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Shammu
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« Reply #15 on: May 13, 2007, 11:05:28 PM »

Volcano: MANAM

As of the 10th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that the Rabau Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that Manam's Main Crater and South Crater occasionally released white vapour plumes during 1-5 May. Weak incandescence was visible from Main Crater on 2 and 4 May. Seismicity was at low levels. Based on information from RVO and satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse plume drifted W on 6 May.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centres are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded at Manam since 1616. A major eruption in 1919 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the coast, and in 1957-58 pyroclastic flows descended all four radial valleys. Lava flows reached the sea in 1946-47 and 1958.

The Current Colour Code for Manam is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~

Volcano: CHIKURACHKI

As of the 4th of May, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that KVERT reported that eruptive activity of the volcano was noted on April 18 last time. Chikurachki volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT has satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations of this volcano. No eruption activity of this volcano was noted last week.

Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidized basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red color. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred from Chikurachki during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1816-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centers is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959.

The Current Colour Code for Chikurachki is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: BATU TARA

As of the 10th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that based on satellite imagery and CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume from Batu Tara drifted W on 5 May.

At this time the Batu Tara volcano was not equipped the observer's implement kegempaan, because: a. There was No volcano Observation Post in the Komba Island because not have inhabitants, because of that Batu Tara was not monitored. b. Far from the mainland/the closest island that is P. Lembata around 50 Km. So as technically was difficult to be installed monitoring equipment in P. Komba in Batu Tara. c. Since the occurrence of the eruption, the Centre of Vulcanology and Mitigasi the planned geological Disaster installed monitoring equipment kegempaan in Batu Tara that will be generated to the closest volcano Observation Post/G. Lewotolo but terkendala because the existence of the wave of big sea endangered the crossing activity.

The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lomblen Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The only confirmed historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow. There was a pilot report of an ash eruption in 2006, although ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: TALANG

As of the 9th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Talang (West Sumatra) The andesitic stratovolcano, Talang or Salasi or Sulasih volcano is one of active volcanoes in West Sumatra, Indonesia. It is located at the district of Kota Anau, Solok Regency. The volcano reaches 2597 m high, with two craters at summit area, Danau Talang and Danau Kecil. Based on visual and observation data, the alert level of the volcano declined to level 2 on the 27th of April after several weeks had been kept on level 3.

Thin-white-ash reaching 50-75 m high above the craters had been observed. The sulfuric occasionally smelled during night time. Compared with the previous activity, number of volcanic earthquakes has not significantly changed, except the tectonic one, increased from 40 to 62. Tremor still continues on April, 26, 28, and 29, 2007 with amplitude ranging 0.5 - 3 mm.

Talang, which forms a twin volcano with the extinct Pasar Arbaa volcano, lies ESE of the major city of Padang and rises NW of Dibawah Lake. Talang has two crater lakes on its flanks; the largest of these is 1 x 2 km wide Danau Talang. Most historical eruptions have not occurred from the summit of the volcano, which lacks a crater. Historical eruptions from Gunung Talang volcano have mostly involved small-to-moderate explosive activity first documented in the 19th century that originated from a series of small craters in a valley on the upper NE flank.

The Current Colour Code for Talang currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
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« Reply #16 on: May 13, 2007, 11:09:25 PM »

Volcano: SUWANOSE-JIMA

As of the 10th of May, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-Jima on 8 May. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-Jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the E flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take (also called Otake), the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.

The Current Colour Code for Suwanose-Jima currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

Volcano: SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 12th of May, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that visual observations revealed very little change to the overall dome structure during the period, and lava extrusion appears to have ceased. Nevertheless, the amount of material here is sufficient to generate pyroclastic flows and surges capable of impacting on the lower Belham Valley and lower lying areas up to lower Happy Hill and the Old Towne ridge. Recorded seismic activity remained very low throughout the period. The seismic network recorded 4 rockfall and 2 long-period rockfall signals. The sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux rate during the reporting period was low, ranging between a minimum of 48 tonnes per day (t/d) to a maximum of 179 t/d. The average of 125 t/d is significantly below the long-term average for the eruption (550 t/d). The alert level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ALERT LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~

Volcano: Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 13th of May, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift north-northeast.

