent Parmenion to Sardis and made him commander over all the cavalry of his confederates. He ordered him to take with him all the Thessalian cavalry and auxiliaries and all carts that he could make. They were to go ahead of him as far as Sardis, while he went to Lycia and Pamphylia. He took all the sea towns so that the navy of the enemy would be useless to them. On his way, he captured a very strong town called Hyparna on his first attack. He allowed the mercenary soldiers to depart in safety. From there he marched into Lycia. The city Telmessus conditionally surrendered to him. When he crossed the Xanthus River, the cities of Pinara, Xanthus, Patara and 30 smaller towns surrendered to him. (Arrian. l. 1.)

 3671 AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC

1731. Alexander dismissed his fleet of 160 ships (182 ships according to Justin. l. 11. c. 6. s). He retained 20 Athenian ships to carry his battering rams with. (Justin. l. 11. c. 6. s)

1732. Memnon of Rhodes, sent his wife and children to Darius, as a pledge of his loyalty and was made general of all his army. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111.)

1733. Alexander marched with his army into Caria. Everywhere he went, he proclaimed liberty to all the Greek cities. He said they could live by their own laws and be free from Persian tribute. He made it clear that this war was to liberate of the Greeks from Persian rule. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111.)

1734. While he was on his way, Ada met him. She had been expelled by her brother Pexodarus from the kingdom of Caria. She surrendered her city Abinda which was the strongest place in all Caria. She desired to be restored to her grandfather's kingdom and promised further to help him take the rest of the forts and cities of that country. These she said were in the power of her close friends. She adopted Alexander for her son. In return he gave her the town of Abinda and he proclaimed her queen of Caria. He bid her claim Caria and did not refuse to be called her son. Whereupon all the cities of Caria sent their officials to him. They gave him crowns of gold and offered him their service in whatever he would ask them to do. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111. Strabo, l. 14. Arrian. l. 1. Plut. in Alexander.)

1735. Orontobates a Persian, held Halicarnassus a city of Caria, ever since the days of his father-in-law, Pexodarus. Memnon of Rhodes the Persian general, had joined him with all his forces. Alexander encamped before its walls and began to assault and batter it very intensely. Ephialtes an Athenian, behaved valiantly in the defence of the city. When he and others were slain at the breaches in the wall, then Memnon and the Persian princes and captains placed a strong garrison of their best soldiers in the citadel. They then sailed with the rest of the people and all their belongings to the Isle of Cos near to Rhodes. When they were gone, Alexander cast a trench and built a strong wall on it around the citadel. He razed the city to the ground. He left garrisons there and in other parts of Caria. He placed Ptolemy over 3000 foreign soldiers and 200 cavalry. He left the government of that whole country of Caria to his adopted mother, Ada. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 111. Arrian. l. 1.)

1736. Alexander gave his Macedonians who had married wives shortly before they started on this journey, leave to go and spend their winter months with them. They could leave Caria to rejoin their wives. He appointed Ptolemy the son of Seleucus who was one of his captains, to be their commander. He sent with him Caenus the son of Polemocrates and Meleager the son of Neoptolemus who were recently married. He ordered them that when they returned they should bring all the newly married troops to him and with them as many cavalry and foot soldiers as possible from the country where they wintered. (Arrian. l. 1. and Q. Curtius in the beginning of his 3rd book.)

1737. Alexander sent Parmenion to Sardis and made him commander over all the cavalry of his confederates. He ordered him to take with him all the Thessalian cavalry and auxiliaries and all carts that he could make. They were to go ahead of him as far as Sardis, while he went to Lycia and Pamphylia. He took all the sea towns so that the navy of the enemy would be useless to them. On his way, he captured a very strong town called Hyparna on his first attack. He allowed the mercenary soldiers to depart in safety. From there he marched into Lycia. The city Telmessus conditionally surrendered to him. When he crossed the Xanthus River, the cities of Pinara, Xanthus, Patara and 30 smaller towns surrendered to him. (Arrian. l. 1.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:17:07 PM
 3671b AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC

1738. In the middle of winter, Alexander went to Myliada in Greater Phrygia and made a league with the ambassador who came to him from Phaselis and the lower Lycia. They surrendered all their cities into his hands. A short time later, Alexander went to Phaselis and razed a strong fort which the Pisidians had built to harass the inhabitants of Phaselis with. (Arran. l. 1.)

1739. While Alexander was near Phaselis, he received a rumour that Alexander Aeropus whom he had made commander of the Thessalian cavalry intended to kill him. However he and his two brothers Heromenes and Arrobaeus were suspected to be involved in Alexander's father, Philip's death. For Darius received letters from Alexander Aeropus by Amyntas who fled to him. Darius sent Asisines, a Persian, to the sea side under the pretence of having a message for Atysies the governor of Phrygia. The real purpose was to assure Alexander Aeropus that if he killed Alexander, the kingdom of Macedon would be his and Darius would give him 1000 talents of money besides. However Asisnes was intercepted by Pharmenion and put to the rack. He confessed all and he was sent away heavily guarded to Alexander. Alexander looked carefully into the matter and sent Amphoterus to Pharmenion with secret instructions to seize Aeropus and put him in prison. (Arran. l. 1.) It was to this matter that Alexander wrote in his letter to Darius. According to Q. Curtis, (l. 4. c. 1.) he said:

``When you have forces of your own, yet you go to sell your enemies' heads since you who were recently the king of so great an army would hire a man to take away my life with 1000 talents,'' (Just. l. 11. c. 7.)

1740. Alexander left Phaselis with his army and travelled along the coast to Pergae. From there he came to Aspendus and besieged it. Although the city was situated on a high and rugged mountain, it surrendered to him. He next went into Pindia and tried unsuccessfully to take the city of Telmislus. Instead he made a league with the Selgians who were enemies to the Telmissians. He took Salagassa by force and killed about 500 Pisidians. He lost his captain Cleander with about 20 of his own men. From there he went to capture the other cities of Pisidia. Some of their stronger places he took in by force and others surrendered conditionally. After this he came into Phrygia to the marsh lands of Ascania. After his 5th camp, he arrived at Celenae. (Arrian. l. 1.)

1741. The citadel of Celenae was held by the Persian commander with a garrison of 1000 Carians and 100 Greek mercenaries. After a 60 day's truce, (in which the commander expected relief from Darius), he surrendered to Alexander. (Arrian. l. 1. and Curtius, l. 3. c. 1.)

