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« on: December 08, 2006, 08:24:52 AM »

This is a book by James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, Church of Ireland that was published in 1658. While there are a few that will argue some of the dates the majority are readily accepted by many Biblical scholars. Images have been left out.

James Ussher

1581-1656

Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland

 

James Ussher, was one of the greatest scholars and theologians of his time. In his enduring search for knowledge he travelled widely in Britain and Europe, seeking the earliest available manuscripts, buying those he could, and copying others. After his death, his extensive and valuable library, formed the nucleus of the great library of Trinity College, Dublin.

James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, was the pre-eminent figure in the contemporary Church of Ireland, and a leading patron of scholarship at Trinity College, Dublin. A staunch defender of episcopacy, he was nevertheless respected on all sides during the religious upheavals of the 1640s and 1650s, and regarded as the person most likely to achieve an accommodation between the Presbyterians and the Church of England. As such, he was valued by Hartlib and Dury, both of whom helped him at times with his scholarly work and looked to him as a potential patron for their own schemes.

Despite his success as a churchman, Ussher is perhaps most famous for having dated the start of the creation to the evening before 23rd October, 4004 B.C. Ussher calculated this timing in his Annals, a work of biblical chronology which he published in Latin in 1650 (Hartlib noted its progress through the press with great interest), and which was translated into English in 1658. The book was the fruit of many years labour; as early as the summer of 1640, Ussher had been reported ‘spend[ing] constantly all the afternoones’ in the Bodleian working at it (Constantine Adams to Hartlib, Hartlib Papers, 15/8/3A–4B).

In the Annals, Ussher developed the chronological work of many earlier scholars, in particular Joseph Justus Scaliger (who had pioneered the use of the Julian period in calendrical calculations) to provide a framework for dating the whole Bible historically. He argued that, although scripture itself only tended to take notice of entire years, the Holy Ghost had left clues in the Bible which allowed the critic to establish a precise chronology of its events, through the application to the text of the results of astronomical calculations and its comparison with the dates of pagan history. Ussher’s system had the advantage of preserving several attractive numerical symmetries, for example the ancient Jewish notion, adopted by Christians, that the creation anticipated the birth of the Messiah by 4,000 years, but it was also heavily dependent on classical chronologies and on an interpretation of the calendar which already seemed out-dated to many scholars.

Although not wholly original, Ussher’s work was nevertheless influential and became widely accepted, not least because its dates were later incorporated into the margins of some editions of the Authorized Version. However, Ussher’s chronology rested too heavily on the Hebrew text of Old Testament to escape controversy even in his own day. Its findings were attacked by those who were persuaded that the Greek translation of the Old Testament (the Septuagint) or the Samaritan Pentateuch (both of which presented different chronologies from the Hebrew) were more reliable witnesses to the dictation of the Holy Ghost, or that they concurred more closely with the evidence of astronomy and pagan history. Yet, in the opinion of Hartlib, and perhaps of many others, Ussher’s critics were churlish individuals who were unwilling to admit their own debts to his scholarship. Despite such debates, most seventeenth-century readers of the Bible would have agreed with Ussher that it ought, in principle, to have been possible to establish an accurate and detailed biblical chronology.

Illustrated opposite is the title-page from the Annals, engraved by Francis Barlow and Richard Gaywood. This shows a number of the crucial figures and episodes from Ussher’s chronology. Adam and Eve are flanked by the figures of Solomon and Nebuchadnezzar, the builder and destroyer of the first Temple, which is also shown both in its glory and after its fall. The engraving also depicts the second Temple, built after Cyrus allowed the return of the Jews to Jerusalem, and its eventual destruction. The figures of Cyrus and of Vespasian (who was Emperor at the time of the destruction of Herod’s Temple, in A.D. 70) flank a depiction of the Last Supper. This copy of the Annals has also been extra-illustrated by the pasting in of a contemporary engraved portrait of Ussher, which shows him holding ‘God’s Word’, the Bible, in his hand. It was executed for the London printseller, Peter Stent, who advertised it for sale in 1653, 1658, 1662, and 1663.
 
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« Reply #1 on: December 08, 2006, 08:27:16 AM »

THE ANNALS THE WORLD
by
JAMES USSHER,
Archbishop of Armagh
Church of Ireland

LONDON
Printed by E. Tyler, for F. Crook, and G. Bedell
1658

This work is in the Public Domain. Copy Freely


 The Epistle to the Reader

Censorinus, in his little book, the "Explication of Times Intervals", written to Q. Cerellius on his birthday, wrote in the preface of it.

``If the origin of the world had been known to man, I would have started there.'' (Consor. in c. 20.)

And a little later, speaking of this time:

``Whether time had a beginning or whether it always was, the exact number of years cannot be known.'' (Consor. in c. 21.)

Therefore Ptolemy, from "Astronomical Supputations", concerning the creation and history of the world states that it is beyond the knowledge of man.

``To find the details of the history of the whole world or such an immense period of times, I think it is beyond us that desire to learn and know the truth.'' (Ptolem. l. 3.)

Julius Firmius Maternus in his discourse of history, that "Geniture of the World", received from Esculapius and Anubius.

``That was not the creation of the world. Nor, indeed, had the world any certain day for its beginning. Nor was there anything existing at the time when the world was formed by the wisdom of the Divine Understanding and Provident Deity. Nor could man in his human frailty so far extend itself, that it could conceive or unfold, easily the world's origin.'' (Jul. Firm. Mattes. l. 3. c. 2.)

It is not strange that the heathens who are totally ignorant of the Holy Bible, should despair of ever attaining the knowledge of the world's beginnings. Even among Christians, that most renowned chronographer Dionysius Petavius when asked his opinion concerning the creation of the world and the number of years from creation down to us, made this disclaimer:

``That the number of years from the beginning of the world to our time, cannot be known nor in any way found out without Divine Revelation.'' (Petav. de Doctrina Temporum, l. 9. c. 2.)

Philastrius Brixiensis disagreed with him and called it heresy:

``to know the number of the years from the creation of the world is uncertain and men do not know the time.'' (Philast. De Heres. ib. c. 6. p. 63.)

Lactantius Sirmianus, made this bold assertion in his "Divine Institutions":

``We who are trained by the Holy Scriptures to the knowledge of truth, do know both the beginning and end of the world.'' (Lastant. l. 7. c. 14.)

For whatever may have happened in the past, we are taught that:

``The Father has reserved the knowledge of things future to himself. Nor is there any mortal to whom the whole period of time is known. (ib. Nicol. Lyranius.) Even the son of Sirach is thought to say. "The sands of the sea, the drops of rain and the days of the world, who can number?"'' /APC Sir 1:28

When Lyranus is thought to have been speaking of history, (when as others interpret it here and in Chap. XVIII. 11. of his "Days of Eternity") draws this erroneous conclusion. He thinks that from the beginning of the world, time was never by any man determined "certainly" and "precisely".

The first Christian writer, (that I have known of) who attempted from the Holy Bible to calculate the age of the world, was Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch. Concerning this whole account, he states:

``All times and years are made known to them who are willing to obey the truth'' (Theoph. ad Autolyc. l. 3.)

But concerning the exactness of this calculation he later states:

``And haply we may not be able to give an exact account of every year, because in the Holy Scriptures there is no mention of the precise number of months and days''

For the Scripture normally notes only entire years and not the days and months in each instance. Hence summing the years may give an inaccurate total because the partial years were not included.

But granting this one thing, (and this is a most reasonable assumption) that the Holy Writers had this purpose in noting the years of the world in their various places with such diligence. They sought to reveal to us the history of the world that otherwise, no one could know. This, I say, being granted, we affirm that the Holy Spirit has anticipated this doubt. He has started and ended each of the periods, on which a series of time depends and added the very month and day. For example, the Israelites left Egypt on the 15th day of the first month. Nu 33:3. In the 480th year after their exodus, in the second month on the second day, Solomon began to build the temple. 1Ki 6:1. The months and days given for the start and end of the period show that 11 months and 14 days are to be taken away. The period is not 480 whole years, but only 479 years and 16 days. 2Ch 3:2

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« Reply #2 on: December 08, 2006, 08:27:33 AM »

``Those who promise to give us an exact astronomical table of time, from the creation to Christ, seem to me more worthy of encouragement than praise in that they attempt a thing beyond human capacity.''

Thus states David Paraeus, who, among the most recent of our writers, calculated the number the years to Christ's time from the Holy Scriptures. Therefore he says, abandoning astronomical calculations, he used the civil time of the Hebrews, Egyptians and Persians as the only way to do this accurately.

But if I have any understanding in this matter, it does not matter what rule we use to measure the passing of time, as long as it starts and ends with a certain number of days. Anyone could with D. Paraeus, by some equal measure of years, define the time between the foundation of the world and Christ's time. Also it would be very easy without the help of any astronomical table, to set down how many years happened during that interval. The passing of time in any civil year from a season to the same season again is simply a natural astronomical or tropical year.

Anyone can do this who is well versed in the knowledge of sacred and profane history, of astronomical calculations and of the old Hebrew calendar. If he should apply himself to these difficult studies, it is not impossible for him to determine not only the number of years but even the days from the creation of the world. Using backward calculations, Basil the great, told us we may determine the first day of the world.

``You may indeed learn the very time when the foundation of the world was laid. If you return from this time to former ages, you may endeavour studiously to determine the day of the world's origin. Hence you will find when time began.'' {Basil. in Hexamer. Homil. 1.}

The nations in various ages used different methods of calculating time and years. It is necessary that some common and known standard be used to which these may be reconciled. The Julian years and months are most suitable to the common collation of times. These start on midnight, January 1, A.D. Using three cycles, every year is uniquely identified. For example, the Roman indiction {a} of 15 years, the cycle of the moon {b}, or golden number of 19 and the solar cycle {c} (the index of Sunday or Paschal days) containing the period of 28 years. It is known that the year 1650 A.D. is identified with the numbers of 3 in the Roman indiction {a}, 17 in the lunar cycle and 7 in the solar cycle. (I do not say that of the year of the birth of Christ, which is still disputed among the learned.)

Since our Christian period comes long after the creation of the world, counting years backward is difficult and error prone. There is a better way. Modern chronologers have extrapolated these three cycles backward to the year when all the cycles would start at 1 on January first. This creates an artificial epoch of length 7980 years based on the product of the three cycles multiplied together.
Lunar Cycle    19 Years
Solar Cycle    28 Years
Years of Interdiction    15 Years
Total 19 times 28 times 15 = 7980 Years

I think this was first noted by Robert Lotharing, Bishop of Hereford, in England. 500 years later Joseph Scaliger adapted this to chronological use and called it by the name of the Julian Period, because it extended the cycle of Julian years back in time and forward. The cycle starts at noon, January 1, 4713 BC. and is a leap year. Here the lunar cycle is 1, the Solar cycle is 1 and the Interdiction cycle is also 1. Hence 1 AD is the year 4714 of the Julian period and is identified by the Roman Indiction of 4, lunar cycle of 2, solar cycle of 10.

Moreover we find that the years of our forefathers, the years of the ancient Egyptians and Hebrews were the same length as the Julian Year. It consisted of 12 months containing 30 days. (It cannot be proved that the Hebrews used lunar months before the Babylonian captivity.) 5 days were added to the 12th month each year. Every 4 years, 6 days were added to the 12th month. I have noted the continual passing of these years, as set forth in the Bible. Hence the end of Nebuchadnezzar's reign and the beginning of his son Evilmerodach's reign was in the 3442 year of the world. (3442 AM) By collation of Chaldean history and the astronomical cannon it was in the 85 year of Nabonasar. This was 562 BC. or 4152 JP. (Julian Period) From this I deduce that the creation of the world happened in the beginning of the autumn of 710 JP. {d} Using astronomical tables, I determined the first Sunday after the autumnal equinox for the year 710 JP which was October 23 of that year. I ignored the stopping of the sun, in the days of Joshua and the going back of it in the days of Hezekiah. (See the notes in my Annals for 2553 AM and 3291 AM) From thence I concluded, that from the preceding evening of October 23, marks the first day of creation and the start of time.

I ignored the difficulties raised by chronologers who are occupied by the love of contention, as Basil notes. Hence I deduce that the time from the creation until midnight, January 1, 1 AD. was 4003 years, 70 days, 6 hours. Also based on the death of Herod I conclude that the birth of our Saviour was four full years before January 1, 1 AD. According to our calculations, the building of Solomon's temple was finished in the 3000th year of the world. In the 4000th year of the world, Mary gave birth to Christ Lu 2:6 (of whom the temple was a type). Joh 2:21 Hence Christ was born in 4 BC. not 1 AD. {e}

But these things, (which I note at the present) God willing, shall be more fully explained in our "Sacred Chronology". This I intend to write with a "Treatise of the Primitive Years" and the "Calendar of the Ancient Hebrews". In the meantime I thought it best to publish the "Annals of the Old Testament". Based on this foundation, I included a chronicle of all foreign affairs that happened in Asia and Egypt. These include events before the beginning of the Olympiads and matters relating to Greece and Rome and other areas.

