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Shammu
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« Reply #30 on: June 30, 2007, 10:54:53 PM »

BATU TARA

As of the28th of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that based on visual observations, CVGHM reported that on 19 June an ash plume from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. Clouds inhibited visual observations on the other days during 18-25 June. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lomblen Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The only confirmed historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow. There was a pilot report of an ash eruption in 2006, although ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
~~~~~~~

TALANG

As of the 28th of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that the andesitic stratovolcano, Talang or Salasi or Sulasih volcano is one of active volcanoes in West Sumatra, Indonesia. It is located at the district of Kota Anau, Solok Regency. The volcano reaches 2597 m high, with two craters at summit area. The alert level of the volcano is still on level 2. Visual observation showed thick-brownish-ash came out 200 m high from the Main Crater. Thin-white-ash came out 100 m high from the South Crater, while no ash observed on Kapundan Panjang (Panjang crater) and Gabuo Bawah. The seismicity on this week relatively no significant change compare with the previous one

Talang, which forms a twin volcano with the extinct Pasar Arbaa volcano, lies ESE of the major city of Padang and rises NW of Dibawah Lake. Talang has two crater lakes on its flanks; the largest of these is 1 x 2 km wide Danau Talang. Most historical eruptions have not occurred from the summit of the volcano, which lacks a crater. Historical eruptions from Gunung Talang volcano have mostly involved small-to-moderate explosive activity first documented in the 19th century that originated from a series of small craters in a valley on the upper NE flank.

The Current Colour Code for Talang currently at ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~

SAKURA-JIMA

As of the 28th of June, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Sakura-Jima rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N during 20-21 June. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flows was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #31 on: June 30, 2007, 11:01:20 PM »

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 30th of June, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that visual observations revealed no significant changes to the dome structure during the period and the pause in lava extrusion [and dome growth] is ongoing. The dome volume remains at 208 Mm3, and this was reconfirmed using data from of a recent LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) survey. Low-level rockfall and pyroclastic activity has been ongoing, predominantly affecting the Tar River Valley to the east. Nonetheless, whilst lava extrusion may have ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding. The amount of material above Tyres Ghaut to the NW is sufficient to generate pyroclastic flows and surges capable of impacting on the lower Belham Valley and lower lying areas up to lower Happy Hill and the Old Towne ridge. Recorded seismic activity remained low throughout the period. The seismic network recorded 3 rockfall signals and 1 volcano-tectonic earthquake. The sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux varied between a minimum of 153 tonnes per day (t/d) and a maximum of 343 t/d. The average flux of 203 t/d remains well below the long-term average for the eruption (550 t/d). The alert level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4 (After this Montserrat moves to Orange.)
~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 29th of June, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift north-northeastward this morning and northeastward later in the day.

Rockfall signals dominate the seismic records on crater stations as lava dome growth continues. No significant changes in eruptive activity have been detected during the past day. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 30th of June, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 18 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas emissions and occasionally small amounts of ash . The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report there is no visibility to the volcano due to the clouds. However, this morning CENAPRED could observe it with steam and gas emissions.

The activity of the Popocatépetl volcano remained steady and in low levels. There were recorded only 5 small exhalations accompanied mainly by steam and gas emissions. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
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« Reply #32 on: June 30, 2007, 11:07:54 PM »

PACAYA

As of the 30th of June, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that incandescent lava expulsion by two active mouths in the central crater (north side and centre), reaches ~30 m of alt. to each 3 to 30 second and a heavy gaseous cloud leaving all the contour of the crater reaches ~300 m of alt. and is displaced to the west. Lava effusion in the superior part of the northeast flank, respectively forms two flows to the oriented northeast and north to Los Llanos and the Cerro Chino with ~300 m and 150 m long.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE
~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 30th of June, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that constant weak sound characterised like that of a locomotive engine in the central crater and pyroclastic expulsions to ~75 m of alt.. The main lava flow leaving the secondary hole, is ~250 m long in the direction of the head of the ravine of the Taniluyá River and the other that leaves from the south edge of the crater follows in direction the west towards Barranca Seca. 7 explosions that formed whitish clouds of ~200 m of alt., transported to the south have taken place at least.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
~~~~~~

