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Shammu
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« Reply #285 on: June 19, 2009, 11:13:23 PM »

Manam

As of the 11th of June, CVGHM reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on the 8th of June an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 40 km NW.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded at Manam since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

The Current Colour Code for Manam ORANGE LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Makian

As of the 4th of June, CVGHM reported that during the 28th May-2nd of June, seismicity from Makian increased, particularly the occurrence of tremor. Little, if any, increases in emissions were seen. The Alert level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

The Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) reported that on the 2nd of June the smoke that uptil now was observed from the side of the PGA Post in Moti coming from the activity that was met to the southern part of the lava turret. When the mountain was not closed the fog, the smoke this was white, thin, weak, with the height reached ~10 m. on the peak. The increase in the tectonic earthquake incident in the North Moluccan territory that triggered the increase in the Makian activity by being marked by the increase in the earthquake and the tremor earthquake that took place numerous times since May 28. Nevertheless visually did not yet appear the occurrence of the significant increase the incident of smoke bellows. Results of the analysis of the monitoring data then was counted since June 2 at 1500 hrs, the volcano Makian status changed from Normal (the I Level) to was on the alert (the Level Ii) The monitoring intensively continued to be carried out in order to evaluate Makian activity and VSI continued to coordinate with the Regional Government (Satkorlak PB and Satlak PB) local. The last eruption occurred in 1988 produced lava stopper in the bottom of craters. Lava dome volume is estimated around 282,600 m³ inverted parabola shape with diameter of approximately 600 m and the thickness 6 m.

Due to the increasing status of Makian, VSI recommends the following: Not allowed to climb to the top of Makian. People in the vicinity of Malian remain calm and vigilant, pay attention to directions from the Centre Vulkanologi Geology and disaster always coordinate with the Provincial Government of North Maluku (province as Satkorlak PB) and the Government of South Halmahera regency activity Makian. People please always follow the direction of Satlak PB and SATKORLAK PB. Local Government always coordinate with the Post Observation Makian Village Tafaga on the island of Moti, 13 km from the Centre Vulkanologi disaster and Geology in Bandung.

Makian volcano forms a 10-km-wide island near the southern end of a chain of volcanic islands off the west coast of Halmahera and has been the source of infrequent, but violent eruptions that have devastated villages on the island. The large 1.5-km-wide summit crater, containing a small lake on the NE side, gives the 1357-m-high peak a flat-topped profile. Two prominent valleys extend to the coast from the summit crater on the north and east sides. Four parasitic cones are found on the western flanks. Eruption have been recorded since about 1550; major eruptions in 1646, 1760-61, 1861-62, 1890, and 1988 caused extensive damage and many fatalities.

The Current Colour Code for Makian ORANGE LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Mt. Etna.

As of the 4th of June, the INGV-CT reported that during 25-31 May the NW-SE-trending fissure E of the Etna summit craters continued (since 13 May 2008) to produce active lava flows to the N of the SE end of the fissure, along the W wall of the Valle del Bove. At least three lava flows were active. Elsewhere on the volcano, activity was restricted to degassing from the Northeast Crater, from the NW and SE Bocca Nuova vents, from the E flank of the Southeast Crater, and along summit fumarolic fields. The activity was observed directly and by utilizing surveillance cameras in Milo (about 11 km ESE).

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Etna is ORANGE
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« Reply #286 on: June 19, 2009, 11:15:54 PM »

Pacaya

As of the 19th of June, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric conditions: Partially Dimmed. Winds: East at 9 k/h. Pluvial precipitation: 20.3 mm Activity: The activity of Pacaya is having changes in the activity, of Strombolian type, this originating pulses of magmatic ascent, ring-supply the lava effusion. Now two starting points of lava the first in the west flank exist in front of the Cerro Chino with 3 flows of 25 and 50 metres in length. The other exit stays in the south flank of the volcano, with 2 lava flows; 100 and 200 metres in length. In constant fumarole, the Mackenney crater of gases to 200 metres of height, in a southwestern direction.

The eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Popocatepetl

As of the 19th of June, CENAPRED has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system detected 11 exhalations accompanied by steam, gas and sometimes small amounts of ash. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report there is no visibility to the volcano due to the clouds. This morning CENAPRED coud observe the volcano with some steam and gas emissions . From high to low probability the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions; occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater. There is a permanent monitoring of the volcano to detect any change. The traffic light of volcanic alert remains in YELLOW Phase 2.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Rabaul

As of the 18th of June, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that during 7-11 June white and occasionally blue plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 and 16 June ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-45 km SE, E, and NE.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the E, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay.Two major Holocene caldera-forming eruptions at Rabaul took place as recently as 3,500 and 1,400 years ago. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The Current Colour Code for Rabaul is ORANGE
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« Reply #287 on: June 19, 2009, 11:17:25 PM »

Mt. Redoubt.

As of the 19th of June, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that the 2009 eruption of Redoubt volcano continues. Seismic activity is low, but remains above background level. The lava dome remains unstable and could fail with little or no warning, leading to significant ash emissions and lahars in the Drift River valley. Web camera and satellite images have been largely obscured by clouds today. No ash signals have been observed in satellite or radar imagery. AVO continues to monitor Redoubt's activity 24/7 and will provide frequent updates of the volcano's status and the earliest possible warning of significant explosive activity and other hazards. The aviation colour code remains ORANGE and the alert level WATCH.

Redoubt is a 3108-m-high glacier-covered stratovolcano with a breached summit crater in Lake Clark National Park about 170 km SW of Anchorage. Next to Mt. Spurr, Redoubt has been the most active Holocene volcano in the upper Cook Inlet. The volcano was constructed beginning about 890,000 years ago over Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith. Collapse of the summit of Redoubt 10,500-13,000 years ago produced a major debris avalanche that reached Cook Inlet. Holocene activity has included the emplacement of a large debris avalanche and clay-rich lahars that dammed Lake Crescent on the south side and reached Cook Inlet about 3500 years ago. Eruptions during the past few centuries have affected only the Drift River drainage on the north. Historical eruptions have originated from a vent at the north end of the 1.8-km-wide breached summit crater. The 1989-90 eruption of Redoubt had severe economic impact on the Cook Inlet region and affected air traffic far beyond the volcano.

The Current Colour Code for Redoubt is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Rinjani

As of the 18th of June, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that base on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during the 11th-12th and the 16th June ash plumes from Rinjani rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15-55 km W and WSW.

Rinjani volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3726 m, second in height among Indonesian volcanoes only to Sumatra's Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed from the east, but the west side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-shaped Segara Anak caldera. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-m-deep lake whose crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the east end of the caldera. Historical eruptions at Rinjani dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and consist of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lake.

The Current Colour Code for Rinjani is ORANGE LEVEL 2 .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Sakura-Jima


As of the 18th of June, the Japanese Meteorlogical Agency (JMA) has reported that based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 12 June an ash plume from Sakura-Jima rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. The JMA reported that during 14-16 June eruptions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SE and E on 14 and 15 June.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima is ORANGE
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« Reply #288 on: June 19, 2009, 11:18:50 PM »

Sangay

As of the 18th of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on the 15th of June possible small ash plumes from Sangay drifted WNW. A thermal anomaly was detected.

the isolated Sangay volcano, located E of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes, and its most active. It has been in frequent eruption for the past several centuries. The steep-sided, 5,230-m-high glacier-covered volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the E, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. Sangay towers above the tropical jungle on the E side; on the other sides flat plains of ash from the volcano have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of an historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The more or less constant eruptive activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.

The Current Colour Code for Sangay is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Santa Maria

As of the 19th of June, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric conditions: Partially Dimmed. Wind: North in calm. Pluvial precipitation: 22.8 mm Activity: Few weak and moderate explosions have been observed expelling gray ash 600 and 800 metres depositing fine ash particles in the flank the west, on the region of the Properties of La Florida, Claro Mount, Bello Mount and the Zone of Palajunoj. On the other hand, after a lahar of the river yesterday, on Nimá I it was observed that there are abundant dispersed blocks in causes.

The symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The 3772-m-high stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit of volcano Santa María to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Sarychev Pk

As of the 19th of June, the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) has reported that according to data of MODIS 0037 hrs UTC the eruption of the volcano continues. The emission of the mainly steam-gas stretches to southwest direction. The weak ash falls are observed in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. Thermal anomaly has been registered at the volcano.