In doing the sacred history, I have followed the translation of Janius and Tremellius, using their Hebraism's and the information from their work. In doing the secular history, I have noted the writings of their ancient authors or the best translation from the Greek of their works. In particular I used James Dalechamp translation in Athenaeus. Although in noting the chapters I observed the edition of "Natalis Comes". From these I have written this history using material from Codomanes, Capellas Emmias, Pezelius, Eberus, Salianus, or any other chronologer, which I had. However, I always referred to the original authors and did most of my work directly from their writings and not second hand sources. Since my purpose was to create an accurate chronology, I may not have followed the exact wording of these writers in every case, but I have preserved the intent of their writings.

Of the many historians, who lived before Julius Caesar, the passing of time leaves only four of note: Herodotus, Thucidides, Xenophon and Polibius. The last one is poor and inaccurate in many places. These I esteemed the most authentic for their antiquity. I used them to correct the frequent errors in chronology of Diodorus Siculus. However in matters that related to Alexander the Great, they are silent. For this period, I also followed not only Diodorus but Curtius and Arrian to try to determine the history of that period.

I used the following abbreviations:
AD    Years from the start of the Christian era.
AM    Year of the World from creation.
BC    Years before the Christian era.
JP    Julian Year starting at January 1, 4713 BC.
NK   Northern Kingdom of Israel.
SK   Southern Kingdom of Israel.

After the time denoted by AM, one of four letters may be affixed.
a    Autumn
b    Winter
c    Spring
d    Summer

Other things the prudent reader will figure out for himself. I wish you the enjoyment of these endeavours and bid you farewell.

London, July 13, 1650 AD.

Rev. James Ussher
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« Reply #3 on: December 08, 2006, 08:28:14 AM »

 Explanatory Notes by Editor

{a} Dictionary Definition of "Roman Indiction."

In chronology, a cycle of fifteen years instituted by Constantine the Great; originally, a period of taxation. Constantine having reduced the time which the Romans were obliged to serve in the army to fifteen years, imposed a tax or tribute at the end of the term, to pay the troops' discharged. This practice introduced the keeping of accounts by this period. But, as it is said, in honour of the great victory of Constantine over Mezentius, Sept. 24, A.D. 312, by which Christianity was more firmly established, the council of Nice ordained that accounts of years should no more be kept by Olymiads, but that the "indiction" should be used as the point from which to reckon the date years. This was begun Jan. 1, A.D. 313. "Johnson. Encyc."

Taken from the definition of "Indiction" in "Noah Webster's First Edition of an American Dictionary of the English Language", Published 1989, by "Foundation for American Christian Education", California. (Dictionary was first published in 1828.)

{b} Lunar Cycle

The lunar cycle consists of 19 years or 235 complete orbits of the moon around the earth. This differs from 19 years of 365.25 days each by approximately one and an half hours. On the first year of the next cycle of 19 years, the new moon would again be on January 1.

{c} Solar Cycle

The solar cycle consists of 28 years. At the start of each new cycle every day and month of the year would correspond exactly to the days and months of the first year of the previous cycle.

{d} Time of Creation

Since the Jews used to start their year in the autumn, this is not an unreasonable assumption. Also the biblical pattern of "evening and morning" seems to apply to year as well as days. First the dark months of autumn and winter and then the bright months of spring and summer. This also fits the biblical pattern in spiritual matters too. For the saint, his worst lot in life comes first followed by an eternal day of happiness in Christ. The best wine comes last. Joh 2:10 See Spurgeon's Sermon No. 225, "Satan's Banquet" and No. 226, "The Feast of the Lord".

{e} The Christian Era

The Christian Era should properly began with the year Christ was born; and in devising it, the intention was to have it begin with that year. By the "Christian Era" is meant the system upon which calendars are constructed and by which historical events are now dated in practically all the civilized world. But the originator of the system made a miscalculation as to the year (in the calendar then in use) in which Christ was born, as the result of which the year A.D. 1 was fixed four years too late. In other words, the Lord Jesus was four years old in the year A.D. 1.

The mistake came about in this way: The Christian Era (i.e. the scheme of dates beginning A.D. 1) was not devised until A.D. 532. Its inventor, or contriver, was a monk named Dionysius Exiguus. At that time the system of dates in common use began from the era of the emperor Diocletian, A.D. 284. Exiguus was not willing to connect his system of dates with the name of that infamous tyrant and persecutor. So he conceived the idea of connecting his system with and dating all its events from, the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. His reason for wishing to do this was, as he wrote to Bishop Petronius, "to the end that the commencement of our hope might be better known to us and that the cause of man's restoration, namely, our Redeemer's passion, might appear with clearer evidence."

For the carrying out of this excellent plan, it was necessary to fix the date of the Incarnation in the terms of the chronological systems then in vogue. The Romans dated the beginning of their history from the supposed date of the founding of the city ("ab urbe condita" or A.U.C as usually abbreviated). Dionysius Exiguus calculated that the year of our Lord's birth was A.U.C. 753. He made his equivalence of dates from Lu 3:1, "Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar" etc., at which time Christ was 30 years of age according to Lu 3:23. But it was ascertained later that a mistake of four years had been made; for it clearly appears by Mt 2:1 that Christ was born before the death of Herod, who died in 749 A.U.C. Tiberius succeeded Augustus, Aug. 19, A.U.C. 767. Hence his 15th year would be A.U.C. 779; and from those facts Dionysius was right in his calculation. But it was discovered in later years that Tiberius began to reign as colleague with Augustus four years before the latter died. Hence the 15th year mentioned by Luke was four years earlier than was supposed by Dionysius and consequently the birth of Christ was that many years earlier than the date selected by Exiguus, which date has been followed ever since. This must be allowed for in any computation of dates which involves events happening before Christ.

"The Wonders of Bible Chronology", Page 84,85, Philip Mauro, first published 1922, Reprinted by, Reiner Publications, Swengel, Pennsylvania

Philip Melanchthon:
His Narration, Concerning
Philip Prince Palatine,
to Rhenus.

I have often heard Capino relate the following when Dalburgius, the Bishop of the Vangions, Rudolphus Agricola and myself were with Philip Prince Palatine Elector. Not only in ordinary conversation but also in serious discussions about the affairs of the state, they would often bring notable examples from the Persian or Greek or Roman history. The Prince was very zealous to know more of history and he noted that the distinction of the times, nations and empires, was necessary for this. Therefore he wished them to make a chronology of the kingdoms of ancient history based on all available Hebrew, Greek and Latin authors. At that time in 1480 AD, there were no books about the ancient empires in the German language. Nor had the Latins anything of that nature, save Justin's confused Epitome, which also lacked a detailed chronology. Those learned men were delighted to compile this work. Therefore they compiled a chronology from Hebrew, Greek, and Latin monuments of the various monarchies. To this they added all the most important events in proper place and created a chronology of the nations and times. This grateful Prince read these works most earnestly and delighted in them. Also he was thankful that the times and the memory of the most important events were preserved by Divine Providence. For they showed him, how that the history of the world was continued, so that Herodatus begins his writings a little before the end of the prophetic history. For even before the end of the Persian monarchy, concerning which we have a most clear account of Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah, some of the names of the kings of Assyria and Egypt, are the same in the prophets and Herodotus. Jeremiah foretells their destruction to Apries, which also Herodotus describes. After Apries kills Jeremiah, Amasis strangles the proud king after he had captured him. The Palatine prince said he saw the witness of the Divine presence in the ordering of empires. For these empires could neither be attained nor retained by mere human power. Therefore they were created that they might be the upholders of human society, unite many nations, restore law, justice, peace and indeed, they might teach men concerning God. Therefore, he did often repeat those words of Daniel that God changes and confirms empires. He said likewise, that by the changes and punishments of tyrants, the just judgment of the Almighty was most conspicuous. By these illustrious examples, all mankind was admonished to acknowledge God and were to understand that he wills and ordains justice and is truly offended with those who transgress this his ordination. Such were the speeches of that Prince, concerning the rise and fall of empires.
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« Reply #4 on: December 08, 2006, 08:29:07 AM »

The Annals of the Old Testament
from the Beginning of the World
The First Age of the World

1a AM, 710 JP, 4004 BC

1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Ge 1:1 This beginning of time, according to our chronology, happened at the start of the evening preceding the 23rd day of October in the year of the Julian calendar, 710.

2. On the first day Ge 1:1-5 of the world, on Sunday, October 23rd, God created the highest heaven and the angels. When he finished, as it were, the roof of this building, he started with the foundation of this wonderful fabric of the world. He fashioned this lower most globe, consisting of the deep and of the earth. Therefore all the choir of angels sang together and magnified his name. Job 38:7 When the earth was without form and void and darkness covered the face of the deep, God created light on the very middle of the first day. God divided this from the darkness and called the one "day" and the other "night".

3. On the second day Ge 1:6-8 (Monday, October 24th) after the firmament or heaven was finished, the waters above were separated from the waters here below enclosing the earth.

4. On the third day Ge 1:9-13 (Tuesday, October 25th) when these waters below ran together into one place, the dry land appeared. From this collection of the waters God made a sea, sending out from here the rivers, which were to return there again. Ec 1:7 He caused the earth to bud and bring forth all kinds of herbs and plants with seeds and fruits. Most importantly, he enriched the garden of Eden with plants, for among them grew the tree of life and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Ge 2:8,9

5. On the fourth day (Wednesday, October 26th) the sun, the moon and the rest of the stars were created.

6. On the fifth day (Thursday, October 27th) fish and flying birds were created and commanded to multiply and fill the sea and the earth.

7. On the sixth day (Friday, October 28th) the living creatures of the earth were created as well as the creeping creatures. Last of all, man was created after the image of God, which consisted principally in the divine knowledge of the mind, Col 3:10 in the natural and proper sanctity of his will. Eph 4:24 When all living creatures by the divine power were brought before him, Adam gave them their names. Among all of these, he found no one to help him like himself. Lest he should be destitute of a suitable companion, God took a rib out of his side while he slept and fashioned it into a woman. He gave her to him for a wife, establishing by it the law of marriage between them. He blessed them and bade them to be fruitful and multiply. God gave them dominion over all living creatures. God provided a large portion of food and sustenance for them to live on. To conclude, because sin had not yet entered into the world, God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. Ge 1:31

8. Now on the seventh day, (Saturday, October 29th) when God had finished his work which he intended, he then rested from all labour. He blessed the seventh day and ordained and consecrated the sabbath Ge 2:2,3 because he rested on it Ex 31:17 and refreshed himself. Nor as yet (for ought appears) had sin entered into the world. Nor was there any punishment given by God, either upon mankind, or upon angels. Hence is was, that this day was set forth for a sign, as well as for our sanctification in this world Ex 31:13 of that eternal sabbath, to be enjoyed in the world to come. In it we expect a full deliverance from sin and its dregs and all its punishments. Heb 4:4,9,10

9. After the first week of the world ended, it seems that God brought the newly married couple into the garden of Eden. He charged them not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil but left them free to eat of everything else.

10. The Devil envied God's honour and man's obedience. He tempted the woman to sin by the serpent. By this he got the name and title of the old serpent. Re 12:9 20:2 The woman was beguiled by the serpent and the man seduced by the woman. They broke the command of God concerning the forbidden fruit. Accordingly when sought for by God and convicted of this crime, each had their punishments imposed on them. This promise was also given that the seed of the woman should one day break the serpent's head. Christ, in the fulness of time should undo the works of the Devil. 1Jo 3:8 Ro 16:20 Adam first called her Eve because she was then ordained to be the mother, not only of all that should live this natural life, but, of those also who should live by faith in her seed. This was the promised Messiah as Sarah also later was called the mother of the faithful. 1Pe 3:6 Ga 4:31.

