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« Reply #495 on: December 10, 2006, 02:21:25 PM »

6150. Tiberius had stayed seven years at Rhodes. In the eighth year after his departure, he returned into his country when Publius Vineius was consul and Lucius and Caius were still alive. {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 14.} {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 99. 1:255 c. 103. 1:263} When he returned to Rome, his son Drusus was in the forum. Tiberius presently went from Pompey's house in the street Carinae to Mecaenas, his gardens in Esquiliae. He wholly gave himself to ease, doing some private entertaining but did not meddle with the government. {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 15.}

6151. As Lucius was about to go to the armies in Spain, he died at Marseilles of a sudden death, who was not famous for anything, twenty two months before his brother Caius' death. {*Florus, l. 2. 1:343} {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 102. 1:263} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 3.} {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 65.} {Zonaras, ex Dio}

6152. After Lucius' death, Augustus would have adopted Tiberius but he vehemently refused it for he feared the envy of Caius. {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 103. 1:263}

4006 AM, 4716 JP, 3 AD

6153. Caius entered into Armenia and at first had good success. A little later Addo or Adduus, (he was called also Ador by Strabo) the governor of Artagera, persuaded the citadel to revolt. He enticed Caius to the wall, as though he would tell him some secret business, and wounded him. Caesar's captains took the citadel by continual assault and dismantled it. {*Velleius Paterculius, l. 2. c. 103. 1:263} {*Strabo. l. 11. 5:327} {Zonaras, ex Dio}

6154. In Florus {*Florus, l. 2. 1:343} this story is thus related. Dones or Domitus whom the king had made governor of Artaxatis or Artagerae pretended to betray the king. He wounded Caius as he was looking over a scroll which he had given him that contained a record of the treasures. Caius was indeed wounded, but in a short time recovered from his wound. The barbarians were attacked on every side by the army with the swords. Domitus was wounded and hurled himself upon a burning pyre. Thus he made atonement with his life to Caesar who outlived him. Sextus Rufus also followed Florus in his breviary. {Sextus, in Breviary}. However he relates this as it had been concerning the Parthians and not concerning the Armenians. He without any reason adds:

``The Parthians to give satisfaction for such a bold attempt, first gave hostages to Octavian Caesar and restored the ensigns that were taken away under Crassus.''

6155. This is the account of all those things to this history of Caius (incorrectly called Claudius, both here and by Jornandes, and in that writing of the Latins, that Georgius Syncellus transferred into his Greek Chronicle) which Suetonius {Suetonius, Octavian, c. 21.} had written about the Parthians. He confuses the two accounts and combines them into one:

``The Parthians easily yielded up Armenia to (Octavian) who claimed it. They restored the military ensigns to him that he demanded which were taken from M. Crassus and M. Antony. Moreover, they offered hostages.''

6156. Caius made Ariobarzanes governor over the Armenians at their request. He was a Mede and was very handsome and intelligent. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1.}

6157. Caius was less useful because of his wound and he was less energetic and his mind was less profitable to the state. He never lacked the company of men who by their flattery fomented his vices. By this it happened that he would rather spend all his time in any corner of the world than to return to Rome. He became less astute through sickness and more retiring and he desired that he might live a private life. Augustus was grieved by this and advised him that he should return into Italy He sailed to Lycia and died of sickness in the city Limyra. {Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 102. 1:259} Tacitus notes that he died as he came from Armenia and was sick from his wound. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1 c. 3.} Sextus Rufus affirmed that he died from his wound after he returned to Syria. Suetonius confirmed that he died in Lycia as does also Dio and Velleius (who was a tribune of soldiers and then served under Caius.) {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 65.}

6158. Augustus was very grieved by the death of Caius. In his letters, he complained to Asinius Pollio who was his dear friend when eating a large supper when his grief was too fresh and great. Pollio wrote back:

``I supped after the same fashion when I lost my son Aterius. Would any exact more grief from a friend than from a father?''

6159. Marcus Seneca relates this in the poem of the 4th book of his controversies. {Seneca, Controversiae Suasoriae. l. 4.}

6160. The bodies of Caius and Lucius were brought to Rome by the captains, armies and commanders of every city. The golden (or silver) shields and spears which they received from the equestrians when they came to manhood, were hung up in the senate house. {Xyphiline, ex Dio} Although Bellonius related in the second book of his observations that the epitaph of G. Caesar may be seen at Hama or Emesa in Syria. However, his bones were buried at Rome as this epitaph showed which is seen before the temple of the gods behind the temple of Minerva. "OSS A C. CAESAR IS AVGVSTIF. PRINCIPIS JUVENTUTIS." This means the bones of G. Caesar the son of Augustus, prince of youth. {Gruter, Inscriptions, p. 235. 4.} There was a suspicion that both these brothers were taken out of the way by the deceit of their stepmother Livia, to make way for her son, Tiberius for the empire. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 3.} {Zonaras, ex Dio}

6161. Augustus was made a god by the people. He did not approve and forbid it by an edict. {Xyphiline, ex Dio} {Zonaras, ex Dio} {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 53.}

4007a AM, 4716 JP, 3 AD

6162. After the thirteen years of his government had expired, he took upon himself the empire for another ten years. He did this as if it were upon compulsion. He had now become more mild and was loath to exasperate the senators and would not offend anyone any more. {Xyphiline, ex Dio}

6163. Augustus made Tiberius Nero his partner in the tribuneship. Tiberius eagerly refused both privately and in the senate. {Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 103. 1:265} Suetonius stated that the tribuneship was given to him for five years {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 16.} and Dio said for ten years. {Dio, l. 55. 6:425}

4007b AM, 4717 JP, 4 AD

6164. The Julian calender was now correct. The third intercalary day which was superfluous and added by the carelessness of the Roman priests, was omitted this year in the month of February. Later Augustus, who was the high priest, ordered that one day in the beginning of every fifth year should be intercalated according to the edict of Caesar. To ensure the perpetual keeping of this order, he ordered that it should be engraved in a brass table. {Macrobius, Saturnal. l. 1. c. 14. fin.} From the institution the records of all times after this are calculated. {Solinus, c. 3.} It was no marvel, for it was constantly observed after this until the change of the calender made by Pope Gregory 13th in the year 1579. Yet lest the fairs that were kept by the Romans at the beginning of every ninth day, should fall on the first of January, one day was added often at the end of the previous year and was removed again in the following year. This would keep the time in agreement with Julius Caesar's edicts. {Dio, l. 48. p. 377.} {Dio, l. 60 p. 681.}

6165. After five years Augustus brought his daughter Julia from the island to the continent and gave her some more gentle conditions of exile. However, he could not bring himself to recall her altogether. When the Roman people intreated him for her and were very urgent with him, he used this curse publicly on them that they should have such daughters and such wives. {Suetonius, Octavian, c. 65.}

6166. When Aelius Catus and Sentius (Saturninus) were consuls on June 27th (5th calends of July), Augustus adopted Tiberius Nero. {Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 103. 1:265} He swore before the people that he adopted him for the commonwealth's sake.{Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 104. 1:265} {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 21.} Marcus Agrippa, the brother of Caius and Lucius was adopted the same day whom Julia bore after the death of Agrippa. {Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 104. 1:265} {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 15.} Augustus feared lest Tiberius should grow proud and make a rebellion. Before he adopted him, he made Tiberius adopt Germanicus, the son of his brother Drusus, although Tiberius had a son of his own. {*Dio, l. 55. 6:425} {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 15.} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 3.}

6167. Immediately after his adoption, Tiberius was sent into Germany, with whom Paterculus went and served as a colonel of the cavalry. He was an eye witness of all that Tiberius did for nine years. {*Velleius Paterculus, c. 104, 105. 1:265-269}

6168. When Tiberius was sent into Germany, the ambassadors of the Parthians, came with their embassy to Rome. They were ordered to go into the province to him. {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 16.} There were many contending for the Parthian kingdom and ambassadors came from the noblemen of Parthia and desired to have a king of one of the three sons of Phraates who remained as hostages at Rome. Vonones was preferred before his other brothers and was helped by Caesar. He was joyfully received by the Parthians for some time. {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 21.} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:478,479>} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 2.}

6169. Augustus accepted the proconsular power so that he might raise a tax in Italy. {*Dio, l. 55. 6:427}
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« Reply #496 on: December 10, 2006, 02:22:02 PM »

4008 AM, 4718 JP, 5 AD

6170. The sun was partially eclipsed {*Dio, l. 55. 6:451} on March 28 about five o'clock in the afternoon according to the astronomical tables.

6171. Toga Virilis which was the gown that the Roman men wore at age 18, was given to Marcus Agrippa Posthumous, (e.g. born after the death of his father) who had never had those honours that his brothers (Caius and Lucius) had. {*Dio, l. 55. 6:451}

4009 AM, 4719 JP, 6 AD

6172. The rulers of the Jews as well as of the Samaritans could no longer put up with the tyranny of Archelaus and accused him to Caesar. They knew that he had acted contrary to Caesar's command by whom he was commanded to govern his subjects with justice and equity. When Caesar heard this, he was very angry and sent for his agent who lived at Rome. He did not write anything to Archelaus but ordered his agent to go to Judea and immediately to bring his master to him. {Josephus, Wars, l. 2. c. 6.} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. ult. <c. 13. 1:474,475>}

6173. Archelaus claimed to have had a dream foretelling this misfortune. He saw nine ears of grain which were eaten up by oxen. Simon, an Essean, interpreted those ears to be nine years of his kingdom and said that now the end of his government was at hand. The fifth day after this, the agent of Archelaus is said to have come to Judea. He found Archelaus banqueting with his friends and told him Caesar's pleasure was that he must come and answer the accusations. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. ult. <c. 13. 1:475>}

4010a AM, 4719 JP, 6 AD

6174. About our November, on the seventh day of the Jewish month Cisleu, began the tenth year of the reign of Archelaus. (What Augustus called an ethnarchy the Jews called a kingdom.) Joseph the priest had a son named Matthias, in the tenth year of the reign of Archelaus as it is in the public registers. Flavius Josephus, the historian, was the son of this Matthias. {Josephus, Life, 1:1} For this very reason, Josephus thought it best to change what he had written formerly in his books of the wars of the Jews about the nine years of Archelaus. In his books of antiquities he substituted in the ten years in his kingdom and ten ears in the dream. No such amendment was needed. He only reigned a few days in his tenth year of his ethnarchy or kingdom. He was sent into banishment at the end of that year when M. Aemilius Lepidus and L. Aruntius were consuls. Under their consulship:

``Herod of Palestine (who was indeed none other than this Archelaus) was accused by his countrymen and was banished beyond the Alps and his government was confiscated.'' {*Dio, l. 55. 6:465,467}

6175. When Caesar heard the accusations and the defence of Archelaus, he banished him to Vienna of France and confiscated his country and his treasure. {Josephus, Wars, l. 2. c. 6.} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. ult. <c. 13. 1:475>} This is that son of Herod, whom Strabo noted to have lived in exile among the Allobroges of France. {*Strabo, l. 16. 7:299}

4010b AM, 4720 JP, 7 AD

6176. Augustus proscribed his only nephew Marcus Agrippa who was born after the death of his father. He was ignorant and foolishly fierce from a pride of his strength. He was found innocent but Augustus confiscated all his goods into the military treasury and banished him to Planasia, an island near Corsica. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 3.} {*Dio, l. 55. 6:475}

