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Shammu
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« Reply #270 on: May 12, 2009, 10:08:15 PM »

KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 8th of May, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano continues. Gas-steam and/or aerosol with ash plumes from the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels on April 30th - May 1st and May 5-6th and at background levels in the other days this week. A weak volcanic tremor and a number of shallow events in the area of the volcano were registered all week. The volcano was obscured by clouds all week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly was noted over the volcano on May 2nd. A strong gas-steam plume extending about 50 km (31 mi) to the north-west from the volcano was registered on May 6-7th.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

KORYAKSKY

As of the 8th of May, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that a gas-steam activity of the volcano continues and aerosolic plumes could affect low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels on May 3rd and at background levels in the other days this week. According to visual data, a moderate fumarolic activity was observed at the volcano on May 2nd and 5th-7th. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet.

The large symmetrical Koryaksky stratovolcano is the most prominent landmark of the NW-trending Avachinskaya volcano group, which towers above Kamchatka's largest city, Petropavlovsk. Erosion has produced a ribbed surface on the eastern flanks of the 3456-m-high volcano; the youngest lava flows are found on the upper western flank and below SE-flank cinder cones. No strong explosive eruptions have been documented during the Holocene. Extensive Holocene lava fields on the western flank were primarily fed by summit vents; those on the SW flank originated from flank vents. Lahars associated with a period of lava effusion from south- and SW-flank fissure vents about 3900-3500 years ago reached Avacha Bay. Only a few moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during historical time. Koryaksky's first historical eruption, in 1895, also produced a lava flow.

The Current Colour Code for Koryaksky is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ANAK KRAKATAU - Son of Krakatoa (Krakatau)

As of the 9th of May, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the activity of Anak Krakatau is increasing. Direct observations of the crater in late April revealed strong Strombolian activity from a vent inside the crater of the 2007-2008 eruption building up a new scoria cone inside this crater. The Volcano Discovery Team is planning to revisit the volcano in the first week of June for more observations.

The number of eruptions from Anak Krakatau increased significantly at the end of March and continued through 5 May. Seismic data were not collected during 26 April-29 April due to instrument malfunctions. Direct observations of the crater on 24, 25, and 29 April revealed that the eruption originated from a crater on the W slope of Anak Krakatau. Ash plumes generally drifted E and caused ashfall within a 5 km radius of the crater. Clear weather on 5 May allowed for visual observations; "smoke" rose 500 m above the crater. On 6 May, the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

The Current Colour Code for Krakatau is ORANGE  LEVEL 3
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« Reply #271 on: May 12, 2009, 10:10:26 PM »

LLAIMA

As of the 11th of May, the Chilean state geological service SERNAGEOMIN have issued a bulletin reporting activity at Llaima volcano from 28 April to 4 May 2009. The bulletin reports the continuing sporadic presence of incandescent points in the south-western margin of the principal crater ‘corresponding with outcrops of lava from which, occasionally, blocks fall and roll down the slopes of the wester flank of the volcano’. Weak steam emissions have been seen in the mornings from Llaima’s summit, produced by the condensation of cold air in contact with the heated areas of the volcano. There have been no significant changes in the seismic behaviour of the volcano, which is characterized by weak tremor and LP-type (long period) earthquakes of up to 70 seconds’ duration, ‘related to the continuing movement of fluids and gases in the interior of the volcano’. The number of LP earthquakes ranges between 15 and 18 per hour, which represents no significant change from previous weeks. Seismic energy released (RSAM) has shown a slight tendency to increase. The bulletin concludes that "the situation of the volcano is still critical because of its erratic seismic behaviour, the obstruction of its crater, the sporadic emission of lava in the western margin of the principal crater and the occasional emissions of gas and particulate material from the summit and various points on the western flank." There could be renewed explosive activity and lava flows, and thus SERNAGEOMIN maintains Yellow Alert.

The Llaima volcano, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, contains two main historically active craters, one at the summit and the other, Pichillaima, to the SE. The massive 3125-m-high, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano has a volume of 400 cu km. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 cu km Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterised by Strombolian, Hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.

The Current Colour Code for Llaima is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

MIYAKE-JIMA

As of the 16th of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) via the JMA reported that on the 1st of April an eruption from Miyake-Jima produced an ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater and drifted E. They also stated that the last eruption was on the 8th of May 2008.

