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Shammu
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« Reply #75 on: August 23, 2007, 12:18:58 AM »

Five killed in Ethiopian volcanic eruption

Wed Aug 22, 12:11 PM ET

ADDIS ABABA (AFP) - A volcanic eruption in northeastern Ethiopia killed five people and displaced more than 2,000 others, state media reported Wednesday.

The volcano in the Afar region started spewing lava on August 12 and the eruption lasted for three days. Although the activity has since subsided, locals are still advised to leave the area.

"The volcano has dried and polluted local rivers that has displaced over 2,000 people along with their cattle," said Hassan Mohammed, head of the region's disaster prevention agency, cited by the Ethiopian News Agency.

The eruption site is located south of Mount Arteale -- which was believed to be Ethiopia's only active volcano -- according to the UN humanitarian agency which had sent a team to the region.

Mount Arteale's eruption two years ago caused the displacement of more than 5,0000 Afar nomads and deaths of hundreds of livestock.

Five killed in Ethiopian volcanic eruption
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« Reply #76 on: September 06, 2007, 01:10:22 AM »

KARANGETANG

As of the 30th of August, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that after a gradual increase in activity, Karangetang volcano on Siau island started a more violent phase of activity. Lava flows and pyroclastic flows from the growing lava dome have been reported. According to the Jakarta Post, several hundred people have been evacuated from villages on the slopes of the volcano. A major explosive eruption could happen in the near future, volcanologist estimate.

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

The Current Colour Code for Karangetang is currently at ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~

PAVLOF

As of the 5th of September, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that the eruption of Pavlof continues. Seismic activity continues to fluctuate. Web camera and satellite views were cloudy today. No reports of plumes or plume height have been received.

If activity continues to increase, larger ash clouds that could affect higher-flying aircraft may be produced. The most immediate ground hazard in the vicinity of the volcano includes light ash fall on nearby communities. Previous historical eruptions from Pavlof caused only a few millimeters (about 1/10th of an inch) of ash to fall on King Cove, Nelson Lagoon, Cold Bay, and Sand Point. Mudflows in drainages from the flanks of the volcano, and lava flows and avalanching of hot debris on the upper reaches of the volcano are also of concern in the uninhabited areas around the volcano. Satellite and seismic data and eyewitness observations suggest most of the surface lava activity is occurring on the southeast sector of the steep-sided volcano; this suggests that the Pacific Ocean side of the volcano is at most risk from avalanching hot debris.

At this time, AVO expects this eruption to follow the pattern of previous eruptions. The last eruption of Pavlof began in September 1996 and consisted of a several-month-long series of ash explosions, lava-fountaining, and lava-flow production. Ash clouds reached as high as 30,000 ft asl on one occasion. However, most ash clouds were below 20,000 ft asl. Prior to 1996, Pavlof erupted in 1986 sending ash as high as 49,000 ft asl on at least one occasion.

The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavolf, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing strombolian to vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption of Pavlof took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode; a fissure opened on the northern flank of the volcano, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Pavlof is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

DABBAHU

As of the 29th of August, the Ethiopian News Agency reported that the new fissure eruption in the Danakil near Erta Ale earlier this month, on 14-15 August, is reported to have killed five people, hundreds of camels and and drove more than 2 000 people from their homes. According to Ethiopian news sources, the "eruption also opened a 10km crack in the ground and spewed lava 300m in the air." It is likely this is in fact not an eruption related to Erta Ale volcano. A more likely candidate could be nearby Dabbahu volcano, a new fissure which had its first historic eruption in late Sept (26) - early Oct 2005. It could also be even a new volcano born from a new fissure: a new episode in the dramatic chapter of Earth's History called the "Splitting apart of East Africa".

The occurrence of fissures and fissure eruptions in the area is not surprising, given the very geologic nature of the Afar triangle. Here, the two segments of the African plate and the adjacient Arabian plate are being pulled apart from each other, as East Africa is slowly moving away from the rest of the continent. At the same time, the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden are widening and those movements are combined in the triple junction, which is the Afar triangle. Here, the crust is continuing to thin and the ground is sinking, until until one day, in geologically near future, the land will be flooded by the Red Sea to mark the initial stage of a new ocean.