6177. The government of Archelaus, that is, Judea, (containing the tribe of Judah and Benjamin) Samaria and Idumea, was organised into a province and annexed to Syria. Quirinius was sent by Caesar, to be the governor of Syria so that he might tax both it and all Syria. He was sent to evaluate the wealth of the Jewish estates and to sell Archelaus' property and bring its money into his own country. {Josephus, Antiq, l. 17. c. fin l. 18. c. 1. <c. 13. 1:475,476>}

6178. Although the Jews could barely tolerate even the mention of a tax, however, Joazar the son of Boethus the high priest convinced them. He was either restored by Archelaus or else took the priesthood again in his absence. Without much opposition, they allowed themselves to be taxed. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 18. c. 1. <1:476>}

6179. At the time of this taxing, Judas a Galilean arose and drew away many people after him. After he died, all that followed him were dispersed according to Gamaliel. {Ac 5:37} Josephus calls him a Gaulonite. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 18. c. 1. <1:476>} He was born in the town of Gamala but in another place Josephus agrees with Gamaliel and he calls him a Galilean and wrote that he instigated the people to revolt from the Romans when Quirinius taxed Judea. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 18. c. 2. <c. 1. 1:476> l. 20 c. 3. <c. 5. 1:531>}

6180. Sadduc, a Pharisee was his associate and tried to stir up the people to rebel. He said that this taxing was nothing else but an obvious sign of their servitude. He exhorted all the country to stand for their liberty and gave them the hope that by this they should better enjoy their lives. They would be confirmed in the possession of their estates and would be considered valiant. They could not expect any help from God if they did not help themselves. The people readily received these speeches and were encouraged to do something. These men troubled the country for they filled all places with murders and robberies. They plundered without any respect of friend or foe and murdered many noble personages. All this was done under the pretext of defending the public liberty but indeed it was for their private profit. Judas and Sadduc were the instigators of all these calamities and the example for all who were desirous of seditions. This not only disturbed the country now but were the seeds of all the future calamities. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 1. <1:476>}

6181. To the three ancient sects of the Jews, (that is the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes), Judas the Galilean founded a fourth one. Its followers agreed with the Pharisees and affirmed that God only is to be accounted Lord and master of all. They would more easily endure any most horrible torture together with their friends and children than call any mortal man, Lord. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 2. <c. 1. 1:477>}

6182. Quirinius sold and confiscated Archelaus' goods and went through the land with the tax. (This happened in the 37th year after the victory at Actium beginning in September of the previous year.) There was a sedition of the common people made against Joazar the high priest. Quirinius removed him from his office and substituted Ananus (or Annas) the son of Seth in his place. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:478>}

6183. Quirinius was accompanied by Coponius, who was of the equestrian order and Coponius was sent by Augustus to be the first governor of Judea, after it was organised into a province. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 2. <c. 1. 1:477>} {Josephus, Wars, l. 2. c. 7.} The term of the governors seems always to have expired after three years.

4011 AM, 4721 JP, 8 AD

6184. When Coponius was governor of Judea, in the passover of this or the following year, the priests (as it was the custom always at this feast) had opened the gates of the temple about midnight. Certain Samaritans secretly entered Jerusalem and scattered men's bones amidst the porch and over all the temple. After this, the priests watched the temple much more diligently than before. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 478>}

6185. At the passover of this year, Christ in the twelfth year of his age was brought to Jerusalem by Joseph and Mary. After the seven days of unleavened bread were over, his parents returned home and he stayed behind. They did not know where he was and looked for him for three days. They found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers. He was listening to them and asking them questions. All who heard him, were astonished at his understanding and answers. {Lu 2:41-47}

6186. Jesus went down with his parents to Nazareth and was obedient to them. {Lu 2:51} He followed his father's trade as a carpenter and ate his bread by the sweat of his brow. From this, his fellow citizens of Nazareth stated: "Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary?" {Mr 6:3}

4012 AM, 4722 JP, 9 AD

6187. Ovid was banished to Tomas in Pontus because, he saw some dishonest act of Augustus which he did not want to be seen. About this misfortune, we read him complaining: {*Ovid, Tristia, l. 2. 1:63}

Why saw I ought? Why did I guilty make My eyes? This sin why did I, wretch, partake?

6188. He was exiled also for his love of books he himself confirms and is recorded by Sidonius Apollinaris and others. {*Ovid, Tristia, l. 2. 1:61} We have shown before, that he was born in the consulship of Hirtius and Pansa, and was at this time fifty one years old but the current year was not complete. The poet records his age: {*Ovid, Tristia, l. 2. e. 10. 1:203}

When twice five times with olive girt the knight. Had bore away the prize (his virtues right) When by my princes rage I had command Of the Euxine Tomitae to seek the land.

6189. That is, as it is more clearly expressed by him, in his book in Iben, (he wrote against his accusers when he first arrived at Tomos.) {*Ovid, Tristia, l. 2. e. 8. 1:193}

When to this time ten lustrals I had seen.
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« Reply #497 on: December 10, 2006, 02:22:31 PM »

6190. For he did not confuse the Olympiads which were every four years with the lustrals of the Romans which were every five years.

4013 AM, 4723 JP, 10 AD

6191. Ovid signified this that he had passed the first winter in Pontus, and with that the first year of his banishment, (for he had spent the former winter on his journey.) {*Ovid, Tristia, l. 3. e. 12. 1:147}

Now zephyr tames the cold; the years run round,
A longer winter the Maeotae found.
The sign in Aries, the night did make
Her equal hours with the day partake.

6192. He noted the second year of his banishment. {Ovid, Tristia, l. 6. e. 4.}

Since I my country left the barns twice filled And presses, grain and wine did to them yield.

6193. Marcus Ambivius was sent by Augustus, as the second governor into Judea. During his stay, Salome died who was the sister of Herod. She bequeathed to Julia (Livia, Augustus' wife) Jamnia, with its government, Phasealis which was located in the plain and Archelaus which was very well planted with date palm trees which is a most excellent fruit. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:478>}

4015 AM, 4725 JP, 12 AD

6194. Ovid recalls the beginning of his third winter that he spent in Pontus. {*Ovid, Tristia, l. 5. e. 10. 1:245}

Since I to Pontus came thrice Ister stood
With frost, and thrice lay glazed the Euxine flood.

6195. The senate and people of Rome, at Augustus' request, made a decree that Tiberius might have the same power in all the provinces and armies as he himself had. {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 121. 1:307} Suetonius stated that this law was propounded by the consuls {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 21.} that Tiberius should govern the provinces in common with Augustus. Germanicus was consul all that year, whom the aged Augustus used to commend in writing to the senate just as the senate itself did also commend him to Tiberius. {*Dio, l. 56. 7:59} It was no wonder that the senate should receive the commendation from Augustus:

``to his son his colleague of the empire and partner in the tribuneship.''

6196. as Tacitus stated. {Tacius, Annals, l. 1. c. 3.} Tiberius was also made censor and he committed the care of the city to Lucius Piso because he had continued two days and two nights in drinking with him since Tiberius was now made a prince. {*Pliny, l. 14. c. 38. 4:281} Tacitus confirmed that Piso was the prefect of the city for twenty years and did his job well. He died when Domitius Aenobarbus and Aulus Vitellius were consuls in 32 A. D. and was honoured with a public funeral. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 6. c. 11.} From this it is gathered that Tiberius was now prince or viceroy in 12 A. D. two whole years before Augustus' death. Therefore there must be a distinction noted between the beginning of Tiberius' first being a prince or viceroy and his later becoming emperor.

4016 AM, 4726 JP, 13 AD

6197. Ovid noted his fourth winter which he lived in exile. {*Ovid, Pontus, l. 1. e. 2. ad Maximus 1:291?}

Here the fourth winter wearied me doth hold,
Resisting adverse fate, weapons, sharp cold.

6198. Annius Rufus was sent as the third governor to Judea by Augustus. {*Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:478>})

4017a AM, 4726 JP, 13 AD

6199. When Lucius Munacius and Caius Silius were consuls, the fourth ten year term of Augustus' empire was about to expire. Against his will, he accepted the government of the state for another ten years and continued Tiberius' tribuneship. {*Dio, l. 56. 6:63}

4017b AM, 4727 JP, 14 AD

6200. When Sextus Pompeius and Sextus Apuleius were consuls, Augustus wrote in a breviary of his acts which was engraved in marble of Ancira that he with his colleague Tiberius, numbered the people of Rome for the third time. In this census, the Roman citizens totalled 4,137,000. {Gruter, Inscriptions, p. 230} Eusebius {Eusebius, Chronicle} is incorrect where he said that there were numbered 9,370,000. Jornandes followed Eusebius in this error in his book {Jornandes, Succession of Kingdoms and Times} and gave and even larger number. He added that Augustus had:

``commanded all the world to be numbered since there was peace at the birth of Jesus Christ.''

6201. Both he and Eusebius in that place conjecture that the birth of the Lord happened in the 42nd year of Augustus' empire.

6202. When Augustus made this great muster in Mars field, there were a number of people there. An eagle often fluttered about Augustus and then went and sat on a nearby temple on the first letter of Agrippa's name. When Augustus saw this, he commanded his colleague Tiberius to make those vows that were usually made for the next year. For although all things were ready for the solemnities of those vows, yet he refused to make those vows which he should not live to perform. (??) {Suetonius, Octavian, c. 97.}

6203. About the same time the first letter of his name, that was on the inscription of his statue which was set in the capitol, fell down after it was struck with a flash of lightning. The soothsayers said that he would live only an hundred days after that because the letter "C" denoted 100 in Roman numerals. Also he should be canonized as a god, because "AESAR", which was the rest of his name, in the Etruscan language, meant "a god". {*Dio. l. 56. 7:67} {Suetonius, Octavian, c. 97.}

6204. In the meanwhile, Augustus wrote a summary of his doings which he wanted to have engraved in tables of brass and placed over his tomb. {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. ult.} {*Dio, l. 56. 7:73} An example of this which was written in the marble of Ancyra, so often mentioned by us, in which that former census that he took so recently was described.

6205. So Augustus ended his days at Nola in Campania, when those two Sexti were consuls and were named on his tomb. {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 123. 1:311} {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 100.} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 5. & 7.} {*Dio. l. 56. 7:71} He died in the same house and chamber, where his father Octavian had died, {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 100.} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 9.} on August 19th, which was the same day he was first made consul. {Suetonius, in Octavian, c. 100.} {*Dio, l. 56. 7:69}

6206. Tiberius did not announce the death of Augustus before he had killed Agrippa Posthumous. He replied to the captain who killed him and brought back word that he had done as Tiberius had ordered that he had not ordered it and that he should give an account of it to the senate. He was willing at the present to avoid its reproach. {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 22.} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 6.} {*Dio, l. 57. 7:119,121} After preparing all things according to the time, the same news came together that Augustus was dead and that Tiberius Nero was emperor. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 5.}

6207. Although he had every intention of taking over the empire, yet he for a long time most imprudently refused it and held the senate in suspense. They begged him and fell on their knees to him. He replied with doubtful and delaying answers so that some upbraided him to his face for his indecision. {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 24.} {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 124. 1:311,313} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 7.} {*Dio, l. 57. 7:117}

6208. Between this new principality, as Tacitus calls it, {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 6,7.} and the former which he had 2 years before Augustus' death, was this difference. The former extended only to armies and provinces of the Roman Empire but this to the head city itself in which Tiberius only had the authority of censorship and tribuneship. He had the Augustal Principality, that is, of governing after his own will and being freed from all bonds of laws. For Tiberius had not equal power with Augustus as Lucius Varus had with Antony the philosopher who governed the state with equal authority according to Spartianus. {Spartianus, in Hadrian, Aelio Vero, & M. Aurelio.} His power was like Antoninus Pius had with Hadrian who was adopted by him and made colleague with his father in the proconsular power (in respect of the other provinces) and in the tribuneship (at home) as Julius Capitolinus stated. Thereupon Tiberius did not issue the edict by which he called the senators into the senate by the authority of his new principality but by the power of the tribuneship which he had under Augustus. However, he controlled the Praetorian cohorts as emperor. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 7.}
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« Reply #498 on: December 10, 2006, 02:23:08 PM »

4018a AM, 4727 JP, 14 AD

6209. The legions of Pannonia rebelled and were frightened by a sudden eclipse of the moon and so submitted themselves to Tiberius. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 28.} {*Dio, l. 57. p. 7:123} This total eclipse happened on September 27th at five hours after midnight so that the moon set even in the very eclipse.