1742. Alexander left a garrison of 1500 in Celenae. After he had stayed there 10 days, he made Antigonus the son of Philippus, governor of Phrygia. He made Balacrus the son of Amyntas the commander of the auxiliaries in his place. Alexander marched to Gordium. He sent a letter to Parmenion that he should not sail to meet him at Gordium. (Arrian., l. 1.)

1743. Parmenion with his army and the Macedonians which had leave to be with their new wives, came to Gordium. The army he had recently raised was under the command of Ptolemy, Caenus and Meleager. That army consisted of 1000 Macedonians foot soldiers and 300 cavalry. 200 Thessalian cavalry and 150 cavalry from Elis led by Alcias who was from the same country. (Arrian. l. 1.)

1744. Darius made Memnon admiral of his fleet and chief commander of all the seacoast. Memnon planned to carry the war from Asia into Macedonia and Greece. He outfitted a navy of 300 ships and captured the isle of Chios and the rest of the cities and places in Lesbos except Mitylene. (Diod. year 4. Olymp. 111. with Arrian. l. 2. in prim.)

1745. The elders of Jerusalem were offended that Manasseh the brother of Jaddua, the high priest, had married a foreign wife contrary to the law. They demanded that he either divorce her or give up his priestly office. Hereupon Jaddua was forced to forbid him to serve at the altar. Manasseh went to tell Sanballat his father-in-law that he loved his daughter very much but did not want to loose his priesthood for her sake. This was an honour belonging to him by his birthright and it was very highly esteemed by the Jews. Sanballat replied that if Manasseh would not divorce his wife, he would help him stay in the priesthood and make him a high priest and prince of all his own province and build a temple on the hill overlooking Samaria for him. The temple would be at least as good as the one in Jerusalem. Sanballat would do all this by the authority of Darius the king. Manasseh was encouraged by these promises and stayed with his father-in-law. He hoped to get the priesthood as a gift and by the authority of Darius. Hereupon all the priests and other Israelites who had married foreign wives resorted to him. Sanballat furnished them with money and lands to farm. He promoted the ambition of his son-in-law as much as possible. (Josephus l. 11. Antiq. c. 8. s. 2.)

1746. Alexander undid the Gordian knot. He either pulled out the peg or pin in the beam according to Arrian or he cut it in pieces with his sword, as others state. (Plutarch in Alexander. Arrian, l. 2. Curtius, l. 3. Justin, l. 11. c. 7.)

1747. Alexander departed from Gordium in Phrygia and went to Ancyra, a city in Galatia. Ambassadors from Paphlagonia came to him and made a league with him and surrendered their country to him. He appointed Calas, a prince of Phrygia to be their new governor. When he had received the new troops from Macedonia, he marched into Cappadocia. He subdued all the country on this side the river Halys and some part of the other side. (Arrian. l. 1. with Curtius l. 3. c. 3.)

1748. Memnon died at the siege of Mitylene. Before he died, he appointed Autophradates and Pharnabazus the son of Artabazus to take over the forces until Darius would direct otherwise. They took command subject to certain conditions. Autophradates took over the main body of the ships. Pharnabazus with some ships sailed into Lycia and took with him some mercenaries. (Arrian. l. 2.)

1749. After the death of Memnon, Darius conscripted soldiers and ordered them from all countries to come to him at Babylon. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 111.) When he had set up his standard there, he pitched camp and mustered his army. He put a huge trench around the camp that was capable of containing 1,000,000 armed men. Like Xerxes had done with his troops, he went and counted all his forces. The sum came to 100,000 Persians of which 30,000 were cavalry. The Medians sent 10,000 cavalry and 50,000 foot soldiers. From the Barcans, (who were a people bordering upon Hircania, according to Stephanus) there were 2000 cavalry and 10,000 foot soldiers. From Armenia there came 40,000 foot soldiers and 7000 cavalry. Hircania sent 6000 cavalry and the Derbices sent him 40,000 foot soldiers and 2000 cavalry. From the Caspian Sea came 8000 foot soldiers and 200 cavalry. Those that were from smaller nations amounted to 2000 foot soldiers and 4000 cavalry. He also had 30,000 Greek mercenaries. Curtius says this army (l. 3. c. 4.) had only 311200 men. However, Diodorus says they were 400,000 foot soldiers and 100,000 cavalry. This number is in the newer editions of Justin, as amended from the manuscripts. Although the older editions, together with Orosius, who follows him in every point, have only 300,000 foot soldiers and 100,000 cavalry. Both historians (Arrian. l. 2. and Plutarch in Alexan.) say the total number of men was 600,000.

1750. Charidemus from Athens was a man well skilled in military matters. After Alexander had expelled him from Athens, he defected to Darius. He advised Darius not to manage the army personally but leave it to some general who had proven himself in previous battles. He further stated that an army of 100,000 men of which one third would be Greeks would be enough for this battle. By his sage and good counsel, he so incensed the princes with envy and angered the king that he was executed for it. (Diod. year 4. Olymp. 111. Curtius, l. 3. c. 5.)

1751. Darius sent Thymondas or Thymodes, Mentor's son, a bold young man, to Pharnabazus to get from him all the mercenaries whom Memnon had under his command. He was to bring them to Darius and Pharnabazus was to replace Memnon as head of the forces there. (Curtius, l. 3. c. 6. Arrian., l. 2. in prin.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:17:41 PM
 3671d AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC

1752. Alexander committed the charge of Cappadocia to Abistenes (according to Curtius) or, to Sabictas (as Arrian has it). He marched with his whole army to the passes in Cilicia and came to a place called Cyrus' Camp. (It was either named after the older Cyrus, as Curtius states or from the younger Cyrus as Arrian thinks) About 7 1/4 miles from there, he found that those passes were controlled by a strong garrison of the enemy that Parmenion had left there. In the first watch of the night, Alexander with his company of foot soldiers troops with shields, archers and his band of Agrians secretly went to attack that garrison. When the garrison heard a rumour about his coming, they threw away their weapons and fled. Arsames the governor of Cilicia had wasted all the country with fire and sword so that Alexander could not get provisions from the place. Then he left Tarsus and went to Darius. (Arrian., l. 2. Curtius, l. 3. c. 8.)

