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Shammu
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« Reply #300 on: March 22, 2010, 11:55:54 PM »

PACAYA

As of the 13th of March, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that Atmospheric conditions: Cleared. Winds: South to 8 Km/h Pluvial Precipitation: 0.0 mm Activity: One has noticed from a slight reduction in the explosive activity as far as yesterday in number and energy, today with small explosions expelling little material to 10 metres from height, with pauses of 5, 10 and 12 minutes without sound. As far as the lava effusion it is forming two flows of 400 metres in length moving to the northeast of the volcanic complex. It has been observed that like the other previous flows are forming promontories of several metres of height, between the North and Northeast flank. The seismographic registry of the seismic station registers 480 small explosions in 24 hours.

The eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

PITON de la FOURNAISE

As of the 16th of January, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris via the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise reported that the eruption of the Piton of the Furnace is finished! The volcano entered in eruption on Saturday, January 2nd, this one is finished on Tuesday, January 12th. The Prefecture thus decided to raise this Thursday at midday the level of vigilance of the plan of help specialised volcano. The access to the top of the Piton de la Fournaise more than ever is thus authorised to the hikers.

The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its >530,000 year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.

The Current Colour Code for Piton de la Fournaise is ORANGE 2 .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

PLANCHON-PETEROA

As of the 21st of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported to INTLVRC that based on pilot reports and photographs SERNAGEOMIN reported on the 13th of January that fumarolic plumes from Planchón-Peteroa rose 250 m high on the 4th, 6th, and 7th of January. Increased fumarolic activity is common on the warmest days in the summer when snow melts in the crater and more steam is produced.

Planchón-Peteroa is an elongated complex volcano along the Chile-Argentina border with several overlapping calderas. Activity began in the Pleistocene with construction of the basaltic-andesite to dacitic Volcán Azufre, followed by formation of basaltic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Planchón, 6 km to the north. About 11,500 years ago, much of Azufre and part of Planchón collapsed, forming the massive Río Teno debris avalanche, which traveled 95 km to reach Chile's Central Valley. Subsequently, Volcán Planchón II was formed. The youngest volcano, andesitic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Peteroa, consists of scattered vents between Azufre and Planchón. Peteroa has been active into historical time and contains a small steaming crater lake. Historical eruptions from the Planchón-Peteroa complex have been dominantly explosive, although lava flows were erupted in 1837 and 1937.

The Current Colour Code for Planchon-Peteroa is ORANGE
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« Reply #301 on: March 22, 2010, 11:58:05 PM »

POAS

As of the 4th of March OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 23 February a phreatic eruption from Laguna Caliente, a summit lake of Poás, ejected gray and sulfur-scented sediment onto the southern flanks. The event was seen by a scientist collecting samples in the low part of the crater and by visitors at the viewpoint area. Seismographs showed no precursory signals.

The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Poás eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.

The Current Colour Code for Poas is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 22nd of March, CENAPRED has reported that in the last 24 hours, the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano recorded 9 low intensity exhalations, accompanied by steam and gas. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report CENAPRED can see the volcano with a small steam and gas emission. From high to low probability the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions; occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater. There is a permanent monitoring of the volcano to detect any change. The traffic light of volcanic alert remains in YELLOW Phase 2.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for Popocatepetl is YELLOW.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 21st of January, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory has reported that based on a Port Moresby Met Office notice, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the E, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay. Two major Holocene caldera-forming eruptions at Rabaul took place as recently as 3,500 and 1,400 years ago. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The Current Colour Code for Rabaul is ORANGE
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« Reply #302 on: March 22, 2010, 11:59:50 PM »

REVENTADOR

As of the 22nd of March, the Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG) has reported that Reventador volcano presents/displays a moderate level of activity. Signals have been registered of small explosions, episodes of tremor and related seismic events to movements of flowed. Visual reports of the surface activity of the volcano are not had.

A total of 27 events of long period (LP), 19 explosions, 11 episodes of harmonic tremor, 10 episodes of spasmodic tremor and 1 volcano-tectonic (VT) event has been entered. One does not have rain reports, mud flows or lahars in the zone of the volcano, because contact with the zone of the volcano could not be established.

Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Reventador is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

RINJANI

As of the 7th of January, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that on the 2nd of January an ash plume from Rinjani rose to an unspecified altitude. The plume was not identified in satellite imagery; however a meteorological cloud was present in the area.

Rinjani volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3726 m, second in height among Indonesian volcanoes only to Sumatra's Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed from the east, but the west side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-shaped Segara Anak caldera. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-m-deep lake whose crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the east end of the caldera. Historical eruptions at Rinjani dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and consist of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lake.

The Current Colour Code for Rinjani is YELLOW 1 .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SAKURA-JIMA

As of the 18th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 10-16 March multiple explosions from Sakura-Jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE. Pilots reported that on the 11th and 16th of March ash plumes rose as high as 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and NE.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima is ORANGE
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« Reply #303 on: March 23, 2010, 12:01:33 AM »

SANGAY

As of the 25th of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on pilot observations, the Washington VAAC reported that on the 22nd of February an ash plume from Sangay rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery.

the isolated Sangay volcano, located E of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes, and its most active. It has been in frequent eruption for the past several centuries. The steep-sided, 5,230-m-high glacier-covered volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the E, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. Sangay towers above the tropical jungle on the E side; on the other sides flat plains of ash from the volcano have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of an historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The more or less constant eruptive activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.

The Current Colour Code for Sangay is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SANTA MARIA

As of the 13th of March, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that Atmospheric conditions: Cleared. Winds: Southwest in clam. Pluvial precipitation: 0.0 mm Activity: Solely a moderate explosion expelling ash-gray gray to 600 metres from height moving to the southeast of the region. Constant avalanches from the cupola and lava flow of the west have been observed. Per moments associated sounds are heard from gas degassing.

The symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The 3772-m-high stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit of volcano Santa María to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SEMERU

As of the 5th of March the CVGHM reported that activity has increased at Semeru volcano in Indonesia. Harmonic tremor recorded at the volcano over the past few months November 2009 - 98, December 2009 - 148, January 2010 - 313, February 2010 - 298. In February 2010 ash emissions occurred on 41 occasions and reached a maximum height 200 m above the crater. On 28th February, lava avalanched 750 m from Jonggring Seloko crater. Between April 2009 and 1st March 2010 the activity at Semeru volcano changed to predominately ash emissions. Since the 25th of February, lava avalanches have resumed at the volcano. People are advised to stay more than 4 km from the volcano on the SE side, and not approach the summit from other sides.

Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967.

The Current Colour Code for Semeru is ORANGE 2
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« Reply #304 on: March 23, 2010, 12:03:38 AM »

SHEVELUCH

As of the 19th of March, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that seismicity was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly ash plumes rose up to 5.5 km (18,040 ft) ASL last week. According to visual data, moderate gas-steam plumes sometimes containing ash were noting on March 12th, 15th and 16th. Hot avalanches were observing in the dark time. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was registering over the lava dome all week. Gas-steam plumes sometimes containing small amount of ash extending about 90 km (56 mi) to the east and south-east from the dome were noted on March 13th and 16th.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskoi volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

1st Row Left: NASA's Earth Observatory has been following the Soufrière Hills eruption with a great collection of fascinating images since the volcano saw a resurgence of activity in the autumn of 2009. The latest image is a crystal-clear shot from the MODIS aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite, captured on the 31st of January, showing the light-grey ash cloud produced by the active Soufrière Hills lava dome swirling around Montserrat to the north and west.

Latest GOES12 satellite image of Soufriere Hills volcano.

As of the 20th of March, the Monstserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has been low this week. There have been 41 rock fall signals, 3 long-period, 7 hybrid earthquakes recorded this week. Small spots of incandescence on the dome were visible to the naked eye on the 14th of March. Occasional small pyroclastic flows and rockfalls are still occurring mainly from the western and southern parts of the dome, and these may occur at any time without warning. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) measurements this week gave a hydrochloric acid /sulphur dioxide ratio of 0.6. The sulphur dioxide flux on the 17th of March was 2315 tonnes per day. The Hazard Level is 3. There is no access to Zone C.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ORANGE 3 .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 18th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that INGV-CT reported strong explosions from Stromboli on the 10th of March mainly from craters located in the N part of the crater terrace, a flat area in the upper part of Sciara del Fuoco (a depression cutting the NW flank of the volcano). After one of the more powerful explosions, lava flowed over the NW edge of the crater terrace for tens of metres before fragmenting and producing small landslides of hot material that likely reached the sea.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
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« Reply #305 on: March 23, 2010, 12:05:29 AM »

SUWANOSE-JIMA

As of the 25th of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-Jima during 17-19 and 21-22 February. Plumes occasionally rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-Jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.