6210. Ovid {*Ovid, Pontus, l. 4. e. 5. 1:439} wrote about Sextus Pompeius who was consul this year and {*Ovid, Pontus, l. 4. e. 6. 1:441} the next poem about Brutus, in which he mentions the death both of Augustus and Fabius Maximus. (It is obvious from Tacitus, {Tacitus, Annals, l. 1. c. 5.} that Maximus died this year under Tiberius.) Ovid showed in these verses that he was more than five years into his banishment and that then he was entering the sixth, (of the beginning of which we are certain.)

Now one quinquennial Olympiad's run, In Scythia I, and the second Lustral gun.

6211. In this sixth year he remembered also: {*Ovid, Pontus, l. 4. e. 10. 1:463}

This is the sixth summer on the Cymmerian shores That I must spend amongst these Getic boors.

4018b AM, 4728 JP, 15 AD

6212. Ovid mentioned in his eulogy to Caras of the sixth winter, (from which he counts the beginning of the seventh year of his banishment.) {*Ovid, Pontus, l. 4. e. 13. 1:477}

This the sixth winter (my dear friend)
Must I in this cold climate spend.

6213. Where also he tells of a poem at this time written by him in the language of the Getes of the canonization of Augustus. {*Ovid, Pontus, l. 4. e. 13. 1:477}

Ah shame, in Getic language then did I
Compile a book, fancy my Posey;
Yea gloried in it, and estsoon began
Amongst these barbars to be the only man.

6214. An Hebrew woman that had been bound by Satan eighteen years from this date, was restored by Christ to health. {Lu 13:1-16}

6215. Valerius Gratus is sent by Tiberius as governor to Judea to replace Annius Rufus. Gratus held the government for eleven years. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:478>}

6216. When the governor of Crete died, for the rest of his term the island was committed to the charge of the quaestor and his assessor. {Dio, l. 57. 7:147}

4019 AM, 4729 JP, 16 AD

6217. The Armenians had received Vonones into their kingdom who was expelled from his own by the threats of Artabanus the king of the Parthians and Medes. Vonones solicited in vain for help from Tiberius through his ambassadors whom he sent to Rome. Since the most powerful of the Armenians followed the faction of Artabanus, Vonones gave up all hope of recovering the kingdom. He retired with an huge amount of treasure to Antioch and submited himself to Creticus Silanus, the governor of Syria. Because Vonones was educated at Rome, the governor kept him with him in Syria and set a guard over him but allowed him to maintain the pomp and name of a king. Artabanus set Orodes, one of his sons, to be king over the Armenians. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:>} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 4.} {Suetonius, Tiberius, c. 49.}

4020 AM, 4730 JP, 17 AD

6218. Ovid the poet died in banishment and was buried near the city Tomos. {Jerome, Chronicles}

6219. Tiberius had Archelaus, the king of Cappadocia tricked into coming to Rome through the letters of Livia. Tiberius hated him because he had not offered him any help all the while he lived at Rhodes. She did not hide her son's displeasure with him but offered him mercy if he would come and ask for it. Archelaus did not know of the treachery or possible hostility and hurried to Rome. He was churlishly entertained and not long after he was accused of feigned crimes in the senate. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 42.} He was accused as though he planned a sedition. The old king was worn out with extreme old age and gout and was believed to dote on the people. He defended himself in his letter in the senate and pretended that he was not well at that time in his mind and escaped danger for the time being. {*Dio, l. 57. 7:157} However, not long after this he died from other causes because he was tired with grief and with old age. Then Cappadocia was organised into a province and committed to the government of an equestrian. {*Dio, l. 57. 7:159} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 42.} {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 37.}

6220. Tiberius stated that by the profits of that kingdom of Cappadocia, the tribute of one in the hundred might be stopped and appointed the tribute of one in two hundred to be raised. (??) {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 42.} He ordered that its chief city called Mazaca, a most noble city, should be called Caesarea. {Jerome, Chronicles}

6221. At the same time after Antiochus, the king of the Commangenes had died, there arose a contention between the nobility and the common people. The nobility desired that the kingdom should be made into a province and the common people wanted another king. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 42.} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:479>} In similar manner also the country of the Cilicians was in a turmoil when their King Philopator died. Many wanted it to become a Roman province and many wanted a kingdom. The provinces of Syria and Judea were oppressed with taxes and made a petition that their tribute might be lessened. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 42.}

6222. Tiberius discussed these things with the senate and persuaded them that these problems in the east could only be settled by the wisdom of Germanicus. Thereupon by the decree of the senate, Germanicus was given the charge of all the provinces east of Italy. This was a greater command than anyone before him had. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 43.} Under the pretence of problems in the east, Tiberius intended to take him from the legions that he usually commanded and gave him charge over new provinces which exposed him more to treachery and hazards. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 45.??}

6223. Because the governor of Syria, Creticus Silanus was related (??) to Germanicus, Tiberius appointed Cn. Piso as his successor. He was a head strong and rebellious man and was well aware that he was made governor of Syria to thwart Germanicus. Some believed that he had secret orders from Tiberius to do so. Without a doubt, his wife Plancina was advised by Augusta through female jealousy to quarrel with Agrippina (the daughter of M. Agrippa) and Julia, the wife of Germanicus {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 43.}

6224. In the same year twelve famous cities of Asia were destroyed in one night by an earthquake. These were Ephesus, Magnesia, Sardis, Mosthene, Aegae, Hiero-Caesarea, Philadelphia, Temnus, Cyme, Myrina, Apollonia, and Hyrcania. They stated also that huge mountains were laid flat and plains raised up into hills and fire flashed out of those ruins. The disaster was most serious among the Sardians and created much sympathy for them. Tiberius promised them 1,000,000 Sesterces and to release them for five year's time of all that they were to pay to the common treasury. The Magnetes near the mountain Sypilus were the next worst damaged. They were given relief from taxes for five years also as well as the Temnians, Philadelphians, Aegetians, Apollonienses, and such as are called Mosthenians, or Macedonians of Hyreania, and those who lived at Heiro-Caesarea, Myrina and Cyme. Tiberius sent some of the senators to them to see the situation and help them. This charge was committed to M. Aletus who was once a praetor. If one who had been consul over Asia had been sent, there might have been some envy between equals (e.g. the governor of Asia) and the business would have been hindered. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 43.} {*Strabo, l. 12. 5:515,517 l. 13. 6:179} {*Pliny. l. 2. c. 84. 1:329} {*Dio. l. 57. 7:159} {Eusebius, Chronicles} {Orosius, l. 7. c. 4.}

6225. For this magnificent generosity to the public, a large statue of Tiberius was erected in the forum at Rome by the temple of Venus. Each of the cities which was rebuilt, also erected a statue of Tiberius according to Phlegon Trellianus in his book of wonders stated from Apollonius the Grammarian. Scaliger also adds that there were silver medals coined to commemorate these things. On one side of the coin was the face of Tiberius and on the reverse side was the picture of Asia in a woman's clothing sitting with these words CIVITATIBUS ASIAE RESTITUTIS meaning, "for the cities of Asia restored."
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« Reply #499 on: December 10, 2006, 02:23:57 PM »

4021 AM, 4731 JP, 18 AD

6226. Germanicus was sent out to settle the affairs of the east. {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 1.} He sailed into the isle Lesbos where his wife Agrippina had previously given birth to Julia. He desired to see the places of antiquity and fame, he went to the confines of Asia, Perinthus and Byzantium, cities of Thrace. Then he entered the straits of Propontis and the mouth of the Pontic Sea. Likewise he relieved the provinces which were oppressed with civil discord or oppressive magistrates. He sailed to Colophon and consulted the oracle of Clarius Apollo. The oracle told him in dark speeches (as the manner of oracles was) that his death was near. {Tacitus, Annals, l, 2. c. 54.}

6227. Cn. Piso sailed as quickly as possible by the Cyclades and using the shortest routes by sea, he overtook Germanicus at Rhodes. Piso was saved from danger of shipwreck by Germanicus but yet was not placated. He left Germanicus and went ahead of him to Syria. When he came to the legions with gifts and bribes, he tried to win them over to him. He reached such an height of corruption that among the common people, he was called the father of the legions. Both he and his wife Plancina as well by herself were involved in this. She instigated some of the soldiers to obey her base commands and spoke disrespectfully against Agrippina and Germanicus. It was all the easier because it was secretly whispered that this was done with the emperor's consent. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 55.}

6228. Although Germanicus knew about those things, the affairs of Armenia required his attention first. At that time, the Armenians had expelled Vonones and had no king. (This is if we can believe Tacitus for Suetonius {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 1.} stated that the king of Armenia was conquered by Germanicus. This was Orodes, the son of Artabanus, king of the Parthians, as it was stated from Josephus.) The good will of the country was inclined more towards Zeno, the son of Polemon, the king of Pontus. From his childhood, he had imitated the customs and clothing of the Armenians in hunting and feasting and other exercises which were greatly esteemed by the barbarians. He had won to him the good will of the nobles and common people. Germanicus intended to make him king in the city of Artaxatis. The noble men approved of this and the multitudes flocked around him. The rest reverenced him as their king and greeted him by the name of Artaxias after the name of their city. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 56.}

6229. Then the Cappadocians were organised into a province and Q. Veranius was made its governor. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 56.} To encourage them that the Roman government would be mild, some of the tributes that they used to pay to their kings, were reduced. Q. Servaeus was made governor over the Commagenians. This province was ruled by a praetor. (??) {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 56.}

4022a AM, 4731 JP, 18 AD

6230. After all the affairs of the allies were successfully settled, Germanicus was still uneasy about Piso's arrogance. Germanicus had ordered that either he himself or his son, should lead some of the legions into Armenia and neither did anything. Finally, they both met at Cyrrhum, a city of Syria, where the tenth legion wintered. In the presence of a few families, Caesar had a heated discussion with Piso and and Piso answered with a proud submission. Hence they departed with grudges against each other. After that Piso was seldom at Caesar's tribunal, and if at any time he assisted, he showed himself froward and obviously dissented from him. This speech of his was told at a banquet made by the king of the Nabateans, where large crowns of gold were given to Germanicus and Agrippina and small ones to Piso and the rest. This feast was made for the son of a Roman prince and not for the son of the Parthian king. The son threw away his crown, and spoke many things against the generosity of the host. (??) Although Germanicus could hardly digest this, yet endured it all patiently. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 57.}