Dabbahu, also known as Boina, Boyna, or Moina, is a Holocene volcanic massif forming an axial range of the Afar depression SSW of the Alayta massif. Pantelleritic obsidian flows, lava domes, and pumice cones form the summit and upper flanks of the volcano, which rises above the Teru Plain and was built over a base of basaltic-to-trachytic lava flows of a shield volcano. Late-stage basaltic fissure eruptions occurred at the NW base of the volcano. Abundant fumaroles are located along the crest of the volcano and extend NE towards Alayta volcano. The first historical eruption of Dabbahu took place from a fissure vent on the NE flank of the volcano in September 2005 and produced ashfall deposits and a small pumice dome. More than 6000 persons were evacuated from neighbouring villages.

The Current Colour Code for Dabbahu is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #77 on: September 06, 2007, 01:12:53 AM »

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 5th of September, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) via the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that satellite views were mostly cloudy today. Web camera views were cloudy. AVO continues to monitor the volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 5th of September, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that in the period passed between days 22 of August and 3 of September of 2007 a total of 335 seismic events was registered; of which, 133 events are associate to fracturing of rock, 185 events associated to the fluid movement and transit of and gases within the internal conduits of the volcano, 15 event that as much contain compound mechanisms of fracture as of transit of fluid and 2 pulse of tremor of low magnitude. One stands out that the associated events to fracturing of rock are located in the Central Tip, the Eastern flank and to the south of the volcanic flanks, the depths oscillated between 1.5 and 11 km, with smaller magnitudes of 2.0. Of this activity day the occurrence of an event of fracture of September stands out, located to the south of volcanic ediface which presented/displayed a magnitude of 2.4, and depth of 6,35 km. On the 1st of September a fly over was made around the volcano, due to the climatic conditions could not be made pursuit to the superficial activity of the volcano. Of the previous, it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, although they are continued presenting/displaying small excitations of the system.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

CHIKURACHKI

As of the 1st of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. According to visual information, ash explosions up to 0,1-1 km (300-3,280 ft) ASL were observed on August 21-26. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended 150-300 km (93-186 mi) to the north-east on August 28-30, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidised basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #78 on: September 06, 2007, 01:15:07 AM »

KARYMSKY

As of the 1st of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week, 100-280 shallow volcanic earthquakes and a spasmodic volcanic tremor were registered at volcano all days. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 5.9 km (19,350 ft) ASL . According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was noted on August 24 and 30, ash clouds were observed to the south-east on August 24 and north-east from volcano on August 28-30, the volcano was obscured by clouds on the other days.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 1st of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was at background levels on August 25, 27-29 and did not exceed level of registration on the other days. A few shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered during the week. According to visual data, no activity was observed on August 25. According to satellite data a thermal anomaly was noted on August 28, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 1st of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and intermittent volcanic tremor were registered. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 9.0 km (29,500 ft) ASL and avalanches occurred at the volcano last week. According to visual and video data, ash plumes up to 4.5 km (14,760 ft) ASL were observed on August 25, clouds obscured the volcano in other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #79 on: September 06, 2007, 01:17:55 AM »

BAGANA

As of the 30th of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has notified INTLVRC that RVO reported that an effusive lava flow from Bagana's summit crater began travelling down the SE flank on 6 August and continued flowing through 23 August. Continuous incandescence was visible down the SE flank during 6-10 August. During 6-23 August, white vapour plumes were occasionally accompanied by ash plumes that were generated by rockfalls from lava-flow edges. Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 August.

Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. Bagana is a massive symmetrical lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides.

The Current Colour Code for Bagana is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~

RAUNG

As of the 30th of August, the Darwin VAAC origianlly reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Raung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. during 26-27 August and drifted E.

Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The 3332-m-high, unvegetated summit of Gunung Raung is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the west flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km from the volcano, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and west, respectively.

The Current Colour Code for Raung is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 4th of September, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity of the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant change over the last 72 hours. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
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« Reply #80 on: September 06, 2007, 01:21:05 AM »

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 5th of September, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift northeast early in the day and south-southeast later in the day.