The Current Colour Code for Suwanose-Jima is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 22nd of March, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the Tungurahua volcano continues presenting/displaying a level of activity moderate-low. In the afternoon yesterday, light rains were registered which generated small mud flows in the sector of the Baños route. Occasionally a small steam column was observed in the zone of crater.

The IG reports that with respect to seismicity: One has registered 14 events of long period (LP). Signals of volcanic explosions have not been registered. Observations, Emissions and Ash: Generally the volcano has remained dimmed. Occasionally a small steam column was observed in the zone of the crater, with very little energy. Rains and Lahars: In the afternoon yesterday, light rains in the sector of the volcano appeared which generated small mud flows which they affected the route Penipe-Baños, according to reported the watch of Bilbao but which did not generate majors problems.

Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major volcanic edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

TURRIALBA

As of the 18th of March, OVSICORI-UNA has reported that scientists visited Turrialba at night on the 7th of March. A gas plume, commonly seen drifting with prevailing winds, was seen that night rising 1.5 km above the crater and drifting NW. Noises from the crater were described as sounding like a jet engine and rumblings. A vent, formed in January, emitted gas at temperatures between 300 and 320 degrees Celsius. Small blocks 3-12 cm in diameter and different colours dominated the surface around the vent. Lithics ejected 30-50 m away from the vent measured 170 degrees Celsius. Incandescence seen at night originated from the vent which ejected reddish-coloured tephra.

Turrialba, which erupted on a small scale at the beginning of January, has returned to a state of "passive degassing" similar to that which pertained before the eruption, according to reports from Costa Rica. However, OVSICORI-UNA experts have warned that although activity has declined low intensity earthquakes continue, the volcano remains active and people should not be complacent. The Comisión Nacional de Emergencias (CNE) has revised the alert levels currently applied to the area surrounding the volcano, with Yellow Alert now applying to a 2 km radius zone around the volcano and Green Alert to areas beyond that limit (CNE news release: Alerta Verde y Alerta Amarilla ante Actividad Volcánica).

Levels of gas emission from Turrialba have fallen since the eruption but this volcano is a persistent and unpleasant degasser , and this aspect of its activity continues. In particular, the appearance of large amounts of helium in Turrialba's emissions has been attracting the attention of the experts. There's nothing official about this yet from Ovsicori, but the Costa Rican newspaper La Nación reports that the volcanologists could not believe what was happening when Jorge Andres Díaz, a physicist and gas measurement specialist working for the Comisión Nacional de Emergencias reported that measurements taken on the 19th of January indicated there was 30 ppm (parts per million) of helium in Turrialba's emissions:
For the volcanologists of the National Seismological Network and Ovsicori, that figure was much too "high", because normally helium at the volcano fluctuates between 2 and 8 ppm. "That would be way too much", says Raúl Mora, volcanologist at the [National Seismological] Network. The volcanologists and Díaz apparently got into a discussion lasting several hours about this at the CNE headquarters yesterday. However, the presence of high proportions of helium in gas emissions from Turrialba was noted back in April 2008 , when it was interpreted as being the result of magma build-up within the volcano. Measurements taken in March 2008, also by Díaz, indicated helium levels of 80 ppm. At that time, Ovsicori reported the normal level of helium for Turrialba as 25 ppm, which would make a possible level of 30 ppm now a bit less of a leap. In any case, the presence of elevated helium levels in Turrialba's emissions is an indicator that fresh magma is being intruded into the volcanic system.

Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.

The official colour code for Turrialba is YELLOW
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« Reply #306 on: March 23, 2010, 12:07:30 AM »

ULAWUN

As of the 25th of February, RVO reported that during 12-20 February Ulawun emitted white vapour that was occasionally forceful. A plume seen on satellite imagery on the 14th of February drifted NNE.