SANTA MARIA

As of the 30th of June, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that weak and moderate explosions, formed whitish clouds and grayish of ~0.4 to 0.9 km/ of alt., these completed, expelled fine gray ash particles that after ~20 minutes, fell land of the Property San Jose Patzulín, located ~3.5 km of the Domo Caliente. Desgasification by the cupola of the Dome Claiente, formed a white, thin of ~200 m of alt. and transported cloud to the southeastern.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
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« Reply #33 on: June 30, 2007, 11:12:51 PM »

REVENTADOR

As of the 30th of June, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the registered seismicity is similar to the last days and is related to fracture events. The sector of the volcano has remained storm cloud, have not appeared rains, lahars nor heard of volcanic origin. In last the 24 hours, has entered a total of 45 hybrid events (HBs), 13 volcano-tectonic (VTs) and 1 events of tremor.

Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption at Reventador took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light for Reventador is YELLOW
~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 30th of June, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that seismic activity in general of the volcano is moderate and stable. The sector of the volcano has remained dimmed with light rain presence afternoon of yesterday and today. They have not registered lahars. Ash falls have not been reported nor have noises of volcanic origin been heard.

A total of 24 events of long period (LP) and 28 signals of tremors of emission has been entered. In afternoon rains yesterday, appeared and the generation of a small lahar in Juive. Also rains at dawn and today were reported without generating lahars. The sector has varied between partially dimmed to dimmed (late of yesterday) being cleared by noon of today. At 1600h (local time) an emission with moderate ash content was appraised yesterday that reached 2.5 km on the crater. Possibly emissions of steam were observed the height of the crater. The wind direction has remained to the west. Yesterday afternoon reported ash falls from Manzano and Choglontus. From these sites and the OVT roars were heard.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 28th of June, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that RVO reported that during 20-26 June, emissions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone consisted of white vapour plumes containing little ash occasionally accompanied by blue vapour. The plumes rose to an altitude less than 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, N, and SSE. Fine ash fell in areas downwind, including Rabaul Town. A mild smell of hydrogen sulfide gas was reported from Rabaul Town. Weak roaring noises were heard and incandescence was visible at night.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The volcano Rabaul is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 1
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« Reply #34 on: June 30, 2007, 11:18:09 PM »

KILAUEA

As of the 30th of June, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the eruptive pause of Kilauea continues, with no active lava anywhere on the surface of the volcano. Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o vent: The tiltmeter on the northwest side of Pu`u `O`o vent has turned around and appears to show inflation; however, it may be responding to the recent rains. Webcam images of Pu`u `O`o crater are still obscured by steam. Last 24 hours at June 18/19 eruption site: The Mauna Ulu webcam has some misty views this morning, but the fuming area at the west base of Kane Nui o Hamo is still visible, along with other diffuse patches of rain-induced steaming. Seismic tremor levels continues to be at or below pre-June 17 levels; several earthquakes were located beneath the upper east rift zone and the south flank with 3 beneath Pauahi crater. Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: Inflation is continuing at a rate of about 1-2 microradians per day (measured in a borehole near HVO). Sulfur Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide levels in the summit areas have returned to pre-June 17 levels. Most planned field activities were cancelled yesterday by the wet weather and are being rescheduled today.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the YELLOW
~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 28th June, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica via the Global Vlocanism Network (GVN) reported that in May, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling SW, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Blocks from the lava-flow fronts periodically reached vegetation and started small fires. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Small amounts of pyroclastic material were ejected and affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Ash and acid rain fell on the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

Conical volcano Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7,000 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE

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« Reply #35 on: July 11, 2007, 08:26:55 PM »

Thousand of new volcanoes revealed beneath the waves
10:04 09 July 2007

The true extent to which the ocean bed is dotted with volcanoes has been revealed by researchers who have counted 201,055 underwater cones. This is over 10 times more than have been found before.

The team estimates that in total there could be about 3 million submarine volcanoes, 39,000 of which rise more than 1000 metres over the sea bed.

"The distribution of underwater volcanoes tells us something about what is happening in the centre of the Earth," says John Hillier of the University of Cambridge in the UK. That is because they give information about the flows of hot rock in the mantle beneath. "But the problem is that we cannot see through the water to count them," he says.

Satellites can detect volcanoes that are more than 1500 m high because the mass of the submerged mountains causes gravity to pull the water in around them. This creates domes on the ocean's surface that can be several metres high and can be detected from space.
Data overload

But there is a multitude of small volcanoes that have gone undetected. The only way of identifying them is to manually find their outline on sonar measurements taken from ships.