11. After this our first parents were clothed by God with raiment of skins. They were expelled from Eden and a fiery flaming sword set to keep the way leading to the tree of life so that they should never eat of that fruit which they had not yet touched. Ge 3:21,22 It is very probable, that Adam was turned out of paradise the same day that he was brought into it. This seems to have been on the 10th day of the world. (November 1st) On this day also, in remembrance of so remarkable an event the day of atonement was appointed Le 23:27, and the yearly fast, spoken of by Paul, Ac 27:9 termed more especially by the name of nhsteian. On this feast all, strangers as well as native Israelites, were commanded to afflict their souls that every soul which should not afflict itself upon that day should be destroyed from among his people, Le 16:29 23:29

12. After the fall of Adam, Cain was the first of all mortal men that was born of a woman. Ge 4:1

130d AM, 840 JP, 3874 BC

13. When Cain, the firstborn of all mankind, murdered Abel, God gave Eve another son called Seth. Ge 4:25 Adam had now lived 130 years. Ge 5:3 From whence it is gathered, that between the death of Abel and the birth of Seth, there was no other son born to Eve. For then, he should have been recorded to have been given her instead of him. Since man had been on the earth 128 years and Adam and Eve had other sons and daughters Ge 5:4 the number of people on the earth at the time of this murder could have been as many as 500,000. Cain might justly fear, through the conscience of his crime, that every man that met him would also slay him. Ge 4:14,15

235d AM, 945 JP, 3769 BC

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« Reply #5 on: December 08, 2006, 08:29:24 AM »

14. When Seth was 105 years old, he had his son, Enos. This indicates the lamentable condition of all mankind. For even then was the worship of God wretchedly corrupted by the race of Cain. Hence it came, that men were even then so distinguished, that they who persisted in the true worship of God, were known by the name of the children of God. They who forsook him, were termed the children of men. Ge 4:26 6:1,2

325d AM, 1035 JP, 3679 BC

15. Cainan, the son of Enos was born when his father was 90 years old. Ge 5:10

395d AM, 1105 JP, 3609 BC

16. Mahalaleel was born when Cainan his father was 70 years old. Ge 5:12

460d AM, 1170 JP, 3544 BC

17. Jared was born when his father Mahalaleel was 65 years old. Ge 5:15

622d AM, 1332 JP, 3382 BC

18. Enoch was born when his father Jared was 162 years old. Ge 5:18

687d AM, 1397 JP, 3317 BC

19. Methuselah was born when Enoch his father was 65 years old. Ge 5:25

874d AM, 1584 JP, 3130 BC

20. Lamech was born when his father Methuselah was 187 years old. Ge 5:25

930d AM, 1640 JP, 3074 BC

21. Adam, the first father of all mankind, died at the age of 930 years. Ge 5:5

987d AM, 1697 JP, 3017 BC

22. Enoch, the 7th from Adam at the age of 365 years, was translated by God in an instant, while he was walking with him that he should not see death. Ge 5:23,24 Heb 11:5

1042d AM, 1752 JP, 2962 BC

23. Seth, the son of Adam died when he was 912 years old. Ge 5:8

1056d AM, 1766 JP, 2948 BC

24. Noah, the 10th from Adam, was born when his father Lamech was 182 years old. Ge 5:29

1140d AM, 1850 JP, 2864 BC

25. Enos, the 3rd from Adam, died when he was 905 years old. Ge 5:11

1235d AM, 1945 JP, 2769 BC

26. Cainan, the 4th from Adam, died when he was 910 years old. Ge 5:14

1290d AM, 2000 JP, 2714 BC

27. Mahalaleel, the 5th from Adam, died when he was 892 years old. Ge 5:17

1422d AM, 2132 JP, 2582 BC

28. Jared, the 6th from Adam, died when he was 962 years old. Ge 5:20

1536a AM, 2245 JP, 2469 BC

29. Before the deluge of waters upon the whole wicked world, God sent Noah, a preacher of righteousness to them, giving them 120 years to repent of their evil ways. 1Pe 3:20 2Pe 2:5 Ge 6:3

1556d AM, 2266 JP, 2448 BC

30. Noah was 500 years old when his 1st son, Japheth was born. Ge 5:32 10:21

1558d AM, 2268 JP, 2446 BC

31. Noah's 2nd son, Shem, was born 2 years later because 2 years after the flood, Shem was 100 years old. Ge 11:10

1651d AM, 2361 JP, 2353 BC

32. Lamech, the 9th from Adam, died when he was 777 years old. Ge 5:31

1656a AM, 2365 JP, 2349 BC

33. Methuselah, the 8th from Adam, died when he was 969 years old. He lived the longest of all men yet died before his father. Ge 5:27,24

34. Now in the 10th day of the second month of this year (Sunday, November 30th) God commanded Noah that in that week he should prepare to enter into the Ark. Meanwhile the world, totally devoid of all fear, sat eating and drinking and marrying and giving in marriage. Ge 7:1,4,10 Mt 24:38

35. In the 600th year of the life of Noah, on the 17th day of the second month, (Sunday, December 7th), he with his children and living creatures of all kinds had entered into the Ark. God sent a rain on the earth 40 days and 40 nights. The waters continued upon the earth 150 days, Ge 7:4,6,11-13,17,24.

36. The waters abated until the 17th day of the 7th month, (Wednesday, May 6th) when the ark came to rest upon one of the mountains of Ararat. Ge 8:3,4

37. The waters continued receding until on the 1st day of the 10th month (Sunday, July 19th) the tops of the mountains were seen. Ge 8:5

38. After 40 days, that is on the 11th day of the 11th month (Friday, August 28th) Noah opened the window of the ark and sent forth a raven. Ge 8:6,7

39. 7 days later, on the 18th day of the 11th month (Friday, September 4th) as may be deduced from the other 7 days mentioned in Ge 8:10, Noah sent out a dove. She returned after 7 days. 25th day of the 11th month, (Friday, September 11th) He sent her out again and about the evening she returned bringing the leaf of an olive tree in her bill. After waiting 7 days more, 2nd day of the 12th month, (Friday, September 18th) he sent the same dove out again, which never returned. Ge 8:8,12
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« Reply #6 on: December 08, 2006, 08:30:19 AM »

The Second Age of the World

1657a AM, 2366 JP, 2348 BC

40. When Noah was 601 years old, on the 1st day of the 1st month (Friday, October 23rd), the 1st day of the new post-flood world, the surface of the earth was now all dry. Noah took off the covering of the ark. Ge 8:13

41. On the 27th of the 2nd month, (Thursday, December 18th) the earth was entirely dry. By the command of God, Noah went forth with all that were with him in the ark. Ge 8:14,15,19

42. When he left the ark, Noah offered to God sacrifices for his blessed preservation. God restored the nature of things destroyed by the flood. He permitted men to eat flesh for their food and gave the rainbow for a sign of the covenant which he then made with man. Ge 8:15-9:17

43. Man's lifespan was now half the length it was previously

1658d AM, 2368 JP, 2346 BC

44. Arphaxad, was born to Shem when he was 100 years old, 2 years after the flood. Ge 11:10

1693d AM, 2403 JP, 2311 BC

45. Salah was born, when his father Arphaxad was 35 years old. Ge 11:12

1723d AM, 2433 JP, 2281 BC

46. Eber was born, when Salah his father was 30 years old. Ge 11:14

1757d AM, 2467 JP, 2247 BC

47. When Eber was 34 years old, Peleg his son was born. Ge 11:16 He called him Peleg for in his days the earth was divided. Ge 10:25 1Ch 1:19 If this happened at the day of his birth, then it seems that when Peleg was born, Noah, who formerly knew all the places which were now covered with bushes and thorns, divided the land among his grandchildren. When this was done, they then went from those eastern parts (where they first went from the mountains of Ararat) into the valley of Shinar. Ge 11:2 Here the people impiously conspired as we find in the book of Wisdom /APC Wis 10:5 to hinder this dispersion of them as commanded by God and began by Noah (as may be gathered from Ge 11:4,6,8,9 compared together). They went together to build the city and tower of Babylon. God frustrated this project by the confusion of languages he sent among them. (Hence it took the name of Babel Ge 11:9). The dispersion of nations followed. Many companies and colonies settled down in various places according to their languages. The 13 sons of Joktan, the brothers of Peleg, as recorded in Ge 10:26-30 were among the captains and heads of the various companies. These brothers were not yet born when Peleg was born. Eber was only 34 years old when Peleg was born to him. Though we should suppose that Joktan was born, when Eber was only 20 years of age and that Joktan's oldest son was born to him when he was likewise 20 years old, yet still it appears, that the oldest son of Joktan must be 6 years younger than Peleg. So that at least the youngest of those 13 sons of Joktan, namely, Jobab and 3 other brothers of his are mentioned before him must be younger still. These countries rich in gold, Sheba, Ps 72:15 Ophir 1Ki 9:28 and Havilah Ge 2:11 were named after these men. These brothers could not be capable of such an expedition of leading colonies because of their youth until some years after Reu was born to Peleg.

48. Man's lifespan was now a quarter of the length it was before the flood.

1771a AM, 2480 JP, 2234 BC

49. 1903 years elapsed from this time to the capture of Babylon by Alexander the Great. This calculation and number of years was made according to astronomical observations by Porphyry, as we find in Simplicius, in his second book "de Coelo". This he affirms to have been transmitted into Greece from Babylon by Chalisthenes at Aristotle's request. From these writings it appears that the Babylonians devoted themselves to the study of astronomy, even from the very days of Nimrod, from whom all that region took the name of the land of Nimrod. Mic 5:6 Nimrod built Babylon and was the instigator of the building of the tower of Babel according to Josephus (l. 1. Antiq. c. 4.) Moses affirms that the royal seat of that kingdom was here. Ge 10:10 Nimrod made Babylon famous in those days. Jer 5:15 (See note on 3674a <<1898>>)

1787d AM, 2497 JP, 2217 BC

50. Reu or Ragau, was born when Peleg his father was 30 years old. Ge 11:18

1816d AM, 2526 JP, 2188 BC

51. Constantinus Manasses states that the Egyptian state lasted 1663 years. Counting backward from the time that Cambyses, king of Persia, conquered Egypt, leads us to this period. About this time Mizraim, the son of Ham, led his colony into Egypt. Hence Egypt was called sometimes the land of Mizraim, sometimes of Ham, Ps 105:23,27 106:21,22 From this it was that the Pharisees later boasted that they were the sons of ancient kings. /APC Es 16:11 (See note on 3479b AM <<988>>)

1819d AM, 2529 JP, 2185 BC

52. Serug or Saruch, was born when Ragau was 32 years old. Ge 11:20

1849d AM, 2559 JP, 2155 BC

53. Nachor was born when Saruch his father was 30 years old. Ge 11:22

1878d AM, 2588 JP, 2126 BC

54. Terah or Thara was born when Nachor his father was 29 years old. Ge 11:24

1915c AM, 2625 JP, 2089 BC

55. At this time Egialeus, king of the Sicyonians, in Peloponesus began his reign, 1313 years before the first olympiad. (Euseb. Chron.)

1920c AM, 2630 JP, 2084 BC

56. A people from Arabia bordering upon Egypt, called by the Egyptians Hyksos, meaning "kingly shepherds", invaded Egypt. They took Memphis and took over all of lower Egypt that bordered upon the Mediterranean Sea. Salatis, their 1st king, reigned 19 years, according to Josephus in his 1st book "cont. appiencem" as from Manetho.

1939c AM, 2649 JP, 2065 BC

57. Bnon, their 2nd king, reigned for 44 years, {*Manetho, 1:83}

1948d AM, 2658 JP, 2056 BC

58. When Terah was 70 years old, his oldest of three sons, Haran was born. Ge 11:26 Abram was not born for another 60 years as we shall see later. Haran was the father-in-law later of the 3rd brother Nachor. For this man died before his father Terah left Ur of the Chaldeans and left a daughter named Milcah, who was married to his uncle Nachor, Ge 11:28,29

1983c AM, 2693 JP, 2021 BC

59. At this time Apachnan reigned in Egypt for 36 years and 7 months. {*Manetho, 1:83}

1996d AM, 2706 JP, 2008 BC

60. Peleg the 6th from Noah, died 209 years after the birth of Ragau. Ge 11:19

1997d AM, 2707 JP, 2007 BC

61. Nachor the 9th from Noah, died 119 years after the birth of his son Terah. Ge 11:25

2006d AM, 2716 JP, 1998 BC

62. Noah, died when he had lived 950 years, 350 years after the deluge. Ge 9:28,29

2008c AM, 2718 JP, 1996 BC

63. Abram was born. He was 75 years old when Terah his father died at the age of 205 years. Ge 11:32 12:1,4 Ac 7:4

2018c AM, 2728 JP, 1986 BC

64. Sarai, who is also called Iscah the daughter of Haran, Ge 11:29,30, was born and was 10 years younger than her husband Abraham. Ge 17:17

2020b AM, 2730 JP, 1984 BC

65. Apophis reigned in Egypt for 61 years. {*Manetho, 1:83}

2026d AM, 2736 JP, 1978 BC

66. Reu or Ragau the 7th from Noah, died 207 years after the birth of Serug. Ge 11:21

2049d AM, 2759 JP, 1955 BC

67. Serug or Saruch, the 8th from Noah, died 200 years after the death of Nachor. Ge 11:23

2079b AM, 2789 JP, 1925 BC

68. About this time, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, or Elimais, situated between Persia and Babylon, conquered the kings of Pentapolis, Sodom, Gomorrah, Adma, Zeboiim and Bela, or Zoar. These served him 12 years. Ge 14:1,2,4

2081b AM, 2791 JP, 1923 BC

69. Jannas reigned in Egypt for 50 years and one month. {*Manetho, 1:83}

2083a AM, 2792 JP, 1922 BC

70. God called Abraham out of Ur, of the Chaldeans, to go into the land that he would show him. Ge 15:7 Jos 24:2,3 Ne 9:7 Ac 7:2-4. Ur was located in Mesopotamia according to Stephen the first martyr and Abarbenel. Ge 11:1-32 Ur was the city of the priests and mathematicians, who from their art, were called by the name of Chaldeans. By this name also even in Chaldea itself, those Genethliaci, or recorders of genealogies were distinguished and known from the rest of the Magi or wise men of that country, as we find in Da 2:2,10 4:7 5:11. These taught Terah and his sons idolatry. Jos 24:2 Terah therefore took Abram his son and Lot his nephew, the son of Haran and Sarai his daughter-in-law, Abram's wife, and started their journey together from Ur of the Chaldeans, to go into the land of Canaan. They came to Haran in the same country of Mesopotamia and there they stayed because of the great infirmity and sickness of Terah. Terah lived 205 years and died in Haran. Ge 11:31,32
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« Reply #7 on: December 08, 2006, 08:32:06 AM »

The Third Age of the World

2083 AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC

71. After Terah died who was Abram's father, God again called Abram from his own country, kindred and his father's house. A further promise and evangelical covenant of blessing was given to him. That is, in his blessed seed, our Lord Jesus Christ, all the nations of the earth would be blessed. Ge 12:1,2 Ac 7:4 From the time of the giving of this promise and Abram's immediate departure, we mark as the start of those 430 years which Abram and his posterity spent in foreign lands. Ex 12:40,41 Ga 3:17 The first and last day of this pilgrimage was on the 15th of the month Abib, which in this year was Wednesday, May 4th, according to the Julian Calendar, by our calculations.