The circular, 8-km-wide island of Miyake-Jima forms a low-angle stratovolcano that rises about 1100 m from the sea floor in the northern Izu Islands about 200 km SSW of Tokyo. Parasitic craters and vents, including maars near the coast and radially oriented fissure vents, dot the flanks of the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have occurred since 1085 C.E. at vents ranging from the summit to below sea level, causing much damage on this small populated island. After a three-century-long hiatus ending in 1469, activity has been dominated by flank fissure eruptions sometimes accompanied by minor summit eruptions. A 1.6-km-wide summit caldera was slowly formed by subsidence during an eruption in 2000; by October of that year the crater floor had dropped to only 230 m above sea level.

The Current Colour Code for Miyake-Jima is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of May, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reported that Antarctica's Mt. Erebus continues with a molten lava lake and vapour emissions. It may be covered with glaciers, but they do little to cool the volcano's molten core. The world's southernmost volcano to show activity during recorded history, Erebus holds a lava lake and occasionally experiences explosive eruptions. In 2004, the reliable presence of a lava lake at this volcano's summit made Mt. Erebus the perfect place to test a self-directed satellite and sensor.

The above image shows two views of Mt. Erebus from February 6, 2009, captured by sensors on NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. The larger image was acquired by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and the inset image was acquired by the Hyperion sensor. The larger image shows a true-colour, photo-like view of the volcano, and the inset image shows thermal activity, highlighting the volcano's molten lava lake.

On May 7, 2004, the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment on EO-1 first demonstrated its ability to detect volcanic activity by sensing thermal emissions at Erebus. After the initial detection, the satellite gave itself new orders to take fresh observations of the volcano several hours later. Scientists who subsequently examined the data EO-1 acquired confirmed that a genuine thermal emission had been detected. Since that time, EO-1 has been successfully employed to detect other volcanic eruptions, including those near densely populated areas.

The Mt. Erebus image shows a fairly typical level of activity for the volcano, including a molten lava lake and vapour emissions. Erebus is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava, and rocks ejected by earlier eruptions. The volcano was erupting when British explorer Captain James Ross first observed it 1841, and it has shown continuous lava lake activity since 1972.

Mt. Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. The 3794-m-high Erebus is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the crudely triangular Ross Island. The summit of the dominantly phonolitic Mount Erebus has been modified by one or two generations of caldera formation. A summit plateau at about 3200-m altitude marks the rim of the youngest caldera, which formed during the late-Pleistocene and within which the modern cone was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 600 m wide, 110-m-deep crater truncates the summit and contains an active lava lake within a 250-m-wide, 100-m-deep inner crater. The glacier-covered volcano was erupting when first sighted by Captain James Ross in 1841. Continuous lava-lake activity with minor explosions, punctuated by occasional larger Strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim, has been documented since 1972, but has probably been occurring for much of the volcano's recent history.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE
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« Reply #272 on: May 12, 2009, 10:12:49 PM »

Mt. ETNA

As of the 12th of May, the INGV-CT reported that at this moment the climate on Mt. Etna is not favourable with the excursions, three days of bad weather and new snowfalls on the tops. For one week the cloud cover which goes up the Valle del Bove and enveloped the tops has arrived very quickly, each days towards 1030 hrs with the tops regularly in the clouds. Here nevertheless some images of lava flow which is currently with Mt. Etna altitude of approximately 2480 metres.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Etna is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

PACAYA

As of the 12th of May, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric conditions: Cleared, winds to the Northast to 14.0 km/h. Pluvial precipitation: 0.0 mm Activity: the volcano maintains the same eruptive pattern of completed weeks, on the flank the west stay lava flows, sometimes the 3 and 5, variable ones between 100, 200 and 300 m of length. They are continued giving to gas exhalations in the crater, generating audible rumblings to 2 km. Today in the morning moderate fumaroles were observed, white colour, maintained on the crater 500 m of height taking the direction to the west. This activity is part of the process of the behaviour of a Strombolian type volcano like Pacaya. As far as the seismic activity registered by PCG it is predominantly of tremor and explosions, this due to the pressure of magmatic gases and ascent of magma to the surface combined with small gas bubbles that cause the rumblings. The graphic one of energy RSAM, stays between 25 and 40 counts every 10 minutes.

The eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

PAGAN

As of the 30th of April, The Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported the USGS stated that a crew from a NOAA ship working at Pagan observed continuous steam emissions from the N crater during 21-22 April. Satellite imagery analyzed by the Washington VAAC showed a diffuse plume drifting 15 km W on 23 April. On 28 April, steam emissions had decreased so the Aviation Colour Code and the Volcano Alert Level were lowered to "Unassigned." There are no monitoring instruments on Pagan, thus the levels "Green" or "Normal" do not apply because background activity is not defined. Monitoring is done by satellite and ground observers.

Pagan Island, the largest and one of the most active of the Mariana Islands volcanoes, consists of two stratovolcanoes connected by a narrow isthmus. Both North and South Pagan stratovolcanoes were constructed within calderas, 7 and 4 km in diameter, respectively. The 570-m-high Mount Pagan at the NE end of the island rises above the flat floor of the northern caldera, which probably formed during the early Holocene. South Pagan is a 548-m-high stratovolcano with an elongated summit containing four distinct craters. Almost all of the historical eruptions of Pagan, which date back to the 17th century, have originated from North Pagan volcano. The largest eruption of Pagan during historical time took place in 1981 and prompted the evacuation of the sparsely populated island.

The Current Colour Code for Pagan is UNASSIGNED - (Means that they are deciding on color code)
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« Reply #273 on: May 12, 2009, 10:14:25 PM »

PITON de la FOURNAISE

As of the 8th of February, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris via the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPDLF) has reported that the eruption from Piton de la Fournaise that began on the 14th of December 2008 has terminated. In spite of the bad weather which generates much noise on the seismic signals, the recordings do not show any more any sign of eruptive activity in the Dolomieu crater since 0000 hrs local, (2000 hrs UTC). The eruption which began on December 14th at 2300 (UTC) is finished on February 4th at 2000 (UTC).

The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its >530,000 year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.

The Current Colour Code for Piton de la Fournaise is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

POAS

As of the 15th of February, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica (OVSICORI-UNA) reported that fieldwork was carried out on Feb. 11, 2009 to assess and document impact of rockslides within and around Poás Volcano active crater. Hundreds of rockslides (all sizes) were drawn and explained in a field report, one month after the Cinchona earthquake shook the summit and surroundings. Previously unstable areas (subject to gravity) were the most affected 360 degrees around the intracrater area. Many other rockslides occurred along walls supposedly stable.

Although no augmented activity is related to massive falling of material, eventually fine sediments will end up at the bottom of the hot, acidic lake. A previous unstable area, east and near the lake, fell almost completely, burying a fumarolic axis that acted as a subaerial release for some 9 years. It seems that the vigorous degassing activity returned entirely to the dome and the hot lake. Hence the lake shows heavy curtains of gas and vapour. Fumarolic activity from the dome looks stronger and sustained, compared to recent years.

On the 17th of January last, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica (OVSICORI-UNA) reported that a small phreatic eruption happened the 12th of January at 1411 hrs (20 is reported in the volcano Bridles: 11 GMT). The event can be described like an eruption phreatic small with dimensions of 50 metres of diameter by 15 metres of height that happened in centre of the lagoon of the active crater. It was observed at the beginning of the eruption as a black colour rose to the water column loaded with the sediments of the bottom of the lagoon taking, at the same time the sound was heard that produced the exit of the column later and the fall of the water and sediments in the lake of the crater. Later the column of gases of white colour was only observed that took to the wind and the surge to it in the lagoon associated to the eruption. In the seismic station of the volcano Bridles the signal associated to this event is registered. This eruption was observed from the edge This of the crater by the geologist Jorge Brenes, civil servant of the OVSICORI-UNA, altogether with the volcanist Dr. Hazel Rymer, of the Open University, England; the Dr. Corine A. Locke and the Dr. John Cassidy of the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Also from the viewpoint of visitors of the volcano Bridles this eruption was observed partially by some police officers. Preliminarily a photo of the event appears that serves like reference for the general information. This small eruption like a gas bubble can be interpreted that was released suddenly from the fractured hydrothermal system. By the recent seismicity in the zone near the volcano, a constant monitoring of its activity stays.

The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Poás eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.