6231. Ambassadors came from Artabanus, the king of the Parthians, to Germanicus to renew the friendship and league between them. The king said that he would give so much to the honour of Germanicus that he would come to the banks of the Euphrates River. He desired in the meantime that Vonones might not stay in Syria, lest by secret messengers he might make a rebellion among the noble men of the country around there. Germanicus answered agreeably to the alliance between the Romans and the Parthians. Concerning the king's coming and the honour done to himself, he answered politely and with modesty. Vonones was moved to Pompeipolis, a sea town of Cilicia. This was not done so much at Artabanus' request, as to spite Piso to whom Vonones was most acceptable for many services and gifts which he had given to Plancina, Piso's wife. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 58.}

4022b AM, 4732 JP, 19 AD

6232. When M. Silanus and L. Norbanus were consuls, Germanicus went into Egypt to learn its history but pretended a concern for the province. He opened the granaries and brought down the price of grain and did other things to win the favour of the people. He went about without soldiers, wore open shoes and dressed like a Greek. Tiberius lightly blamed him for his behaviour and apparel and sharply rebuked him that contrary to Augustus' order he had entered Alexandria without the permission of the prince. However, Germanicus did not yet know that his journey was frowned on and sailed up the Nile River starting at the town Conopus. Later he visited the great ruins of Thebes where the Egyptians' letters could still be seen in the old buildings which contained their ancient wealth. He intended to see other marvels of which the main attraction was the stone image of Memnon. When it is illuminated by the sun, it makes a sound like a man's voice. He also saw the pyramids as high as mountains built by the former kings to show their riches. He saw the impassable sands and the hand made ditches to hold the flooding of the Nile River. They were so narrow in same places and so deep in other places that the bottom could not be determined. Then he came to Elephantine and Syene. So that summer was spent by Germanicus in seeing various provinces. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 59-62.}

6233. At the same time Vonones bribed his guards and tried by all means to escape to the Armenians and from there to the Albanians and Heniochians and to his relative, the king of Scythia. Under the pretence of going hunting, he left the seacoasts and took the byways. His fast horse brought him quickly to the Pyrimus River, whose bridges the inhabitants had broken down when they heard of the king's escape. The river was too deep to ford across. Therefore on the bank of the river, he was captured and bound by Vibius Fronto, captain of the cavalry. Then as it were through anger, he was run through by Remmius Evocatus, to whose keeping he was first committed. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 68.}

6234. The daughter to Jairus, the ruler of the synagogue, was born. She was his only child and died when she was twelve years old. Christ restored her to life. During this year also, the woman became sick of the flux of blood. Twelve years later she was healed by touching the garment of Jesus. {Lu 8:42,43 Mr 5:42}

6235. There were many vain oracles that went about as though they had been the Sibyls concerning the destruction of Rome which was to happen in the year 900 from its founding. Tiberius reproved them and saw all the books which contained any prophesies. He rejected some as of no importance and he received others into the number of those which were to be approved. {*Dio, l. 57. 7:161,163}

6236. The senate debated about elimination of the Egyptian and Jewish religion. An act was made that those who observed them must depart from Italy if within a certain day they did not stop those practices. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 85.} They were compelled to burn all their religious garments with all things belonging to them. {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 36.} This may also be what Seneca refers to. {Seneca, ep. 108.}

``When I was a young man in the government of Tiberius, the foreign rites of the countries were removed. It was thought superstitious to abstain from some kinds of food.''

6237. An horrible crime was committed against Paulina, a noble woman by the Egyptian religion. When it was known, Tiberius commanded the temple of Isis to be thrown down and Isis' statue to be drowned in the Tiber River. {Josephus, Annals, l. 18. c. 4. <c. 3. 1:481>} A certain imposter was the reason for the expulsion of the Jews. He fled his country for fear of being punished, according to their laws. He then lived at Rome and made himself as though he were an interpreter of Moses' law. He had also three associates like himself. A noble woman, Fulvia, embraced the Jewish religion and became their scholar. They persuaded her that she should send purple and gold to the temple of Jerusalem. When they had received this, they used it for themselves. Tiberius was informed of this by his friend Saturninus, the husband of Fulvia who complained of the wrong to his wife. Tiberius ordered all the Jews to get out of the city. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 5. <c. 3. 1:481>}

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« Reply #500 on: December 10, 2006, 02:24:36 PM »

6238. The consuls enlisted 4000 of the youth for soldiers from the Jews who were the sons of free men. They were sent into Sardinia to suppress the robbers. They thought it no great loss if they should perish through the intemperance of the air. Many who refused to be enlisted because of the religion of their country, were grievously punished. The rest of that nationality or any that followed their religion, were turned out of the city under the penalty of perpetual slavery if they did not obey. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 5. <c. 3. 1:481>} {Suetonius, in Tiberius, c. 36.} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 85.}

6239. Rhascupolis or Rhascoporis, the king of Thracia, killed Cotys his brother's son, who also was his partner in the kingdom. He was betrayed by Pomponius Flaccus. (Ovid mentions Flaccus {*Ovid, Pontus, l. 4. . e. 9.} as governor of Moesia.) He was brought to Rome and there condemned and taken to Alexandria. He was killed as though he had made an attempt to flee from there. {Tacitus, Annals l. 2. c. 67.} {*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c. 126. 1:311} {Suetonius, Tiberius, c. 37.}

4023a AM, 4732 JP, 19 AD

6240. When Germanicus returned from Egypt, he found that everything he had ordered about the legions or cities was not done or done exactly opposite to what he ordered. Thereupon, he had very harsh words with Piso as if Piso had disobeyed the emperor directly. Hence Piso decided to leave Syria, but was then detained by reason of Germanicus' sickness. When he heard he was getting better and that the vows were to be made for his health, he thought his sergeants, drove away the beasts brought to the altar and disturbed the preparation for the sacrifices and the solemn meeting of the people of Antioch where Germanicus was. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 69.} When Germanicus was sick, he used him most harshly in words and deeds without any moderation. {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 2.}

6241. Then Piso went to Seleucia and expected Germanicus to become sick again. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 69.} In the house where Germanicus lived, they found pieces of human bodies dug out, verses and charms, his name engraved on lead sheets, ashes half burned and mingled with corrupt blood and other sorceries. It was believed that by this the souls are dedicated to the infernal powers. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 69.} {*Dio, l. 57. 7:163}

6242. Germanicus was very angry and renounced by letters Piso's friendship according to the ancient custom. Some add that he ordered him to leave the province. Piso did not stay but weighed anchor. However he sailed slowly so that he might return the sooner if news of Germanicus' death should open a way for him into Syria. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 70.} {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 3.}

6243. Germanicus was greatly weakened by his sickness and knew his end was near. He accused Piso and his wife Plancina and desired his friends to revenge it. He died to the great regret of the province and the neighbouring people. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 71,72.} He died at Antioch from a disease that had no respite when he was 34 years old. He was suspected to have been poisoned that was given to him through the treachery of Tiberius and Piso. {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 1, 2.}

6244. The day that Germanicus died, the temples were battered with a storm of stones, altars were overturned, the household gods by some were thrown into the streets and children laid out to die. They report also that the barbarians consented to a truce for public mourning with whom there was civil war or war against the Romans. Some governors among them cut off their beards and shaved their wives' heads, as a sign of their greatest mourning. The king of kings did no hunting or feasting with the nobles, which is a kind of holiday among the Parthians. {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 5.}

6245. His funeral was without any images or pomp and was solemnized with the praises and memory of his virtues. Before his body was burnt, it lay naked in the forum of Antioch where it was to be buried. It was uncertain, if he showed any signs of poison for there was a difference of opinion. Those who favoured Germanicus thought he was and those who favoured Piso did not think so. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 73.} In addition to the marks which were all over his body and the froth which came from his mouth, the heart did not burn with the rest of his body. It was thought that it would not be consumed with fire if the man died from poison. {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 1.} In a speech Vitellius later made, he tried to prove Piso guilty of this villainy and used this argument and publicly testified that the heart of Germanicus could not be burned because of the poison. Piso used the defence that the hearts of those who die of the disease called Cardiaca Passio cannot be burned. {*Pliny, l. 11. c. 71. 3:549}

6246. Cneus Sentius was chosen as the governor for Syria, by the lieutenants and senators who were there. They sent Martina to Rome, a woman infamous in that province for poisoning but very much liked by of Piso's wife, Plancina. This was done at the request of Vitellius and Veranius who alleged crimes and accusations against them as if they were already found guilty. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 74.} Although Agrippina was worn out with grief and sickness, she was impatient of anything which might hinder her revenge. She sailed with Germanicus' ashes and her children. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 75.}

6247. Piso received the news of Germanicus' death at the isle of Cos and expressed his joy most intemperately. Plancina was more insolent, who then first of all stopped her mourning for the death of her sister. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 75.} The centurions came flocking about him and told him that the legions were already at his command and he should return to the province which was wrongfully taken from him and now had no governor. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 76.} He sent letters to Tiberius and accused Germanicus of riotousness and pride and that himself was driven out to make way for a revolt Germanicus was planning. Piso said that he had taken the charge of the army again with the same fidelity he had governed it before. He had ordered Domitius Celer with a galley to sail to Syria as quickly as possible by the open sea and avoid the longer coastal route. Piso then marshalled and armed renegades and his rascal companions. He sailed over to the continent and intercepted an ensign of new soldiers who were going to Syria. He wrote to the leaders of Cilicia to send him help. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 78.}
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« Reply #501 on: December 10, 2006, 02:25:30 PM »

6248. Piso and his companions sailed by the coast of Lycia and Pamphilia and met with the ships which conveyed Agrippina. They each hated one another and prepared to fight. They were equally afraid of each other and only exchanged harsh words. Marsus Vibius told Piso that he should come to Rome and answer for himself. He scoffingly replied that he would come when the praetor who was to inquire into the poisonings would appoint a day for the plaintiff and defendant. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 79.}

6249. In the meanwhile, Domitius went to Laodicea, a city of Syria, and came to the winter quarters of the sixth legion. It was the best one to corrupt but he was prevented from this by the lieutenant Pucureius. Sentius warned Piso by letters that he should not go about to corrupt the army nor raise any war in the province. He immediately marched with a strong force and was ready to fight. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 79.}

6250. Piso seized the strong citadel of Celenderis in Cilicia. He had intermixed the renegades and the new soldiers that he had intercepted, with his own troops, Plancina's slaves (??) and the forces which the leaders of the Cilicians had sent him. He marshalled them into the form of a legion and then he drew out his companies before the citadel walls on a steep and craggy hill. All the other sides were surrounded by the sea. When the Roman cohorts came, the Cilicians fled and the Romans occupied the citadel. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 80.}

6251. In the meantime, Piso tried in vain to attack the navy that was not far off. He then returned to the citadel again. He tormented himself on the walls and called every soldier by name. He offered bribes and tried to raise a rebellion. He succeeded so well that the standard bearer of the sixth legion defected to him with his ensign. Then Sentius commanded the cornets and trumpets to sound and made an assault on the rampart. He raised the ladders and ordered the ablest men to follow him and others to shoot from engines, arrows, stones and firebrands. In the end, Piso was overcome and entreated that since he had laid down his arms he wanted to stay in the citadel until Caesar was consulted as to who should be the governor of Syria. These conditions were rejected and nothing was granted to him except naval escort and safe conduct to Rome. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 81.}

6252. When the rumour of Germanicus spread, it was exaggerated by the distance it travelled to Rome. The people were deeply grieved by his death {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 82.} as much as it pleased Tiberius and Livia. {*Dio, l. 57. p. 615.} No consolations or edicts could restrain the public mourning which lasted all the festival days of the month of December. {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 6.}