A lava dome continues to grow within the crater accompanied by small earthquakes and rockfall activity. An earthquake of magnitude 3.0 and ensuing rockfall on Friday late morning sent dust up to the rim briefly. Two other smaller earthquakes (M1.1 and M2.2) have occurred in the past 24 hours. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: COLIMA

As of the 3rd of May, that the Universidad de Colima reported that based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes from Colima drifted NW on 26 April. On 28 and 30 April, incandescent material was ejected 100 m above the summit.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: POPOCATEPETL

As of the 13th of May, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 3 low exhalations accompanied by steam and gas. Also a volcano-tectonic earthquake occurred, with magnitude 2.4. Due to dense clouds the visibility towards the volcano has been rather poor. However, at earlier hours it was possible to distinguish a small steam and gas emission.

The activity in the last days has been related in the past with movements of material inside the volcano, so there is a probability that the lava dome inside the crater of the volcano is still growing. From high to low probability, the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions, occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
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« Reply #17 on: May 13, 2007, 11:13:01 PM »

Volcano: PACAYA

As of the 12th of May, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that from this past Wednesday, the lava flow migrates again to the part superior of the fracture aligned of the base to the top of the northeast flank and it is located near the central crater. The flow of lava descends and when reaching the base of the promontory in several although short deposits to environs of the area that ocuppy the Monument of the Andinista. Fumarolic emission in the summit, forms a white cloud of ~200 m of alt., soon displaced to the south.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: FUEGO

As of the 12th of May, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that nine weak rumblings have been heard in last the 20 hours and single an explosion observed 0627 hours, elevates a white cloud to ~150 displaced m of alt. and to the east. The lava flow that is left assets after a Strombolian eruption of the 18-22 of April 2007, now is ~150 m long, leaving the south edge of the crater and causes loosening of incandescent blocks towards the source Taniluyá.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: SANTA MARIA

As of the 12th of May, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that 2 explosions characterised as weak and a moderate one were observed. Both explosions were accompanied and characterised as the sound of an airplane turbine, while it conformed white and grayish cloud of 0.6 and 1 km of alt., respectively. The clouds are transported to the east. The lava flow does not present/display activity.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: REVENTADOR

As of the 13th of May, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reports that in the last 24 hours, the seismic activity of the volcano presents/displays conditions similar to those of previous days, characterised yesterday mainly by events of fractures caused by the movement of flowed to the interior of the volcanic (Hybrids). At night yesterday in the sector of the volcano it remained in a storm cloud, and during the morning of today one slight drizzle was registered that until the closing of this report it does not have report of lahars. At the moment that the sector of the volcano is totally cloudy. A total of 111 hybrid events (HBs), 18 volcano tectonic (VTs) and 6 harmonic tremors of low amplitude and frequency have been entered.

Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption at Reventador took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light for Reventador is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: TUNGURAHUA

As of the 13th of May, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reports that in the last 24 hours, the activity of the volcano has been characterised mainly by the generation of columns of emission with average ash content and that has reached like peak altitude 100 m on the level of the crater, and also the little presence of events caused by movement of flowed to the interior of the volcanic (LPs). During afternoon reports of red ash fall were received yesterday of colouration in the sector of Choglontus.

A total of 28 tremors of emission and 5 LPs has been entered. During the night of yesterday, the watches of the sectors of Cotaló, Pillate, Bilbao, Choglontus, at dawn reported ash fall of red colour of the 11th of May and in the evening from 1500 (local time) of the same day in Choglontus with the same red tonality. During the night of of today the sector of the volcano it has remained storm cloud yesterday and at 1300 (local time) of today the watch of the sector of Bilbao reports that by the gorge of that sector low muddy water but the presence of rain did not exist. Until the closing of this report one has reports on the part of the watches that ash falls do not exist nor rain presence around the volcano.

Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major volcanic edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1995 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
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« Reply #18 on: May 13, 2007, 11:16:31 PM »

Volcano: RABAUL

As of the 10th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that during 29-30 April, ash emissions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone generated plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. During 1-2 May, ash plumes drifted NNW; ashfall was reported from Rabaul town and surrounding areas. Occasional roaring noises were heard and incandescence was observed at night.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~

Volcano: Mt. ETNA

As of the 12th of May it has been reported to INTLVRC by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) reported that today teh crew spent one day quiet with observations and search for volcanic bombs at the base and until semi height of the Southern crater East. For three days the temperatures have been in rise since this morning it makes approximately 15c° with 3000 metres. At the top of the Southern crater East there is little condensation, on the other hand slightly bluish gases are emitted, indicating the proximity of the magma. For two days the measuring apparatus recorded at the end of the evening an earth tremor of 3 on the scale of Richter to 2 kilometres of depth, the epicentre is located between Nicolosi and Ragalna. With the guides the bets are open to determine the next eruption, 2-3 days, 1 week... nature will even decide by it.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater. Flank eruptions, typically with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna's summit craters began in 1995. The active volcano is monitored by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Volcanologia (INGV) in Catania.