The Current Colour Code for Poas is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 12th of May, CENAPRED has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system again detected 8 low exhalations accompanied by steam and gas. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report there is not visibility to the volcano due to the clouds. This morning CENAPRED could observe the volcano with a steam and gas emmisions. From high to low probability the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions; occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater. There is a permanent monitoring of the volcano to detect any change. The traffic light of volcanic alert remains in YELLOW Phase 2.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for Popocatepetl is YELLOW
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« Reply #274 on: May 12, 2009, 10:16:42 PM »

RABAUL

As of the 7th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that on 27 April white and occasionally gray plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 0.5-1 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Kokopo, about 20 km SE, along with infrequent roaring noises. Activity decreased during 28 April-2 May; white and, less frequently blue, plumes were emitted. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-4 May ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 35 km NE.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the E, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay.Two major Holocene caldera-forming eruptions at Rabaul took place as recently as 3,500 and 1,400 years ago. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The Current Colour Code for Rabaul is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

REDOUBT
Near continuous crater "Live-Cam" of Mt. Redoubt.

As of the 12th of May, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that the 2009 eruption of Redoubt continues. Seismicity at the volcano remains elevated, but has been slightly less intense than a few days ago when renewed explosive activity appeared imminent. Vigourous steam emissions around the margin of the lava dome are visible in web camera images today as are occasional small rock avalanches from the flanks of the lava dome. Rock avalanche activity may produce low level diffuse ash clouds that linger in the vicinity of the volcano summit, but otherwise disperse rapidly in the wind. The steam plume may contain minor amounts of ash near the volcano, but no ash has been detected in satellite or radar data. The present lull in seismic activity may or may not be significant, and it is possible for earthquake activity to increase to higher levels at any moment. The lava dome continues to grow and remains in an unstable condition, and may collapse at any time especially if the effusion of lava into the core of the dome increases. AVO is monitoring Redoubt volcano closely and the observatory is staffed 24/7. AVO will provide frequent updates of the volcano's status and the earliest possible warning of significant explosive activity and other hazardous phenomena. Current Aviation Colour Code: ORANGE. Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH.

Redoubt is a 3108-m-high glacier-covered stratovolcano with a breached summit crater in Lake Clark National Park about 170 km SW of Anchorage. Next to Mt. Spurr, Redoubt has been the most active Holocene volcano in the upper Cook Inlet. The volcano was constructed beginning about 890,000 years ago over Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith. Collapse of the summit of Redoubt 10,500-13,000 years ago produced a major debris avalanche that reached Cook Inlet. Holocene activity has included the emplacement of a large debris avalanche and clay-rich lahars that dammed Lake Crescent on the south side and reached Cook Inlet about 3500 years ago. Eruptions during the past few centuries have affected only the Drift River drainage on the north. Historical eruptions have originated from a vent at the north end of the 1.8-km-wide breached summit crater. The 1989-90 eruption of Redoubt had severe economic impact on the Cook Inlet region and affected air traffic far beyond the volcano.

The Current Colour Code for Redoubt is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

RINJANI

As of the 7th of May, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that during 29 April-2 May seismicity from Rinjani increased and tremor was detected. On 2 May, an eruption produced dense brown "smoke" that rose 1 km from Barujari cone and was accompanied by a booming noise. On 4 May, an eruption of ash produced a white to brown plume that rose 500-700 m above the cone and drifted N. Fog often prevented observations. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). According to a news article, ash fell in the local village of Senaru.

Rinjani volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3726 m, second in height among Indonesian volcanoes only to Sumatra's Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed from the east, but the west side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-shaped Segara Anak caldera. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-m-deep lake whose crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the east end of the caldera. Historical eruptions at Rinjani dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and consist of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lake.

The Current Colour Code for Rinjani is ORANGE  LEVEL 2
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« Reply #275 on: May 12, 2009, 10:19:07 PM »

SAKURA-JIMA

As of the 7th of May, the Japanese Meteorlogical Agency (JMA) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-4 May eruptions from Sakura-Jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 8th of May, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that activity of the volcano continues. Probably a new lava flow effuses at the lava dome. Ash explosions >10 km (>32,800 ft) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 6.7 km (20,100 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano. According to visual data, the volcano was obscured by clouds all week. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered over the lava dome all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskoi volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SLAMET