The crater is partly obscured by low clouds this morning. Volcano activity continues with on-going seismicity, deformation, and rockfalls from the crater walls and growing dome. There have been no significant changes in conditions over the last 24 hours. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 4th of September, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 6 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas emissions. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. At this moment there is no visibility towards the volcano due to dense clouds. However, this morning CENAPRED could observe the volcano with steam and gas emissions.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

PACAYA

As of the 5th of September, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that moderate fumaroles of white and blue colour, moving to the southwest of the volcanic complex. Continuous being observed reflected of incandescence in the evening and night, in the Mackenney crater. In the flank the west of their skirts, in front of the Cerro Chino, continues the lava flows with south direction with lengths approximated at 100 and 150 metres.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE
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« Reply #81 on: September 06, 2007, 01:24:36 AM »

FUEGO

As of the 5th of September, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that from last night moderate degassing sounds were heard to these similar to airplane turbines, due to the pressure of magmatic gases. By another one part has been registered and observed weak explosions and some moderate ones which expelled ash to 300 and 700 kilometres of height dispersing to the southwest.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

SANTA MARIA

As of the 5th of September, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the seismic network of Santa Maria volcano registered in the last 24 hours, 20 explosions, 3 moderate and 17 weak ones, which were expelling gray ash to 300 and 600 metres of height, dispersing the column towards the west, on the zone of the Palajunoj Rosary. Few avalanches of blocks in the lava flows of the southwestern flank.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 5th of September, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the index of seismic activity of the volcano remains high. One does not have visual observations due to the bad climatic conditions.

The registery has registered a total of 18 events of long period (LP), 35 volcanic signals of tremor related to emissions and 2 explosions has been entered. Ash-gray Wind// Emissions: There was report of ash no fall today. Climate/Rains/Lahars: The volcano has remained dimmed. In the morning, rains appeared you take that they did not generate lahars. Noises/Superficial Observations: The explosion of 2024hrs (local time) generated a strong cannon shot in the observatory and also heard in the sectors of Great Juive, Chonglontus and Runtún. With the nocturnal viewfinder incandescence in eastern the north flank and rolling of blocks could be observed. The second explosion did not generate any noise.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
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« Reply #82 on: September 06, 2007, 01:27:30 AM »

RABAUL

As of the 30th of August, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 0.9-2.4 km (3,000-7,900 ft) a.s.l. during 22-29 August and drifted NW. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul Town and surrounding areas during 23-29 August. Seismic activity increased to a high level on 25 through 29 August. The ash emissions were accompanied by roaring noises. Incandescence at the summit was observed during the reporting period.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~`

Mt. ETNA

As of the 5th of September it has been reported to INTLVRC by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) reported that Mt. Etna is back to its glory once more. Last night, a sudden increase in tremor accompanied the start of a powerful so-called paroxysmal eruption, during which the vent on the E flank of the SE crater, which had been in intermittend mild strombolian activity since mid August, erupted tall lava fountains - several hundres of meters high - and some lava flows. The tall ash columns generated by the intense explosive activity dispersed to the southeast and forced the temporary closure of Catania's airpoirt. The eruption lasted around 7 hrs and ended around 0430hrs this morning.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater. Flank eruptions, typically with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna's summit craters began in 1995. The active volcano is monitored by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Volcanologia (INGV) in Catania.