The volcano Mt. Etna is currently at the ORANGE alert level
~~~~~~~

Volcano: KILAUEA

As of the 13th of May, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that Kilauea volcano continues to erupt from the Pu`u `O`o vent on the East Rift Zone. The eruption is stable - there have been no significant changes in the last 24 hours relating directly to the eruption. Starting at 1625 HST, the East Lae`apuki bench, which has not been active for several weeks, started collapsing into the ocean. Some details are reported below; more will be known today after an HVO geologist maps the changes and reviews time lapse images of the event. Over the past several months, Kilauea caldera has been widening at a rate of 1.5 cm/month indicating minimal magma storage there. Pu`u `O`o cone is slowly collapsing as shown by widening cracks on its south flank and about 1 cm/month subsidence of its north flank.

The PKK lava tube, the primary tube from Pu`u `O`o, is active and only feeding breakouts well above the top of the pali. The Campout lava tube, which branches from the PKK tube about 2 km from the vent, provides lava to the coast at the Kamokuna ocean entry, an eastward branch to the base of Royal Gardens subdivision, and westward branch to the coastal plain inland of the East Lae`apuki sea cliff. Lava continues to enter the ocean at Kamokuna within the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

In the last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o: The tiltmeter network recorded no to slow inflation until 0230 when UWE tiltmeter recorded an abrupt 0.1 microradian drop. Seismic tremor levels remain at low levels except for about 2.5 hours of slightly increased tremor around the UWE deflation event. About double the normal number of small earthquakes were located beneath Kilauea and concentrated in two areas: about 2 km south of Halema`uma`u and the upper east rift zone between Puhimau and Pauahi craters. Air quality was good.

NPS eruption crew report from the coast for Friday evening: Intermittent incandescence was visible above the pali. Campout surface flows were visible on the pali as incandescent spots at the 1300' elevation and at the base of the pali. The Kamokuna ocean entry remains active; incandescence was visible at night. On Thursday morning, HVO staff mapped the easternmost extent of the Campout flow which, at that time, was between 600-700 m from the coastline. The flows are advancing slowly. On Friday morning, an HVO crew surveyed the May 10 East Lae`apuki bench collapse and found that only about 16 acres had slid into the ocean. The lost portion amounted to about one-third of the full bench; the collapse took a chunk of the eastern side back to the old sea cliff. New cracks were mapped inland of the sea cliff. The series of explosions tossed rock fragments into the area producing about 3 acres of rock debris. Most of the largest rock bits landed within the NPS ropeline, underscoring the importance of staying behind it.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
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« Reply #19 on: June 02, 2007, 12:24:10 AM »

Volcano: LLAIMA

As of the 1st of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has notified INTLVRC that based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory and satellite image observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Llaima rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26 May. The plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting E. On 28 May, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Llaima, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, contains two historically active craters, one at the summit and the other, Pichillaima, to the SE. The massive 3125-m-high, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano has a volume of 400 cu km. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 cu km Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterized by strombolian, hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.

The Current Colour Code for Llaima is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: UBINAS

As of the 31st of May, INGEMMET reported that based on pilot reports, observations from satellite imagery, and Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 22-28 May ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.3 km (18,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted NE, E, and ESE.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: HUILA

As of the 31st of May, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that:
* At 1155 local time, a seismic signal of tremor possibly associated with an emission of ashes, comparativily of smaller magnitude was registered than those registered in days 14, 21 and 27 of May of 2007.
* It is emphasised that the instability of the system continues, and the possibility of occurrence of new eruptions does not discard.
INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the presented/displayed phenomenon and will inform into opportune way the changes that can be presented/displayed.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #20 on: June 02, 2007, 12:25:53 AM »

Volcano: BULUSAN

As of the 31st of May, the Philippine Volcano Observatory (PHIVOLCS) has reported that according to news articles, scientists from PHIVOLCS conducted an aerial investigation of Bulusan and discovered lahar deposits and three steaming fissures. Lahars were previously reported from the municipalities of Irosin and Juban on 22 May. Scientists also observed steam plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.6-1.7 km (5,200-5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and NE. PHIVOLCS reported that the S flank inflated 3 mm.