Sarychev Peak, one of the most active volcanoes of the Kurile Islands, occupies the NW end of Matua Island in the central Kuriles. The andesitic central cone was constructed within a 3-3.5 km wide caldera, whose rim is exposed only on the SW side. A dramatic 250-m-wide, very steep-walled crater with a jagged rim caps the volcano. The substantially higher SE rim forms the 1496 m high point of the island. Fresh-looking lava flows descend all sides of Sarychev Peak and often form capes along the coast. Much of the lower-angle outer flanks of the volcano are overlain by pyroclastic-flow deposits. Eruptions have been recorded since the 1760's and include both quiet lava effusion and violent explosions. The largest historical eruption of Sarychev Peak in 1946 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the sea.

The Current Colour Code for Sarychev Peak is ORANGE
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« Reply #289 on: June 19, 2009, 11:20:35 PM »

Sheveluch.

As of the 19th of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that activity of the volcano continues: a new viscous lava flow effuses at the lava dome. Ash explosions >10 km (>32,800 ft) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly ash plumes rose up to 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) ASL, and weak gas-steam plumes with some ash occurred at the volcano this week. According to video data, ash plumes up to 6.1 km (20,000 ft) ASL were observed on June 12th-15th, 18th. Strong and moderate gas-steam activity of the volcano was observed during other time of the last week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was registered over the lava dome all week. Ash plumes extended up to 50 km (31 mi) to the south from the volcano on June 11th, 13th-14th. Ash cloud 40x20 km at the distance 140 km (87 mi) to the south-west was observed on June 12th.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskoi volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Slamet


As of the 11th of June, the CVGHM reported that during 26 May-4 June activity from Slamet fluctuated, but decreased overall. The number of earthquakes and the temperature of water in areas around the volcano were lower. Inflation and deflation fluctuated within a range of 2 cm. White plumes rose 100-750 high. During 5-7 June, activity was characterized by inflation and an increased number of earthquakes. During that time, white plumes were accompanied by ash emissions that rose 200-800 m from the crater, incandescent material was ejected 50-200 m above the crater, and booming noises were reported. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Slamet, Java's second highest volcano at 3428 m and one of its most active, has a cluster of about three dozen cinder cones on its lower SE-NE flanks and a single cinder cone on the western flank. Slamet is composed of two overlapping edifices, an older basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcano on the west and a younger basaltic to basaltic-andesite one on the east. Gunung Malang II cinder cone on the upper eastern flank on the younger edifice fed a lava flow that extends 6 km to the east. Four craters occur at the summit of Gunung Slamet, with activity migrating to the SW over time. Historical eruptions, recorded since the 18th century, have originated from a 150-m-deep, 450-m-wide, steep-walled crater at the western part of the summit and have consisted of explosive eruptions generally lasting a few days to a few weeks.

The Current Colour Code for Slamet is ORANGE LEVEL 3 .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Soufriere

As of the 13th of June, the Monstserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano remained at a low level this week. Seismic activity was very low, with one rockfall and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes. There appear to be no major changes in the structure of the dome nor in fumarolic activity. Sulphur dioxide flux results are not yet available. An increase in volcanic activity could occur at any time and with no warning. Lahars are always a potential hazard in river valleys around the volcano during and after periods of heavy rain. The Hazard Level is 3. There is no access to Zone C.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ORANGE LEVEL 3
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« Reply #290 on: June 19, 2009, 11:22:07 PM »

Suwanose-Jima

As of the 18th of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-Jima on the 16th of June. Details of a possible resultant ash plume were not reported.

The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-Jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.

The Current Colour Code for Suwanose-Jima is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Tungurahua

As of the 19th of June, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the volcano is conserved with a moderate level of activity, did not register explosions in last the 24 hours, but until the night of yesterday ash fall appeared in the sectors of Manzano, Choglontus and Cahuají.

The IG reports that with respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, a total of 20 events of long period has been entered (LP), 13 episodes of continuous tremor. Observations, Emissions and Ash: At night and dawn the volcano remained place setting, but with the help of the nocturnal viewfinder something of brightness could be observed. In the morning the clouds covered the part superior of the cone and a column of 800 m of height could be distinguished that went towards the northwest. At night brief roars were heard. Until the dusk ambundant ash fall was reported in Manzano, Choglontus and Cahuají. Today ash has not fallen. Rains and Lahares: In the morning of today slight rains were registered.

Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major volcanic edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ubinas


As of the 18th of June, the Global Volcanism Netowrk (GVN) has reported that based on SIGMET notices and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 11 and 13-15 June eruptions from Ubinas produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.9 km (18,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted NE, E, and SE. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery on the 13th of June.

A small, 1.2-km-wide caldera that cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, gives it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include some of Holocene age. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is ORANGE
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« Reply #291 on: June 20, 2009, 10:09:53 AM »

All I can say is WOW!
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« Reply #292 on: December 31, 2009, 01:39:09 PM »


Mount Redoubt Volcano in Alaska Rumbles Again
Tuesday, 29 Dec 2009 07:09 AM

Alaska's Mount Redoubt volcano is rumbling again.

The Alaska Volcano Observatory says a series of small earthquakes began occurring around the summit of the volcano Sunday and continued Monday. As a result, scientists have upgraded the volcano's alert status.

Redoubt, about 105 miles southwest of Anchorage, went through an eruptive period that led to major explosions earlier this year, including one that dusted Anchorage with ashfall.

The erupting volcano forced the Cook Inlet Pipeline Co. to remove millions of gallons of oil stored at the Drift River Terminal 22 miles away. Hundreds of airline flights also had to be canceled because of ash clouds this spring.

The last time Mount Redoubt had a similar period of activity was in late 1989 to spring 1990.

Mount Redoubt Volcano in Alaska Rumbles Again
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« Reply #293 on: March 22, 2010, 11:42:58 PM »

AMBRYM

As of the 11th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on pilot observations and analyses of satellite imagery, the Wellington VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ambrym rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. on 5 March.

Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major Plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations.

The Current Colour Code for Ambrym is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 11th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that OVSICORI-UNA reported that during February activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches. A lava flow traveled down the SW flank. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Avalanches from the crater and from lava-flow fronts traveled down the SW, S, and SE flanks, occasionally igniting vegetation. Crater D produced only fumarolic activity.

Conical volcano Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1,657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7,000 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~

BAGANA

As of the 25th of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that RVO reported that white vapour from Bagana was emitted during 1-21 February. Ash plumes were seen on 5 February and night-time incandescence was seen on 2nd, 12th, 13th, and 19th of February. Sulfur dioxide plumes drifted ENE during 11-20 February and NNW on the 20th and 21st of February.

Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. Bagana is a massive symmetrical, roughly 1750-m-high lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is frequent and is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides.

The Current Colour Code for Bagana is ORANGE .
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« Reply #294 on: March 22, 2010, 11:44:33 PM »

BARREN IS.

As of the 28th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on the 23rd of January an ash plume from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery.

Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the centre of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during historical eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Barren Is. is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

BATU TARA

As of the 18th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-16 March ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 20-150 km N, NW, W, SW, and SSE.

Yhe small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The first historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow.

The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~

CHAITEN

As of the 18th of March, SERNAGEOMIN reported that on webcam views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex, likely mixed with steam and gas, drifted NE on the 15th of March.

Chaitén is a small, glacier-free caldera with a Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. A pyroclastic-surge and pumice layer that was considered to originate from the eruption that formed the elliptical 2.5 x 4 km wide summit caldera was dated at about 9400 years ago. A rhyolitic, 962-m-high obsidian lava dome occupies much of the caldera floor. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km away from the volcano to the north and south. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén, and the high point on its southern rim reaches 1122 m. Two small lakes occupy the caldera floor on the west and north sides of the lava dome.

The Current Colour Code for Chaiten is RED .
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« Reply #295 on: March 22, 2010, 11:47:03 PM »

CONCEPCION

As of the 22nd of March, the Gobal Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that INETER, informed that the emanations of gases and ashes in the volcano Conception are handicapped today without to have presented/displayed relavent explosions. During afternoon the volcano it presented/displayed small gas emanations. INETER recommends the settlers of the communities of Esquipulas, Los Angeles and San jOse of the South, to follow watchmen before the gas emanations, since the direction of the flows continues oriented towards this zone. Seismic decrease in the seismic tremor was observed. Specialists of the Institute of Renewable Energies, ITER, of Spain are working in collaboration with technicians of the INETER in the Island of Ometepe. INETER, maintains the monitoring of the volcano the 24 hours of the day and it will be continued generally informing on changes to the relavent population.