Since the late 1960s, research vessels have been criss-crossing the oceans using sonar instruments to measure the depth of the ocean floor. They have generated 40 million kilometres of linear profiles showing the topography of the ocean bed between 60° North – the latitude of southern Alaska – and 60° South – corresponding to the tip of Patagonia.

But until now, no one had been able to sift through them all. So, Hillier and a colleague designed a computer programme that was able to analyse the huge amount of data and identify volcano-like shapes in the sonar lines.

The programme found 201,055 volcanoes over 100m tall. Previously, satellite data had identified 14,164 volcanoes over 1500 m high.

Hillier then extrapolated the data to estimate how many volcanoes exist beyond the areas the research vessels sounded out. He estimates there are about 39,000 volcanoes that are higher than 1000 m, leaving nearly 25,000 yet to be directly discovered.
Surprising distribution

Hiller says he was surprised to find that the density of small volcanoes dropped in the area around Iceland, as Iceland is known to be a hotspot for volcanic activity.

Another surprise was that he found fewer volcanoes on the seabed around Hawaii, another volcanic hotspot. He says his findings may mean that researchers need to re-assess their understanding of how submarine volcanoes are formed.

In 2006, a team of researchers from Japan discovered a new type of volcano which also defied conventional theories of volcanism. The "petit-spot" volcanoes, aged between one to eight million years old, did not sit at tectonic plate boundaries or over volcanic hotspots.

Thousand of new volcanoes revealed beneath the waves
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« Reply #36 on: July 11, 2007, 08:27:54 PM »

The true cause of global warming, though try telling that to Al Gore.
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« Reply #37 on: July 11, 2007, 08:31:36 PM »

Thousands flee Indonesia volcano
Thousands of Indonesians have been evacuated from the slopes of a volcano that is spewing out hot ash and smoke in the east of the country.


Mount Gamkonora is one of 129
active volcanoes in Indonesia

The alert around Mount Gamkonora, in North Maluku province, has been raised to its highest level amid fears a major eruption could be imminent.

Scientists have reported seeing fire and ash clouds rising as high as 4,000m (13,100ft) since Monday.

Some 8,400 villagers have been moved to special camps away from the volcano.

However, scientists are warning that lava could still reach the camps if there is a large eruption - and have advised residents to wear face masks to protect themselves from the ash clouds.

Some 2,000 people are reported to have chosen to remain within the 8km (five mile) danger zone marked out by officials.

'Ring of Fire'

Activity at the 1,635m mountain rose sharply on Monday, prompting scientists to raise the alert level.

Saut Simatupang of Indonesia's Vulcanological Survey told Reuters news agency that the volcano was spitting out volcanic ash as high as 4,000m at its peak on Monday.

He said there had been less smoke and ash on Tuesday "but that does not mean the volcano is safe".

Mt Gamkonora is the highest peak on the island of Halmahera in North Maluku province, some 2,400km east of the Indonesian capital Jakarta.

It is one of at least 120 active volcanoes in Indonesia, which is part of the Asia-Pacific "Ring of Fire", a series of volcanoes and fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and South East Asia.

Thousands flee Indonesia volcano
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« Reply #38 on: July 17, 2007, 04:42:46 PM »

UBINAS

As of the 12th of July, INGEMMET reported that based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude between 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 4 July. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 14th of July, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that the eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly ash explosions rose up to 2.5 and 3.8 km (8,200-12,460 ft) ASL on July 07 and 10 respectively. A spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered at volcano all week. According to satellite data, thermal anomaly was noted on July 10-11, volcano was obscured by clouds in other days.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 14th of July, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. The activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was slightly above background levels on July 05-06 and 08. According to satellite data a thermal anomaly was noted on July 08 and 10-11, clouds obscured the volcano all days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mount St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
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« Reply #39 on: July 17, 2007, 04:45:59 PM »

SHEVELUCH

As of the 14th of July, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity remains above background levels. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 6.5 km (20800 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano last week. Gas-steam plumes up to 4.0-5.0 km (13,100-16,400 ft) ASL were observed on July 09-11. Clouds obscured the volcano in other days. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was noted all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~

KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 14th of July, the Kamchatka Volcano Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that the explosive-effusive eruption of Kliuchevskoi continues but activity has decreased. Ash explosions up to 8 km (26,250 ft.) ASL are still possible. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of Kliuchevskoi is decreasing generally from June 28, but remained above background levels last week. Many shallow earthquakes were registered. According to video data, ash plumes up to 7.0 km (22,960 ft) ASL on July 09-11. According to satellite data, ash plumes extended for about 20-350 km (or 12-218 mi) to the north-east and north-west from the volcano on July 05-11. Approximate plume altitude: 5000-6500 m (16,000-21,320 ft) ASL (by atmospheric profile). Clouds obscured the volcano in other days.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is now at ORANGE
~~~~~~

LANGILA

As of the 12th of July, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has notified INTLVRC that RVO reported that RVO reported that emission of ash plumes from Langila's Crater 2 continued during 10 June-3 July and were occasionally forceful. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.3-3.3 km (7,500-10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. Crater 3 was quiet.

Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the N and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

The Current Colour Code for Langila is currently at ALERT LEVEL 1
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« Reply #40 on: July 17, 2007, 04:49:46 PM »

GAMKONORA

As of the 14th of July, the RSOE Emergency and Disaster Information Service has reported that ashfall at volcano Gamkonora in Indonesia covered the ground to to depth of 30 cm up to 7.5 km from the crater. There were 5 small eruptions in the past 24 hours. The volcano remains at maimum level 4 alert, and 9758 people have evacuated.

On 8 July, a phreatic eruption from Gamkonora produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted N and ashfall was reported from villages as far as 7 km downwind. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). On 9 July, seismic activity increased and eruption plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.6 km (7,000-8,500 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level was raised to 3. Later that day, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.6 km (18,400 ft) a.s.l. and the Alert Level was raised to 4. During 9-10 July, incandescent material was propelled 5-50 m above the crater. On 10 July, booming noises were followed by ash plumes that rose to 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. About 8,400 people evacuated from villages within an 8 km radius of the volcano.

The shifting of eruption centres on Gamkonora, at 1635 m the highest peak of Halmahera, has produced an elongated series of summit craters along a N-S trending rift. Youthful-looking lava flows originate near the cones of Gunung Alon and Popolojo, south of Gamkonora. Since its first recorded eruption in the 16th century, Gamkonora has typically produced small-to-moderate explosive eruptions. Its largest historical eruption, in 1673, was accompanied by tsunamis that inundated villages.

The Current Colour Code for Gamkonora is currently at ALERT LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS (Montserrat)

As of the 14th of July, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has reported that visual observations revealed no significant changes to the dome structure during the period, and the pause in lava extrusion [and dome growth] continues. Nonetheless, whilst lava extrusion may have ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains as a large mass of partially molten lava capable of collapsing or exploding. The amount of material above Tyres Ghaut to the NW is sufficient to generate pyroclastic flows and surges capable of impacting on the lower Belham Valley and lower lying areas up to lower Happy Hill and the Old Towne ridge. Recorded seismic activity remained very low throughout the period. The seismic network recorded 4 rockfall signals and 1 volcano-tectonic earthquake. No sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux data is available for the period. The Alert level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at LEVEL 4
~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 15th of July, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift northerly in the morning, shifting to north-northeasterly by afternoon.

The slow growth of the lava dome likely continues, on the basis of sparse volcanic-related seismicity and the time-lapse sequence of fixed-camera images this past week. Waveforms from in-crater seismometers are chiefly emergent in aspect, characteristic of rockfall and glacially induced seismic noise. The daily cyclic variation in real-time seismic amplitude measurements is also glaciogenic. The dome this morning sports its characteristic whitish weak steam and fume plume from the east summit of the active spine 7.The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
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« Reply #41 on: July 17, 2007, 04:55:18 PM »

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 15th of July, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that there were 20 low intensity exhalations accompanied by steam, gas and some times small amounts of ash. The other monitoring parameters remain without important changes. Since this morning CENAPRED has been able to observe the volcano with steam and gas emissions.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~

PACAYA
Latest NOAA satellite image of the Pacaya eruption.

As of the 14th of July, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that three lava flows that are branched off closely together of the orifice of exit of the peak of the this-northeast flank, have approximately 200 m (E), 300 100 m (NE) and 100 m long to the N. Very weak incandescent lava reflection is associated to the mouth of a hornito within the crater of the Mackenney Cone. Desgasification formed a white cloud that is mixed with meteorological clouds.

Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is at ORANGE
~~~~~~

FUEGO

Latest NOAA satellite image of volcano Fuego.