In summary, the high level of seismic activity and the observed inflation indicate increasing volcanic unrest. Hence, PHIVOLCS is now raising the status of Bulusan Volcano from Alert Level 1 to Alert Level 2. The current activity may lead to more explosive eruptions. Hence, PHIVOLCS strongly reiterates no entry within the four (4) kilometre Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). Furthermore, residents of areas beyond the PDZ that are downwind of the crater are likely to be affected by ash falls during explosions. Residents near river/stream channels around the volcano should also be on alert against life-threatening lahars and flashfloods during heavy rains, which might remobilise ash and loose deposits from the upper slopes. PHIVOLCS is conducting close monitoring of the volcano and any new development will be reported to all concerned. Disaster Coordinating Councils should review their contingency plan and implement appropriate measures.

Luzon's southernmost volcano, Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 35,000-40,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century.

The Current Colour Code for Bulusan is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: KARYMSKY

As of the 1st of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that an eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was slightly above background levels last week. According to seismic data, weak local shallow earthquakes occurred at the area of the volcano. According to satellite data, volcano was obscured by clouds all week.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: BEZYMIANNY

As of the 1st of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Strong seismicity at nearby Kliuchevskoi volcano makes it difficult to determine seismicity at Bezymianny, and the staff of KB GS RAS cannot determine accurately the volcano activity since 15 April. According to visual data, gas-steam plume up to 3,5 km (11,500 ft) ASL was observed on May 27, clouds obscured the volcano in the other days. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly over the lava dome was noted on May 26-29.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
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« Reply #21 on: June 02, 2007, 12:27:21 AM »

Volcano: SHEVELUCH

As of the 1st of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that gowth of the lava dome continues. A hot lava extrudes at the top of the dome. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and local aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels, a lot of shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered. According to seismic data, probably ash plumes up to 9,5 km (31,200 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano last week. Accoding to visual and video data, gas-steam plumes up to 5 km (16,000ft) ASL were observed on May 27-28 and 30-31, ash plume rose up to 6 km (19,700ft) ASL. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended for 13-47 km (8-29 mi) to the south-west from the volcano on May 27-28. A big thermal anomaly was noted all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
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Volcano: KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 1st of June, the Kamchatka Volcano Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that the explosive-effusive eruption of Kliuchevskoi continues but activity has decreased slightly in intensity of events. Ash explosions up to 8 km (26,250 ft.) ASL are still possible. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity was above background levels: volcanic earthquakes and a strong volcanic tremor were registered. According to video data and visual observations, a height of ash plumes decreased from 8.0-9.0 km (26,250-29,500 ft) ASL on May 27-28 till 5.0-7.0 km (16,000-23,000 ft) ASL on May 29-31. Ash plumes extended to the different directions on May 27-29 and 31. Strombolian and Vulcanian activity of the terminal crater, lava flows and phreatic bursts at the north-western flank of the volcano were observed on May 27 and 31. A new lava flow was noted on the eastern flank of the volcano on May 31. Strong phreatic bursts were observed on the front of this lava flow. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended for about 600 km (370 mi) to different directions from the volcano all week. A large thermal anomaly was noted all days.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is now at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: RITTER IS.

As of the 31st of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has notified INTLVRC that on 30 May, RVO reported observations of Ritter Island following reports of a possible eruption and "sea surges" that destroyed homes on 19 May. On the S part of the island, scorched vegetation was observed and dead marine life (mainly reef fish) was seen around the coast line at heights of 4-6 m a.s.l. There was no evidence of fresh volcanic material, but a new landslide scar extended from the upper most part of the island down to sea level. Several more landslide scars were seen on the W wall. The estimated wave surge height resulting from the 19 May event reached 4-10 m, particularly around the S part of the island. Rockfalls continued to produce plumes that could be seen from a distance.