As of the 7th of May, the Volcanic Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that during 23 April-5 May, CVGHM reported that seismicity from Slamet increased and an eruption originating from the western part of the crater continued. During times of clear weather, observers reported that incandescent lava, ejected 25-100 m above the crater, fell back into and around the active crater. Gray and white "smoke" rose 100-800 m from the crater. Occasionally a "thunderous" noise accompanied eruptions of ash. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Slamet, Java's second highest volcano at 3428 m and one of its most active, has a cluster of about three dozen cinder cones on its lower SE-NE flanks and a single cinder cone on the western flank. Slamet is composed of two overlapping edifices, an older basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcano on the west and a younger basaltic to basaltic-andesite one on the east. Gunung Malang II cinder cone on the upper eastern flank on the younger edifice fed a lava flow that extends 6 km to the east. Four craters occur at the summit of Gunung Slamet, with activity migrating to the SW over time. Historical eruptions, recorded since the 18th century, have originated from a 150-m-deep, 450-m-wide, steep-walled crater at the western part of the summit and have consisted of explosive eruptions generally lasting a few days to a few weeks.

The Current Colour Code for Slamet is ORANGE LEVEL 3
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« Reply #276 on: May 12, 2009, 10:21:08 PM »

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 9th of May, the Monstserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano increased slightly this past week with several lahars and a few rockfalls. Nevertheless, activity remained overall at a low level. During the night of May 4th to May 5th a weather system produced significant rainfall on Montserrat and nearby islands. The Montserrat Water Authority recorded for the day of May 5th a total of 6.35 inches (161 mm) at Hope and 6.30 inches at Olveston Reservoir. There were three periods of lahar activity in valleys around the volcano with decreasing intensity: at about 2202 hrs ECT on May 4th, at about 2307 hrs ECT on May 4th, and at about 0039 hrs ECT on May 5th. Another small lahar was generated at about 0709 hrs ECT on May 8th.

This intense rainfall has promoted continued erosion of the dome and the dome talus. It triggered small rockfalls that reached the base of the dome with fresh deposits clearly visible from the helicopter at least on two occasions in the Tar River side as well as in Gages Valley on May 5th and May 6th. Seismic activity was low, with 10 rockfalls and 4 volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week. Sulphur dioxide flux averaged 616 tonnes per day over the entire week with a minimum of 168 on May 7th and a maximum of 1020 on May 1st. However, for the first 3 days of the week the flux remained at elevated values following a high value of 2203 on April 30th. For the last 4 days of the week the flux returned to values ranging from 168 to 534 tonnes per day, which are below the long-term eruption average of 550 tonnes per day.

Although visibility has been limited, there appears to be no major changes in the dome, nor in fumarolic activity. An increase in volcanic activity could occur at any time and with no warning. Lahars are always a potential hazard in river valleys around the volcano during and after periods of heavy rain. The Hazard Level is 3. There is no access to Zone C.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ORANGE LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 12th of May, the report by Serge Chouffot (fireman of Belfort) and his friends. They are not any more soldiers of Guardia di Finanza who control the authorised access or not to the top of 400 metres but Carabinieri, they is posted with approximately 500 metres and quietly awaits the groups to know they are accompanied with a guide and there are not more than 20 people and for the others to know if they are provided with the authorisations necessary to go up to 900 metres. For the moment the access is only authorised to 400m following a strong explosion which has occurred in the afternoon of May 4th and with projections which arrived on the terrace at 900m.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SUWANOSE-JIMA

As of the 7th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions from Suwanose-Jima during 29 April-1 May produced plumes that rose to altitudes of km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted W on 30 April and 1 May.

The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-Jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.

The Current Colour Code for Suwanose-Jima is ORANGE
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« Reply #277 on: May 12, 2009, 10:22:44 PM »

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 12th of May, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that in the last hours, the surface activity has been increased slightly: strong noises are heard that cause the vibration of large windows and the explosions, although sporadic are a little minor to those registered in the last the days.

The IG reports that with respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, a total of 34 events of long period (LP), 10 episodes of tremor of low amplitude or energy and 6 explosions has been entered. Observations, Emissions and Ash: In the night yesterday it was reported to have heard quite strong roars that caused the vibration of large windows. From Pillate, at 2150 hrs (local time) of yesterday, while the roars were very strong, the watch informed to have seen a column of 3 km of height and in the direction to the West. This morning, with the explosion of 1043 hrs (local time), the watch of Cusúa reported a strong cannon shot and rolling of blocks. Ash fall was reported in the sector of Manzano during yesterday. Rains and Lahars: Light rains were registered during this morning.

Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major volcanic edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
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« Reply #278 on: May 12, 2009, 10:27:04 PM »

Volcanoes That Have Erupted This Year = 46 - As of: 5 May 2009

Mt. EREBUS    
STROMBOLI    
KILAUEA    SHIELD
SOUFRIERE HILLS    
POPOCATEPETL    
YASUR    
TUNGURAHUA    
CHAITEN    
KARYMSKY    
KLIUCHEVSKOI
KORYAKSKY    
SHEVELUCH
Mt. ETNA    
PITON de la FOURNAISE
SUWANOSE-JIMA
COLIMA    
PACYA    
FUEGO    
RABAUL    
SANGAY
UBINAS    
SANTA MARIA    
DUKONO    
BATU TARA    
BARREN IS.    
DEMPO    
SAKURA-JIMA    
POAS    
DIENG    
ARENAL    
ASAMA    
EBEKO    
GALERAS    
GUAGUA PICHINCHA    
SEMERU    
HUNGA TONGA    SUBMAR
REDOUBT    
AMBRYM    
MIYAKE-JIMA    
KRAKATAU    
LLAIMA    
FERNANDINA
PAGAN    
SLAMET    
BAGNA    
RINJANI    
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« Reply #279 on: May 15, 2009, 09:38:21 PM »

Hello DreamWeaver,

Brother Bob, thanks sincerely for the information. It's apparent that natural disasters and the potential for natural disasters is growing. As we both know, this is another sign of the coming Tribulation Period. I think that many Christians are getting the hint that time is growing short for the end of this age. I'll just give thanks that most of the Christians I know anxiously await the Glorious Appearing of Christ. Tonight would be WONDERFUL!

Love In Christ,
Tom

Philippians 4:12-13 ASV  12  I know how to be abased, and I know also how to abound: in everything and in all things have I learned the secret both to be filled and to be hungry, both to abound and to be in want. 13 I can do all things in him that strengtheneth me.
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« Reply #280 on: June 19, 2009, 11:02:33 PM »

Arenal

As of the 14th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that OVSICORI-UNA reported that during April activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches that traveled down the SW, S, and N flanks. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity. reported that during April activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches that traveled down the SW, S, and N flanks. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

Conical volcano Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1,657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7,000 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Bagana

As of the 4th of June, the Global Volcanism Netowrk (GVN) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 June an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km W.

Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. Bagana is a massive symmetrical lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides.

The Current Colour Code for Bagana is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Barren Is.

As of the 28th of May, the Global Volcanism Netowrk (GVN) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 May an ash plume from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NE.

Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the centre of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during historical eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Barren Is. is ORANGE
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« Reply #281 on: June 19, 2009, 11:04:06 PM »

Batu Tara

As of the 18th of June, that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-16 June ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-185 km SW, NW, N, and NE.

The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The first historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow.

The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Chaiten

As of the 18th of June, SERNAGEOMIN reported that based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 11 and 14 June ash plumes from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE. A thermal anomaly was also seen in satellite imagery on 11 June.

The seismicity registered by the Chaitén volcano monitoring network has shown a slight tendency towards greater seismic activity, with an average of 15 events per day and maximum magnitudes of 4.4. Additionally, there has been a growth in seismicity of under magnitude 2.5, which has climbed to an average of 8-12,with a slight reduction during the last few days. The greater part of the seismicity consists of very similar wave forms, suggesting that it originates from the same source, particularly for the smaller earthquakes. When the seismicity of greater magnitude is evaluated, the events are shown to have increased slightly in number and amplitude, indicating a higher level of energy than in previous days. With regard to the seismic energy released RSAM, this has not exceeded 150,000 units.

The eruptive activity continues with the sustained growth of the dome complex, which is rising and expanding, with the generation of block-and-ash flows (in different areas), sometimes perceptible from Chaitén. In general, the seismic activity during this period has increased. There is a continuing latent danger of collapse because of the growth of the domes, with possible explosions and generation of block-and-ash flows, which may affect the valleys adjacent to Chaitén volcano. In consequence, given that the seismic activity remains elevated as an effect of the growth of the dome complex, with the possibility of the generation of block-and-ash flows in random directions that may affect surrounding valleys, SERNAGEOMIN maintains Volcanic RED Alert.