The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. Ulawun volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the north coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1000 m of the 2334-m-high Ulawun volcano is unvegetated. A prominent E-W-trending escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and eastern flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side of Ulawun volcano, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light is on ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

YASUR

As of the 18th of March, on the 12th of March, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that thermal anomalies from Yasur were detected in satellite imagery during the 8th of December 2009-the 8th oof March 2010. They also noted an increase in activity since January of 2010. Satellite images from the 21st of January showed significant sulfur dioxide gas emissions. Bombs were ejected sometime during the week of the 1st of March. Observations on the 8th of March and analyses of seismic data also indicated increased activity, and all three vents were active. The Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-4).

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous Strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Yasur is a mostly unvegetated pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera in SE Tanna Island. It is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light is on ORANGE 2
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« Reply #307 on: March 23, 2010, 12:28:18 AM »

Thanks Brother Bob!

All I can say is WOW! One can look at recent earthquakes along with information like this and conclude that more natural disasters are LIKELY. Couple all of this with the other signs around the world, and one could conclude that the stage might be being set for the Tribulation Period. God's Will be done, and it WILL BE!
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« Reply #308 on: March 23, 2010, 10:21:51 PM »


All I can say is WOW! One can look at recent earthquakes along with information like this and conclude that more natural disasters are LIKELY. Couple all of this with the other signs around the world, and one could conclude that the stage might be being set for the Tribulation Period. God's Will be done, and it WILL BE!



Brother, the map I check has 261 earthquakes for the last 7 days. I can remember looking at that when there were only 160 average at any given time.

For significant earthquakes this past month alone, there have been 6. Anything over  a magnitude 6.0 I think is a significant earthquake. It use to be about 37-39 a year, a few years back. But I believe this was covered in the earthquake thread.

Magnitude 6.7 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE March 16, 2010
Magnitude 6.5 NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN March 14, 2010
Magnitude 6.9 LIBERTADOR O HIGGINS, CHILE March 11, 2010
Magnitude 6.1 EASTERN TURKEY March 08, 2010
Magnitude 6.8 SOUTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA March 05, 2010
Magnitude 8.8 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE February 27, 2010

Last year alone there were 76 significant earthquakes, that were over 6.0.

Peace and Grace
Bob
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« Reply #309 on: March 23, 2010, 10:45:21 PM »

Brother Bob,

We've had several earthquakes in Oklahoma over the last couple of months. They were relatively small at about a magnitude of 4.0, but that is very unusual activity for Oklahoma in a short period of time. If I remember correctly, I told you that we live just a few miles away from the juncture of several fault lines.

If one adds everything up with the boil-over point being reached with Israel, Jerusalem, Iran, Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, the Palestinians, etc., etc. - one could reach some conclusions of what they all point to. Now, add the U.S. throwing Israel under the bus. So, what do things look like?

Love In Christ,
Tom
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« Reply #310 on: June 07, 2010, 02:54:01 PM »


Volcanoes that are continuously (or nearly so) erupting and some that erupted in year 2010 but are in repose again. I will post more information shortly.