The Ritter Island volcano is a stratovolcano with at least five historic eruptions since 1700. The first historic eruption was at least moderate-large (VEI=3) in size. The most recent two eruptions (1972 and 1974) were submarine and generated tsunamis but no fatalities. The 1888 eruption was phreatic. This eruption produced a debris avalanche that generated a tsunami. The tsunami was 12-15 m above sea level and killed as many as 3,000 people on nearby islands, including Umboi and New Britain. Prior to 1888, Ritter Island was a steep-sided, nearly circular island about 780 m high. The current small, 140-m-high island is a topographically insignificant, 1900-m-long arcuate feature between Umboi and Sakar Islands. Several historical explosive eruptions had been recorded prior to 1888, when large-scale slope failure destroyed the summit of the conical basaltic-andesitic volcano, leaving the arcuate 140-m-high island remnant with a steep west-facing scarp that descends below sea level. Devastating tsunamis were produced by the collapse and swept the coast of Papua New Guinea and offshore islands. Two minor post-collapse explosive eruptions, during 1972 and 1974, occurred offshore within the largely submarine 3.5 x 4.5 km breached depression formed by the collapse.

The Current Colour Code for Ritter is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
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« Reply #22 on: June 02, 2007, 12:28:52 AM »

Volcano: MANAM

As of the 31st of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that the Rabau Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that based on satellite image observations and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 May and drifted SW and W.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centres are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded at Manam since 1616. A major eruption in 1919 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the coast, and in 1957-58 pyroclastic flows descended all four radial valleys. Lava flows reached the sea in 1946-47 and 1958.

The Current Colour Code for Manam is currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: MERAPI

As of the 31st of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that according to a news article, "hot clouds" and incandescent material from Merapi traveled a distance of 1 km SE down the Gendol River on 23 May. People in the nearby village of Muntilan, about 16 km W, reported "hot clouds" and ashfall.

Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. Merapi is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi volcano beginning during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory.

The Current Colour Code for Merapi currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: SAKURA-JIMA

As of the 31st of May, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), has reported that based on information from JMA and a pilot report, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Sakura-Jima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. during 23-24 and 26-28 May. Plumes drifted E and SE and rose straight up.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flows was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #23 on: June 02, 2007, 12:31:25 AM »

Volcano: SUWANOSE-JIMA

As of the 15th of May, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-Jima on 8 May. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-Jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the E flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take (also called Otake), the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.

The Current Colour Code for Suwanose-Jima currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 1st of June, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that there have been no significant changes over the last 24 hours. Measurable activity has remained low, although low-level rockfall [and pyroclastic] activity is ongoing. Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding. The amount of material above Tyres Ghaut to the NW is sufficient to generate pyroclastic flows and surges capable of impacting on the lower Belham Valley and lower lying areas up to lower Happy Hill and the Old Towne ridge. The alert level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ALERT LEVEL 4
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Volcano: Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 1st of June, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift to the east-northeast.

Mt. St. Helens is clear today, and a diffuse plume drifts upward from the active part of the dome. Seismicity in the form of small earthquakes every few minutes indicates steady slow extrusion of lava. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
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« Reply #24 on: June 02, 2007, 12:33:46 AM »

Volcano: COLIMA

As of the 1st of June, that the Universidad de Colima reported that in the morning visible imagery a faint line of ash can be seen drifting away from the volcano and extending south around 28.75 mi. It appears that the volcano is no longer emitting a plume so the forecast is that the cloud will dissipate over the next 6 hours. The previous cloud from 0815Z can no longer be detected. Later, the plume has dissipated and can no longer be tracked and there have been no further emissions.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: POPOCATEPETL

As of the 1st of June, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 3 low intensity exhalations accompanied by steam and gas. Also a volcano-tectonic earthquake with magnitude 2.9, was located 2.0 km south from the crater, with depth of 5.5 km. During the last hours the volcano has shown some steam and gas emissions.

The activity in the last days has been related in the past with movements of material inside the volcano, so there is a probability that the lava dome inside the crater of the volcano is still growing. From high to low probability, the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions, occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: PACAYA

As of the 1st of June, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that during the night the reflection of incandescent lava in the North part of the volcano was observed and it is associated to the lava effusion that from the northeast flank descends and it deposits to environs of the base and the plateau.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE
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« Reply #25 on: June 02, 2007, 12:37:34 AM »

Volcano: FUEGO

As of the 1st of June, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that twenty-three weak rumblings sounds characterised like that of a locomotive engine of 38 minutes 4 secondfs-duration, were heard to in the last 24 hours. The lava flow is ~200 m long arising from the south edge of the central crater. From the front of the deposit of lava, a landslide of blocks took place, many of such blocks descended to the proximity of the vegetation in the Taniluyá ravine.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

Volcano: SANTA MARIA

As of the 1st of June, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that twenty-two explosions are registered in the last 24 hours and they were characterised as eight moderate and fourteen weak ones. The moderate explosions expelled grayish clouds from 0.8 to 1.2 km of alt., transported to the southwest and very fine fall of particulates happened in lands of the property Florida and Monte Claro.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

Volcano: REVENTADOR

As of the 1st of June, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that in the last 24 hours, the seismic activity of the volcano is characterised by the movement of fluid (hybrid events and tremor) and by events of fracture (VT), and there is no visibility in the zone to correlate with the occurrence of these events with some superficial manifestation. Reports from the zone do not indicate some newness. A total of 26 hybrid events (HBs), 19 volcano-tectonic (VTs), 31 episodes of spasmodic tremor and 2 episodes of harmonic tremor have been entered. Strong rains were registered yesterday from the night at 1000h DES this morning, nevertheless the seismic stations did not register the occurrence of any swelling or lahar. The guardian of the SOTE in the Reventador informed that he did not have any observation of the volcano nor any other newness.

Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption at Reventador took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light for Reventador is ORANGE
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« Reply #26 on: June 02, 2007, 12:40:27 AM »

Volcano: TUNGURAHUA

As of the 1st of June, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that in the last 24 hours, the seismic activity of the volcano in these last 24 hours is characterised by the movement of fluid to the interior of the crater and signals of emissions. The emissions with ash continue and follow the reports of ash fall in sectors of the west and the southwest of the volcano. Rains have generated muddy water flows but they have not been registered inconvenience in the routes. The volcanic activity is described as stable with a slight tendency raising.

A total of 29 events of long period (LPs) and 39 episodes of tremor of emission have been entered. In the afternoon of yesterday, the volcano presented/displayed emissions with moderate to low contents of ash that reached a height of 1 km and went to the west; slight ash fall was reported in Choglontus and Manzano. At night a lahar was registered in Choglontus. This morning reported the ash fall, during the night in the sector of Bilbao and Cotaló; the volcano has remained in a storm cloud, but in satelite images a plume was observed the direction to the west-northwest; light rains were registered that caused the muddy water reduction but any disadvantage did not take place.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: KILAUEA

As of the 1st of June, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that Kilauea volcano continues to erupt from the Pu`u `O`o vent on the East Rift Zone. The eruption is stable - the Poupou ocean entry continues to build a delta. The long story that won't change daily: Over the past several months, Kilauea caldera has been expanding at a rate of 1.5 cm/month indicating minimal magma storage there; most of the magma supply continues to feed the Pu`u `O`o vent. Pu`u `O`o cone is slowly collapsing as shown by cracks spreading on its south flank and about 1 cm/month subsidence of its north flank.

The last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o: No big changes. Through the fog, incandescence can be seen reflected in the gas plumes at East Pond, January, South Wall Complex, and Drainhole vents. When visible, the intensity of the incandescence seemed weaker than typical. POC tiltmeter recorded the usual oscillations. Seismic tremor remains at moderate levels. The PKK lava tube, the primary tube from Pu`u `O`o, is active but only to feed the Campout tube which starts about 1 km from the vent. The Campout tube provides lava to the coast toward the base of Royal Gardens subdivision and into the ocean on May 16 at Poupou. The Kamokuna and East Lae`apuki ocean entries are no longer active. Lava continues to enter the ocean at the Poupou location within the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

In the last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o: There was again a more-than-typical number of earthquakes recorded and most were located south of Halema`uma`u and in the upper east rift zone. The tiltmeter network recorded slow deflation after midnight. Seismic tremor remains at low levels. Air quality was good.

The NPS eruption crew report from the coast for Wednesday evening: Incandescence was intermittently visible above the pali, possibly from the surface flows issuing from the uppermost part of the tube system. Surface flow activity has shifted to the east side of the flow field between Royal Gardens subdivision and the Poupou entry. Incandescence was seen from the Poupou ocean entry.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Volcano: ARENAL