1753. Alexander went very quickly to Tarsus. Since he was so hot from the journey he took off his armour and leaped into the cold water of the Cydnus River which ran through the city. This so shocked his system that he lost his voice and despaired of recovery and waited to die. (Justin. l. 11. c. 8.) Curtius adds that this was in the summer season and that the heat of the day was increased by the intensity of the sun in the climate of Cilicia. (l. 3. c. 10.) Aristobulus says, that he fell sick by over exerting himself (Arrian. l. 2.) Philip a physician gave him a portion which he took and it cured him immediately. Parmenion had warned him that Philip was set to poison him. (Justin. Czardas. Arrow. Pleiad. and Valer. Max. l. 3. c. 8.)

1754. Orontobates the Persian, held out in the citadel at Halicarnassus, with Myundus, and Caunus and Thera and Callipolis against Alexander. They were defeated in a battle by Ptolemy and Asander. The enemy lost about 700 foot soldiers and 50 cavalry and had at least 1000 men taken prisoner. After this the Myndians, Caunians and most of the places in the region surrendered to Alexander. (Arrian. l. 2. Curtius l. 3. c. 11.)

1755. Darius had a bridge built over the Euphrates and crossed over with his army in five days. (Curt. l. 3. c. 11.)

1756. Alexander sent Parmenion to possess the pass which divides Cilicia from Assyria or Syria. This pass is much like the former pass in Cilicia. Alexander followed after him from Tarsus and came to Anchislos on the first day. (Arria. l. 2.) From there he marched to Soli and placed his own garrison in the fort there. He levied 200,000 talents of silver from the inhabitants for they seemed to favour Darius more than him. (Arrian. l. 2. Curt. l. 3. c. 11.) From there he went with 3000 Macedonians, all his archers and Agrians and went into the hill country of Cilicia. Within 7 days time, by diplomacy he won them over to him and he returned to Soli. He had sacrificed to Eseulapius and his whole army had gone in procession with burning tapers in their hands. They passed the time with wrestling matches, music and other games. He allowed the city to become a democracy. (Arrian. l. 2.)

1757. The Greek soldiers whom Thymodes received by the arrangement with Pharnabazus, were almost Darius' only hope of victory. When they came to him, they were very earnest with him to retire and stay in the plain country of Mesopotamia. Failing that, he should break this vast army of his into parts and not hazard everything on the chance of one battle. Darius did not like their advice for he wanted to finish things quickly. The winter (beginning with autumn) was now drawing on and he sent away all his money, jewels and precious belongings with a reasonable guard to Damascus in Syria. The guard was under the command of Cophenes, the son of Artabazus. (Arrian. l. 2.) Darius with the rest of his army marched on to Cilicia. His wife and mother and daughter and little son, according to the custom of Persia, followed after the camp. (Curt. l. 3. c. 13.) He left his baggage and such people as were unfit for the war at Damascus. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 111.)

1758. When Sanballat heard that Darius was coming into those parts, he told Manasseh that he would quickly do what he had promised him concerning the high priesthood. This he would do when Darius returned in victory over his enemies. All those inhabitants of Asia were absolutely certain Darius would win. (Josephus Antiq. l. 11. c. 8. s. 3.)

3672a AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC

1759. Alexander wanted Philotas to bring the cavalry through the Aleian plains in Lycia to the Pyramus River. Philotas came with the foot soldiers and Alexander's troops to Magarsus. Alexander sacrificed to Minerva at a place called Minerva Magoris. (??) (Arrian. l. 2.)

1760. After he built a bridge over the Pyramus River, he came to the city Mallos in Cilicia. (Curt. l. 3. c. 11.) He offered to the ghost of Amphilochus the founder of that place, as to a demi-god. When he found the inhabitants in turmoil and unrest, he befriended them and freed them from paying tribute to Darius. (Arrian. l. 2.)

1761. While he stayed at Mallos, he received news that Darius with all his army were encamped at a place called Sochos. This was two day's journey from those passes which I mentioned earlier that parted Cilicia from Assyria or Syria (Arrian. l. 2.)

1762. From Mallos Alexaxander came to Castabala which was another town in Cilicia. There Parmenion met him. Alexander had sent him to find the way through a forest which he had to go through to come to the town of Issos. Parmenion had seized the way in that forest and left a small company to hold it. He went forward and took the town of Issos also. It was abandoned by the inhabitants when they heard he was coming. He went further and he cleared out all those who were set to guard the inner parts of those mountains and put garrisons everywhere of his own in those places. When he had cleared all those parts of the enemy, he returned to Alexander and told him what he had done. (Curt., l. 3. c. 11.)

1763. Alexander came with his army to Issos. He held a council of war to determine whether he should march on or stay there and expect the supplies which he knew were coming to him from Macedon. Parmenion advised that he could not find a better place to fight than that place. No more could come to fight on the one side than on the other because of the narrowness of the pass. (Curt., l. 3. c. 11.) Callisthenes, as he is said in Polybius, says, that when Alexander first came into Cilicia, he received from Macedon, 5000 foot soldiers and 800 cavalry. (Polyb. l. 12. p. 664.)

1764. When Darius had gone through the pass of the hill Amanus, he marched toward Issus. He did not know that he had left Alexander behind him. When Darius had taken the town, he cruelly tortured and put to death a poor company of Macedonians whom Alexander had left there. They were not able because of sickness or other infirmity to follow the camp. The next day Darius marched to the Pinatus River. (Arrian l. 2.)

1765. When Darius heard that Alexander was approaching in battle array, he immediately crossed over the Pinarus River with 20,000 cavalry and some 20,000 lightly armed foot soldiers so that he might have more time to organise his army for the battle. First, he placed those 30,000 heavily armed Greek mercenaries. Opposite the Macedonian squadron on both sides he placed the 60,000 Cardaeans who were also heavily armed foot soldiers. He could not possibly arrange them into one squadron and do battle because the place was too narrow. As for the rest of the troops whether heavily armed foot soldiers or those from other countries, he put them together in no particular order behind the main battle line of the Greeks and Cardaeans. (Arrian. l. 2.) However Curtius (l. 3. c. 17) states:

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:18:12 PM
 ``Nabarzanes who was general of Darius' army, was on the right wing with the cavalry. Next to him were almost 20,000 slingers and archers. Thymodes also was in the same wing, commanding some 30,000 Greek mercenaries. This was, no doubt, the very cream of the whole army. They were a match for the Macedonian phalanx. On the left wing, was Aristomedes a Thessalian with 20,000 foot soldiers from various countries. In the rear, he placed his reserves from the most warlike nations, that he had in all his army. In that wing was the king protected by a guard of 3000 choice cavalry and 40,000 foot soldiers. The Hircanian and Median cavalry followed them. Next to them were arranged the cavalry and foot soldiers of the other nations. Some were on the right hand and some on the left. Before this battalion were arranged like this went 6000 slingers and javeliners. All the ground that was there in that pass was filled up entirely with men. The wings reached from the one mountain and the other to the very sea. The queen and the king's mother and the rest of the women were placed in the midst of the army.''