6253. Germanicus was decreed every honour which love or imagination could conceive. Arches were erected at Rome and on the bank of the Rhine River. On the Amanus mountain in Syria, an inscription was placed of what he had done and that he died for the country. A sepulchre at Antioch was made for his burial. A funeral monument was made at Epidaphne where he died. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 2. c. 83.}

6254. Although it was winter, Agrippina still continued her voyage by sea and arrived at the island Corcyra opposite the coast of Calabria. She rested a few days to settle her mind and then sailed to Brundusium. After she landed with her two children and held the funeral urn in her hand, there was a general mourning among them all. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 1.}

4023b AM, 4733 JP, 20 AD

6255. Drusius, the son of Tiberius, went as far as Tarracina to meet her with Germanicus' brother Claudius and the children of Germanicus who had remained in the city. The new consuls M. Valerius and M. Aurelius, the senate, and a large number of the people lined the way. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 2.}

6256. The day that the remains of Germanicus were placed in Augustus' tomb in Campus Martius, there was a desolate silence that was sometimes broken by their weeping. Everyone honoured Germanicus and had great sympathy for his widow, Agrippina and railed against Tiberius. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 4, 5.}

6257. When Piso came to Rome, he landed at Caesar's tomb. That day, the shore was full of people. Piso with a large company of followers after him and Plancina with a number of women in her train went ashore. They both looked very cheerfully and solemnizing their happy return in an house that overlooked into the forum which was decked out for feasts and banquets. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 9.} The next day Fulcinius Tiro accused Piso before the consuls. Tiberius referred the whole case to the senate. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 10.} The day the senate met Drusius, Tiberius made a prepared speech and tried to accommodate and moderate the defendant's offence. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 12.} The accusers were given two days to bring in their accusations and after six day's time, the defendant had three days to answer for himself. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 13.}

6258. As the case was pleaded, the outcry of the people could be heard before the court. They said they would tear him in pieces if the senate found him innocent. They had dragged his images into the Gemonian Steps and began to break them in pieces. (These steps descended from the capitol to the forum and were used to expose the bodies of executed criminals.) However, by Tiberius' orders they were restrained from their actions. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 14.} They showed the same hatred against Plancina but she was protected by Tiberius (through the influence of his wife.) Piso knew he was finished when his wife separated her defence from her husband's. Thereupon he killed himself with his own sword. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 15.}

6259. Suetonius writes that he was almost torn in pieces by the people and was condemned to death by the senate. {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 2.} Dio related this account. For the death of Germanicus, Piso was brought into the senate by Tiberius himself. Piso desired that he might have time to defend himself and he committed suicide. {*Dio, l. 57. 7:165} Cornelius Tactius says that he had often heard from the old men, {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 16.} that there was often seen a little book in Piso's hand which he kept to himself. His friends said it contained Tiberius' letters and commission against Germanicus. Piso planned to disclose it to the senators and to accuse Tiberius, had he not been deluded by Tiberius' vain promises. Piso did not kill himself but someone was sent to murder him. Tacitus said:

``I will not confirm either of these things although I ought not to conceal it to have been said by those who lived until I came to a man's age.'' {Suetonius, Tiberius, c. 52.}

4025 AM, 4735 JP, 22 AD

6260. Licences for ordaining sanctuaries increased greatly throughout the cities of Greece. These places became havens for debtors against their creditors and those that were suspected of capital crimes. Hence the wickedness of men was protected by the ceremonies of the gods. Tiberius ordered that the cities should sent their charters and ambassadors to the senate to Rome for confirmation. The Ephesians were first heard concerning this business. Then came the Magnetians, Aphrodisians, Stratonicenses, Hiero-Caesarians, Cypriots, Pergamenians, Smyrnians, Tenians, Sardians, Milesians, Cretians, and others. An honourable standard was prescribed. They were commanded to erect altars in the very temples for a sacred memory yet so that under pretence of religion, they should not fall into rivalries. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 60-63.}

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« Reply #502 on: December 10, 2006, 02:25:50 PM »

6261. Caius Silvanus was accused of bribery by his companions and banished into the Isle Cythera. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 66-69} Caesius Cordus was also accused of bribery by the Cyrenenses, by the suit of Ancharius Priscus and was condemned. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 3. c. 70.}

4026 AM, 4736 JP, 23 AD

6262. Aelius Sajenus killed Drusius (the son of Tiberius and his partner in the tribuneship after Sajenus committed adultery with Drusius' wife, Livia) by poison given him by Lygdus, an eunuch. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 4. c. 8. 10.} Sajenus also accused the Jews who lived at Rome to Tiberius of pretended crimes so that he might wholly destroy that nationality. He knew they were the main ones who opposed his wicked practices and he said they conspired against the life of the emperor. {Philo, de legat. ad Caium} {Flaccus, in initio.}

6263. After Drusius' funeral was over Tiberius returned to his accustomed business and took no extra time off. He jeered the ambassadors of the Illenses that came too late to comfort him, as though the memory of grief had been blotted out. He replied that he also was forty when they had lost so gallant a citizen as Hector was. {Suetonius, Tiberius, c. 52.}

6264. The senate passed the decrees of Tiberius that the city Cibyra in Asia and Aeginum in Achaia that were badly damaged by an earthquake should not have to pay tribute for the next three years. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 4. c. 13.}

6265. The Samians and the men of Cos sent their ambassadors to Rome and desired the confirmation of their ancient right of sanctuaries. One temple was for Juno and the other for Aesculapius. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 4. c. 13.}

6266. Lucilius Longus died who was the companion of the fortunes of Tiberius whether good or bad and who only of all the senators, was Tiberius' companion when he exiled himself to Rhodes. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 4. c. 15.}

6267. Lucilius Capito, the governor of Asia, was condemned by the accusation of the province. In the previous year, they had brought C. Silanus to justice and the cities of Asia decreed a temple dedicated to Tiberius, his mother, and the senate. They received permission to build it. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 4. c. 15.}

6268. Valerius Gratus the governor of Judea, removed Ananus or Annas from the high priesthood and made Ismael, the son of Fabus, the high priest. He soon removed him also. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:478>}

4027 AM, 4737 JP, 24 AD

6269. Ismael was removed from the high priesthood and Eleazar, the son of Annas, (or Ananus who was previously removed,) was made high priest by Valerius. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:478>}

6270. Cassius Severus the orator, seventeen years earlier, was banished into Crete for his vicious tongue by the decree of the senate. He behaved just as poorly there and had all his estate taken from him. He was forbidden both water and fire and was banished into the stony island of Seriphos. Eight years later, he died in extreme poverty. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 4. c. 21.} {Jerome, Chronicles}

6271. P. Dolabella, the proconsul of Africa, summoned to help him and his country men, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, King of Mauritania. He killed Tacfarinas and put an end to the Numidian war. The king of the Garamantes had helped Tacfarinas with light cavalry whom he sent from a long way off. When Tacfarinas was killed, Garamantes sent ambassadors to give satisfaction to the people of Rome. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 4. c. 23-26.}

6272. Vibius Serenus a banished man, was falsely accused by his son of treason and was condemned for an old grudge that Tiberius had against him. Gallus Asinius was of the opinion that he should be confined, either to Gyaros or Donusa. Tiberius set aside his grudge and said that he disagreed with that sentence. He said that both those islands lacked water and that to whom life was granted, things necessary for life were also to be granted. Thereupon, Serenus was banished to Amorgos, (one of the islands of the Sporades.) {Tacitus, Annals, l. 4. c. 28-30.}

6273. The ten year term of Tiberius' empire had expired and he made no plans of resuming it by any decree for another ten years longer neither did he want to have it divided by ten year periods as Augustus had done. He just continued on by his own authority. However, the decennial plays were held. {*Dio, l. 57. 7:181}
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« Reply #503 on: December 10, 2006, 02:27:33 PM »

4028 AM, 4738 JP, 25 AD

6274. Valerius Gratus removed Eleazar from the high priesthood after one year and gave the office to Simon, the son of Camithus. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:478>}

6275. The citizens of Cyzicum imprisoned some Roman citizens and had not completed the temple for Augustus that they had started. They had their liberty again taken from them that they had earned by being besieged in the war of Mithridates. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 4. c. 36.} {*Dio, l. 57. 7:183}

6276. Fonteius Capito, who had governed Asia as proconsul, was acquitted because it was found that he was falsely accused by Vibius Serenus. (Tacit. Annal. 4. c. 36.)

4029a AM, 4738 JP, 25 AD

6277. Eleven cities in Asia strove with great rivalry to see in which of them would build the temple that was appointed for Tiberius and the senate. Tiberius heard their ambassadors disputing for many days concerning this matter in the senate. The Hypepenians and Trallians, as also the Laodiceans and Magesians were eliminated as not having enough strength to do this. The Ilians related how Troy was the mother of Rome and they had a good argument but the glory of antiquity was doubted and they were eliminated. The Halicarnassians affirmed that their city had not been shaken with an earthquake for 1200 years and that the foundation of their temple was upon a natural rock. The Pergamenians were excluded because they already had a temple to Augustus. The senators thought one temple was enough for them. The Ephesians and Milesians were excluded because their cities were already involved with the ceremonies of Apollo and Diana. The decision was between the Sardians and Smyrnaeans. Each presented their case. The senate preferred the Smyrnaeans and Vobius Marius was of the opinion that M. Legidus who governed that province, should be placed in charge of the new temple as well as his other duties. Legidus refused through modesty and the senate selected by lot Valerius Naso who had been praetor, for the job. {Tiberius, Annals, l. 4. c. 55, 56.}

4029b AM, 4739 JP, 26 AD

6278. When Simon had held the high priesthood for one year Valerius Gratus appointed Joseph as his successor in that office. He was surnamed Caiphas, the son-in-law of Annas or Ananus who was formerly removed from the priesthood. {Joh 18:13} After the annual changes of the high priest were completed, Gratus returned to Rome after he had been eleven years in Judea. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:478>} By this action, we are rather inclined to refer these changes to the end of his government than to the beginning.

6279. Pontius Pilate was sent as the successor to Valerius Gratus. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 3. <c. 2. 1:478>} Philo documents Pilate's actions in his government. {Philo, Embassy to Caius} Philo wrote that he was afraid lest the embassy which was sent by the Jews to take away the bucklers that were dedicated to him within the Holy City, would find out about his other crimes:

``sale of judgments, repines, slaughters, rackings, condemning innocent men to death, savage cruelty &c.''

4030a AM, 4739 JP, 26 AD

6280. The 30th jubilee happened in the 30th year of our Lord Jesus Christ and the beginning of his gospel. It was now proclaimed by the voice of one crying in the wilderness:

``Prepare ye the way of the Lord make his paths straight,'' {Mr 1:1-3}

6281. and the start of the acceptable year of the Lord or the time of his divine pleasure in which the good God showed the great one to the world. {Isa 61:2 Lu 4:19}

6282. It was in the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, (which was the 13th of his empire which began after the death of Augustus) when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, Herod (Antipas), the tetrarch of Galilee and his brother Philip, tetrarch of Ituraea and the region of Trachonitis and Lysanias, tetrarch of Abylene, under the priesthoods of Annas and Caiphas. The word of the Lord came to John, the son of Zacharias in the desert. {Lu 3:1,2} He by God's authority was a Nazarite who was both a priest and prophet of the Lord and baptized in the desert of Judea. (These cities were mentioned in {Jos 15:1-6}) He preached the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins. {Mt 3:1 Mr 1:4 Lu 3:3} By his ministry, he announced and made known to Israel, Christ who would come after him. {Joh 1:7,8,13} So John would certainly know who he was, God gave him this sign. Whomever he saw the Holy Ghost descending on and remaining, he would know that it was he that should baptize others with the Holy Ghost. {Joh 1:33}

6283. It is most probable that his ministry began on that most suitable day, the tenth day of the seventh month, (about the 19th day of our October.) This was the solemn fast in which whoever did not afflict his soul was to be cut off from his people. It was the day of atonement in which the high priest went into the holy of holies to expiate the sins of the people with blood that was offered. On the same day a trumpet was sounded announcing the start of the year of jubilee in the land. {Le 25:9}

6284. Hence John the Baptist was the preacher of repentance and remission of sins to be attained by the blood of Christ who was to come. John went into every region around Jordan, lifting up his voice like a trumpet proclaiming:

``Repent ye for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.''