As of the 1st June, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that Crater C, continues with permanent emission of taps of lava, gases, sporadic estrombolianas eruptions and occasional avalanches of the tap front. The lava tap that began to be emitted the previous month towards the southwestern flank, is activated. Sporadically, avalanches of the front of the tap take place and some blocks manage to reach the vegetation producing small fires. The eruptive activity continues being low, as much by the number of eruptions, like by the amount of ejected pyroclastic material. The eruptions are few that produce ash columns which exceed the 500 m on crater C. Crater D presents/displays fumarolic activity. The flanks northeast and southeast continue being affected by the fall of pyroclastic material and acid rain. Due to the loss of vegetation, pending strong, little consolidated of the materials and the high amounts of precipitation that they cause and continue presenting/displaying small avalanches in broken the Street of Sands, Manolo, Guillermina and Hot Agua river.

The eruptive activity continues being low, as much by the number of eruptions, like by the amount of ejected pyroclastic material. The eruptions are few that produce ash columns which they exceed the 500 m on crater C. Crater D presents/displays fumarolic activity. The flanks northeast, this and Southeastern one continue being affected by the fall of pyroclastic material and acid rain. Due to the loss of vegetation, pending strong, little consolidated of the materials and the high amounts of precipitation cause that they are continued presenting/displaying small, cold avalanches in Calle de Arenas, Manolo, Guillermina and river Agua Caliente.

Conical volcano Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7,000 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
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« Reply #27 on: June 02, 2007, 12:43:22 AM »

Volcano: YASUR

As of the 1st of June, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, he reports that since the 16th of May, activity has been almost continuous at the Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. His report indicated that ongoing eruptions are occurring at Yasur volcano on Tanna Island. Stromolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions are ejecting lava up to 300 m high. Several molten lava fragments have fallen close to observers on the crater rim, who are often unaware of potential risks at the volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~

Volcano: STROMBOLI

As of the 1st of June, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that Stromboli volcano has been active for thousands of years. Normally it erupts several times per hour. In each eruption red-hot pyroclastics and clouds of ash are thrown dozens of metres into the air. The lava flow from Stromboli volcano stopped on the 5th of April. Whether this is the end of the effusive eruption that had started 5 weeks ago and heralds the beginning of a new cycle of summit activity is still unclear. INTLVRC will report further developments as they occur.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of June, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that there is no basic change at this time for volcano Mt. Erebus. Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica, is currently the most active volcano in Antarctica. The summit of Mt. Erebus contains a persistent convecting lava lake which undergoes several strombolian style eruptions daily. Within the past year, small ash eruptions and even a small lava flow have also been observed coming from vents near the lava lake.

Mt. Erebus (3794 metres above sea level) is classified as a polygenetic stratovolcano. The composition of the current eruptive activity on Mt. Erebus is anorthoclase-phyric tephriphonolite and phonolite, which constitute the bulk of exposed lava flow on the volcano. The oldest eruptive products from Mt. Erebus consist of relatively undifferentiated and non-viscous basanitic lavas that form the low, broad platform shield of the Erebus edifice. Slightly younger basanites and phonotephrite lavas crop out on Fang Ridge, an eroded remnant of an early Erebus volcano and at other isolated locations on the flanks of the Mt. Erebus edifice.

Lava flows of more viscous phonotephrite, tephriphonolite and trachyte are erupted after the basanites. The upper slopes of Mt. Erebus are dominated by steeply dipping (~30°) tephriphonolite lava flows with large scale flow levees. A conspicuous break in slope at approximately 3200 meters is a summit plateau representing a caldera. The summit caldera itself is filled with small volume tephriphonolite and phonolite lava flows. In the center of the of the summit caldera is a small, steep-sided cone composed primarily of decomposed lava bombs and a lag deposit of anorthoclase crystals. It is within this summit cone that the active lava lake continuously degasses and periodically erupts.

CAVEAT: Despite the database of information on the geology of Mt. Erebus, there is still much to be learned about the volcano. The relative lack of knowledge becomes apparent when Mt. Erebus is stacked up against other active volcanoes of the world. There are many reasons for this comparative lack of knowledge, including the scarcity of rock exposures due to snow and ice cover, the remoteness of the volcano, the extreme environment, the brief field season (<6 weeks per year) and its non-threatening nature (i.e. no large populations are in jeopardy because of Mt. Erebus, unlike Vesuvius in Italy or Popocatepetl in Mexico).