1766. Callisthenes, who himself was in this battle, says, that there were 30,000 cavalry and as many auxiliaries all set to encounter the Macedonian phalanx. However, Polibius (l. 12.) says that Alexander's army consisted wholly of 42,000 foot soldiers and 5000 cavalry. He shows the many inaccuracies of Callisthenes. He points out that for inexperience in the marshalling of an army, Callisthenes had written many absurdities and impertinencies in the description of this battle.

1767. In the morning when Hephaestion came to Alexander to encourage him to start the battle, he forgot himself and greeted him:

``God help you sir,''

1768. instead of,

``God save you sir.''

1769. All the troops who were there, were disturbed by what this meant. They thought he had meant that the king had not been well in his wits. Hephaestion himself grew amazed by his own mistake. When Alexander knew this, he took it up and said that I thank him for his good omen. For this tells me, that we shall all by God's help come safely out of this battle today. This is related by Eumenes Cardianus in his Epistle to Antipater. He was present when the words were spoken and stumbled himself into a similar error, as it is in Lucian's discourse, "Of Men's Misunderstandings in their speech."

1770. Arrian says, that this battle was fought, when Nicostratus, (or as Diodorus Siculus has it, when Micocrates) was archon of Athens, in year 4 of the 111th Olympiad. This was in the month Maemacterion, whose new moon fell on the Wednesday, October 28th. In it the Persians lost 10,000 cavalry and 90,000 foot soldiers. A number of other writers agree with him concerning the losses in the cavalry. Concerning the foot soldiers, they all vary extremely not only from him but from each other. Justin says, there were 60,000, Orosius, 80,000, Curtius, 100,000, Diodorus, 120,000. Plutarch says that in all, they lost 110,000 men. Justinus and Orosius add, that there were 40,000 captured. On Alexander's side, there were 504 wounded men. They lost 32 foot soldiers and 150 cavalry according to Curtius. Concerning the number of the cavalry, Plutarch, Justin and Orosius agree with this. Diodorus says he lost 300 foot soldiers, the other writers say he lost 330.

1771. Ptolemy the son of Lagus, who was a servant of Alexander, states that in the pursuit of Darius, the squadron marched over the slaughtered bodies of the enemy. (Arrian. lib. 2.) Although less than 1000 cavalry followed Alexander in the pursuit of Darius yet they slew a huge multitude of the enemy. (Curt. l. 3. c. 22.) When Darius was thrown from his coach he climbed onto a mare. She remembered her foal at home and ran so fast that Alexander could not catch up to him. (Elianum Historia Animali, l. 65. c. 48.)

1772. Alexander grew weary of the pursuit of Darius. Since the night was drawing on, he gave up all hope of catching Darius. When he had travelled 45 miles, he returned to Darius' camp about midnight. His men had captured it shortly before this. (Diodor. and Curt.) They found Darius' mother whom Diodorus calls Sisygnambis, but Curtius, calls Sysigambis. His wife was there also whom Justin says was his sister as well. Darius' son Ochus who was almost 6 year's old and Darius' two daughters of marriageable age were also found. Also they found a few other noble men's daughters. Most of them had sent their wives and daughters to Damascus with their baggage. Even Darius had sent most of his treasure there as we said before. They found whatever luxurious furniture was the the king's custom to take with him to war. In Darius' camp, Alexander found about 3000 talents of silver. (Arrian. l. 2.)

1773. Early the next morning, Alexander took Hephestion with him and went to see the two queens. When Sisygambis mistakenly fell down at Hephestion's feet, she asked Alexander's pardon for it. He replied smiling:

``No harm, for this is Alexander too.''

1774. (Diodor. Curtius. Arrian.) In so few words, he gave half of himself away to his friend. (Valer. Max. l. 4. c. 7.) As for the two queens and to the women about them, Alexander restored to them all their attire, dressing and ornaments. He added much more of his own belongings to this as well. He did not permit any man to be uncivil with the women. (Arran. l. 2. with Plut. l. 2. de fort. Alex.)

1775. In his flight, Darius came to a place called Sochos about two day's journey from the passes of Amanus as we noted before. From Arrian we learn that he collected any Persians and others who survived the battle. He took 4000 of them with him to Thupsacus so that he might have the great Euphrates River between him and Alexander. (Curt. l. 4. c. 1. Arrian. l. 2.)

1776. Amyntus the son of Antiochus, Thymodes the son of Mentor, Aristomedes Phercus and Bianor of Acarnania had previously defected to the Persians from the Greeks. They fled with 8000 men in their company to Tripoli in Phoenicia. They found ships which had just arrived from Lesbos. They captured them and sailed to Cyprus and then to Egypt. They burned the ships they did not need so they could not be followed. (Arrian. l. 2. with Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112. and Curt. l. 4. c. 3.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:18:43 PM
 1777. Alexander made Balacrus, the son of Nicanor, one of the leaders of his bodyguard, governor of Cilicia. Alexander replaced Nicanor by Menetes, the son of Dionysius. He put Olyperchon the son of Simeus, in charge of the brigade to replace Ptolemy, the son of Seleucus, who was slain in the recent battle. He gave 50 talents to the men of Solos in Cilicia. These were not paid their wages that he had enlisted them for. He restored to them their hostages that he had taken from them. (Arrian. l. 2.) He built 3 altars, one to Jupiter, another to Hercules and a third to Minerva on the banks of the Pinarus River. Then he marched into Syria and sent Parmenion with the Thessalian cavalry to Damascus before him. Darius had all his treasure here. The cavalry had behaved very courageously in the recent battle. If they captured the city, they would be rich from the spoil. (Plut. in Alexan.)

1778. As Parmemion was on his way to Damascus, he intercepted a message sent to Alexander from the governor of Damascus who offerred to betray the city to Alexander. The 4th day he came to Damascus. The governor pretended that he could not hold the city. The next morning before sunrise, he took all the king's treasure (which the Persians call his "Gaza") and pretended that he would flee away and save it for Darius. Instead he gave it to Parmenion. As soon as he had done that there was a heavy snow storm and the ground was frozen solid.