6285. Many came to him from Jerusalem, all Judea and the regions around the Jordan River. (This would be especially true of that huge multitude who returned from Jerusalem after the feast of tabernacles was over about the beginning of November.) Many were baptized by him in the Jordan and confessed their sins. {Mt 3:2,3,5,6 Mr 1:5}

6286. John had his garment of camel's hair and a leather belt about his waist like Elijah. {2Ki 1:8} He ate locusts (which was a clean inexpensive food {Le 11:22}) and wild honey. {Mt 3:4 Mr 1:6}

6287. John sharply rebuked the Pharisees who came to his baptism. {Lu 3:10,13} When people wondered if John was the Christ, John answered:

``I indeed baptize you with water, but there cometh one who is stronger than I, whose shoe latchet I am not worthy to unloose, he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire, whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat in his barn, and will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. {Lu 3:15-17 Mt 3:11,12 Mr 1:7,8}

4030b AM, 4740 JP, 27 AD

6288. When all the people were being baptized, Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee to the Jordan to be baptized of John. {Lu 3:21 Mt 3:13 Mr 1:9} John denied that Jesus needed any baptism from him but the Lord urged him and said that it was needful that all righteousness be fulfilled. Then John baptized him. {Mt 3:14,15} Jesus was about 30 years old. {Lu 3:23}

6289. There was made a most obvious manifestation of the trinity. The Son of God in the human nature which he assumed ascended out of the water and was praying. The heavens were opened and the Spirit of God was seen in a bodily shape like a dove and descended on him. The voice of the Father was heard from heaven and said:

``This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased.'' {Mt 3:16,17 Mr 1:10,11 Lu 3:21,22}

6290. Jesus was full of the Holy Ghost and returned from the Jordan. He was driven by the Spirit into the desert. He was tempted for forty days and nights, by Satan while he remained among wild beasts. He ate nothing and after this was over, he was hungry. {Lu 4:1,2 Mt 4:1,2 Mr 1:12,13}

6291. Satan then presented the Lord with a threefold temptation. When this was over, Satan left him for a time {Mt 4:3-11 Lu 4:3-13} and the angels came and ministered to him. {Mt 4:11 Mr 1:13} Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee. {Lu 4:14}

6292. Herod Agrippa, the son of Aristobulus, had by Cyprus, the daughter of Phasaelus Agrippa the younger, the last king of the Jews. He is mentioned in Acts. {Ac 25:1-26:32} He was 17 years old when his father died. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 7. <c.5. 1:485> l. 19. c. ult. <c. 9. 1:524>}

4031 AM, 4741 JP, 28 AD

6293. Berenice his sister of whom likewise mention is made in Acts was born and later married to Herod, the king of Chalcis and was sixteen years old when her father died. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 7. <c.5. 1:485> l. 19. c. ult. <c. 9. 1:524>}
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« Reply #504 on: December 10, 2006, 02:28:09 PM »

4033a AM, 4742 JP, 29 AD

6294. The fourth year of John the Baptist's ministry started. His ministry of preparing the people for Christ was drawing to a close, for this was his primary purpose. The Lord himself, whose way John had prepared, entered into his ministry. He executed his prophetic office and sealed his ministry with famous miracles, for John did no miracles. John's ministry of preparation was so celebrated by Isaiah and Malachi so many ages before. None will wonder that so long a period of time was assigned to it by us when they consider that a shorter time for so great a work would be too short especially without the help of miracles to accomplish as much as the angel Gabriel confirmed to his father Zacharias that John should do. {Lu 1:16,17}

``Many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God, and he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, that he may turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just, and to prepare a people ready for the Lord,''

6295. Those words of Paul argue that not a short period of time but a full course of preaching was to be finished by John before the coming of the Lord. {Ac 13:24,25}

``When John had first preached before his coming the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel, and as John fulfilled his course, he said, whom think ye that I am? I am not he, but behold there cometh one after me whose shoes of his feet I am not worthy to loose.''

4033b AM, 4743 JP, 30 AD

6296. The next day after Christ came, the Jews from Jerusalem sent some priests and Levites of the sect of the Pharisees to John when he was baptizing at Bethabara by the Jordan. They asked him to plainly tell them if he was the Christ or not. He denied that he was Elijah or that prophet (foretold by Moses, {De 18:15} and was indeed the Christ, {Ac 3:22 7:37} but by the Jews thought to be another.) He said he was:

``The voice of one crying in the wilderness, make straight the way of the Lord:''

6297. Then he added that testimony about Christ which Paul so praised:

``I baptize with water, but there standeth one among you, whom ye know not, he it is, who cometh after me, who is preferred before me, whose shoe latchet I am not worthy to unloose. {Joh 1:19-28 5:33}

6298. The next day John saw Jesus coming to him and said:

``Behold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world. This is he of whom I spoke, there cometh one after me, that is preferred before me, for he was before me, &c. and I saw him, and testify that this is the Son of God.'' {Joh 1:29-34}

6299. The next day John stood with two of his disciples. John saw Jesus walking and said, "Behold the Lamb of God." When his two disciples heard that they followed Jesus and stayed with him that day for it was about the tenth hour (4 o'clock). Andrew was one of these two and brought his brother Simon to Jesus. When Jesus saw Simon he said, "You are Simon, son of Jona, you shall be called Cephas." {Joh 1:35-42}

6300. The next day Jesus went into Galilee and asked Philip (who was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Simon Peter) to follow him. Philip found Nathanael under a fig tree and brought him to Jesus. Jesus said that he was truly an Israelite in whom there was no guile. Jesus said he was that ladder of heaven, (foreshadowed by Jacob's dream, {Ge 28:12}) upon which the angels of God were seen ascending and descending. {Joh 1:42-51}

6301. On the third day, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee, to which Jesus was invited along with his mother and his disciples. There he turned the water into wine which was his first miracle. His glory was thus shown and his disciples believed on him. {Joh 2:1-11}

6302. Now we are come to the public ministry of Christ, whose acts we do record according to the four distinct passovers we can gather from the harmony of the four gospels as written by that learned man and much laboured in the studies of the Holy Scriptures, John Richardson, Dr. of Divinity and worthy Bishop of Ardah, in our province of Armagh. In this record it is note worthy that only Matthew neglected the order of time which is constantly observed by the other three gospels (if you will exclude the parenthesis when John was cast into prison by Herod.) {Lu 3:19,20}
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« Reply #505 on: December 10, 2006, 02:29:08 PM »

The
FIRST PASSOVER
Of The
MINISTRY Of CHRIST.
{Joh 2:13}

From which the first year of the
seventieth and last week of Daniel
begins in which the covenant is
confirmed with many.
{Da 9:27 cf. Mt 26:28}

6303. Jesus went to Jerusalem for the passover. {Joh 2:13}

6304. Jesus went into the temple, he scourged those who bought and sold there and drove them out. As a sign of his authority, he told them how the temple of his body would be destroyed by the Jews and be raised again by himself. {Joh 2:13-22}

6305. He performed miracles and many believed on him but he did not commit himself to them because he knew what was in man. {Joh 2:23-25}

6306. He instructed Nicodemus the disciple who came to him by night about the mystery of regeneration, in faith, in his death and in the condemnation of unbelievers. {Joh 3:1-21}

4034a AM, 4743 JP, 30 AD

6307. Jesus left Jerusalem and went into the land of Judea with his disciples. {Joh 3:22}

6308. Jesus stayed there and baptized people. (That is his disciples baptized people who had been baptized before either by himself or John.) John baptized in Aenon for he was not yet cast into prison. {Joh 3:22-24}

6309. John's disciples and the Jews had a discussion about purifying. {Joh 3:25}

6310. John instructed his disciples who were envious of Jesus. John told them about Jesus and his office and of the excellence of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. He gave this notable and last testimony of him before his imprisonment. {Joh 3:26-36}

6311. Herod the tetrarch cast John into prison for reprehending his incest with his brother Philip's wife and his wickedness. {Mr 6:17-20 Mt 14:3-5}

6312. Jesus heard that John was cast into prison and that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus had made and baptized many disciples (that is, by the hand of his disciples.) He left Judea after he had stayed there about eight months and went into Galilee. {Joh 4:1-3 Mt 4:12}

6313. Jesus needed to go through Samaria where he converted the Samaritan woman near the city of Sychar and the citizens of Sychar. It was four months before the harvest, (or the passover, about the middle of the ninth month, called Ab.) {Joh 4:4-42}

6314. After he had stayed two days in Sychar, he continued on to Galilee. (This is his second return from Judea to Galilee after his baptism.) {Joh 4:43,44}

6315. Jesus was received by the Galileans who had seen the great things which he had done at Jerusalem. He preached with great fame in their synagogues. {Joh 4:45 Lu 4:14,15 Mr 1:14,15}

6316. In Cana, Jesus healed the sick son of a nobleman. This was the second miracle that Jesus did when he left Judea and came to Galilee. {Joh 4:46-54}

4034b AM, 4744 JP, 31 AD

6317. He did miracles in Capernaum and later came to Nazareth where he was raised. He entered the synagogue, as his custom was, he expounded the prophesy of Isaiah about himself. The citizens first wondered at this but later were filled with wrath. They thrust him out of the city and tried to throw him down headlong from a hill. However, he passed through the crowd and went his way. {Lu 4:16-30}

6318. He left Nazareth and lived at Capernaum. He taught them on the sabbath days and they were astonished at his doctrine. Lu 4:31,32 Mr 1:21,22 Mt 4:13-17

6319. In the synagogue of Capernaum, he cast out an unclean spirit and ordered the spirit that he should not tell who he was. {Lu 4:33-37 Mr 1:23-28}

6320. He arose from the synagogue and went into the house of Simon and Andrew and healed Simon's wife's mother who lay sick with a fever. {Lu 4:38,39 Mr 1:29-31 Mt 8:14,15}

6321. About sunset, he healed all the sick folk who were brought to him and cast out devils. He ordered them not to speak. {Lu 4:40,41 Mr 1:32-34 Mt 8:16,17}

6322. In the morning, he went into a deserted place to pray. When Simon and others sought for him and would have prevented him from leaving, he replied that he must preach to other cities also. {Lu 4:42-44 Mr 1:35-39}

6323. He went through all Galilee and taught in their synagogues and cast out devils. {Lu 4:44 Mr 1:39}

6324. As he stood by the lake of Gennesaret, a great multitude pressed upon him. Therefore he entered into Simon's ship and taught the multitude from there. {Lu 5:1-4}

6325. When he had finished speaking, at his command, the disciples went fishing and caught a large number of fish. Simon Peter, Andrew, James and John were astonished. Jesus commanded them to follow him and he would make them fishers of men. {Lu 5:4-11 Mr 1:16-20 Mt 4:18-22}