Despite the above factors limiting the Mt. Erebus knowledge base, clearly much has been learned about the volcano over the past 25+ years. Nearly all exposed lava flow sets on Mt. Erebus have been physically sampled. Nearly all of these have been examined petrographically and petrologically. The summit lava flows on Mt. Erebus have been extensively mapped and dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method. The flank flows have been mapped in less detail, but many have also been dated. Tephra from Mt. Erebus has been found in glaciers on the volcano, mapped, geochemically examined and dated. The morphological characteristics of the edifice have been combined with the geochronological data to provide an evolutionary history of Mt. Erebus. And the physical and eruptive characteristics of the summit lava lake has been observed nearly every year for the past 25 years.

Mt. Erebus located on Ross Island, Antarctica is the world’s southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970’s had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behaviour of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment. Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Technology.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE
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« Reply #28 on: June 30, 2007, 10:44:42 PM »

HUILA

As of the 25th of June, with respect to the pursuit of the activity of the snow-covered volcano of the Huila, INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán, informed that from the 14th to the 22nd of June, a total 310 events in the snow-covered volcano of the Huila was registered, of which 194 events are associated to fracturing of rock (VT) of low magnitude, 109 events related to the dynamics of flowed within volcanic conduits (LP), and 7 hybrid events type (HB) that mentioned origins involve both before. Events VT were located in environs of the central tip, to superficial depths. Of the seismic activity one stands out a slight increase in the occurrence of events VT on the 17th of June, with registry of 25 events in a lapse of 4 hours, and the 21st of June where 25 events in a lapse of 3 hours were registered, these events presented/displayed inferior magnitudes to 1. One stands out that the instability of the continuous system, and does not discard the possibility of occurrence of events related to the increase of dynamics within the volcano. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the presented/displayed phenomenon and will inform into opportune way the changes that can be presented/displayed.

The Current Colour Code for Huila is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 29th of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 4.7 km (~15,400 ft) ASL all days. According to satellite data, gas-steam plume was noted on June 27, volcano was obscured by clouds in other days.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 29th of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Strong seismicity at nearby Klyuchevskoy makes it difficult to characterize seismicity at Bezymianny. One volcanic earthquake was registered on June 25. According to visual and satellite data, clouds obscured the volcano all days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
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« Reply #29 on: June 30, 2007, 10:49:01 PM »

SHEVELUCH

As of the 29th of June, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity remains above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 6.5 km (20800 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano last week. Clouds obscured the volcano all week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~

KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 30th of June, the Kamchatka Volcano Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that the strong explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions more than 10 km (32,000 ft.) ASL could occur at any time and could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of Kliuchevskoi was at the medium level (less than 4-7x10-6 mps) at 0000h UTC on June 29 and remains at this level to present time, 0100h UTC on June 30. According to visual and video data, continuous ash emission to more than 10 km (or 32,000 ft) and extended to the west began to observed from 2106h UTC on June 29 till present time. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended for 300 km (187 mi) to the east from Klyuchevskoy volcano. Approximate plume altitude: 9000 m (29,500 ft) ASL (by atmospheric profile). Based on past eruptions, this could continue for some hours or days probably. According to the puff prediction for potential eruption at Kluchevskoy a plume for about 10 km (or 32000 ft) will move to south-west from volcano. According to view from MTSAT the plume is moving to east and west for last 6 hours. All local aviation authorities have urgent information from KVERT. Strong terminal paroxysmal eruptions of the volcano occurred in 1945 (lasting for 1 month), 1984-1985 (18 months), 1987 (2), 1990 (7), 1994 (<1), 1998 (Cool and 2005 (3). Ash plumes during these eruptions rose up to 7.0-8.0 km (23,000-26,200 ft) ASL but were briefly as high as 10.0-13.0 km (33,000-42,600 ft) ASL.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is now at RED
~~~~~

MANAM

As of the 28th of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that the Rabau Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that based on satellite image observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 June and drifted WNW.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centres are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded at Manam since 1616. A major eruption in 1919 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the coast, and in 1957-58 pyroclastic flows descended all four radial valleys. Lava flows reached the sea in 1946-47 and 1958.

The Current Colour Code for Manam is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
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