72. Therefore, on this day, Abram when he was 75 years old, obeyed the call of God. He took Sarai his wife and Lot, his brother Haran's son, with all the substance, which he had gotten and souls which God had given him in Haran. He took his journey and at length came into the land of Canaan. He passed through it until he came to a place called Sichem, to the oak of Moreh, Ge 12:4-6 which is mentioned later in: Ge 35:4 Jos 24:25,26 Jud 9:6 Here God promised Abram that to his seed he would give that land. He built an altar to the Lord, who had appeared to him there. After leaving there, he went into the hill country, called Luz, later, known by the name of Bethel, toward the east. Ge 28:19 Here he again built an altar and called on the name of the Lord. He continued his journey and came into the south part of that country which borders Egypt. Ge 12:7-9

2084a AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC

73. A famine caused Abram to leave there and go down into Egypt. To avoid danger, Sarah his wife said she was his sister. She was taken into Pharaoh's (Apophi) house. She returned unharmed, not long after that with many gifts and presents. They were given safe passage and allowed to depart from Egypt. Ge 12:10-20

74. Abram, with Lot returned to Canaan. The country which they chose, was not able to feed both their herds of cattle. Therefore they parted and Lot went into the country of Sodom. After his departure, the promise both of the possession of that land of Canaan and also of his numberless posterity was again renewed to him. He left that place between Bethel and Hai, where he had formerly built an altar and dwelt in the plain of Mamre near Hebron. There he built an altar to the Lord. Ge 13:4

2091 AM, 2801 JP, 1913 BC

75. Bera king of Sodom, with the rest of the petty kings of Pentapolis rebelled and shook off the yoke of Chedorlaomer king of Elam, in the 13th year of their subjection to him. Ge 14:4

2092 AM, 2802 JP, 1912 BC

76. In the 14th year Chedorlaomer, with other confederate princes, Amraphel of Shinar, Arioch of Ellasar and Tidal king of the nations, combined their forces against those petty kings who had revolted from him. They first destroyed the Raphaims, the Zuzims, the Emims and the Horites, who inhabited all that region, which afterward was possessed by the Amalekites and the Ammonites. After that, they routed the kings of Pentapolis in the valley of Siddim and carried away Lot prisoner with all the plunder of Sodom and Gomorrah. When tidings came to Abram, he armed 318 of his own servants. With his confederates Aner, Eshcol and Mamre, they overtook Chedorlaomer and his army at Dan with the prey they had gotten. There they defeated and slew them and pursued them to Hobah, on the left of Damascus. They rescued Lot and the rest of the prisoners from the enemies' hands, and brought them back again with all that they had lost. When Abram returned from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer and the other kings, Melchizedek the king of Salem met him and blessed him. He was a priest of the Most High God. Abram, in return offered him the tithe of the spoil which he had taken. He kept nothing of the spoil for himself, but restored to every man his own possessions again. What was not owned he left to his troops for their service. Ge 14:1-24

77. Abram was grieved because he had no heir. Hence, God promised him a posterity equal to the stars of heaven in number. After 400 years sojourning and affliction in a land that was not theirs, God said he would bring them into the land promised to Abram and bound his word with a covenant to perform it. Ge 15:1-21

2093 AM, 2803 JP, 1911 BC

78. Sarai was longing for that blessed seed. Since ten years had passed since they came into the land of Canaan, she gave to Abram, Hagar her Egyptian servant, for a wife. Hagar conceived a child by her master Abram. She was badly treated by Sarai for her insolence. She fled from Sarai but being warned of God by his angel, she returned and submitted herself to Sarai. Ge 16:13,14

2094b AM, 2804 JP, 1910 BC

79. When Abram was 86 years old, Hagar bore him Ishmael. Ge 16:15-17 17:24,25

2096d AM, 2806 JP, 1908 BC

80. Arphaxad, the third from Noah, died 403 years after the birth of Salem. Ge 11:13

2107c AM, 2817 JP, 1897 BC

81. God made a covenant with Abram, when he was now 99 years old concerning the seed of Isaac. He was to be born of Sarai about that time twelve months later. God gave him the sign of circumcision (changing both their names, Abram into Abraham and Sarai into Sarah) for a sure pledge and testimony of his promise. He promised also to favour Ishmael the firstborn, for his father's sake. These promises Abraham received and embraced with a true faith. Hence in true obedience, caused himself, being now 99 years of age and his son Ishmael then 13 years old and all his household, to be circumcised, the same day it was commanded him. Ge 17:21-26

82. Abraham invited angels, who looked like travelling men, into his house and gave them a feast. These angels reiterated the promise of the birth of Isaac for Sarah's sake. They foretold the judgment God intended upon the 5 cities, for their utter destruction. Abraham, fearing what would become of Lot and his family in Sodom, made intercession to God for the sparing of that place. Ge 18:23-33 Therefore Sodom, Gomorrah, Adamah and Zeboiim, for their horrible sins, perished by fire and brimstone that rained down upon them from heaven. Ge 19:1-29 These cities were to be an example to all wicked men in times to come, of the pains of that everlasting fire to be inflicted on them in the lake of fire and brimstone, which is the second death. 2Pe 2:6,7 Re 19:20 20:10 21:8 The monument of this remains to this day, even the Dead Sea. The valley of Siddim, where these five cities stood in former times was full of brimstone and salt pits. This has since grown into a vast lake, which from the brimstone still floating in it, is called "Laces Asphaltitis", a Lake of Brimstone and from the salt, "Mare Salsum", the Salt Sea. /APC Wis 10:6,7 Ge 14:3,10 De 3:17 29:23 Zep 2:9 Of this, Solinus thus writes:

``A great way off from Jerusalem, there lies a woeful spectacle, of a country to be seen, which was blasted from heaven and appears by the blackness of the earth falling all to cinders. There were in that place before this two cities, one called Sodom, the other Gomorrah, where if an apple grew, though it seems to have a show of maturity and ripeness, yet it is not eatable at all. The outer skin of it, contains nothing within it save a stinking smell, mingled with ashes and being never so lightly touched, sends forth a smoke and the rest falls presently into a light dust of powder.''

83. Lot was hurried from Sodom by the angels and avoided its destruction, by fleeing to a little city, called Bela also called Zoar. His wife was turned into a pillar of salt. Lot feared to continue at Zoar and left the plain country. He went into the hills, as he was commanded, taking his two daughters with him. Ge 19:30-38

84. Abraham left the plain of Mamre and went towards the south to dwell in a place which was later called Beersheba. He was entertained by Abimelech, king of the Philistines at Gerar. Sarah, once again went by the name of his sister and she was taken from him. After the king was reproved and punished by God, he restored her untouched to her husband. He presented him with large gifts and presents. By Abraham's prayers Abimelech and all his house were healed of their infirmities. Ge 20:1-18

2108c AM, 2818 JP, 1896 BC

85. When Abraham was now 100 and Sarah 90 years of age, the promised son Isaac was born to them. Ge 17:17,21 Ro 4:19 Not long after this, Moab and Amon were born to Lot, who was both father and grandfather to them. Ge 19:36-38

2113c AM, 2823 JP, 1891 BC

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« Reply #8 on: December 08, 2006, 08:32:25 AM »

86. After Isaac was weaned, Abraham made a great feast. Sarah saw Ishmael the son of Hagar the Egyptian jesting with, or rather "mocking" (as in Ge 39:14 that word is translated) or even "persecuting" (as the apostle, Ga 4:29 expounds it) her son Isaac. Ishmael who was the older, claimed the right of inheritance in his father's estate. Sarah asked Abraham to cast out Ishmael, "for the son of this handmaid shall not be heir with my son Isaac." Though he took this very grievously at first, yet he did it, for God had said to him, "in Isaac shall thy seed be called". Ge 21:8,12 Ro 9:7,8 Heb 11:17,18 Hence, we observe that Isaac is called his only begotten son. It was 430 years from the time Abraham left Haran Ga 3:17 Ex 12:41 until the exodus. Abraham was told his seed would be persecuted for 400 years. Based on Ga 4:29, Ge 15:13 Ac 7:6 we conclude that this presecution started at this time when Issac was 5 years old when Abraham made this feast, 30 years after Abraham left Haran.

``Among the Hebrews there is a difference of opinions. Some hold that this was done in the 5th year after Isaac's weaning, others in the 12th. We, choosing a shorter time of age, reckon that Ishmael was cast out with his mother, when he was 18 years old.''

87. So Jerome says, writing on the traditions of the Jews on Genesis, that from this declaration of the elect seed and persecution (as the apostle terms it) of Isaac, by Hagar's son, many of them, start the 400 year period which the seed of Abraham was to be a stranger and sojourner and afflicted in a foreign land, as God had foretold him. Ge 15:13 Ac 7:6 For those 400 years were to be completed at the same time as the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt, as appears from Ge 15:14 Ex 12:35,36,41 when compared with each other. Although the ordinary gloss from Augustine, refers to the beginning of the account, to the very birth of Isaac, as if the scripture called the number of 405 by the amount of 400 years meaning that the time was a rounded off number.

2126d AM, 2836 JP, 1878 BC

88. Salah the 4th from Noah, died 403 years after the birth of Heber. Ge 11:15

2131b AM, 2841 JP, 1873 BC

89. Assis reigned in Egypt for 49 years, 2 months. {*Manetho, 1:83}

2133 AM, 2843 JP, 1871 BC

90. By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up his son Isaac. He considered within himself, that God was able by his power, to raise him again from the dead, whence also he did receive him, in a manner. Heb 11:17,19

91. Josephus says that at this time Isaac was 25 years old. (Antiq. l. 1. c. 13.) He was at that time in his prime of years. This may be deduced from the fact that he was able to carry so much wood for the burning and consuming of such a whole burnt offering of himself as Abraham intended to make. Ge 22:6

2145c AM, 2855 JP, 1859 BC

92. Sarah died in Hebron at age 127. Abraham bought the cave for her burial in the field of Machpelah from Ephron the Hittite, for a sum of money. This was the first possession that he had in the land of Canaan. Ge 23:1,2,19,20 As Abraham is known to us as the father of the faithful, Ro 4:11,12 so is Sarah as the mother of the faithful. 1Pe 3:6 She is the only woman whose age at death is mentioned in the scripture.

2148b AM, 2858 JP, 1856 BC

93. Abraham was very careful about getting a wife for his son Isaac. He sent his chief servant, Eliezer of Damascus Ge 15:2 (taking first an oath of him) to find one for him. Eliezer under the guidance of God went into Mesopotamia and there obtained for him Rebecca the daughter of Bethuel, sister to Laban the Syrian. Isaac received her for his wife and brought her into the tent of his mother Sarah. By the solace and contentment which he took in her, he dispelled the sadness and grief which he had after the death of his mother, who died 3 years before. Ge 24:1-67 He was 40 years old when he married Rebecca. Ge 25:20

94. About this time began the reign of the Argivi in Peloponesus, 1080 years before the first olympiad, according to Eusebius in his Chronicle reports, from Castor.

95. The first that there reigned was Inachus, who reigned 50 years. Of him Erasmus, in the proverb, "Inacho Antiquior", refers to. Whom also I refer that of the most learned Varro, in his 17th book of "Human Affairs", (cited by A. Gellius in his first book, "Noctium Attic" c. 16. and of Macrobius: l. 1 Saturnal.) where he said, to the beginning of Romulus are reckoned more than 1100 years. For from the beginning of Inachus' reign, according to the calculations of Castor, there mentioned, to the Palilia, or solemn festivals of Pales (the country goddess among the Romans) mentioned by Varro, are reckoned 1102 years.