6326. Jesus went through all Galilee and taught in their synagogues and healed every disease. His fame went into all Syria and a great multitude followed him. {Mt 4:23-25}

6327. In a certain city, he healed a leper. Jesus forbid him to tell anyone but he told everyone he met. People came to him from every place to hear him and to be healed. So many came that he could not publicly enter the city and he went into deserted places and prayed. {Lu 5:12-16 Mr 1:40-45 Mt 8:1-4}

6328. After some days, he again returned to his own city of Capernaum and he taught them at home. In the presence of the scribes, Pharisees and a large crowd, he forgave the sins of one who was sick with the palsy. The sick man was let down through the roof of the house and Jesus healed the disease also to the astonishment of all. {Lu 5:17-26 Mr 2:1-12 Mt 9:1-8}

6329. Jesus went out again by the seaside and all the multitude came to him and he taught them. As he passed by he saw and called Levi or Matthew who was sitting at the receipt of custom. Lu 5:27,28 Mr 2:13,14 Mt 9:9

6330. In the house of Levi, Jesus defended himself and his disciples for they ate with publicans. He excused and vindicated them against the Pharisees because his disciples did not fast. {Lu 5:29-39 Mr 2:15-22 Mt 9:10-13}

6331. And it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first, (that is, the first sabbath of the new year which was instituted after the Jews left Egypt and began from the month Nisan or Abib,) Jesus went through the grain fields. He cleared his disciples from the reproach of the Pharisees because they plucked the ears of grain. He explained the doctrine of the sabbath. {Lu 6:1-5 Mr 2:23-28 Mt 12:1-8}
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« Reply #506 on: December 10, 2006, 02:29:45 PM »

The SECOND PASSOVER
of the
MINISTRY of CHRIST.
{Joh 5:1} cf. {Joh 4:3,5}
From which begins the second year
of the 70th week of Daniel.

6332. After these things, the feast of the Jews was coming and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. On the sabbath day, he healed a man who had been infirmed for thirty eight years and lay at the pool of Bethesda. He answered the Jews who were seeking to kill him because he said that God was his Father. {Joh 5:1-47}

6333. He went from there and entered again into a synagogue and taught the people. He healed one that had a withered hand. The Pharisees went out and immediately with the Herodians took counsel how they might destroy him. {Lu 6:6-11 Mr 3:1-6 Mt 12:9-14}

6334. When Jesus knew this, he withdrew himself to the sea and healed the multitudes who followed him. He strictly charged them that they should not make him known. He ordered his disciples to have a small boat to wait on him because of the multitude who thronged him. {Mr 3:7-12 Mt 12:15-21}

6335. It came to pass in those days, that he went into a mountain to pray and continued in prayer all night. When it was day, he chose the twelve whom he called apostles. {Lu 6:12-16 Mr 3:13-19}

6336. Jesus went down with them and stood in a plain and a great multitude came to him and he healed them all. {Lu 6:17-19}

6337. They went into a house and the multitude came together again so that they could not so much as eat a meal. When his friends heard of this, they went to lay hold on Jesus for they said that he was beside himself. {Mr 3:20,21}

6338. When he saw the multitude, he went up into a mountain. When he sat down, his disciples came to him. He then preached that long and excellent sermon, first to the apostles and later to all the people. {Lu 6:20-49 Mt 5:1-7:29}

6339. When he had finished speaking to the people, he went into Capernaum and healed the centurion's servant who lay sick with the palsy and was almost dead. {Lu 7:1-10 Mt 8:5-13}

6340. The next day, he went into the city of Nain and raised one who was dead and being carried out for burial who was the only son of a widow. Thereupon, his fame spread abroad. {Lu 7:11-17}

6341. When John was in prison, he was told by his disciples about the fame and deeds of Jesus. John sent two of them to him to ask to ask if Jesus was the one they should expect or should they look for someone else. After they returned to John with Jesus' answer, Jesus gave a great testimony about John. Then he upbraided some cities for their ingratitude. He rested in the fact of the divine sovereignty of his Father who hid these things from some and revealed them to others. {Lu 7:18-35 Mt 11:2-30}

6342. And Simon, the Pharisee wanted Jesus to dine with him. As they were eating, Simon criticized the actions of a women because she was a great sinner. Jesus defended the woman who washed his feet with her tears and wiped them with the hairs of her head and kissed and anointed them. {Lu 7:36-50}

6343. It came to pass later that he went from the city and preached. His disciples were with him and certain women ministered to him. {Lu 8:1-3}

6344. They brought to him one who had a demon and who was blind and dumb. Jesus healed him and eagerly defended himself against the Pharisees and scribes that came down from Jerusalem who blasphemed him said that he cast out devils through Beelzebub. {Mr 3:22-30 Mt 12:22-37} Some of the scribes and Pharisees asked for a sign. When Jesus had sharply rebuked them, he gave them no other sign than that of Jonah. {Mt 12:38-45}

6345. And while he spoke to the people, he was told that his mother and brethren, stood outside and wanted to see and speak with him. Jesus replied and showed them whom he counted for his mother and brothers and sisters. {Lu 8:19-21 Mr 3:31-35 Mt 12:46-50}

6346. The same day Jesus left the house and sat by the seaside. Great multitudes came to him so that he went into a boat and sat and taught them many things through the parable of the sower and many other parables. {Lu 8:4-18 Mr 4:1-34 Mt 13:1-53}

6347. The same day at evening, he told his disciples to sail across the lake. When he had given an answer to some who wanted to follow him, he sent away the multitudes. As they were sailing, a strong storm of wind came up. He rebuked the wind and calmed the sea and saved his disciples. {Lu 8:22-26 Mr 4:35-41 Mt 8:18-27}

6348. They came to the other side into the country of the Gadarenes, or Gergesenes which was on the opposite shore from Galilee. When he was come to land, he was met by two fierce men who were possessed with demons. (Mark and Luke mention only one man.) He cast out the demons and allowed them to enter into a herd of swine. The Gadarenes asked him to leave their country. The possessed persons begged Jesus to stay with them. This request was denied and Jesus sent them back to proclaim around Decapolis what great things Jesus had done for them. Jesus sailed across the lake again to his own city of Capernaum. {Lu 8:27-39 Mr 5:1-20 Mt 8:28-34}

6349. It came to pass that when Jesus was returned, the people received him gladly for they waited for him. He was by the seaside. {Lu 8:40 Mr 5:21}

6350. The disciples of John came to him and asked why do we and the Pharisees fast often but your disciples do not fast? He answered their question. {Mt 9:14-17}

6351. While he was speaking, Jairus, one of the rulers of the synagogues came and begged him to heal his only daughter. She was about twelve years old and lay at the point of death. As he was going and almost at Jairus' house, a woman who had an issue of blood twelve years, was suddenly healed by touching the hem of Jesus' garment. The dead daughter of Jairus was restored to life by his word only. He strictly ordered them to tell no one about it. {Lu 8:41-56 Mr 5:22-42 Mt 9:18-26}

6352. When he departed from there, two blind men followed him whom he healed. He strictly ordered them to tell no one but they told everyone they met. {Mt 9:27-31}

6353. As they went out, they brought to Jesus a dumb man who was possessed with a demon. When the demon was cast out, the dumb man spoke and the multitude marvelled but the Pharisees blasphemed. {Mt 9:32-34}

6354. He went all around their cities and villages. He taught them and healed their diseases. When he came into his own country with his disciples, he taught in their synagogue on the sabbath day. He was again despised by them and called the carpenter. However, they were astonished at his doctrine. {Mr 6:1-6 Mt 13:54-58}

6355. He went around their villages and taught them. {Mr 6:6}

6356. He was moved with compassion toward the multitude when he saw how great the harvest was and how few labourers there were. He told his disciples that they should pray the Lord that he would send forth more labourers. {Mt 9:35-38}

6357. Jesus sent out the twelve apostles, by two and two. He instructed them to preach and gave them power to heal diseases. {Lu 9:1-5 Mr 6:7-11 Mt 10:1-42}

6358. It came to pass when Jesus had made an end of commanding his disciples, he departed from there to teach and to preach in their cities. {Mt 11:1,12-16}

6359. After the twelve had departed, they went through the towns preaching the gospel and healing everywhere. {Lu 9:6}
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« Reply #507 on: December 10, 2006, 02:30:34 PM »

4035a AM, 4744 JP, 31 AD

6360. The seventeenth of November, Sejanus was killed. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 6. c. 25.} After his death, Tiberius immediately knew that all the crimes that Sejanus had accused the Jews of were imagined by himself. Therefore Tiberius commanded the governments of all provinces that in every town they should spare this nationality. Only a very few who were guilty persons should be punished. They should not alter their customs but should take note that these men were lovers of peace and their customs were for the public peace. {Philo, Embassy to Caius}

4035b AM, 4745 JP, 32 AD

6361. After Severus, the governor of Egypt had died, Tiberius appointed Flaccus Avillius, one of his friends, as his successor for six years. He governed the province well for the five first years as long as Tiberius lived. {*Philo, Flaccus, 1:724}

6362. John Baptist was beheaded.

6363. When his disciples heard this, they came and took up the body and buried it and came and told Jesus. {Mr 6:27-29 Mt 14:6,11,12}

6364. Herod the tetrarch and others heard of the fame of Jesus and Herod desired to see him. {Lu 9:7-9 Mr 6:1-4}

6365. When the apostles returned, they told Jesus the things they had done. {Lu 9:10 Mr 6:30}

6366. When Jesus had heard of the death of John and of the deeds of the apostles, he told them to depart into a deserted place and rest for a while. The multitude had kept them so busy they did not have time to eat. He sailed with the twelve with him and privately went into a deserted place near Bethesda. When the multitude heard it, they followed him on foot from all cities and came to him. Jesus taught and healed them. {Lu 9:10,11 Mr 6:31,32 Mt 14:13,14}

6367. Jesus went up into a mountain and sat there with his disciples. The passover was close at hand. At evening, he fed with five barley loaves, and two little fishes more than 5000 men in addition to women and children. There were twelve baskets full of the left overs. When they wanted to make him a king, Jesus constrained his disciples to go before him to the other side, opposite to Bethesda toward Capernaum. He went alone into a mountain. When the disciples had gone about 3 or 4 miles, Jesus walked out to them on the sea in the fourth watch of the night. He told them not to be afraid. Peter asked to join him and he walked out to Jesus. Jesus rebuked Peter for his little faith when Peter began to sink. They were all amazed. They landed and came to the country of Gennesaret. When he left the boat, as soon as it was known, they brought their sick that they might touch the hem of his garment and they were made whole. {Joh 6:1-21 Lu 9:12-17 Mr 6:35-56 Mt 14:15-36}

6368. The next day after Jesus had crossed over, the people who stood on this side of the sea sailed to Capernaum to look for Jesus. He preached to them in the synagogue of Capernaum of the bread of life and affirmed to the Jews that murmured that he was the bread of life. From that time many of his disciples went back but the apostles would not go away. However, he called one of them a devil. {Joh 6:22-71}

The THIRD PASSOVER
of the
MINISTRY of CHRIST
{Joh 6:4}
From which began the third year
of the 70th week of Daniel.