1779. Among the women that fled from there and were captured, there were 3 virgins, daughters of Ochus, the last king before Darius. Also in the group were Ochus' queen, the daughter of Oxatris the brother of Darius, the wife of Artabanus a principal man at court and his son Iloneus. There was also taken the wife of Pharnabazus whom Darius had made commander of all the towns and cities lying on the sea with 3 daughters of Mentor. The wife and son of that most noble Memnon was taken. There was hardly any noble man's house of the court of Persia, which had not his share in this calamity. (Plut. in Alexan.) Parmenion's report to Alexander indicated that among the rest he had taken 329 of the king's women who were skilful in music, 46 weavers or knitters of crowns, 277 cooks and 29 cooks' maids, 13 white meat-makers, 17 makers of drinking cups, 70 wine cellar men, 40 apothecaries and confectioners.

1780. Also taken were 2600 talents in coins, bars of silver, 500 weight, 30,000 men, 7000 camels which were beasts of burden. (Curt. l. 3. c. 25.)

1781. The one that betrayed the place (who, as it seems was Cophenes by whom Darius sent his treasure to Damascus,) one of his countrymen cut off his head and carried it to Darius. (Curt. l. 3. c. 25.)

1782. Alexander made Parmenion, (according to Curtius) or Memnon, (according to Arrian), the governor of Coelosyria. He gave him his auxiliary cavalry for the defence of that province. The Syrians were not totally subdued and did not submit to this new governor. However, they were quickly suppressed and then they submitted to all the commands. (Arrian. l. 2. Curt. l. 4. c. 1.)

1783. Alexander sent Parmenion to seize the Persian fleet. Others that were with him, he sent to hold the cities of Asia which had surrendered to him. After the battle of Issos, Darius' own commanders surrendered with all their gold and treasure to Alexander. He marched into Syria and many kings of the east came and submitted to him. These he treated accordingly. Some he made a league with, while others he replaced with new kings. (Justin. l. 11. c. 10.)

1784. Gerostratus was at that time king of the Isle of Aradus with the adjoining sea coast and of some places also lying further inland. Like the other kings of Cyprus and Phoenicia, they had consolidated their fleets under Darius' Persian commander, Antophradates. Gerostratus' son Strato who was viceroy of Aradus in his father's absence, met Alexander as he was on his way into Phoenicia. He placed a crown of gold on Alexander's head and surrendered the isle of Aradus with Marathus, a large rich town opposite Aradus on the continent, the city Mariamme and whatever else belonged to his father. (Arrian. l. 2. Curt. l. 4. c. 1.)

1785. After Alexander had graceously received Strabo, Alexander marched to the city Marathon. From there he received letters from Darius who wanted to ransom his women captives. Alexander answered in a letter and sent Thersippus to deliver it. (Justin l. 11. c. 12. Curt. l. 4. c. 1. Arrian. l. 2. Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 111.) He wanted back the Greek ambassadors that were sent to Darius before the battle at Issos. Alexander understood that they were taken at Damascus. When Darius sent them, Alexander dismissed the two ambassadors of the Thebans, Thessalicus and Dionysodorus. Also he sent away Iphsicrates of Athens who was the son of that famous Iphicrates. Euthycles the Lacedemonian, he committed first to custody and later released him from irons. Later when everything went well for Alexander, he was sent away too. (Arrian. l. 2.)

1786. Alexander left Maratho and captured the city Biblus which conditionally surrendered to him. The Sidonians who had not long before been so terribly abused by Ochus sent to Alexander and desired to submit to him. They hated the Persians and king Darius. (Arrian. l. 2. Curt. l. 4. c. 2.) At that time Strabo reigned there. Because this surrender came more from the people than from Strabo, Alexander replaced Strabo by Abdolominus who lived by tending a poor garden there. Alexander gave him not only the rich furniture of Strabo's house but added various other rich gifts from what he had taken from the Persians. The new king controlled all the adjoining territories of Sidon. (Curt. l. 4. c. 2. Justin. l. 11. c. 10.) Plutarch in his discourse of the fortune of Alexander, calls this man Alynomus the king of Paphon. Diodorus calls him Ballinomus and says that Alexander made him king of Tyre.

1787. All of Syria and Phoenicia except Tyre were under Alexander's control. Alexander and his camp were on the continent. Between him and Tyre was a narrow channel of the sea. The Tyrians had sent a very massive crown of gold to him for a present and congratulated him for his great success. They sent him many provisions from their city. He received their presents as he would from good friends. He used many gracious and friendly words to them expressing his great desire to see their city and to sacrifice to Hercules. They told him that there was an alter in Palaetyrus or Old Tyre in the continent near by and that it would be better to offer sacrifice to Hercules on that one since it was the older of the two altars. When he heard this he was so enraged that he vowed to destroy their city. It happened that at the same time there came certain select men from Carthage to perform a yearly sacrifice to Hercules. The Tyrians were the founders of Carthage and the Carthaginians had honoured them as the father of their city. These men exhorted them to hold out and to endure the siege like men. They assured them of speedy supplies and aid from Carthage for at that time the Carthaginians, were a very strong naval power. (Curt. l. 4. c. 5, 6. Justin. l. 11. c. 10.)

1788. Thus Tyre was resolved for a war and they endured a 7 month siege. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112. Josephus Antiq. l. 11. c. 8. Curt. l. 4. c. 15. Plutarch in Alexander.) Their king Azelmious was absent at sea. He left Autophradates, his son behind him in the city. (Arrian. l. 4.) Alexander levelled Palaetyrus or old Tyre to the ground. He sent for all the men in the surrounding country to come and help his men throw the stones and rubbish of the entire city into the channel that ran between the two cities. He made a causeway of half a mile long over to Tyre from the old city according to Diodorus. Curtius, (l. 4. c. 5.) agrees with him. Pliny (l. 5. c. 19) said it was 700 paces long. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112., Curt. l. 4. c. 8.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:19:16 PM
 1789. Amyntas the son of Antiochus had with him 4000 Greeks who had fled from the battle of Issos (as I mentioned previously). Sabaces a Persian and governor of Egypt was killed in the battle of Issos. They set sail from Cyprus to Pelusium and seized the city. Amyntas pretended that he came to take charge of it by the order of Darius to replace Sabaces. From there he went with his army to Memphis. At the news of his coming, the Egyptians came from the towns and the country to help him against the Persians. With their help, he routed the Persians when they attacked him and forced them into the city again. Soon after by the advice of Masases their captain when he saw the Greeks scattered about the country and busy plundering it, Masases sallied forth again. In a surprise attack, he cut Amyntas and all his troops in pieces. (Curt. l. 3. c. 22., l. 4. c. 3.)