2158d AM, 2868 JP, 1846 BC

96. Shem the son of Noah died 500 years after the birth of Arphaxad. Ge 11:11

2167d AM, 2877 JP, 1837 BC

97. When Rebecca had been barren for 19 years after her marriage, Isaac in great devotion made prayer to God on her behalf, and she thereupon conceived twins. Ge 25:21

2168c AM, 2878 JP, 1836 BC

98. When the twins strove in the womb, Rebecca asked counsel of God. God said that two differing and opposing nations should proceed out of her in that birth, of which the one should be stronger than the other, and that the older should serve the younger. But at the time of her travail, the first that came forth was ruddy all over and like to a shag garment and his name was called Esau. Then came forth the other, holding the former by the heel, whereupon he was called by the name of Jacob. Isaac, their father, at the time of their birth, was 60 years old. Ge 25:22 Ho 12:3

2179 AM, 2889 JP, 1825 BC

99. Manetho wrote {*Manetho, 1:101} that Tethmosis king of Thebais, or the upper Egypt, besieged the Hyksos or Shepherds, shut up in a place called Auarim (containing 10,000 acres of ground) with an army of 480,000 men. When he found no possibility of taking them, he agreed with them that they should leave Egypt and go freely wherever they wished. They, with all their substance and goods, being in number no less than 440,000, passed through Egypt and went by the way of the wilderness into Syria. For fear they had of the Assyrians, who then possessed all Asia, they built themselves a city in the land of Judah, as it is now called. This city was big enough to hold so large a number of inhabitants, and called it Hierosolyma, i.e. Jerusalem. Manetho states this in Josephus l. 1. contra Appionem Grammaticum, which (Appion in his 4th book of "Egyptian Affaires") calls this king, Amosis. He proves out of the Annals of Ptolemy Mendesius an Egyptian priest, that he was contemporary to Inachus mentioned previously, king of the Argivi, as Tatian the Assyrian (in his Oration against the Greeks) Justin Martyr, (in his Paranetion or Exhortatory to the Greeks) Clemens Alexandrinus in his first book of his Stromata and others do report. All which following Josephus and Justus Tiberiensis understand is meant of the Israelites, because they traded much in sheep, Ge 46:33,34 47:3. Because they went from Egypt into Canaan and therefore imagine that Moses was contemporary with Inachus and was the man that conducted them in that journey. Whereas those things seem rather to refer to the Phoenicians, whom Herodotus (l. 7. c. 89) reports to have come from the Red Sea and settled themselves in Palestine. The departure of the Israelites from Egypt happened many years after Inachus, as the course of this chronology undoubtedly shows.

2180c AM, 2890 JP, 1824 BC

100. When Tethmosis or Amosis drove out these shepherds, he reigned in the lower Egypt for 25 years, 4 months.{*Manetho, 1:101}

2183c AM, 2893 JP, 1821 BC

101. Abraham died when he was 175 years old and 100 years after entering Canaan. He was buried by his two sons, Isaac and Ishmael, in his cave at Machpelah, with Sarah his wife. Ge 25:7,10 He lived 15 years after the birth of Jacob, with whom he is said also to have lived in tents. Heb 11:9

2187d AM, 2897 JP, 1817 BC

102. Heber, the 5th from Noah, died 430 years after the birth of his son Peleg. Ge 11:17 This man lived the longest of any who were born after the flood. He out lived Abraham and from him Abraham came first to be surnamed, the Hebrew. Ge 14:13 In later times, all the posterity of his grandchild Jacob, were known by the same name. Ge 40:15 Canaan was called the land of the Hebrews, while the Canaanites were still living there.

2200 AM, 2910 JP, 1804 BC

103. About this time, the promises previously made to Abraham, so it seemed, were fulfilled in his son Isaac. To wit:

1) I will multiply thy seed, as the stars of heaven.
2) To thy seed will I give this land.
3) In thy seed, shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. Ge 26:4

2205d AM, 2915 JP, 1799 BC

104. Chebron reigned in Egypt 13 years. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2208c AM, 2918 JP, 1796 BC

105. When Esau was 40 years old, he took two wives from the land of the Hittites. One was Judith the daughter of Beeri and the other was Bashemath the daughter of Elon. These two wives were very troublesome and a grief to Rebecca. Ge 26:34,35 cf. Ge 27:46 28:8

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« Reply #9 on: December 08, 2006, 08:33:20 AM »

 106. At this time the Ogygian Deluge occurred in the country of Attica 1020 years before the first olympiad. This is reported by Hellanicus, Castor, Thalus, Diodorus Siculus and Alexander Polyhistor in his third book of his Chronography, by Julius Africanus, as we find it in Eusebius' book, de Prap. Evang. Varro says this flood happend 300 years earlier.

2218d AM, 2928 JP, 1786 BC

107. Amenophis reigned in Egypt 20 years, 7 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2231b AM, 2941 JP, 1773 BC

108. Abraham's son, Ishmael, died at the age of 137 years. Ge 25:17

2239b AM, 2949 JP, 1765 BC

109. Amessis the sister of Amenophis, reigned in Egypt 21 years, 9 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2242 AM, 2952 JP, 1762 BC

110. Euechous began to reign in Chaldea, 224 years before the Arabians. (Julian Africanus) He seems to be the same with Belus of Babylon, or Jupiter Belus, who was worshipped later by the Chaldeans as a god. Isa 46:1 Jer 50:2 51:41

2245a AM, 2954 JP, 1760 BC

111. 44 years before his death, Isaac had grown old and blind. He sent his oldest son Esau to hunt some venison for him. Isaac purposed to bless him when he returned. However, Jacob his younger son, by the subtil counsel of his mother, came disguised in Esau's clothing bringing Isaac's favourite meat. Thus he stole away the blessing, unknown to his father. The blessing, though forgotten, God confirmed ever after to Jacob. By so doing, Jacob incurred his brother's hatred. Jacob journeyed to Mesopotamia to his uncle Laban, to avoid his brother's plan to kill him Ge 27:41 and to find a wife of his own kindred. Ge 28:1 Before he left, he asked for his father's blessing on the trip.

112. On his journey, he saw a vision of a ladder. In this vision, God confirmed to him, all the blessings formerly given to his father. God assured him of his grace and favour for the future. In remembrance of this experience, Jacob set up a pillar. He changed the name of the place from Luz to Bethel and made a vow to God there. When he came to Haran, he stayed with Laban for a month. He fell in love with Rachel his daughter and agreed to serve Laban 7 years for her. Ge 27:1 29:20 Ho 12:12 Jacob was 77 years old in 2259 AM.

113. When Esau knew Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him away into Mesopotamia to find a wife there and that Jacob did not like the daughters of Canaan, he tried to pacify his father's mind. Isaac was offended with him for marrying his first wife from Canaan. Therefore he took a second wife Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, the son of Abraham, Ge 28:6,9

114. Esau had been now a married man 37 years and was 77 years old. Jacob, who was as old as he, had all this while lived a bachelor. Remembering his father's command, he asked Rachel his wife to be given to him because he had served the allotted time for her. Ge 29:21 He was now of an age suitable for marriage, as Tremellius explains it. Tho. Lidyate understands this to have happened after the first month he was with Laban. However Laban intended from the beginning to make full use of Jacob's industry and his managerial skills before he would give his daughter to Jacob. This no doubt, was mentioned when Jacob first arrived since this was the main purpose for his coming.

115. However, by Laban's fraud, instead of Rachel, Leah, the older daughter, was put into Jacob's bed on the marriage night. Nevertheless, at the end of the marriage week, Jud 14:12,17 Rachel also was espoused to him on the condition that Jacob of would serve seven more years for her. Laban gave to Leah, his maid servant Zilpah for a handmaid and to Rachel he gave Bilhah.

116. When Leah was not so favoured by Jacob as Rachel was, God made Rachel barren and Leah was made a mother of 4 children in 4 successive years. Ge 29:21-30:24

2246 AM, 2956 JP, 1758 BC

117. Leah bore Reuban, Jacob's firstborn. Ge 29:32 For his incest committed with Bilhah, his father's concubine, Reuben later lost his birthright. Ge 35:22 49:3,4 1Ch 5:1

2247 AM, 2957 JP, 1757 BC

118. Simeon was born.

2248 AM, 2958 JP, 1756 BC

119. Levi was born Ge 35:34

2249c AM, 2959 JP, 1755 BC

120. Judah was born Ge 35:35 from whom the Jews took their name.

2259c AM, 2969 JP, 1745 BC

121. God blessed Rachel and she bore Joseph to Jacob at the end of his 14 years of service. Jacob asked permission from Laban to return into his own country. He remained there 6 more years on a another condition made between him and his father-in-law Laban for a certain part of his flock. Ge 30:22,25,31 31:41 Now Jacob was 91 years old when Joseph was born and consequently, 77 years old, when he first began to serve Laban. This can be deduced for Jacob was 130 years old, when he first stood before Pharaoh, at the time when the 7 years of plenty were passed and 2 years of the famine were over. Ge 45:6 47:9 Joseph was then 39 years old. He was 30 years old when he first came before Pharaoh, just before the 7 years of plenty. Ge 41:32,46

2261a AM, 2970 JP, 1744 BC

122. Mephres reigned in Egypt, 12 years, 9 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2265c AM, 2975 JP, 1739 BC

123. As the jealousy and malice grew between Laban and his sons against Jacob, God warned him to return to his own country. Jacob told his wives of this. When Laban was shearing his sheep, at the latter end of the spring (See note on 2974c AM <<439>>) after 20 years of service, Jacob secretly fled from Laban. He took all his goods, wives and family and crossed over the river Euphrates. Ge 31:1,3,19,21,38,41 It is said Jacob had 12 sons born to him in Mesopotamia. Ge 35:22,26 Benjamin is not to be counted among them because he was born later in the land of Canaan near Bethlehem. Ge 16:18,19 In like manner, as the 12 apostles are counted to make up that number even though Judas was dead. Joh 20:24 1Co 15:1 Concerning this matter, see Augustine in his 117th question upon Genesis.

124. Three days later, Laban (for he was three days journey from the place where Jacob kept his sheep) heard that his son-in-law was gone and took some of his friends and kindred with him. After travelling seven days he caught up with him at Mount Gilead. This mount was named from this meeting. After many arguments, they finally reconciled. For a testimony and monument to their covenant and agreement, Jacob erected a pillar, with a heap of stones. Laban the Syrian, called it "Jegar Sahadutha", but Jacob the Hebrew called it "Galeed", i.e. "the heap of a testimony", or "witness" between the two. Ge 31:47,48

125. After Jacob left Laban in peace, he was frightened by the news of his brother Esau's coming with a band of men. He divided his company into two groups and called on God. He sent ahead of him presents to his brother Esau. After wrestling with the angel, he was given the name of Israel by God. Jacob matured spiritually by depending more on the help of God than on man. Ge 32:1-32 Ho 12:3,4

126. Esau entertained his brother courteously. After much entreaty he accepted Jacob's presents and offered to escort him on his way. When Jacob refused, Esau left. Then Jacob went on to Succoth. He called the place Succoth because he built an house there and cotes for his sheep. After passing over Jordan, he came into Canaan and pitched his tent in Shechem, a city of the Shechemites. He bought a parcel of ground from the sons of Hamor the Shechemite, for 100 pieces of silver. There he built an altar, which he called by the name of "El-Elohe-Israel" or "The mighty God, the God of Israel." Ge 33:1-20 It was in this same place that Abraham had built his first altar before: Ge 12:6,7 and where Jacob's well was, near to Mount Gerizim. When the woman of Samaria spoke to our Saviour, she said that her fathers worshipped in this mountain. Joh 4:5,6,12,20 This mountain was located in the country of the Shechemites. Jud 9:7

2273d AM, 2983 JP, 1731 BC

127. Mephramuthosis reigned in Egypt 25 years, 10 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2276c AM, 2986 JP, 1728 BC

128. When Joseph was 17 years old, he told his father of his brothers' wickedness and was told by God that he would one day be the head of all his father's family. His brothers hated him for this so much that they plotted his death. At length they agreed to sell him for a slave into a far country. When they drew him from the pit that they had cast him into, they sold him for 20 pieces of silver to the Ishmaelite and Midianite merchants. Both of these peoples descended from their grandfather Abraham. Joseph was carried away by them to Egypt. There they sold him to be a slave to Potiphar, the captain of Pharaoh's guard. Ge 37:2,3,6 Justin also, in his Epitome of Troeus Pompeius, l. 36. c. 2. makes mention of Joseph. He says:

``His brothers envied the excellency of his wisdom. After getting him privately into their hands, they sold him to foreign merchants who carried him into Egypt.''