Volcano Concepción is one of Nicaragua's highest volcanoes and is also one of its most active. The symmetrical volcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua. Concepción is connected to neighbouring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. N-S-trending fractures cutting across the volcano are associated with spatter cones, cinder cones, and maars located on the middle N flank and on the lower S flank down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepción has had frequent moderate explosive eruptions in the past century, most of which have originated from a small summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Concepcion is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

DUKONO

As of the 18th of March, the Darwin VAAC reported that on the 13th of March an ash plume from Dukono was seen on satellite imagery drifting 75 km E at an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

The Current Colour Code for Dukono is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~

EYJAFJALLAJÖKULL Video Link of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption

As of the 22nd of March, the Nordic Volcanological Centre (NORDVULK) has reported that the Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted near a glacier in southern Iceland, shooting ash and molten lava into the air and forcing the evacuation last Sunday of hundreds of people from nearby villages. There were no immediate reports of injuries or damage from the Eyjafjallajokull volcano, but a state of emergency was declared and scientists feared the eruption could trigger a larger and potentially more dangerous eruption at the Katla volcano. Saturday's eruption, which occurred just before midnight (2000 EDT, 8 p.m. EDT), came weeks after a series of small earthquakes. Television footage showed lava flows along the fissure. "This was a rather small and peaceful eruption but we are concerned that it could trigger an eruption at the nearby Katla volcano, a vicious volcano that could cause both local and global damage," said Pall Einarsson, a geophysicist at the University of Iceland's Institute of Earth Science.

Authorities evacuated 450 people between the farming village of Hvolsvollur and the fishing village of Vik, some 100 miles (160 kilometres) southeast of the capital, Reykjavik, said Vidir Reynisson of the Icelandic Civil Protection Department. Evacuation centres were set up near the town of Hella. The most immediate threat was to livestock because of the caustic gases. "We had to leave all our animals behind," Elin Ragnarsdottir, a 47-year-old farmer, told RUV, Iceland's national broadcaster from an evacuation centre. "We got a call and a text message ... and we just went."

Iceland sits on a large volcanic hot spot in the Atlantic's mid-oceanic ridge. Volcanic eruptions, common throughout Iceland's history, are often triggered by seismic activity when the Earth's plates move and when magma from deep underground pushes its way to the surface. Scientists in Iceland have been monitoring the recent activity using seismometers and global positioning instruments. Like earthquakes, however, it is difficult to predict the exact timing of eruptions. "The volcano has been inflating since the beginning of the year, both rising and swelling," Einarsson told The Associated Press. "Even though we were seeing increased seismic activity, it could have been months or years before we saw an eruption like this ... we couldn't say that there was an imminent risk for the area." The population around the Eyjafjallajokull volcano and the glacier that bears the same name is sparse - unlike the area around the Katla volcano, which is also covered by glacial ice and poses a greater danger of floods, according to Einarsson. "One of the possible scenarios we're looking at is that this small eruption could bring about something bigger. This said, we can't speculate on when that could happen," he said in an interview.

Authorities initially feared the eruption occurred below the 100-square-mile (160 square-kilometre) Eyjafjallajokull glacier and could have triggered floods if the glacial ice melted. But after an aerial survey Sunday they concluded that the eruption struck near the glacier in an area where there was no ice. "This is the best possible place for an eruption," said Tumi Gudumundsson, a geologist at the University of Iceland. There hasn't been an eruption near the Eyjafjallajokull glacier since 1821. The Icelandic Civil Aviation Administration ordered aircraft to stay 120 nautical miles away from the volcano area due to low visibility in some areas. All domestic flights were canceled until further notice, the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service reported, but Reykjavik appeared to be unaffected with clear visibility.