1. AMBRYM in the S. Pacific (Vanuatu).
2. ARENAL in Costa Rica.
3. BAGANA in Bougainville PNG).
4. BARREN IS. in the Indian Ocean.
5. BATU TARA in Indonesia.
6. BEZYMIANNY in Kamchatka (Russia).
7. CHAITEN in Chile.
8. CLEVELAND in the Aleutian Islands.
9. CONCEPCION in Nicaragua.
10. DUKONO in Halmahera (Indonesia).
11. EYJAFJALLAJÖKULL in Iceland.
12. FUEGO in Guatemala.
13. GALERAS in Colombia.
14. GAUA in Vanuatu.
15. KANLAON in the Philippines.
16. KARYMSKY in Kamchatka (Russia).
17. KILAUEA in Hawaii.
18. KIRISHIMA in Japan.
19. KLIUCHEVSKOI in Kamchatka (Russia).
20. MAYON in the Philippines.
21. MIYAKE-JIMA in Japan.
22. Mt. EREBUS in Antarctica.
23. Mt. ETNA in Sicily.
24. NEVADO del HUILA in Colombia.
25. NYAMURAGIRA in Central Africa.
26. OL DOINYO LENGAI in Central Africa.
27. PACAYA in Guatemala.
28. PITON de la FOURNAISE on Réunion Is. in the Indian Ocean.
29. PLANCHON-PETEROA in Chile.
30. POAS in Costa Rica.
31. POPOCATEPTETL in Mexico.
32. RABAUL in New Britain.
33. REVENTADOR in Ecuador.
34. RINJANI in Indonesia.
35. SARIGAN in the Mariana Islands.
36. SAKURA-JIMA in Japan, I watched this eruption live on a web-cam.
37. SANGAY in Ecuador.
38. SANTA MARIA in Guatemala.
39.SEMERU in Java.
40. SHEVELUCH in Kamchatka (Russia).
41. SOUFRIERE HILLS on Montserrat in the Caribbean.
42. STROMBOLI in Italy.
43. SUWANOSE-JIMA in Japan.
44. TUNGURAHUA in Ecuador.
45. TURRIALBA in Costa Rica.
46. ULAWUN in New Britain PNG).
47. YASUR in the S. Pacific (Vanuatu).

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« Reply #311 on: June 07, 2010, 02:56:24 PM »

ARENAL

As of the 3rd of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that OVSICORI-UNA reported that the OVSICORI-UNA reported that on the 24th of May a series of incandescent flows descended the W flank, towards the lake, reaching the forest. An ash plume drifted N. Arenal National Park was closed briefly due to the activity.

Conical volcano Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1,657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7,000 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

BAGANA

As of the 3rd of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. during the 26th-28th of May and drifted 30-185 km SW and W.

Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. Bagana is a massive symmetrical, roughly 1750-m-high lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is frequent and is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides.

The Current Colour Code for Bagana is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 4th of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that the explosive eruption of Bezymianny volcano is finished but strong gas-steam emissions from the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. Strong explosive eruption of Bezymianny volcano occurred from 1230 hrs till 1250 hrs UTC on May 31st, according to seismic data. Ash plumes rose up to 8-10 km (26,240-32,800 ft) ASL and extended about 250 km (155 mi) to the west from the volcano, about 160 km (99 mi) to the north and the north-east and >600 km (372 mi) to the south and south-east from the volcano. Probably pyroclastic flow deposits were formed on the slope of the volcano - two bright thermal anomalies can see on the satellite images on June 1st-2nd. Probably a viscous lava flow effuses on the slope of the lava dome. Strong volcanic activity of Klyuchevskoi volcano obscured again a seismic data of Bezymianny on June 1st-3rd. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observed on June 1st. Clouds obscured the volcano on June 2nd.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is YELLOW
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« Reply #312 on: June 07, 2010, 02:59:12 PM »

CHAITEN

As of the 20th of May, SERNAGEOMIN reported that on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex drifted NE at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 14 May.

Chaitén is a small, glacier-free caldera with a Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. A pyroclastic-surge and pumice layer that was considered to originate from the eruption that formed the elliptical 2.5 x 4 km wide summit caldera was dated at about 9400 years ago. A rhyolitic, 962-m-high obsidian lava dome occupies much of the caldera floor. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km away from the volcano to the north and south. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén, and the high point on its southern rim reaches 1122 m. Two small lakes occupy the caldera floor on the west and north sides of the lava dome.

The Current Colour Code for Chaiten is RED
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

CLEVELAND

As of the 6th of June, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that Cleveland volcano has been mostly obscured by clouds. AVO has received no new information on any additional ash emissions. Without a real-time seismic network at Cleveland, AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Low-level ash emissions at Cleveland occur frequently and do not necessarily mean a larger eruption is imminent. Short-lived explosions with ash clouds or plumes that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

AVO reported a small ash emission from Cleveland on the 30th of May. A detached plume seen in satellite imagery rose no higher than 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Satellite images the next day revealed minor (uncharacterized) flow deposits on the upper flanks. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow.