1790. Some of Darius' captains and their troops who escaped from the battle at Issos along with some Cappadocians and Paphlagonians went to retake Lydia. Antigonus, who was Alexander's commander, routed them in three battles. At the same time, the Macedonian fleet came from Greece and attacked Aristomenes, who was sent by Darius to retake the Hellespont. They sunk or took all the Persian fleet. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112., Curt. l. 4. c. 4.)

1791. While Alexander besieged Tyre, he sent to Jaddua the high priest at Jerusalem and demanded from him supplies and other provisions plus the tribute they formerly paid to Darius. Jaddua replied that he was bound by a former oath of allegiance to Darius and that he could not be freed from that oath as long as Darius lived. Alexander was very angry and swore that as soon as he had taken Tyre, he would march against Jerusalem. (Josephus Antiq. l. 11. c. 8. s. 3.)

1792. At the start of the siege of Tyre, Sanballat the Cuthite, defected from Darius and came with 8000 men. (Newer additions of Josephus say 7000 not 8000. Editor) Alexander graciously received him. Sanballat asked permission to build a temple on his own land and to make his son-in-law, Manasseh the high priest who was the brother to Jaddua the high priest at Jerusalem. When he obtained permission and because he was now growing old, he started the work quickly. He built a temple and made Manasseh the high priest of it. He thought that by this he would bestow great honour to the posterity of his daughter. (Josephus Antiq. l. 11. c. 8. s. 4.)

1793. Alexander purposed to make a broader causeway from the continent for an easier approach to Tyre. After he had built new engines of war, he marched with his targeteers and a squadron of Agrians, to Sidon. There he gathered as many ships as he possibly could for he knew it would be impossible to take Tyre as long as the Tyrians were masters at sea. (Arrian. l. 2.)

1794. Meanwhile, when Gerostratus the king of Aradus and Enulus the king of Byblus found that all their cities were already taken by Alexander, they abandoned Antophradates and his fleet and came with their fleets to Alexander. Some ships of the Sidonians also came with them. Now Alexander had a navy of 80 ships. At the same time Rhodes sent a fleet of 10 ships to Alexander. One ship, was called Periplus. 3 more came from Soli and Mallus. 10 came from Lycia. Macedon sent a ship of 50 oars under Captain Proteas, the son of Andronicus. A little time later certain kings of Cyprus sent 120 ships to the port of Sidon. They heard of his victory at Issos and the news that all Phoenicia had yielded to him. Alexander forgave them their previous wrongs they had done to him. For previously they sided with Darius of necessity not by their free choice. (Arian. l. 2.) Azelmicus, the king of Tyre, left Antophradates and came to his own city of Tyre while it was thus besieged. He was in it when it was taken later according to Arrian.

1795. In Mount Lebanon, Alexander cut timber for his ships. The wild Arabians suddenly attacked the Macedonians while they were busy at their work. They slew 30 of them and carried away almost as many prisoners. Alexander left Perdiccas and Craterus, or as Polyaenus seems to say, Parmenion, to continue the siege of Tyre. He went with a running camp into Arabia. (Curt. l. 4. c. 8.) Polyaenus confirms that he made an excursion into Arabia. (l. 4. Stratag.) Arrian gives more details. He says that Alexander with certain cavalry troops, light targeteers and his squadron of Agrians went into Arabia as far as to Anti-Lebanon. Plutarch tells us that he marched against the Arabians who dwelt opposite Anti-Lebanon.

1796. When he was come to the mountainous country of those parts, he planned to leave his cavalry and march on foot as others did. The body of his army had gone a good distance before him and the night was approaching and the enemy was close. Lysimachus, his childhood instructor was exhausted from the journey and Alexander did not want to leave him in that condition. Alexander encouraged him and helped him along. Before he knew it, he and his group were separated from the rest of his company. He would have to pass that night in the dark in a bitter cold frost and in a place devoid of all relief. Nevertheless, he saw not far off many fires made by the enemies. Since he had a nimble and active body, he ran to the next fire and killed the enemies that sat by it. He brought away a firebrand and kindled a fire for himself and the small group of Macedonians that were with him. This fire became so large that the enemies were terrified and did not move against him. So he and his company lay safely all that night. This story Plutarch tells of him from Charaetes, a Mitylean and one of those who wrote the Deeds of Alexander.

1797. When he had taken all that country, partly upon amicable terms and partly by force, he returned to Sidon after only 11 days from the time he left. He found Alexander the son of Polemocrates, had recently arrived with 4000 Greek mercenaries. (Arrian. l. 2.)

1798. His navy was now outfitted and totalled 190 ships according to Curtius or to 200 according to Diodorus. Alexander sailed from Sidon for Tyre in a very good formation. He was in the right wing, in a Quinquereme, or ship of five decks high. In that squadron were also the kings of Cyprus and the rest of the Phoenicians except for Pintagoras or Pythagoras. He and Craterus commanded the left wing. (Arrian. l. 2. Curt. l. 4. c. 10.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:20:04 PM
 3672c AM, 4382 JP, 332 BC

1799. Thirty commissioners arrived from Carthage and brought Tyre word that the Carthaginians were so embroiled with war at home that they could not possibly send help to them at this time. This did not discourage the men of Tyre. However, they sent away their wives and children to Carthage, as being a safer place for them no matter what happened at Tyre. (Curt. l. 4. c. 11. with Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112. Justin l. 11. c. 10.)

1800. When Apollo had appeared to various men in dreams and signified that he would leave the city, the superstitious men of Tyre took good golden chains and bound his image tightly to the foot of his shrine. His image was sent there from Syracuse according to Curtius or from Gela in Sicily by the Carthaginians as we have noted from Diodorus. (See note on 3599 AM.) They fastened the chain to the altar of Hercules the tutelar god of that city as if he should be able to hold Apollo by his strength from leaving. (Curt. l. 4. c. 11. Diod Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112. Plutarch in Alexander.)