Eyjafjöll (also known as Eyjafjallajökull) is located immediately west of Katla volcano. Eyjafjöll consists of an E-W-trending, elongated ice-covered basaltic-andesite stratovolcano with a 2.5-km-wide summit caldera. Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the eastern and western flanks of the volcano, but are more prominent on the western side. Although the 1666-m-high volcano has erupted during historical time, it has been less active than other volcanoes of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, and relatively few Holocene lava flows are known. The sole historical eruption of Eyjafjöll, during December 1821 to January 1823, produced intermediate-to-silicic tephra from the central caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Eyjafjallajökull is ORANGE
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« Reply #296 on: March 22, 2010, 11:49:31 PM »

FUEGO

As of the 13th of March, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that Atmospheric conditions: Cleared. Winds: Southwest in calm. Pluvial precipitation: 0.0 mm Activity: The activity in calm is observed, with white fumaroles in the crater in a southeast direction. In 24 hours of seismic registry and observation of the 10 explosions activity, 7 weak explosions and 3 moderate ones have been entered expelling columns of gray ash to 300 and 600 metres of height on the crater. Some of these explosions accompanied by degassing sounds and avalanches of blocks in flanks of the crater.

The volcano Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta volcano may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango volcano, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

GALERAS

As of the 17th of March, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that low levels of seismicity, similars to reported for the previous weeks and the absence of earthquakes associated with gas discharge stay. The registry of a volcano-tectonic event on March 12th at 2128 hrs., located approximately to 6 km to the ENE of the active cone in environs of the municipality is emphasized of Pasto, with a depth near 8 km and local magnitude of 2 degrees in the Richter scale. This earthquake reported sense in some districts of the north of the city. During the week low values of SO2 (Sulphur Dioxide) flow were moderate, being the maximum of 208 tonnes/day, which was obtained on March 11th in a passage between Pasto and Nariño. On March 10th, personnel of the OVSP realised a visit from recognition to the Camino Real, on the flank he orients and northwest of the volcanic complex, and from the sector of La quebrada Maragato in future, they reported to feel strong scents to sulphured gases. On March 15th, in visit of recognition to the top, personnel of the OVSP located in the South sector of the crater it observed exit of gas in little originating amount of the centre of the main crater, Deformed the fumarolic field and from secondary craters the Chavas and the Paisita; scents of sulphured gases were not perceived.

Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

The Current Colour Code for Galeras is YELLOW 1 .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: GAUA

As of the 4th of February, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that on the 29th of January, the VGO reported significant changes in Gaua's activity over the previous two weeks. They noted that since the 16th of January more gas was emitted and multiple explosions produced denser and darker ash plumes. During 22-29 January, the water level in the river to the E that Lake Letas feeds rose 10 cm. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 3 km and drifted S and W. On the 24th of January nearby villagers reported seeing ejected material from Strombolian activity. The Wellington VAAC reported that on the 27th of January an ash cloud was seen on satellite imagery. Strong explosions were seen and heard from East Gaua on the 29th of January. According to the VAAC, the VGO reported that gas-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and W that same day.

The roughly 20-km-diameter Gaua Island, also known as Santa Maria, consists of a basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano with an 6 x 9 km wide summit caldera. Small parasitic vents near the caldera rim fed Pleistocene lava flows that reached the coast on several sides of the island; several littoral cones were formed where these lava flows reached the sea. Quiet collapse that formed the roughly 700-m-deep caldera was followed by extensive ash eruptions. Construction of the historically active cone of Mount Garat (Gharat) and other small cinder cones in the SW part of the caldera has left a crescent-shaped caldera lake. The symmetrical, flat-topped Mount Garat cone is topped by three pit craters. The onset of eruptive activity from a vent high on the SE flank of Mount Garat in 1962 ended a long period of dormancy.

The Current Colour Code for Gaua is ORANGE 2
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« Reply #297 on: March 22, 2010, 11:51:16 PM »

KARYMSKY

As of the 19th of March, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that weak activity of the volcano continues but ash plumes were not observing last time and a thermal anomaly over the volcano was small and weak. But possibility of ash explosions up to 6.0 km (or 19,700 ft) ASL remains. The explosive activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of the volcano was slightly above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly an ash plume rose up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) ASL on March 12th and weak ash-gas bursts occurred all week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano on March 12th and 15th, clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is YELLOW .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA


As of the 22nd of March, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that there have been no significant changes; Kilauea volcanic activity continued at two locations. At the summit, lava mostly stayed at middle levels in a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater and produced glow that was visible from the Jaggar Museum. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through tubes and fed scattered surface flows above the pali. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated.