Beautifully symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Cleveland is joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Cleveland is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

EYJAFJALLAJÖKULL

As of the 6th of June, the Institute of Earth Sciences and the Icelandic Met Office (IMO) reported that eruptions have finished at Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland. There is only a small amount of steam emitting from the summit crater. A few small shallow earthquakes are being recorded under the ice cap. Volcanic tremor has almost reduced to pre eruption levels.

Based on: IMO seismic monitoring; IES-IMO GPS monitoring; IMO hydrological data; IMO weather radar measurements, web cams, ATDnet – UK Met. Offices lightning detection system, NOAA satellite images and web-based ash reports from the public.
Eruption plume: Height (a.s.l.): Clouds and mist have covered the summit of the volcano both yesterday and today. At 0800 hrs GMT today a white cloud was seen at 2 km a.s.l. on web-cams. Winds of up to 10 m/s are blowing from the east. Tephra fallout: Widespread drifting of existing ash in southwest Iceland, both yesterday and today. High concentration of airborne dust in Reykjavík yesterday at noon and again at midnight. Lightning: No lightning strikes have been detected. Noises: No reports.

Meltwater: Low discharge from Gígjökull. Seismic tremor: Volcanic tremor is still more than before the eruption and has been rather steady since the 22nd of May, but small pulses, mostly on the lowest frequency are being detected on the seismic stations around the volcano. Earthquakes: Daily, there are several small and shallow earthquakes under the volcano. GPS deformation: No significant deformation at sites around Eyjafjallajökull.

Overall assessment: There is still a considerable amount of steam coming from the crater. The tremor is still higher than before the onset of the eruption, and small tremor pulses have been detected on the lowest frequency. IMO continues to monitor the volcano closely.

Eyjafjallajökull is located immediately west of Katla volcano. Eyjafjallajökull consists of an E-W-trending, elongated ice-covered basaltic-andesite stratovolcano with a 2.5-km-wide summit caldera. Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the eastern and western flanks of the volcano, but are more prominent on the western side. Although the 1666-m-high volcano has erupted during historical time, it has been less active than other volcanoes of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, and relatively few Holocene lava flows are known. The sole historical eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, during December 1821 to January 1823, produced intermediate-to-silicic tephra from the central caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Eyjafjallajökull is YELLOW
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« Reply #313 on: June 07, 2010, 03:01:00 PM »

FUEGO

As of the 5th of June, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that Atmospheric conditions: Dimmed. Winds: Northeast in calm. Pluvial precipitation: 19.3 mm Activity: Without direct visibility. At night and dawn weak rumblings and degassing sound were heard. Similarly, later avalanches the rumblings in ravines of the South flank and Santa Teresa are heard.

The volcano Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta volcano may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango volcano, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

GALERAS

As of the 3rd of June, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that during the last week changes in the activity have not been registered, mantaining themselves at low levels of seismicity, which was characterized by those events related to flowed movements of to the interior of the volcanic system. Of an equal way, in this period of evaluation, instrumentally Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) emissions were not registered. When the climatic conditions were favourable, on the 25th, 28th and 29th of May were detected columns of gas discharge, to way of pulses, with peak altitudes of 460 m on the top, of white colouration and preferential dispersion towards the north.

Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

The Current Colour Code for Galeras is YELLOW 1

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
GAUA

As of the 3rd of June, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that based on information from the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO), the Wellington VAAC reported that on the 26th of May an ash plume from Gaua rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

The roughly 20-km-diameter Gaua Island, also known as Santa Maria, consists of a basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano with an 6 x 9 km wide summit caldera. Small parasitic vents near the caldera rim fed Pleistocene lava flows that reached the coast on several sides of the island; several littoral cones were formed where these lava flows reached the sea. Quiet collapse that formed the roughly 700-m-deep caldera was followed by extensive ash eruptions. Construction of the historically active cone of Mount Garat (Gharat) and other small cinder cones in the SW part of the caldera has left a crescent-shaped caldera lake. The symmetrical, flat-topped Mount Garat cone is topped by three pit craters. The onset of eruptive activity from a vent high on the SE flank of Mount Garat in 1962 ended a long period of dormancy.