Chaitén is a small, glacier-free caldera with a Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. A pyroclastic-surge and pumice layer that was considered to originate from the eruption that formed the elliptical 2.5 x 4 km wide summit caldera was dated at about 9400 years ago. A rhyolitic, 962-m-high obsidian lava dome occupies much of the caldera floor. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km away from the volcano to the north and south. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén, and the high point on its southern rim reaches 1122 m. Two small lakes occupy the caldera floor on the west and north sides of the lava dome.

The Current Colour Code for Chaiten is RED .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Colima

As of the 19th of June, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reported that the equipment of monitoring of the Colima volcano again reported null visibility during last the 24 hours; luckyly, it has not generated reports on damages or affectation in the adjacent populations Even though the zone where is the volcano is cleared most of the time, sporadically establishment of clouds, water precipitations appears and electrical activity; for that reason one reminds the population to avoid the permanence in bordering ravines, before the risk of lahars (mud flows). Also, it follows the restriction effective for the overflights that do not have scientific aims or of civil defence, and is prohibited the permanence of people other people's to these activities in ravines of the volcano. According to the monitoring, null visibility due to the cloudiness was reported that affects the area of volcanological observation.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for Colima is ORANGE
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« Reply #282 on: June 19, 2009, 11:06:03 PM »

Dukono

As of the 18th of June, that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on the 16th of June an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 40 km NE.

Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

The Current Colour Code for Dukono is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ebeko

As of the 19th of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues. Moderate gas-steam emission sometimes with small amount of ash occur at Ebeko. The danger of sudden ash explosions up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) ASL exists. Activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. Gas-steam plumes rose up to 1.7 km (5,600 ft) ASL on June 13th-18th. According to satellite monitoring, there were not registered a thermal anomaly over the volcano and ash plumes. Ebeko volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT uses satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations from Paramushir Island.

The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. The eastern part of the southern crater of Ebeko contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater of Ebeko is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters of Ebeko, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

The Current Colour Code for Ebeko is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~

Fuego

As of the 19th of June, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric conditions: Partially Dimmed. Winds: North in calm. Pluvial precipitation: 37.8 mm Activity: One stays with weak and moderate explosions expelling columns of gray ash to 500 and 800 metres of height dispersing to the southwest of the volcano; some of these explosions generated weak rumblings. Avalanches of blocks from the crater in several directions. Due to the atmospheric conditions lahars transcoursing in ravines can be given afternoon and in night and of: El Lajas, Ceniza, El Jute and Santa Teresa.

The volcano Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta volcano may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango volcano, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
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« Reply #283 on: June 19, 2009, 11:08:06 PM »

Galeras

As of the 18th of June, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto informs that INGEOMINAS reported that on the 10th of June, INGEOMINAS reported that the Alert Level for Galeras was lowered to II (Orange; "probable eruption in term of days or weeks"). Pulsating steam plumes rose from the crater and drifted NW. Seismicity remained low.

Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

The Current Colour Code for Galeras is ORANGE LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~~~

Karangetang

As of the 11th of June, the CVGHM reported that during 1-6 June lava flows from Karangetang traveled 50 m E and 600 m SE. Incandescent rocks, from the main craters and ends of the lava flows, traveled as far as 2 km towards multiple river valleys, including the Keting River to the S. On 1 June, white-to-gray-to-brownish plumes rose 700 m above the main crater. Incandescent lava was ejected 500-700 m. On 4 June, tremor amplitude and the number of earthquakes decreased. During 4-6 June, white plumes rose 50-300 m from the main crater. On 7 and 8 June, fog often prevented observations and incandescent rocks were rarely seen. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 June.

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 50 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

The Current Colour Code for Karangetang is ORANGE LEVEL 3
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Karymsky

As of the 19th of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that activity of the volcano continues and a possibility of ash explosions up to 6.0 km (or 19,700 ft) ASL remains. The explosive activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. Seismicity was at background levels all week. According to seismic data, weak local earthquakes were registered on June 11th. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was noted on June 13th-14th.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is YELLOW
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« Reply #284 on: June 19, 2009, 11:10:54 PM »