The volcano Mt. Etna is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 5th of September, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the 7/21 fissure eruption continued to supply an open channel which, in turn, fed two `a`a flows - one advancing to the northeast over previous flows and the other advancing along the southern margin of previous flows. The summit and Pu`u `O`o recorded the inflation portion of a DI (deflation-inflation) tilt event starting mid-afternoon yesterday. Hazard Summary: There are no immediate threats directly from lava flows. Vent areas are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: The vent continues to supply an active lava channel about 1 km long. Two flows issue from the lower end of that channel: a spillover fed an `a`a flow moving northeast and 2-3 seeps on the south side fed an `a`a flow advancing along the southern margin of previous flows. The lower section of channel overflowed infrequently.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: The webcam again showed lots of fume but no incandescence. The tiltmeter on the north flank of Pu`u `O`o cone turned around and recorded slow inflation about 1.5 hours after an abrupt tilt reversal at Kilauea summit. Seismic tremor levels are at low values except beneath Pu`u `O`o where the levels are at moderate values. Rockfall seismic signals have decreased in frequency since yesterday afternoon.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The tilt network recorded the expected abrupt inflation starting at 1510hrs. Seismic tremor levels have returned to low values. A few small deeper earthquakes were located beneath the southwest rift zone and the south flank.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
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« Reply #83 on: September 06, 2007, 01:32:33 AM »

ARENAL

As of the 1st of September, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica via the Global Vlocanism Network (GVN) reported that activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling SW and S, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts continues. Blocks from the lava-flow fronts periodically reached vegetation and started small fires. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Small amounts of pyroclastic material were ejected and affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Ash and acid rain fell on the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

YASUR

As of the 1st of September, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, he reports that Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano has erupted many times per hour for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Projectile ejection Yasur volcano has not produced a large destructive eruption historically. There is no indication that a large eruption will occur in the near future at Yasur volcano. Magma chamber inflation is currently being accommodated by the volcano. The largest reasonable level of activity expected is the ejection of bombs 3-4 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows threatening low lying areas near the volcano. This type of activity would pose a danger to nearby villages. Ground deformation Yasur volcano has the second greatest level of ground uplift in the world. Since 1000 AD there has been a yearly average uplift of 149 mm. This is only beaten by Iwo Jima volcano in Japan with 200 mm uplift per year since 1200 AD. Tsunami Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes, and landslides may result in the production of tsunamis which may threaten coastal populations. Flooding Lake Siwi broke through its natural dam in 2002 flooding Sulphur Bay Village and destroying houses. Landslides Landslide and debris flow pose significant risks to the surrounding population. Uplift of the caldera creates unstable ground, combined with the deposition of unstable ash and cinders. Ashfall Periods of strong volcanic activity may cause ashfall over large areas of Tanna Island. Ashfall can damage crops, cause roofs to collapse, and result in mudflows after rain. Gas Gas samples collected from the plume crossing Yasur crater rim in 1988 contained SO2 and HCl gases at concentrations between 3 and 9 ppm. This is a hazardous level of gas. This level of SO2 causes a decrease in lung function and immediate irritation of eyes nose and throat. Lava Flow Lava flows occur infrequently at Yasur volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 1st of September, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that the Strombolian activity continues since the depression located on the side East of the Southern crater East. Projections at the time of the most important explosions reach a score of metres height and its always accompanied by emissions by black ashes.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
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« Reply #84 on: September 06, 2007, 01:34:09 AM »

Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of September, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that Mt. Erebus has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activity. One of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes. Most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring of the seismic and seismoacoustic activity of the volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Since the beginning of 2007, there have been 30 eruptions of volcanoes over the world.
« Last Edit: September 06, 2007, 01:36:09 AM by DreamWeaver » Logged

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« Reply #85 on: September 06, 2007, 06:59:40 AM »

This could easily result in global warming, so I think that Al Gore should respond immediately with his helmet and garden hose.   Shocked

(Small Print:  Al Gore - Politician turned scientist - what a success story.)
_______________________________

Back on a serious note, I hope that everyone realizes that a dramatic change in natural disasters is another sign of the end days of the Age of Grace. This is another part of the puzzle that's beginning to fit, right along with many other parts.
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« Reply #86 on: September 26, 2007, 04:03:11 PM »

Mt. RUAPEHU

As of the 26th of September, the GeoNet Data Centre (CNDC) reported that an eruption at Mt. Ruapehu has occured at approximately 2023hrs, 25 September 2007. An eruption earthquake of magnitude 2.9 of seven minutes duration was recorded. Pilot reports of an eruption cloud below 15,000 feet and developing have been received. Reports of a lahar down the Whakapapa skifield have been received from ski field operators. The ERLAWS warning system indicates a possible lahar in the Whangaehu catchment. It is possible that lahars have occured in other catchments also. This eruption is similar to, but larger than, the October 4 2006 eruption, and is more reminiscent to the 1969 and 1975 eruptions.

Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Ruapehu is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~

PAVLOF

As of the 26th of September, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that seismic activity at Pavlof Volcano remains low. Cloudy conditions obscure the volcano from satellite and web camera views today. The decrease in seismicity and cessation of eruptive activity may be a lull in the current eruption. Other historical eruptions of Pavlof have been characterised by periods of diminished activity followed by periods of low-level eruption and occasional explosive events. Renewed eruptive activity can begin at any time with little precursory seismicity. AVO continues to monitor the volcano closely.

The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavolf, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing strombolian to vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption of Pavlof took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode; a fissure opened on the northern flank of the volcano, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Pavlof is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 26th of September, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) via the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that mostly cloudy conditions have obscured views of the Cleveland Volcano by satellite. AVO continues to monitor the volcano closely with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

The symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is currently at YELLOW
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« Reply #87 on: September 26, 2007, 04:06:24 PM »

UBINAS

As of the 20th of September, INGEMMET reported that based on observations of satellite imagery and a pilot report, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 12 and 14 September.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

HUILA

As of the 25th of September, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that between days 18 and 24 of September of 2007, 158 seismic events were registered that are associate to fracturing of rock, 80 flowed earthquakes related to the dynamics of within the volcanic conduits, 9 hybrid events and 1 pulse of tremor of low magnitude. The volcano-tectonic events in this period were located in the Central Tip, their magnitudes were inferior to 1.65 and they were located in an interval of depths between 1 and 4 km. Between days 18 and 22 of the present month, it was made a commission of maintenance to the seismic stations located in the north sector and the northwest of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila; from it was managed there to make visual appreciations of the superficial activity of the volcano, a gas column was observed in the Central Tip that did not exceed 100 metres of height and presented/displayed a white colouration. Of the previous thing it is emphasised that the volcanic complex presents/displays low levels of activity, although they are continued presenting/displaying excitations of the system.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: CHIKURACHKI

As of the 23rd of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended >110 km (>68 mi) from the volcano to the south-east on September 18-19, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidised basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red colour. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centres is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #88 on: September 26, 2007, 04:09:20 PM »

KARYMSKY

As of the 23rd of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week, many shallow volcanic earthquakes and a spasmodic volcanic tremor were registered at the volcano all days. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 3.3 km (10,800 ft) ASL on September 15-16 and 20; and weak ash bursts occurred all week. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was noted on September 13-15 and 17-19, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. Ash plumes and clouds extended >90 km (>56 mi) to the south-east from the volcano on September 15.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 23rd of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was slightly above background levels on September 14 and 20 (some shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered), and did not exceed this level on the other days. According to visual data, a weak fumarolic activity was noted at the dome on September 15 and 18-19, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly over the lava dome was noted on September 13, 15, 17-18 and 20.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 23rd of September, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and an intermittent volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 3.5-5.5 km (11,500-18,000 ft) ASL and avalanches occurred at the volcano on September 14-15 and 17-20. According to video data, gas-steam plumes containing ash raising up to 3.3 km (10,800 ft) ASL and extending to the north-east and east were noted on September 14-15. Gas-steam activity of the volcano was registered on September 13 and 18-19, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week. Ash plumes extended >35 km to the south-east from the volcano on September 15.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #89 on: September 26, 2007, 04:12:26 PM »

MANAM

As of the 20th of September, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. on 17 September and drifted W.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centres are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded at Manam since 1616. A major eruption in 1919 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the coast, and in 1957-58 pyroclastic flows descended all four radial valleys. Lava flows reached the sea in 1946-47 and 1958.

The Current Colour Code for Manam is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 26th of September, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that measurable activity of the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant change over the last 24 hours. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
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Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 26th of September, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift to the south-southeastward.

The volcano is obscured by a low cloud cover today. Seismicity and deformation remain unchanged over the last 24 hours, and indicate that lava extrusion continues. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
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