Past 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The circulating and spattering lava surface remained at mid-levels (not the highest nor the lowest) in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater and produced strong glow that was visible from the Jaggar Museum Overlook last night; at a little after 1900 hrs last night, a small hybrid/rockfall earthquake occurred and lava rose several meters before dropping back to mid-levels at 2000 hrs. The summit tiltmeter network recorded continued DI inflation. Seismic tremor remained elevated and steady with a brief drop in amplitude corresponding to the equally brief rise of the lava surface this morning. The number of RB2S2BL earthquakes was within background values. Three earthquakes beneath Hawai`i Island were strong enough to be located - one beneath the upper east rift zone and two on south flank faults. The summit vent gas plume is moving to the southwest. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 500 tonnes/day on March 19th, still elevated above the 2003-2007 average of 140 tonnes/day. Small amounts of mostly ash-sized tephra were carried out of the deep pit in ascending gases and deposited on nearby surfaces.

Past 24 hours at the middle east rift zone vents and flow field: Magma degases through Pu`u `O`o crater before erupting from the TEB vent located 2 km to the east. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 400 tonnes/day on March 12th, much lower than the 2003-2007 average of 1,700 tonnes/day. No incandescence was recorded within Pu`u `O`o Crater overnight. The tiltmeter on the north flank of Pu`u `O`o recorded continued DI inflation. Seismic tremor levels near the Pu`u `O`o and TEB vents dropped about one-third in amplitude at 2040 hrs last night. The number of RB2S2BL earthquakes remained at background levels. Lava flowed through tubes and fed surface flows above the pali. GOES-WEST images through dawn showed strong thermal anomalies consistent with continuing surface flow activity.

Kilauea volcano, which overlaps the east flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions of Kilauea are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

The Current Colour Code for Kilauea is ORANGE.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 19th of March, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions >7.0 km (>23,000 ft)ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity of the volcano was above background levels all week. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes rose up to 5.0 km (16,400 ft) ASL on March 12th and 15th-16th, clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. Strombolian activity of the volcano continues. A height of bursts was about 200 m above the crater. An effusion of lava flows on the volcanic flanks continues. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano all week.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is ORANGE
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« Reply #298 on: March 22, 2010, 11:53:09 PM »

MAYON

As of the 4th of March, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) has reported that there has been a lowering of Mayon volcano’s status from Alert Level 2 (evidence of magmatic intrusion that could eventually lead to an eruption) to Alert Level 1 (no hazardous eruption imminent). After the alert status was lowered to Alert Level 2 last 13th of January, Mayon volcano has consistently manifested the following:
1. The number of volcanic earthquakes recorded daily (0 – 4 per day) is well within the normal level for Mayon of 5 volcanic earthquakes per day;
2. Volcanic tremors associated with magma movement within the volcano conduit became scarce and sometimes not recorded at all;
3. Ground deformation measurements showed a deflated volcano edifice indicating the absence of fresh volcanically-induced deformation or fresh supply of magma from below;
4. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate measured since the 13th of January to March ranged from 110 to 2,021 tonnes per day (t/d) is consistent with its post eruptive gas emission rate, and;
5. The observed crater glow prevailed at intensity II (can be observed with the naked eye) but does not indicate any re-intensification. Steam emission was most of the time weak and passively rising from the summit crater.

The above observations suggest that Mayon volcano’s condition is improving and likely heading towards normalcy. In view thereof, PHIVOLCS is now lowering its alert status from Alert Level 2 to Alert Level 1, meaning that eruption is not imminent. The public, however, is reminded that the 6-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) remains off-limits due to the continuing threat from sudden small explosions and rock falls from the upper and middle slopes of the volcano. Active river channels and those areas perennially identified as lahar prone in the southeast sector should also be avoided especially during bad weather conditions or when there is heavy and prolonged rainfall.

Beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2462 m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from strombolian to basaltic plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1200 people and devastated several towns.