1801. While Alexander besieged Tyre, ambassadors from Darius came to him and offered him 10,000 talents (not as Valer. Max. wrote 1,000,000) to ransom his mother, wife and children and all the territory lying between the Hellespont and the river Halys. Darius would give his daughter in marriage to Alexander. This offer was discussed in a council of his friends. It is reported that Parmenion said that if he were Alexander, he would not refuse those conditions. Whereupon Alexander replied that no more would he if he were Parmenion. Alexander wrote back to Darius that he offered him nothing but what was already his. Therefore he wished him to come in person to ask for his wife back and to accept such conditions as Alexander would give him. (Arrian. l. 2. Justin l. 11. c. 12. Curt. l. 4. c. 16. Plutarch in his Apostchegmes and in his Alexander Valer. Max. l. 6. c. 4.)

1802. Tyre was taken, when Anicetes, (or Nicetes according to Dionys. Halicarnas. in Dinarchus) was archon in Athens in the month of Hecatombaeon. (Arrian. l. 2. p. 49.) In the middle of that month, the 112 Olympiad ended. In Plutarch we find that it was on the 30th day of the month Loi according to the Macedonian calendar and the 5th of Hacatombaeon on the Athenian calendar. This was July 24th as I have shown, in the end of chapter 5. of my discourse of the Solar years of the Macedonians and Asians.

1803. Justin, (l. 1. c. 10.) says it was taken by treason, Polyaenus by a stratagem, (l. 1. stratag.) and Diodorus, Arrian., Curtius say by pure force. When the enemies had got into the city, yet the townsmen maintained the fight until there were 7000 thousand of them cut in pieces. (Diodorus)

1804. Arrian states that there were 8000 of the inhabitants killed. Curtius says that after the battle 2000 more were hung up all along the shore. Diodorus states that Alexander hanged 2000 young men all in their prime. Justin says that in remembrance of the old slaughter the inhabitants had made, he had all that were captured, crucified. He put them to a death befitting a slave because the Tyrian slaves had made a conspiracy against their own masters and had murdered all the freemen of that city with their own masters. They set up their own government and killed everyone except Strato an old man and his son. On him and his posterity, they established the kingdom.

1805. Concerning Alexander, Justin further adds:

``that he spared all the descendants of Strato and restored the kingdom to him and his posterity.''

1806. (This means perhaps Ballonymus, whom Diodorus confounds with Abdolominus, whom Alexander made king of the Sidonians a short time earlier.)

``Alexander left the city to be repopulated by its innocent and harmless inhabitants. When he had abolished that wicked generation of slaves, he hoped to be considered the founder of a new and better people there.''

1807. By this means it was, that Justin from Trogus, made Alexander the restorer and rebuilder of Tyre. (l. 18. c. 3,4.) All other writers made him not its founder but its destroyer. The prophecy of Isaiah concurring with this, Isa 23:1 compared with /APC 1Ma 1:1 For if we believe Curtius, Alexander spared those who fled to the temples and slew everyone else and set fire to their houses. According to Diodorus, he made slaves of all that were not able to bear arms, together with the women and girls. This was over 13,000 even though most had been sent away to Carthage. However, according to Arrian, Alexander spared all that Azelmicus and the commissioners who came from Carthage had brought to the sacrifice of Hercules. He sold all the rest for slaves, to the number of 30,000.

1808. Curtius says that the Sidonians which joined in with the rest of Alexander's soldiers did not forget their blood ties between them and the Tyrians. For they believed that they were all brought there by Agenor who was the founder of both cities. The Sidonians got 15,000 on their ships and saved them. Curius (l. 4. c. 15.) states:

``Tyre quickly recovered and later grew to be a city again.''

1809. Strabo (l. 16. p. 754.) states:

``After this enormous calamity brought on them by Alexander, they quickly overcame their misfortunes by their navigational skills and with their purple dye industry.''

1810. Justin (l. 18. c. 4.) states:

``By their parsimony and industry, they quickly recovered strength again.''

1811. This happened so quickly that in the 18th year from then, they endured another siege from Antigonus who was then lord of all Asia. This siege lasted not 7 months as in the case of Alexander, but a full 15 months. (Diod. Sic. l. 19. year 2. Olymp. 116.) They were not now content with their little city which was joined to the continent by Alexander's causeways and other works. They so enlarged their boundaries that in Pliny's time the wall of their city enclosed almost 3 miles. When one included Palaetyrus or Old Tyre with it the whole enclosure came to no less than 19 miles. (Pliny l. 5. c. 19.)

1812. Admetus, who first got onto the wall with 20 targeteers were all slain at the very first encounter with the enemy. In the whole time of the siege, no more than 400 Macedonians were lost. (Arrian. l. 2.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:20:47 PM
1813. Alexander offered sacrifices to Hercules and went in procession with his whole host in full armour to his temple. He held a show also with his ships and caused wrestling and other games to be performed by torch light. There was a certain Tyrian ship consecrated to his honour which he had captured. This he rededicated to himself. (Arrian. l. 2.) He took the golden chain from off of Apollos' image and the robes he was attired with. He gave the image a new name, "Alexander's friend". (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112.) Timaeus states that Alexander captured Tyre on the very exactly the same day that the Carthaginians had taken the image of Apollo from Gela in Sicily. The Greeks offered to Apollo a magnificent and solemn sacrifice as if by his power and favour they had captured Tyre. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 93.)

1814. As soon as Alexander had taken Tyre, he marched into Judah. (Euseb. Chron. with Pliny, l. 12. c. 25.) and subdued all that part of Syria which is called Palestina. (Arrian. l. 2. p. 50.) He went in person against those places that would not willingly submit to him. (Curt. l. 4. c. 17.) When he was on his march to Jerusalem, Jaddua the high priest who was terrified by his former threats and now feared his rage, resorted to God by prayers and sacrifices for the common safety of all. God warned him in a dream that he should make a holy day in the city and open wide the city gates. He and the rest of the priests would go forth in their priestly raiment and all the rest of the people would be clothed all in white and accompany him to meet Alexander. When Alexander saw this company coming to him from a distance, he went all alone to the high priest. After he prostrated himself before that God whose name he saw engraven in the golden plate of his mitre he greeted him. When Parmenion asked the reason for his behaviour, he replied that while he was still in Macedon planning the conquest of Asia, there appeared to him a man clothed like this high priest who invited him into Asia and assured him of all success in the conquest of it. The priests went before him as he entered into Jerusalem. He went up to the temple and sacrificed to God in the manner the priests showed him. They had showed him the book of the prophet Daniel in which it was written that a Greek should come and destroy the Persians. Da 8:7,20,21 11:13 He did not doubt but he was the one in the prophecy. After this he dismissed the company. (Joseph. l. 11. c. 8. s. 5.)