KIlauea

As of the 19th of June, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that the Halema`uma`u vent continued its warm, red glow last night. Lava from east rift zone vents flows through tubes to the coast and is entering the ocean at two locations west of Kalapana; active surface flows continue on the pali. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `O`o vents remain elevated.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: Molten lava is present in the neck of a funnel-shaped cavity in the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater and is most visible at dusk and dawn in our Halema`uma`u Overlook webcam; when weather allows, glow from the lava has been visible to the naked eye from the Jaggar Museum since the end of May. The lava level has been variable over the last few days apparently rising several metres for brief periods before returning to depths around 290 m (950 ft) below the Halema`uma`u Crater rim. This morning, the plume is still wispy and moving lazily to the southwest. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain elevated and variable; the most recent measurement was 1,200 tonnes/day on June 17th, compared to the 2003-2007 average rate of 140 tonnes/day. The plume continues to carry and deposit small amounts of ash-sized tephra on the ground near to and downwind of the vent; the majority of the collections for the last four mornings were glassy bits of spatter. The network of tiltmeters at Kilauea's summit recorded weak inflation starting on the evening of June 16th. The GPS network (less sensitive than the tiltmeter network) recorded about 1 cm of contraction across the caldera over the past 3 months; little or no contraction has been measured since early May. Seismic tremor amplitudes remained at the low end of moderate values. The number of RB2S2BL earthquakes were increasing but still within background levels. Of the earthquakes that were strong enough to be located, three were beneath Halema`uma`u Crater, one was beneath the area west of the summit, one was beneath the area just north of Pu`u `O`o, and none were on south flank faults.

Last 24 hours in the middle east rift zone vents and flow field: Magma continues to degas through Pu`u `O`o Crater before erupting from vents to the east. The most recent measurement was 1,500 tonnes/day on June 17th, compared to the 2003-2007 average of about 1,700 tonnes/day. No incandescence has been recorded within the crater overnight since September 12th, 2008. The tiltmeter on the north flank of Pu`u `O`o recorded weak inflation (tilting down to the northwest) starting on the evening of June 16th, mimicking tilt at the summit. GPS receivers on opposite sides of the crater have documented about 1 cm of contraction over the past month and almost 5 cm over the past 3 months. Seismic tremor levels remain at low values. Lava from the TEB vent and the rootless shield complex flows through tubes to the coast and is entering the ocean at Waikupanaha and Kupapa`u. Yesterday, HVO geologists reported Waikupanaha with a characteristically larger plume than Kupapa`u and continuing active surface flows advancing through the large kipuka to the east of the TEB lava tube within the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. Last night, CD officials reported similar conditions. GOES-WEST imagery included a weaker thermal anomaly from the TEB flows through this morning suggesting continuing activity. This morning, CD officials report continuing generation of plumes from the two ocean entries with a rainbow at the Waikupanaha location.

The Current Colour Code for Kilauea is ORANGE
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Koryaksky

As of the 19th of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that a gas-steam activity of the volcano continues and aerosol plumes could affect low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of the volcano was at background levels all week. According to visual data, a strong and moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observed all week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was noted on June 11th, 13th.

The large symmetrical Koryaksky stratovolcano is the most prominent landmark of the NW-trending Avachinskaya volcano group, which towers above Kamchatka's largest city, Petropavlovsk. Erosion has produced a ribbed surface on the eastern flanks of the 3456-m-high volcano; the youngest lava flows are found on the upper western flank and below SE-flank cinder cones. No strong explosive eruptions have been documented during the Holocene. Extensive Holocene lava fields on the western flank were primarily fed by summit vents; those on the SW flank originated from flank vents. Lahars associated with a period of lava effusion from south- and SW-flank fissure vents about 3900-3500 years ago reached Avacha Bay. Only a few moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during historical time. Koryaksky's first historical eruption, in 1895, also produced a lava flow.

The Current Colour Code for Koryaksky is YELLOW
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Anak Krakatau

As of the 17th of June, the Volcano Discovery Team has reported that the activity of Krakatau continues with no sign of weakening. As observed during a recent expedition from 4-8 June, strong Strombolian activity from the new vent between the old summit vent and the 2007 vent on the S side of the summit cone has filled the collapse crater from 2007 and throws incandescent blocks and bombs to up to 500-700 m above the vent and reaching severl hundreds metres distance. At times, this activity is similar to small lava fountains and at other times, eruptions are more vulcanian-type, rich in ash, producing plumes up to 1 km high. The latter are often accompanied by loud blasts that can be heared many kilometres away and give impressive echoes on the walls of the surrounding caldera. Indivudal explosions are following each other at invervals of 2-5 and rarely more minutes. As of the 15th of June, reports from the local observatory indicate that this activity still goes on unabated.

The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

The Current Colour Code for Krakatau is ORANGE LEVEL 3
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