2287c AM, 2997 JP, 1717 BC
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« Reply #10 on: December 08, 2006, 08:33:58 AM »

 129. When Joseph, was thrown into prison, he interpreted the dreams of two officers of Pharaoh's court. This was two years before he was brought before Pharaoh. Ge 40:1-41:1

2288c AM, 2998 JP, 1716 BC

130. Isaac died at the age of 180 years and was buried by his two sons, Esau and Jacob. Ge 35:28,29

2289b AM, 2999 JP, 1715 BC

131. When Pharaoh could not get his dreams interpreted by his own wise men, and after hearing of Joseph's skill in expounding dreams, he sent for Joseph. He was 30 years old when he explained the king's dreams. The first dream was that of the 7 years of plenty followed by 7 years famine. Moreover, he advised Pharaoh how to provide from the abundance of the first 7 years of plenty, for the famine of the next 7 years of scarcity. Thereupon Pharaoh, by the general agreement of all his nobles, made him governor of the whole kingdom. He gave him a wife, Asenath, the daughter of Potiphar, governor of On or Heliopolis in Egypt. Ge 41:1-46 Justin also from Trogus Pompeius says, that he was very important to Pharaoh. For he said:

``Joseph was most skilled in explaining dreams or signs and was the first that found out and taught the art of the interpretation of dreams. Neither was there any part of divine or human intention, which seemed to be unknown to him in that he foretold a famine many years before it happened. All Egypt would have perished unless the king, by his advice, had ordered grain to be stored many years before the famine came.''

132. From the harvest of this year started the 7 years of plenty. In these years Joseph laid up an enormous supply of grain. Asenath, his wife, bore him two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. Ge 41:47,51,53

2296c AM, 3006 JP, 1708 BC

133. The 7 years of the famine began from the harvest of this year as predicted. Joseph's wisdom in laying up supplies not only sustained Egypt but also helped relieve the famine in the neighbouring countries. Ge 41:54,57

2297d AM, 3007 JP, 1707 BC

134. Jacob sent 10 of his sons into Egypt to buy grain. Joseph pretended not to know them and took them for spies. They were held and not released until Simeon, the oldest and the leader of them, who consented to sell Joseph, was cast into prison. He was held to ensure that the rest should bring to Joseph, Benjamin, their youngest brother, who was born of Rachel, Joseph's own mother. When they were sent away, they carried their grain and the money they had payed for it. This money was placed into each of their sacks by the secret orders of Joseph. They told their father Jacob, all that had happened to them. Also they told him it was necessary that their youngest brother Benjamin return with them to Egypt. They were not able to convince Jacob to allow this to happen. Ge 42:1-38

2298b AM, 3008 JP, 1706 BC

135. When Jacob was hard pressed by the famine, he sent his sons again and with them Benjamin their brother. He sent twice the amount of money needed to buy grain and other gifts for Joseph. When they arrived, they were courteously entertained and feasted by Joseph. Simeon was released and returned to them. Ge 43:1-34

136. When they were on their way home, Joseph arrested them for stealing his cup. This he had caused secretly to be hidden in Benjamin's sack. When they were confronted with this crime, they tried to show their honesty by the fact that they returned the money they found in their sacks when they came into Egypt the second time. They offered to die, or to be his slaves, if any such thing could be proved against them. But in the end the cup was found with Benjamin. They returned to Joseph and yielded themselves to him to be his slaves. When Joseph refused and said he would have no one but him with whom the cup was found, Judah then humbly offered himself to serve him in Benjamin's stead. Ge 44:1-34

137. When Joseph heard Judah make this offer, he revealed himself to his brothers. The brothers were all terrified at the remembrance of the sin which they had committed against Joseph. He comforted them by showing how that deed of theirs was an act of God's providence. From the king's supplies, Joseph ordered wagons and provisions for their journey. They were to go and to return with all speed, bringing their father and their families with them. When they told their father, he did not believe them, until he saw the wagons and other supplies necessary for them to move to Egypt. Ge 45:1-28

138. After Jacob offered sacrifices and was encouraged by God, he and all his family, went down into Egypt. This was in the beginning of the third year of the famine when Jacob was 130 years old. Ge 45:6 46:1,27 47:9 De 26:5

139. After Joseph had told Pharaoh of the arrival of his family in Egypt, he brought his father and 5 of his brothers to Pharaoh. When Pharaoh had communed with them, he assigned them a suitable place in the land of Goshen where Joseph took care of all their needs. Ge 47:1-12

2299d AM, 3009 JP, 1705 BC

140. Mephramuthosis died and Thmosis reigned in Egypt for 9 years 8 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2300 AM, 3010 JP, 1704 BC

141. Joseph took all the money in Egypt and Canaan from the grain that he had sold to them. Ge 47:14

2301 AM, 3011 JP, 1703 BC

142. When all the money of both these countries was spent, the Egyptians sold all their flocks and herds of cattle to Joseph for food to live on that year. Ge 47:15-17

2302 AM, 3012 JP, 1702 BC

143. At the end of this year, when their money and stock of cattle was all gone, the Egyptians then sold both their lands and freedom to Joseph. He supplied them with grain for food and with seed to plant in this seventh and last year of the famine. He was to be repaid in the year following, when the famine was over. So that Pharaoh would have a clear title and full possession of the lands he purchased, Joseph moved everyone from one side of the country to the other. There he assigned to every man land to till and to work. From the profits a law was made giving Pharaoh a fifth part of the increase. Only the chief governors' and the priests' lands, were not bought by Pharaoh. These individuals had a living by the king's allowance and had no need to sell their lands for food as others had.

2309b AM, 3019 JP, 1695 BC

144. Amenophis reigned in Egypt 30 years 10 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2315 AM, 3025 JP, 1689 BC

145. When Jacob was about to die, he adopted Ephraim and Manasseh the sons of Joseph. He blessed them by revelation from God and set the younger ahead of the older. Ge 48:1-22 Heb 11:12 When he called his sons together, he blessed them all and foretold what should befall them in the coming generations. He told them that memorable prophesy of the Messiah and gave orders to them concerning his burial. He died at 147 years of age 17 years of which were in the land of Egypt. Ge 49:1-33 47:25

146. Joseph had the body of Jacob embalmed and kept for 40 days. The Egyptians mourned him for 70 days. With Pharaoh's leave, the body was conveyed into the land of Canaan by Joseph and his brothers and with a great number of the principal men of Pharaoh's court. Lamentation was again made over him 7 days and he was buried with his kindred in the cave at Machpelah according to his wishes. Ge 50:15-21

2340b AM, 3050 JP, 1664 BC

147. Orus reigned in Egypt for 36 years 5 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2369c AM, 3079 JP, 1635 BC

148. By faith, Joseph on his death bed spoke of the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt. He asked that his bones might be carried with them. He was 110 years old when he died and saw his children to the third generation. Ge 50:22-26 Heb 11:22 These were Shuthelah and Tahan, the grandsons of Ephraim and Eran or Taran, Nu 26:36 the sons of Manasseh and Gilead was Manasseh's grandchild. From here it is, that the Greek expositors, speaking of the families of Jacob and Joseph, which were said to consist of 70 souls, Ge 46:27 De 10:22 adding to the total these 5 who were born to Joseph in Egypt 1Ch 7:20-29 for a number of 75 persons in all. It appears that Joseph ruled and governed the state of Egypt for 80 years under several Pharaohs. Eusebius in his chronicle, has rightly observed and summarised it thus:

``Joseph was made governor of Egypt when he was 30 years old and when his father Jacob was 122 years old. He headed the government for 80 years. After he died, the Hebrews were held in bondage by the Egyptians 144 years. Therefore, the whole time which the Hebrews spent in Egypt was 215 years, starting from the time that Jacob and his sons went down into Egypt.''

149. The book of Genesis ends with the death of Joseph and contains the history of 2369 years. This book was written by Moses. This is the opinion of the Talmudists in their Bababathra l. 1. and so it is generally believed by all the Hebrews. The sum of it is delivered by "Servins Sulpicins", in the first book of his "Historia Sacras" thus:

``At this time lived Job, a man embracing the law of nature, and the knowledge of the true God and very righteous and rich in goods. He was renowned for the fact that neither the enjoyment of those riches corrupted him, nor the loss of them depraved him in any way. When he was plundered of all his goods by Satan, bereft of his children and at last tormented with grievous botches and sores in his body, he did not sin. Having first been commended by God himself, he was later restored to his former health, and had double of what he possessed before.''

2376c AM, 3086 JP, 1628 BC
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« Reply #11 on: December 08, 2006, 08:34:46 AM »

 150. Acencheres the daughter of Orus reigned in Egypt for 12 years 1 month. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2385 AM, 3095 JP, 1619 BC

151. Levi died in Egypt when he was 137 years old. Ex 6:16 He was the grandfather by the mother's side to Moses and Aaron and great grandfather by the father's side. Levi had begotten Kohath in Canaan, who died at the age of 133 years and a daughter called Jochebed in Egypt. Amram the son of Kohath married Jochebed the daughter of Levi, his own aunt. From that marriage (expressly forbidden later) Le 18:12 20:19 Moses and Aaron and their sister Miriam were born. Amram lived 137 years, just as long as his grandfather and his father-in-law. He died shortly before the Israelites left Egypt. Ex 2:1,6,18,20 Nu 26:59

2388 AM, 3098 JP, 1616 BC

152. Rathotis, the brother of Acencheres, reigned in Egypt for 9 years. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2389 AM, 3099 JP, 1615 BC

153. When the Ethiopians came from as far as the river Indus, they settled on the borders of Egypt. (Euseb. Chron.) This is the place, to which Panegyrist refers, where he said:

``Let the victories of Egypt give place to this, under which the Ethiopian and Indus both did tremble''

154. J. Potken, in his Ethiopian Psalter printed at Rome in 1513, calls Ethiopia, which is to the south of Egypt, the greater India.

2397 AM, 3107 JP, 1607 BC

155. Acencheres, the son of Rathotis, reigned in Egypt for 12 years and 5 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2410a AM, 3120 JP, 1594 BC

156. Acencheres II reigned in Egypt for 12 years and 3 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2422b AM, 3132 JP, 1582 BC

157. Harmais reigned in Egypt for 4 years and 1 month. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2426c AM, 3136 JP, 1578 BC

158. Ramesses reigned in Egypt for 1 year 4 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2427d AM, 3137 JP, 1577 BC

159. Ramesses Miamun reigned in Egypt for 66 years 2 months. {*Manetho, 1:103} The latter part of the surname seems to have been deduced from the first part of the name Amenophis. His son after him and several also of his predecessors were called by this name. The former part of it was from the word "Moy" which with the Egyptians signifies "water", as Josephus (a. contra, Apion.) and Clemens Alexand. (1. 1. Stromat.) and Suidas (in ~wc) affirms. Those writers, who relate all by way of fables, called Mythologians, gave him the name of Neptune, the feigned god of the waters, as shall be shown upon the year 2533 AM <<259>>. This is that new king, who did not know Joseph. He was born after Joseph's death and remembered no more the great benefits received from him. By his policy the Egyptians, frightened at the number and strength of the Israelites in the land, subjected them to a heavy and cruel bondage. In addition to tilling the ground, they laid upon them the building also of the king's magazines and storehouses and the whole cities of Raamsis or Ramesis. Ex 1:8,14 Ac 7:18,19 The latter took its name, as Mercator thinks, from Ramesses the founder of it and the other perhaps from his queen.

2430b AM, 3140 JP, 1574 BC

160. Aaron was born 3 years before his brother Moses, 83 years before the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. Ex 7:7

2431b AM, 3141 JP, 1573 BC

161. The ungodly king could not prevail with Shiphrah and Pua, the two principal midwives of the Hebrew women, to force them to kill all the male children of the Hebrews. Therefore he proclaimed a barbarous edict to destroy them all by drowning them in the river. Ex 1:15-22 Ac 7:19,20 This happened between the birth of Aaron and the birth of Moses.

2433 AM, 3143 JP, 1571 BC

162. 41 years after the death of her father Levi, Jochebed bore Moses to Amram, her nephew and husband. Moses was 80 years old, when he first spoke to Pharaoh to let the children of Israel go. Ex 7:7 40 years later Moses died in the 12th month when he was 120 years old. De 3:1,2 34:7

163. Because Moses was an attractive child, as Justin also from Trogus Pompeius mentions him to have been, his parents hid him 3 months in their house. They did not regard the king's edict. Ex 2:2 Ac 7:20 Heb 11:23

164. He was discovered by the diligent inquiry made by the king's searchers and their bad neighbours the Egyptians. The parents put him in a basket of bulrushes, daubed over with slime and pitch and laid it in the flags, by the brim of the river. His sister, Miriam or Mary, Nu 26:59 1Ch 6:3 stood near by to see what would become of him. Pharaoh's daughter whom Josephus (Antiq. l. 2. c. 9.) called Thermutin and so does Epiphanius, in Panario and others) found him there. She put him out to be nursed, as it happened, to his own mother Jochebed. Afterward she adopted him for her son and had him brought up and instructed in all manner of science and learning of the Egyptians. Ex 2:5,10 Ac 7:21,22

2448 AM, 3158 JP, 1556 BC

165. Cecrops, an Egyptian, transported a colony of the Saits into Attica (Diod. Sic. l. 1.) and set up there the kingdom of the Athenians. This was 780 years before the 1st Olympiad, according to Eusebius in Chron. reports from Castor. From the time of Cecrops, the Chronology of the Ile of Paros, published by that most learned J. Selden, among his Marmora Arundelliana, deduces history or antiquities of Greece. After him and Moses, who was contemporary with him, many memorable things happened in Greece as follows:

a) Deucalion's flood
b) Phaeton's fire
c) the birth of Ericthonius
d) the rape of Prosepina
e) the mysteries of Ceres
f) the institution of the Elesinian sacrifices,
g) Triptolemus' art of tilling the ground
h) the carrying away of Europa, by Jupiter
i) the birth of Apollo
j) the building of Thebes, by Cadmus
k) those of a later time, Bacchus, Minos, Perseus, Esculapius, Castor and Pollux, Hercules. (Euseb 1. 10. de Prep. Ev. c. 9.)