1815. The next day, he assembled the people and asked them what they wanted from him. They replied they wanted nothing but that they might live according to the laws of their own country and that every 7th year, (in the sabbatical year when there was no harvest) they might be exempt from paying any tribute. He granted all they asked. When they asked further that he would allow the Jews who dwelt in the countries of Babylon and Media to live according to their own rites and laws he answered, that he would grant that request as soon as he had taken those countries too. When he told them that if any of them would follow him in his wars they could use their own rites wherever they came, many enlisted to serve him. When he had settled all matters in Jerusalem, he left and went to the rest of the cities of that country and was joyfully received everywhere. (Joseph. l. 11. c. 8. s. 6.)

1816. One of Alexander's captains, Callas went and recaptured Paphagonia, which defected from Alexander after the battle at Issos. Alexander's captains Antigonus Lyconia and Balacrus captured the city of Miletus after they defeated Darius' captain Idarnes. (Curt. l. 4. c. 17.)

1817. Alexander had given the government of Cilicia to Socrates and wanted Philotas the son of Parmenion, to take care of the country about Tyre. Coelo-Syria was committed to Andronicus by Parmenion. He wanted to follow Alexander in the war. Alexander commanded Hephastion with the fleet, to scour the coast of Phoenicia. He went with his whole army to Gaza (Curt. l. 4. c. 17.) and besieged the garrison of Persians for two months. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad. 112. Josephus l. 11. c. 8. s. 6.) (It appears modern editions of Josephus have deleted part of chapter 8. Editor.)

1818. According to Josephus, the name of the captain of the garrison at Gaza was Babemeses, or according to Curtius and Arrian, Batis an Eunuch. He was very loyal to his king:. He hired some Arabian mercenaries and made good provision of food and other things. He defended the walls, which were very strong with a small company of men.

 1819. Alexander received two wounds at this siege. When Batis was taken alive, Alexander had cords or thongs drawn through his ankles and tied him to a chariot. He was dragged around the city. In that siege 10,000 Persians and Arabians died. The Macedonians also lost men. (Curt. l. 4. c. 10.) Alexander sold all the women and children there for slaves. He repopulated the place with inhabitants from the neighbouring parts and made that the location of his garrison. (Arrian. l. 2. in fin.) Those words of Strabo are not easily understood unless they refer to the former state of that city. He states: {*Strabo, l. 16. 7:277}

``Gaza which was formerly a glorious city, was destroyed by Alexander and remained desolate.''

1820. We will say that this was meant of a later Gaza built in another place which Jerome in his book, De Locis Hebraicis: i.e. of places in Judea, affirms in this way:

``The question is, how in one of the prophets it is said, And Gaza shall be turned into an everlasting heap? which is thus answered. There are scarcely left to be seen any sign of the old city. The present city of Gaza was built in another place instead of the location of the one which was destroyed.''

1821. When Alexander had done what he wanted to do to Gaza, he sent Amyntas the son of Andremon, with 3 ships to Macedon to bring him the best of the youth for his army. (Diod. Sic. year 2, Olymp. 112. Curt. l. 4. c. 19.)

Post by: Soldier4Christ on December 08, 2006, 12:21:30 PM
 3673a AM, 4382 JP, 332 BC

1822. From Gaza, Alexander marched into Egypt as he formerly planned. 7 days after he left Gaza, he came to a place which he named Alexander's Camp. From there he came to the city Pelusium. (Arrian. l. 3. in pri. Curt. l. 4. c. 20.) He did not go back again from Gaza to Jerusalem, as Josephus incorrectly reports.

1823. A large number of the Egyptians who were expecting Alexander's arrival, assembled at Pelusium. They were offended by the Persian's pride, avarice, and sacrilege and eagerly welcomed the arrival of the Macedonians. (Curt. l. 4. c. 20. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 112.)

1824. Alexander left a garrison in Pelusium and ordered his ships to go up the river to Memphis. He marched by land to Heliopolis having the Nile on his right all the way. Wherever he went, all the cities opened their gates to him. He passed the desert of Egypt and came at last to Helsopolis. After crossing the river, he marched toward Memphis. (Arrian. l. 3.) The Persians who were there did not hinder his coming when they saw the general defection of the Egyptians from them. When he was not far from Memphis, he was met by Astraces, who commanded the garrison for Darius. He gave Alexander 800 talents and all his master's wardrobe. (Curt. l. 4. c. 20.) However Curtius writes the name Astraces instead of Mazaces as he does in chapter 4 of the same book. Likewise, Arrian in the beginning of his third book, states that Mazaces a Persian whom Darius had made governor of Egypt received Alexander into that province and its cities in a very friendly way.

1825. Alexander offered his sacrifices at Memphis and there held games of wrestling and other activities and music. The most expert and skilful men of all Greece entered these games to try to win the prizes. He came down the river to the sea. He put his targeteers, archers and Agrians and the his troops aboard the ships of his confederates and they sailed to Canopus. There he picked a choice site for the city of Alexandria which was between the Egyptian Sea and Marea or Lake of Mareotis. He named the future city after himself. (Arrian. l. 3.) In that part of it which lies next to the sea and the shipping docks, there was a street called Racotis. (Strabo. l. 17. p. 792. Pansanius, in his Eliaca. p. 169. Tacit. Histor. l. 4. c. 84.)

1826. Alexandria was built not in the 7th, (as Eusebius in Chron and from him, Byril. of Alexandria, l. 1. cont. Julianuni and Cedrehus state) but in the 5th year of Alexander's reign and in the very first year of the 112th Olympiad as Solinus has it in chapter 32 not as Diodorus in the 2nd year and much less, as Eusebius in the 3rd year.) For the exact time when Alexandria was built we can determine precisely from the interval of time between the taking of Tyre and that great battle at Gaugamela and his deeds in that interim. From this and from the 5th year of Darius and Thoth in 417th year of Nabonasar's account which falls in with the 14th day of September according to our Julian calendar or year 1. of the Olymp. 112th. Ptolemy of Alexandria, deduces the years of Alexander, whom in the Preface of his Procgeiroin Kanomoun (whereof this is one) he, after the fashion of all Alexandrians, calls Ktishn i.e. his founder.

1827. Dinocrates was the man who designed and laid out street