6369. The scribes and Pharisees who came from Jerusalem, went to Jesus. When they saw some of his disciples eat with unwashed hands, they found fault with them that they did not follow the traditions of the elders. Jesus answered them concerning their traditions. He said that they frustrated the commands of God that they might keep the traditions of men. He taught the people and also told his disciples at home that nothing which entered into a man, defiles him but that which comes from within defiles a man. {Mr 7:1-23 Mt 15:1-20}

6370. Jesus left and went into the country of Tyre and Sidon. He could not escape the crowds. A Canaanitish woman, a Gentile of the Syrophenician nationality, came to him and earnestly begged him for her daughter who was possessed by a demon. Jesus praised her great faith and cast out the demon from her daughter. {Mr 7:24-30 Mt 15:21-28}

6371. After he left the country of Tyre and Sidon, he came to the Sea of Galilee through the middle of the country of Decapolis. A deaf man was brought to him who also had a speech impediment. Jesus healed and in vain ordered him to tell no one. {Mr 7:31-37}

6372. When he went up into a mountain, he sat there and healed many and the multitude wondered. {Mt 15:29-31}

6373. In those days when a very great multitude had stayed with him for three days in the desert, he fed 4000 men in addition to women and children, with only seven loaves and a few little fishes. They gathered seven baskets full of left overs. {Mr 8:1-9 Mt 15:32-38}

6374. Immediately, Jesus with his disciples, sailed over to the country of Dalmanutha or Magdala. {Mr 8:10 Mt 15:39}

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« Reply #508 on: December 10, 2006, 02:31:14 PM »

6375. The Pharisees came and required a sign from him from heaven. After Jesus had sighed deeply, he refused to give them any sign but that of Jonah. He called them hypocrites because knew how to tell the weather from the appearance of the sky but could not discern the times. He left them and sailed to the other side. {Mr 8:11-13 Mt 16:1-4}

6376. When he and his disciples came to the other side, they had forgotten to take food with them and they had but one loaf of bread with them in the ship. Jesus warned them to beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees and the leaven of Herod. They reasoned among themselves that because they had forgotten to take bread, Jesus had said this. Jesus rebuked them that they had forgotten the miraculous multiplication of the loaves and helped them understand that he spoke not of the leaven of bread but of doctrine. {Mr 8:12-14 Mt 16:5-12}

6377. Then he came to Bethsaida and a blind man was brought to him. The blind man was led out of town and Jesus anointed his eyes with spittle and his sight was restored. Jesus forbade him to tell anyone about it. {Mr 8:22-26}

6378. Jesus and his disciples went into the towns of Caesarea Philippi. It came to pass as he was alone praying and was now on his way, he asked his disciples who the people though he was. When they had answered, he asked them their opinion. When Peter answered that he was the Christ, Jesus declared him happy and gave him promises. He forbade his disciples to tell any man that he was the Christ. He foretold his death and resurrection and called Peter, "Satan", because he rebuked Jesus for talking about his death. Then he preached to his disciples and the multitude about the cross that everyone must bear who will follow him. Finally, he foretold his transfiguration. {Lu 9:18-27 Mr 8:27-38 Mt 16:13-28}

6379. It came to pass about eight days after these sayings, (or six intermediate days) Jesus was transfigured on an high mountain. When they came down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no man what they had seen until he was risen from the dead. They kept this private and asked one another what the rising from the dead should mean. They asked him why did the scribes say that Elijah must first come? Jesus replied and by this they understood that Jesus spoke of John the Baptist who was Elijah. {Lu 9:28-36 Mr 9:1-13 Mt 17:1-13}

6380. After this on the next day when they were came down from the hill, Jesus came to his disciples. He saw a great multitude about them and the scribes asking questions. When all the multitude saw him, they immediately were greatly amazed and ran to greet him. As he was asking about their questions, the father of a lunatic child told him, that it was about his child that had an unclean spirit and was deaf and dumb. His disciples could not cast him out. Then Jesus cast out the spirit and restored the child whole to his father. When Jesus went home, he showed his disciples the reason why they could not cast out this demon. {Lu 9:37-42 Mr 9:14-29 Mt 17:14-21}

6381. They departed from there and passed through Galilee and he did not want any man to know it. He taught his disciples about his death and resurrection but they did not understood this. They were exceedingly sorry and were afraid to ask him. {Lu 9:43-45 Mr 9:30-32 Mt 17:22,23}

6382. When they came to Capernaum, they asked Peter about Jesus' tribute money. When Jesus came into the house, he anticipated Peter and told him that he should find a piece of money in a fish's mouth and told him to pay the tribute for both of them. {Mt 17:24-27}

6383. At Capernaum, Jesus asked his disciples what they were discussing on the way. At first they were silent and then they said that it was about who would be greatest in the kingdom of heaven. Jesus took a child and placed him in the midst of them and taught that they should have humility even as a child. He warned them in the world were offences and that they must take heed that neither hand, foot nor eye cause them to offend. Little children were not to be despised. If our brother sinned against us, he was to be reproved. He told of the power of the church to bind and loose. They were to forgive one that asked forgiveness until seven times seventy times as he showed in the parable of two debtors to the king. {Lu 9:46-48 Mr 9:33-37 Mt 18:1-35}

6384. John replied and said that they saw one casting out devils through Christ's name. Jesus taught that he was not to be forbidden and again warned them of not offending little ones and to take heed again, that neither hand, foot or eye cause them to offend. {Lu 9:49,50 Mr 9:38-50}

6385. Junius Gallio, who was trying to win Tiberius' favour, proposed that Tiberius' soldiers, when their time of service was expired, should sit in the same benches with the equestrians to see the plays. Tiberius banished him under the pretence that Gallio would seem to persuade the soldiers to be loyal to the state rather than to Tiberius. When it was written that he would easily endure his banishment in so pleasant an island as Lesbos was, he was brought back to Rome and handed over to the custody of the magistrates. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 6. c. 3.} {*Dio, l. 58. 7:233}

6386. Cassius Severus, the orator died in the 25th year of his banishment on the island of Sephone. He was reduced to such poverty that he had scarcely had a cloth to hide his privates. {Jerome, Chronicles}

6387. At Rome it was proposed in the senate by Quintilian, the tribune of the people, concerning a Sibyl's book. Caninius Gallus, one of the Fifteen for Religious Ceremonies, had requested that it might be received among other books of the same prophetess and passed a decree of the senate to ratify it. When this was done by joint vote, Tiberius sent letters and rebuked the tribune mildly as not being well versed in the old customs because he was young. He attacked Gallus very smartly, who was a man of years and well experienced in the ceremonies and in spite of this had introduced the business into the senate at such a time when many of the senators were absent. The author of the poem was uncertain and the college had not delivered their opinion, or had the poem been revised and adjusted by the masters (of the priests) according to the usual custom. Thereupon the book was referred to the cognizance of the fifteen. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 6. c. 11.}

6388. After these things Jesus walked in Galilee, for he would not walk in Judea because the Jews sought to kill him. The feast of tabernacles was approaching and Jesus did not go up to the feast at that time as his brothers wished. They as yet did not believe on him. Jesus went up after them, not publicly but as it were in secret. {Joh 7:1-10}
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« Reply #509 on: December 10, 2006, 02:31:43 PM »

4036a AM, 4745 JP, 32 AD

6389. It came to pass, when the time was come that he should be received up, he set his face to go to Jerusalem. He sent messengers ahead to prepare a place for them to stay. The city would not accept him and they went into another city. He rebuked his disciples who wanted fire to come down from heaven upon them. {Lu 9:51-56}

6390. It came to pass as they went on the way, Jesus answered some who wanted to follow him. {Lu 9:57-62}

6391. After these things, Jesus sent 70 disciples two by two into every city and place where he was going to proclaim that the kingdom of God was at hand. He gave them power to authenticate their message. {Lu 10:1-16}

6392. The multitude enquired after him and murmured concerning him. Jesus taught in the temple in the middle of the feast. They wondered at his doctrine and he answered that his doctrine was not his own but his who sent him. He answered many things to those who reproached and objected against him. Officers were sent to apprehend him. In the last and great day of the feast, Jesus cried out concerning faith in him. There was a division concerning him among the people but the officers who were sent and Nicodemus defended Jesus and his cause before the Pharisees who spoke against Jesus. {Joh 7:11-53}

6393. Jesus went to the mount of Olives and early in the morning he sat and taught in the temple. He was not willing to condemn, as a judge, the woman taken in adultery and warned her to sin no more. He taught in the treasury of the temple and he affirmed that he is the light of the world and defended his bearing record of himself. He taught many things concerning the Father and himself, where he goes, who he is, about their father Abraham, about the servitude of sin and the devil. He denied that he had a demon as the people thought. He said whoever kept his sayings, would not taste of death. He concluded and said he was before Abraham. Thereupon they took up stones to throw at him but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple and went through the midst of them and so passed by. {Joh 8:1-59}

6394. As Jesus passed by, he saw one begging who was blind from his youth and he healed him. The beggar and his parents were examined by the authorities and he was expelled from the synagogue. He found and worshipped Jesus. {Joh 9:1-41}

6395. Jesus preached that he is the door of the sheepfold and that good shepherd. He taught about thieves and hirelings. There was a division again among the Jews because of these sayings. {Joh 10:1-21}

6396. The 70 returned with joy, whom he further warned and instructed. In a rejoicing spirit, he tells them privately that they are blessed because their names are written in heaven. {Lu 10:17-24}

6397. A certain lawyer asked him what he must do to inherit eternal life. Jesus instructed him from the law and taught him who his neighbour was by the parable of the man who fell among thieves. {Lu 10:25-37}

6398. Now it came to pass as he went on his way, he came to a certain town and was received into the house of Martha. She herself ministered to them while Mary heard the words of Jesus. Jesus said Mary had chosen the better part. {Lu 10:38-42}

4046b AM, 4746 JP, 33 AD

6399. It came to pass that he was praying in a certain place. When he stopped, one of his disciples asked him to teach them to pray as John taught his disciples. Therefore he for the second time prescribeed to them the Lord's prayer. He used arguments also to stir them up to constancy in prayer and for obtaining the confirmation of their faith. {Lu 11:1-13}

6400. Jesus cast out a demon from one who was dumb and the multitude marvelled. He rebuked some blasphemers and said that he did not cast out the demons through Beelzebub. {Lu 11:14-26}

6401. It came to pass as he spoke these things, that a certain woman of the company said to him that his mother was blessed. He replied to her that blessed are those who hear the word of God and keep it. {Lu 11:27,28}

6402. When the multitude had gathered thickly together, he said that this generation sought a sign but they shall have no sign except that of Jonah. He added that the queen of the south and the Ninevites shall condemn this generation. They were to take heed that the light that is in them was not really darkness. {Lu 11:29-36}

6403. When he had spoken these things, a certain Pharisee invited him to dine with him. He wondered that Jesus had not first washed. Jesus severely reprehended him along with the rest of the Pharisees for their apparent outward holiness with hypocrisy but inwardly was wickedness, covetousness and pride. He pronounced a woe on the lawyers also. {Lu 11:37-54}

6404. In the meantime, when there were gathered together an innumerable company, Jesus warned to his disciples to beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, which was hypocrisy and not to be afraid of those who kill the body. {Lu 12:1-12}

6405. One of the company asked Jesus to talk to his brother so that he divide the inheritance with him. Jesus replied and said that who made him a judge? On this occasion, he preached against covetousness using the parable of the rich man who wanted to build larger barns. He warned them against an anxious distrustful and unprofitable carping about the necessary things of this life and urged that they rather seek the kingdom of God. They should be like those who wait for the coming of their Lord as it becomes a faithful and wise steward. Jesus said that he shall send the fire of division on the earth and upbraided them that they did not know that this was the appointed time. {Lu 12:13-59}

6406. At that time there were some who told him of the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. From this, Jesus preached about repentance and propounded the parable of the fig tree not having fruit. {Lu 13:1-9}
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