The Current Colour Code for Mayon is YELLOW 1 .
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Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of March, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reported that this volcano continues its long eruption phase. Mt. Erebus was discovered in 1841 by James Ross and crew. The first ascent occurred in 1908 (to crater rim), by members of Ernest Shackleton's expedition. The average winter temperature is approx. -50° Celsius and the average summer temperature approx. -20° Celsius. The Mt. Erebus stratovolcano has been active from ~1.3 million years ago to present and ists petrology is Basanite to trachyte to phonolite. There are frequent Strombolian eruptions and infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. The most notable features are a persistent convecting phonolite lava lake, persistent low-level eruptive activity. It has one of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes and is the most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring and interpretation of seismic and seismoacoustic activity volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

Mt. Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. The 3794-m-high Erebus is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the crudely triangular Ross Island. The summit of the dominantly phonolitic Mount Erebus has been modified by one or two generations of caldera formation. A summit plateau at about 3200-m altitude marks the rim of the youngest caldera, which formed during the late-Pleistocene and within which the modern cone was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 600 m wide, 110-m-deep crater truncates the summit and contains an active lava lake within a 250-m-wide, 100-m-deep inner crater. The glacier-covered volcano was erupting when first sighted by Captain James Ross in 1841. Continuous lava-lake activity with minor explosions, punctuated by occasional larger Strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim, has been documented since 1972, but has probably been occurring for much of the volcano's recent history.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE .
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Mt. ETNA

As of the 1st of March, Mount Etna is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and is in an almost constant state of activity. The fertile volcanic soils support extensive agriculture, with vineyards and orchards spread across the lower slopes of the mountain and the broad Plain of Catania to the south. Due to its history of recent activity and nearby population, Mount Etna has been designated a Decade Volcano by the United Nations.

Our last information on Mt. Etna, as of the 20th of December 2009, colleage John Seach of Volcano Live has reported that a swarm of earthquakes occurred at Mt. Etna volcano on the 19th of December. More than 30 earthquakes occurred in the swarm, with the largest being magnitude 4.6. The swarm was located under the northwest side of the volcano.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Etna is ORANGE
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« Reply #299 on: March 22, 2010, 11:54:31 PM »

NEVADO del HUILA

As of the 17th of March, the the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayan (INGEOMINAS) reports that in the present week a total of 233 seismic events was registered. Of them, 37 were related to fracturing of rock, 183 with the dynamics of flowed within the volcanic conduits, 9 events of tremor (TR) and 3 earthquakes of the hybrid type. In images caught through webcam installed in Taxfnú, observed that the volcanic complex continues desgasification in columns of whitish colour, that do not surpass the 1000 m of height, with preferential dispersion towards the West of the volcanic complex. The constant degassing of the volcanic system was corroborated through satelite images published by the Agency the International NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), in which evidence that the continuous volcano emitting SO2 in smaller concentrations to the calculated ones in the last weeks. It was realised in a fly over of superficial recognition the 10th of March, but the atmospheric conditions in the zone of influence of the volcano disabled the development of this activity. Of the previous, one concludes that the volcano does not present/display significant changes in the different observed parameters, that they could indicate a possible evolution to states of greater activity.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5364-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Long-term, persistent steam columns had risen from Pico Central prior to the next eruption in 2007, when explosive activity was accompanied by damaging mudflows.

The Current Colour Code for Nevado del Huila is YELLOW .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

NYAMURAGIRA

As of the 4th of February, the Democratic Republic of Congo reports that during 27 January-2 February, the MODIS sensor aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite frequently detected thermal anomalies from Nyamuragira. The Toulouse VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume was seen on satellite imagery on the 29th of January.

Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield volcano that rises about 25 km north of Lake Kivu across the broad East African Rift Valley NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Nyamuragira, also known as Nyamulagira, has a volume of 500 cu km, and extensive lava flows from the volcano blanket 1500 sq km of the East African Rift. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with its steep-sided neighbour Nyiragongo. The 3058-m-high summit of Nyamuragira is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, frequently modifying the morphology of the caldera floor, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

The Current Colour Code for Nyamuragira is ORANGE .
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OL DOINYO LENGAI

As of the 25th of February, the Democratic Republic of Congo via the GVN reports that according to Frederick Belton's website, geologists that had climbed Ol Doinyo Lengai on the 11th of February saw periodic eruptions from a small fissure, and steam emissions from an area of the crater rim next to a part that had collapsed. Another group of geologists that visited during 14-15 February noted three new hornitos on the W part of the crater floor that were black and very fresh. They also noted a cone-shaped gray hornito on the middle of the floor and a new black lava flow to the S.

The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage of the volcano ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra eruptions and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

The Current Colour Code for Ol Doinyo Lengai is ORANGE
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