The Current Colour Code for Gaua is ORANGE 2
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« Reply #314 on: June 07, 2010, 03:02:48 PM »

KARYMSKY

As of the 4th of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive activity of the volcano continues. Ash explosions >6.0 km (>19,700 ft) ASL could occur at any time. Aactivity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly ash plumes rose up to 4 km (13,100 ft) ASL all week. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano all week. Ash plumes extending about 30 km (19 mi) to the south from the volcano were noted on June 1st.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 6th of June, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that Kilauea volcanic activity, including two lava ponds, continued at two locations. The summit eruptive vent within Halema`uma`u Crater continued to host a crusted and circulating lava pond which produced a glow that was visible from the Jaggar Museum overnight. A second rising and elongate lava pond exists within Pu`u `O`o Crater; lava flowed from the TEB vent through tubes to supply a growing rootless shield above the pali; minor surface flows were active on the pali and coastal plain. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated.

Past 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The 60 by 90 m (200 X 300 ft) crusted, circulating, bubbling lava pond at the bottom of the deep collapse pit on the southeast edge of Halema`uma`u Crater, remained fairly stable; the surface appeared as bright jagged lines between slowly drifting crustal plates; bubbling was mostly concentrated at the southern (webcam left) edge where the lava sank out of sight. When weather permitted, glow from the vent was easily visible from the Overlook and in the HVO webcam overnight. The summit tilt network recorded no significant ground tilting. The network of GPS receivers has been recording extension of the summit since early March, 2010. Seismic tremor levels were at elevated and steady values. The number of RB2S2BL earthquakes remained within background levels. Five earthquakes were strong enough to be located beneath Kilauea volcano - one beneath the southwest rift zone, one beneath the middle east rift zone, two on south flank faults, and one about 25 km (16 miles) offshore. The summit gas plume is moving to the southwest this morning. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 500 tonnes/day on June 4th, still well above the 2003-2007 (pre-summit eruption) average of 140 tonnes/day. Small amounts of ash-sized tephra, rock dust and fresh spatter bits, continued to be wafted within the gas plume and deposited on nearby surfaces.

Past 24 hours at the middle east rift zone vents and flow field: Magma continues to degas through Pu`u `O`o crater before erupting from the TEB vent, which is located 2 km to the east. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 500 tonnes/day on June 4th, much lower than the 2003-2007 (pre-summit eruption) average of 1,700 tonnes/day. The tiltmeter on the north flank of Pu`u `O`o recorded no significant ground tilting. The Pu`u `O`o webcam continued to record a growing pond on the crater floor whose surface has now risen high enough to drown most of the holes that feed it. GPS receivers on and around Pu`u `O`o cone recorded extension across the crater since May 25; the receiver network had been recording contraction since July 2007 and stable distances (no contraction or extension) since early March, 2010. Seismic tremor levels near Pu`u `O`o and the TEB vent remained low and steady; the number of RB2S2BL earthquakes were increasing but still within background levels. Lava from the TEB vent (weak incandescence observed last night) flowed through tubes that carried lava down-slope east of the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision and fed a small rootless shield field at the original breakout point around 1,900' elevation which continued to shed lava into several surface flows. Thermal anomalies visible in GOES-WEST satellite imagery and incandescence recorded by the TEcam suggested that upslope surface flow activity from the rootless shield continued through dawn.

Kilauea volcano, which overlaps the east flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions of Kilauea are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

The Current Colour Code for Kilauea is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

KIRISHIMA

As of the 3rd of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that according to JMA, a small eruption from Shinmoe-Dake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishima volcano group, on the 27th of May produced an ash plume that rose 100 m above the crater rim. Ashfall was noted in areas within 6 km. Emissions gradually decreased.

Kirishima is a large group of more than 20 Quaternary volcanoes located north of Kagoshima Bay. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene volcano group consists of stratovolcanoes, pyroclastic cones, maars, and underlying shield volcanoes located over an area of 20 x 30 km. The larger stratovolcanoes are scattered throughout the field, with the centrally located, 1,700-m-high Karakuni-dake being the highest. Onami-ike and Mi-ike, the two largest maars, are located SW of Karakuni-dake and at its far eastern end, respectively. Holocene eruptions have been concentrated along an E-W line of vents from Mi-ike to Ohachi, and at Shinmoe-dake to the NE. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 8th century.

The Current Colour Code for Kirishima is ORANGE 2
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