2465 AM, 3175 JP, 1539 BC

166. In the 18th year of Cecrops, the Chaldeans made war and fought with the Phoenicians. (Euseb. Chron.)

2466 AM, 3176 JP, 1538 BC

167. In this war the Chaldeans were defeated and the Arabians reigned in the country of Babylon 216 years before Belus the Assyrian came there to reign. The 1st king of the Arabians was Mardocentes, who reigned there 45 years (Jul. Afric.) and seems to be the man that is called Merodach. He was later reputed by the Babylonians to be a god, Jer 50:2. Succeeding kings borrowed their names from him as Merodoch, Baladan and Evil-merodach.

2473b AM, 3183 JP, 1531 BC

168. When Moses was 40 years old, he visited his brethren, the Israelites. When he saw their sad plight and an Egyptian smiting a man of the Hebrews, he killed the Egyptian and buried him in the sand. This became known not only to his brethren but also to Pharaoh who sought to kill him. Moses fled from there into the land of Midian. He married Zipporah the daughter of Jethro and stayed there 40 years. Ac 23:30 Ex 2:11,12 3:1 18:1,2 Nu 10:29 Jude 4:11

2474 AM, 3184 JP, 1530 BC

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« Reply #12 on: December 08, 2006, 08:35:04 AM »

169. Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, was born forty years before he was sent by Moses to spy out the land of Canaan. Jos 14:7,10

2494a AM, 3203 JP, 1511 BC

170. Ramesses Miamun died in the 67th year of his reign about 1510 BC. The length of his tyrannical reign seems to be noted Ex 2:23 in these words.

``And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died: and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried ...''

171. That is the cruel bondage, which they endured, even after Ramesses was dead for about 19 and 6 months, under his son Amenophis, who succeeded him. For so long and no longer a time of his reign is assigned by Manetho based on his writings. {*Manetho, 1:103} Although filled with a multitude of old wives tales, all such are abundantly refuted by Josephus, in his 1st book against Apion., yet there are two truths in it.

1. Under this Amenophis, the father of Sethosis or Ramesses (the 1st king of the following Dynasty, or successive principality) which Manetho makes the 19 and not under the other Amenophis which was the 3rd of that Dynasty (as Josephus vainly surmises), the Israelites, under the conduct of Moses, according to Manetho's relation, left Egypt.

2. The Egyptians called him Amenophis, the father of Sethosis and Armais. The Greeks called him Belus, the father of Egyptus, and Danaus. During Belus' time, according to Thallus the Chronographer (as he is alleged by Theophilus Antiochenus and Lactantius) agrees with the age of this Amenophis. Although the fable writers confounding this Belus of Egypt, with Belus the Assyrian, the father of Ninus. They tell us that certain colonies were transported by this Belus (who was drowned in the Red Sea,) into the country of Babylon.

2513b AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC

172. God appeared to Moses in a burning bush that was not consumed with fire, while he was keeping his father-in-law Jethro's sheep in the mountain of Horeb. He called him to deliver his people Israel from their slavery and bondage in Egypt. Moses sought to avoid doing this with many excuses. At length however, he undertook the work being persuaded partly by miracles and partly by assurance given him of the help of God and his brother Aaron given him for an assistant. Ac 7:30,35 Ex 3-4:1,18

173. Moses left Jether or Jethro his father-in-law and with his family took his journey for Egypt. Because he neglected to circumcise his son Eliezer, he was stopped by God in the way and not allowed to continue until he done this. He sent back his wife Zipporah and his two sons, Gershom and Eliezer, to her father Jethro. Now freed from all encumbrance, he returned to mount Horeb and met his brother Aaron. He went on and performed his duty, confirmed by miracles, in the public sight of the children of Israel. Ex 4:18,31 18:1,6

174. Moses and Aaron declared to Pharaoh God's message. Pharaoh charged them as being leaders in a rebellion and sent them away angrily. He increased the burden of the Israelites more than ever before. Their overseers were beaten because they could not do all the work. They complained in vain to Pharaoh. They complained to Moses and Aaron and Moses complained to God. God graciously heard him and told him to finish the work he had begun. Ex 5:1-22

175. Moses returned to the Israelites with further instructions from God. Because of their oppression, it was to no avail. Hence God commanded him to go again to Pharaoh. Ex 6:1-30

176. Moses was 80 years old and Aaron 83 years old when they were commanded by God to return again to Pharaoh. When the magicians by their sorcery, imitated the miracles of Aaron's rod becoming a serpent, Pharaoh was more obstinate than ever. Ex 7:1,13 The leaders of these magicians which opposed Moses, were Jannes and Jambres. as named by the apostle, 2Ti 3:8. These names are noted, not only by the Jews in their Talmudical treaty of tyhgm i.e. of Oblations, c. 9. where they are called by the names of yghfy and admmw i.e. Jochanne and Mamre. In the Chaldee Paraphrase, they are attributed to Jonathan. Ex 1:15 7:11 Among some heathen writers, for so Numenius Apamaeus, a Pythagorean Philosopher, in his 3rd book, wfsituataqhq cited by Euseb. 1. 9. Prepar. Evang. c. 8. relates this history:

``Jannes and Jambres, interpreters of the mysteries of Egypt, were in great repute at the time when the Jews were sent out of Egypt. It was the opinion of all men that these were inferior to none in the art of magic. For by the common opinion of the Egyptians, these two were chosen to oppose Moses, the ring leader of the Jews. Moses prayers were most prevalent with God. They only were able to undo and frustrate all those most grievous calamities that Moses brought upon all the Egyptians.''

177. Pliny, (1. 30. c. 1.) in reference to this states

``There is also another sect of Magicians, depending upon Moses, and Jannes and Jotape Jews.''

178. Wherein nevertheless he falls into a double error,

a. In reckoning Moses among the magicians.
b. In making Jannes and Jotape to be Jews.

179. But when Pharaoh's magicians could do no more, God through Moses sent his ten plagues upon the Egyptians. These are summarised in Ps 78: 1-72 105:1-45. According to the Jews, these plagues lasted a year but in fact they were all sent within one month in this order.

180. About the 18th day of the 6th month, (which in the previous year and thereafter became the 12th month Ex 12:2) God sent the first plague of the waters turning into blood. After 7 days, Ex 7:25 about the 25th day, came the second plague of the frogs which were removed the next day. About the 27th was brought upon them the third plague of flies and lice.

181. About the 28th day, Moses threatened them with a fourth plague of flies and other vermin. These came on the 29th day and were all taken away on the 30th day.

182. About the 1st of the 7th month (which shortly after was made the 1st month of the year Ex 12:2) After Moses warned them of a fifth plague, he brought it upon them the next day. This was the plague of murrain in cattle. About the 3rd day, the sixth plague of boils and botches came upon man and beast. This plague came on the magicians as well. Ex 9:11 Hence wrote Justin, from Trogus Pompeius, l. 36.

``The Egyptians were afflicted with the scab and sores. When they were warned by an Oracle, all, that were infected with that disease, expelled Moses out of Egypt lest the plague should spread further among the people.''

183. Note here too the sayings collected out of Diodorus Sicul. 1. 40. reported in Phati Bibliotheca. p. 620.

184. About the 4th day, Moses warned them of a seventh plague which came on them on the 5th day of the same month. It was a plague of thunders and rain and grievous hail, mixed with fire which ruined their flax and barley because the barley was then in the ear and the flax bolled. But their wheat and the rye were not harmed, because they were not yet out of the ground. Hence Nicolaus Fullerus, l. 3. of his Miscellanies rightly observes, p. 389. that this plague happened in the month of Abib.

185. About the 7th day Moses threatened them with an eighth plague. The next day the plague of locusts came and devoured all green plants. He removed the plague about the 9th day. Ex 10:4,11,19

186. The month Abib, which was the 7th month, was from this time on made the first month of the year. Ex 12:2 13:4 This was for a memorial of their departure out of the land of Egypt. From the beginning of this month we deduce the epochs of the Jewish Calendar. Nu 9:1,2 Ex 40:17

187. On the 10th day of this the month, (which was the Thursday April 30th according the Julian Calendar) was instituted the feast of the Passover and unleavened bread. The Pascal lamb was chosen and killed four days later. Ex 13:3,6

188. Moses now brings upon them the ninth plague of 3 days darkness. It was so dark that none of the Egyptians during that time, once left the place where they were when the darkness came. However, the Israelites had during that time, light in their dwellings. Ex 10:22,23

189. Upon the 14th day (Monday, May 4th) Moses spoke with Pharaoh for the last time. Moses told him of the tenth plague which should come upon him. This was the death of all the firstborn of Egypt, which came to pass the next night at midnight. Pharaoh, in a rage ordered Moses to get out of his sight and never come back again. Ex 10:24-29 11:1,4-8 The passover was celebrated that evening. Ex 12:11,12
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« Reply #13 on: December 08, 2006, 08:35:43 AM »

The Fourth Age of the World

190. On the 15th day of the 1st month (Tuesday, May 5th) at midnight, the firstborn of all Egypt were slain. Pharaoh and his servants, quickly sent away the Israelites with all their goods and the plunder which they had received from the Egyptians. Ex 12:33,35,36 It was exactly 430 years from the first pilgrimage of Abraham's departure from Canaan, to the day they were set free from bondage. The day after the Passover, they journeyed toward Ramesses with about 600,000 men, besides women and children. Ex 12:29-31,37,41,51 Nu 33:3 From that place the camps are recorded by Moses. From the Hebrew meanings of the words, Jerome, in writing to Fabiola, expounds symbolically, in his Treatise of their 42 camps. I suppose the first camp to be at Ramesses. Thus then:

1. At Ramesses, where the Israelites were placed by Joseph, Ge 47:11, they all met who either dwelt among the Egyptians Ex 3:2 or who at that time were scattered over all Egypt to gather stubble. Ex 5:12

2. At Succoth, Moses first declared to them the commandments of God for the yearly keeping of the Passover and the sanctifying of the firstborn. Ex 13:1-22

3. At Etham, in the border of the wilderness, the Lord led them with a pillar of a cloud by day and in a pillar of fire by night. Ex 13:20,21

4. At Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, opposite Baalzephon, Pharaoh, with his host overtook them. Here Moses divided the waters with his rod and they passed through the midst of the Trythraean, or Red Sea into the desert of Etham. When Pharaoh and his army tried to follow, they were all drowned when the waters came together again. At dawn, the Israelites were completely freed from the bondage of the Egyptians, whose bodies they saw floating all over the sea and cast up on the shore. Ex 14:26-30 They sang a song of praise and thanksgiving to God, for their deliverance. Ex 15:22 This song Re 15:3 is called the Song of Moses and is the first song of deliverance by the Hebrews.

This happened on the 21st day of the first month on the last day of the feast of unleavened bread, as appointed by God. This is the general opinion of the Jews and most agreeable to truth.

From there they marched three whole days through the wilderness of Etham, from Tuesday the 22nd to Thursday the 24th and they found no water all the way. Ex 15:22 Nu 33:8

5. At Marah, named from its bitter waters, the people which had gone without water three whole days, began to murmur. Moses threw into the water a piece of wood and made them drinkable. This taught the people in time to come to put their trust in God, Ex 15:23,26

6. At Elim were 12 fountains of water and 70 palm trees. They camped by the side of those fountains. Ex 15:27 Nu 33:9

7. This camp was by the Red Sea. Nu 33:10

191. Now we come to the second month.

8. Upon the 15th, (Thursday, June 4th) the Israelites came to the place of their eighth camp in the wilderness of Sin, between Elyma and Sinai. Being hungry they murmured against God and their leaders. About evening, God sent them quails and the next morning rained on them manna from heaven. They lived on manna for 40 years, until they entered the land of promise. Ex 16:1-35

9. They camped at Dophkah.

10. They camped at Alush.

11. At Rephidim the people murmured again because of thirst. (This place was called Meribah and Massa.) Moses gave them water by striking the hard rock with his rod. Ex 17:1,7 This Rock followed them throughout the wilderness. Ps 78:16,20 105:41 1Co 10:4 De 8:15

The Amalekites attacked the rear of the Israelites who were all weary and tired from their long journey in the wilderness. They killed some of the stragglers and weakest of them. Moses sent out to fight with them Jehosua or Joshua the son of Nun his servant. Ex 33:11 His proper name was Hosea but Moses changed it to Jehosuah. Nu 13:16 or Jesus. Na 8:17 Ac 7:45 Heb 4:8

Joshua fought and defeated the Amalekites in Rephidim while Moses prayed on top of the hill. The people were commanded by God to utterly destroy and root out that whole nation. For a memorial of this battle they built an altar there. De 25:17-19 Ex 17:8-16

192. The third month.

12. In the Desert of Sinai, the Israelites camped opposite Horeb and stayed there almost a whole year. They left the wilderness of Sinai, on the 2nd day of the 2nd month, of the 2nd year after coming out of the land of Egypt. Nu 10:11,12 They came here on the same day of the 3rd month, of the 1st year, after coming out of Egypt. This was on the third day of the third month (Monday, June 22nd) according to Fr. Ribera, l. 5. de Templo. Ex 19:1

193. When Moses went up into the mount, God declared to him that he would renew his covenant with the Israelites. He would bind them to himself by a law and that he would favour and love all those who would observe and keep that law. This they readily agreed to. God gave them two days to prepare and sanctify themselves to receive that law. He forbid all except Moses and Aaron to approach the mount. Afterward in great majesty God came down to the mount as they all watched and trembled at the sight. Ex 19:1-25

194. God proclaimed his law as contained in the ten commandments with a terrible voice. Ex 20:1-26 De 5:1-33 This did not make void the promise of grace made to Abraham 430 years before.Ga 3:17

195. The people were terrified as God gave them many other laws. Ex 20:21-23 De 4:13,14 These were written in the book of the covenant Moses gave to the people. After this Moses rose early in the morning and he built an altar at the foot of the mountain. He set up 12 pillars according to the 12 tribes of Israel. He sent 12 young men of the firstborn (as the Chaldee paraphrases it) whom the Lord had consecrated to himself Ex 24:4 Nu 3:13 8:16,17 to be ministers of those holy things. Ex 19:22 This was before the Levitical priesthood was ordained. These men offered sacrifices, first for sin, and then of thanksgiving to the Lord. Moses read the book of the covenant to the people which contained the commandments found in Ex 20:1-23:33. He then took the blood of the calves and goats that were offered and with water scarlet wool and hyssop, he sprinkled the book as well as 12 pillars representing the 12 tribes of Israel. This ratified that solemn covenant between God and his people. Ex 24:3-8 Heb 9:19,20

196. Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu and 70 men of the elders of Israel, went up into the mount and there beheld the glory of God. When the rest returned, Moses, with his servant Joshua, stayed there for six more days. On the seventh day God spoke to Moses and he continued there 40 days and 40 nights Ex 24:9-18 This time includes those six days which he spent waiting for the Lord. During this time, he ate no meat nor drank water. De 9:9 He received God's commands concerning the construction of the tabernacle, the priests garments, their consecration, sacrifices and other things as related in Ex 25:1-Ex 31:18.

2513d AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC

197. The fourth month.

198. When those 40 days and 40 nights were over, God gave Moses the two tables of the law in stone written by God's own finger. Ex 31:18 De 9:10,11 God ordered him to go down quickly, for the people had already made a molten calf to worship. Moses by prayer pacified God and went down from the mount. When he saw the people keeping a festival in honour of their idol in the camp, he broke the tables of the law at the foot of the mount. Ever since this, the Jews keep a solemn fast to this day on the 14th day of the 4th month. This has led some men into the error that the 40 days of Moses in the mount, are to be started from the day immediately following the giving of the ten commandments. Thus omitting altogether the intermediate time, spent in writing and reading the book of the covenant and sanctifying the covenant made between God and his people with solemn rites and ceremonies. Ex 24:1-18

199. Moses burnt and defaced the idol and the Levites killed 3,000 of the people. Ex 32:20-29 De 9:21 33:9

200. The next day Moses returned again into the mount and there again entreated the Lord for the people. Ex 32:30-32

201. He commanded them to lay aside their gorgeous apparel and to set up the tent of the congregation outside the camp. This tent was used until the tabernacle was built by Bezaleel. The people out of a deep sense of God's wrath, repented of their sins. Moses prayed that God himself should be their guide and leader in their way and not an angel. This prayer was heard. Ex 33 1-23

202. God commanded Moses to get new tables of stone and to bring them with him into the mount the next day. Moses brought them the next morning. When Moses stood in the cleft of a rock, God passed by and showed him a glimpse of his glory. Ex 34:1-35

203. Again Moses stayed another 40 days and 40 nights in the mount without meat or drink and prayed for the people. De 9:18 10:10 God was appeased and renewed his covenant with the people with certain conditions. He gave his laws again and told Moses to write them down. Again, God himself wrote the ten commandments in the tables which Moses brought to him. Ex 34:10-28
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« Reply #14 on: December 08, 2006, 08:37:05 AM »

 204. The sixth month.

205. After 40 days, Moses returned from the mount with the tables in his hand. Because his face shone, he covered it with a vail. He proclaimed the laws of God to the people, ordering the observation of the Sabbath. He asked for a free will offering to be made toward the building of the tabernacle. Ex 34:1-35:35

206. So that this offering could be done in an orderly manner, all males were numbered from 20 years old and upward and they were found to be 603,550. According to the law prescribed by God, Ex 30:12,13 each contributed half a shekel. The total sum amounted to 100 talents of silver and 1775 shekels Ex 38:25,26. Hence it is gathered, that every talent among the Jews, amounted to 3000 shekels: every pound containing 60 shekels. Eze 45:12. In addition to this pole tax, from the voluntary offering was the sum of 29 talents of gold, and 730 shekels; and of brass, 70 talents and 2400 shekels. Ex 38:24,29 As for other materials needed for the tabernacle, there came in more than enough and the people were commanded to stop giving! Ex 36:5-7

207. Bezaleel and Aholiab were appointed by God for the chief workmen of the tabernacle. Ex 31:2-6 35:30-35

2514a AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC

208. In the first six months of this year the tabernacle, the ark of the covenant, the altar, the table of shewbread, the priest's garments, the holy ointments, the candle sticks and other utensils and vessels belonging to the sacrifices, were finished in the desert at Mount Sinai and were brought to Moses. Ex 36:1-39:43

209. God commanded Moses to:

1. On the first day of the second month he should set up the tabernacle and furnish it with all things belonging to it.Ex 4:2,8

2. He should anoint them with holy oil and should consecrate Aaron and his sons for the priesthood, Ex 9:15

210. He did this but not both activities the same time. For upon the very day God appointed, he erected the tabernacle, with all things belonging to it. Ex 40:17,33 The second command he performed later at a time appointed by God. Le 8:1-13 It took seven days for the consecration of the priests and altar. Ex 29:35-37

2514c AM, 3224 JP, 1490 BC

211. On the first day of the first month (Wednesday, April 21st) of the second year after they left Egypt, the tabernacle of the covenant was set up and filled with the glory of God. Ex 40:2,17,34 From it God uttered his will and commandments to Moses. These are recorded in the first 7 chapters of Leviticus. In the same year and first month, the Israelites, as commanded by God, celebrated the passover at the evening of the 14th day. (Tuesday, May 4th) On this day some of the people complained to Moses and Aaron that they could not keep the passover with the rest of the congregation on the appointed day because they were unclean from touching a dead body. God made a law that all such persons should keep their passover on the 14th day of the second month if they could not keep it on the day first appointed. Nu 9:1,14

212. On the first day of the second month (Friday, May 21st) God commanded Moses to take the number of all the males of the children of Israel from 20 years old to 60 by their tribes, except the Levites. He appointed the Levites for the service of the tabernacle and assigned the responsibilities for setting it up, taking it down and moving and carrying it from place to place. Nu 1:1 26:64

213. The census came to 603,550 Nu 10:1,46 the same number as 7 months earlier, when they were taxed for a contribution to the building of the tabernacle. Ex 38:26

214. Moses, according to God's command, Ex 29:37 30:22,30 40:9,25 anointed the tabernacle and the altar with all things in it with the holy oil, consecrating them to the Lord. He also consecrated Aaron and his four sons with the same oil and with rites and ceremonies necessary for the execution of the priestly office. He commanded them not to stay in the tabernacle for seven days. Le 8:1-36 This was the time required for the consecration of them and the altar. Ex 29:35-37 Le 8:33

215. Moses outlined the order and position of the tribes in their march and encampments Nu 2:1-34

216. The number of Levites from one month old and upward, was found to be 22,300. Nu 3:15,35 The 2200 firstborn of the Levites managed the service of God in lieu the firstborn of Israel. The number of the firstborn of the children of Israel, exceeded the whole number of the Levites (their firstborn deducted) by 273. Therefore they were taxed for every additional person, five shekels for redemption money. Nu 3:39-50

217. The Levites were set apart and consecrated to God for his service. Every man was appointed a certain time when he was to perform his ministry. Nu 8:5-26

218. 8580 Levites were between 30 and 50 years old. Their offices and services were assigned among them according to their families. Nu 4:1-49

219. All leprous and unclean persons were put out of the camp. The laws for restoring of damages and of jealousy were ordained. Nu 5:1-31

220. The vow, the consecration and manner of the Nazarites was instituted. Nu 6:1-27

221. Upon the 8th day following the completion of the consecration, Aaron offered sacrifices and oblations, first for himself and then for all the people. All these offerings consumed by fire that fell from heaven upon them. This sign ensured belief of the people that the priestly office among them was ordained by God himself. Le 9:1-24

222. All the tabernacle was completely set up and anointed all over, together with the utensils and things belonging to it. The altar which had been consecrated for 7 days, was now dedicated by Aaron by his first oblation of sacrifices made on it. The seven previous days were for expiation, or cleaning and ordained for the hallowing of the altar. Ex 29:36,37

223. The heads of the tribes brought six covered wagons and twelve oxen, and jointly offered them before the tabernacle. All this was given to the Levites, the sons of Gershon and Merari for their duties. Every day leaders of the tribes brought their various sacrifices and things belonging to the ministry of the tabernacle and offered them towards the dedication of it. This took twelve days. Nu 7:1-11,84,88

224. On this first day, Naasson, (from whom David and according to the flesh, Jesus Christ himself) came and made his offering for the tribes of Judah. Then the rest, every one for his tribe, according to the order as they were ranked in their camps, made offerings. Nu 7:11-83

225. Nadab and Abihu were Aaron's two oldest sons who had gone with their father up into the Mount Sinai and saw the glory of God there. Ex 24:1,9,10 They went into the sanctuary with strange or common fire. This was not that fire which fell from heaven, Le 9:24 and which was perpetually to be kept alive and continued for the burning of the sacrifices and incense in times to come. They were struck dead in the place by fire sent from heaven. Le 10:1,9 Nu 3:2-4,26,60,61 The priests were forbidden to make lamentation for them. Moreover for their neglect of duty, all the priests were ordered to abstain from wine and strong drink before they were to go into the tabernacle. A law also was made, that what was left of the sacrifices should be eaten by the priests. Aaron's excuse for not doing this was allowed by Moses. Le 10:6-20

226. Upon this occasion the law was made (about the tenth day of this month, as it seems) that only the high priest should enter into the sanctuary once in a year. This was only to be on the day of atonement and the general fast which was to be kept on the 10th day of the seventh month. Le 16:1-34

227. On the 14th of this month, (Thursday, June 3rd) at evening, the passover was to be celebrated by those who were unable to keep it a month earlier because of their uncleanness Nu 9:1-24

228. By God's command, this blasphemous person, was carried out of the camp, and stoned. Le 24:10-13

229. All the laws contained in the 17 last chapters of Leviticus seem to have been made in this month.

230. God commanded two silver trumpets to be made, to call the congregation together for the times of their moving and marching and sacrificing. Nu 10:1-28

231. Jethro, who was also called Hobab, brought his daughter Zipporah, with her two sons, Gershon and Eliezer who were left with him, to Moses, his son-in-law. He congratulated him and the people for their deliverance from Egyptian bondage. He publicly declared both by word and deed, his faith and devotion toward the true God. By his advise, Moses delegated the government of the people to some others and ordained magistrates for the deciding of lesser issues. Ex 18:1-27 De 1:9-18 Nu 10:29

232. The 19th day of this month seems to have been the last day that the 12 leaders of the tribes made their oblations for the dedication of the altar. This day Ahira made his offering for the tribe of Naphtali. Nu 7:78,88

233. On the 20th day of the second month (Wednesday, June 9th) God commanded the Israelites to break camp and to start their journey to take possession of the promised land. Nu 10:11,12 De 1:6,7 Moses asked Jethro to go along with him, but he refused and returned home. Nu 9:29,30 Ex 18:27

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