As of the 14th of July, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the wind is raising dust from the average part to the peak of the volcano. Desgasification formed a white cloud in the top and it transported it to the southwest. The wind does not let one listen to any type of activity, nevertheless, it is considered that the weak rumblings and explosions, are present. From the eruption of 1 July, in course, the lava flow disappeared.

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is ORANGE
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« Reply #42 on: July 17, 2007, 04:58:59 PM »

SANTA MARIA

As of the 14th of July, the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the explosions persist characterised as weak (~0.5 km of alt.) and moderate (~1.5 km of alt.) and few lava avalanches in blocks from the peak of the Domo Caliente. The moderate explosions contributed very fine ash that the wind transported to the southwest causing, after 12 to 15 minutes, slight fall of particles in the lands of the property Florida until Village San Marcos Palajunoj, and Quetzaltenango.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

REVENTADOR

As of the 10th of July, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the seismicity continues related to events of fracture due to the internal pressure of flowed (HB and VT) but is not observed much movement of these fluids (under number of events LP and absence of tremor). There are no observations due to the cloudiness nor reports of no new features. By the characteristics of the seismicity, as far as the type of events and in general to that these have diminished in magnitude, superficial manifestations of importance in the short term are not expected (like explosions, emissions of ash or lava flows). Therefore, the daily information are suspended and will be emitted solely if the the situation merits.

Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption at Reventador took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light for Reventador is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA
View latest NOAA satellite image of Tungurahua (Updated every 30 minutes)

As of the 14th of July, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), after being translated from Spanish, reported that the seismic activity is characterised by the occurrence of emissions with moderate contents to low of ash. Roars have reported themselves and the ash fall in Manzano, Choglontus and Bilbao. The activity level is moderate to stop with stable tendency.

A total of 16 events of long period (LP), 21 signals of tremor, 2 moderate signals of harmonic tremor and 3 explosions has been entered. In the afternoon a slight ash fall was reported yesterday in Choglontus and Manzano. During the night, with the slight increase of the amplitude of the tremor, This morning could be heard roars, the watch of Juive reported to have listened to the registered explosion of 0622h (YOUR). At 1304h (TU) an accompanied strong cannon shot with bearing of blocks in the OVT was heards and from Runtún, Pondoa, Ulba, Bilbao and Pillate, they reported to have heard the explosion of 1317h (YOUR) and that this one produced the vibration of the large windows of the houses. In the afternoon of today, the sector was a little cleared and a water steam column could be observed without ash with a height of 100 - 200 metres and in the direction of the west. Until this moment there are no reports of ash fall during today.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
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« Reply #43 on: July 17, 2007, 05:02:03 PM »

KILAUEA
Continuous"Live-Cam" of Pu`u `O`o.

As of the 15th of July, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that much has changed. The lake level dropped and is now only active nearest the east vent. The east vent is active. The west vent is dead. A new vent opened up high on the south wall of West Gap Pit yesterday afternoon, but may no longer be active this morning. Earthquakes continue to occur beneath the upper east rift zone. Kilauea summit continues to inflate.

In the last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o vent: The lava lake level is no longer rising and started falling at 1521h, exposing the levee walls. In addition, the flow from east vent was not sufficient to get all the way to the west end of the lake. The west vent and the western portion of the lake were not active. Yesterday before the level dropped, the lava lake surface was measured to be 31 m below the east crater rim. Overall, it appears that the supply of lava to the lake is dwindling. At about 1615h, a new set of vents oriented east-west opened high on the south wall of the West Gap pit. The new vent area was visible in the webcam at night to the far right of the lava lake. The last incandescence from the West Gap pit was at 0445h and there was no longer any steam or fume visible by morning light so the vent may no longer be active. The tiltmeter on the north side of Pu`u `O`o cone recorded about 2 microradians of inflation. Seismic tremor continues at low levels. The radiometer levels are decreasing; the last spike was at 1546h in the instrument pointing to the eastern portion of the lava lake. The one pointing toward the western portion showed significant cooling.

In the last 24 hours at June 18/19 eruption site: No significant changes. Small earthquakes continue to occur beneath the upper east rift zone and the south flank; a few deeper earthquakes were located near Hi`iaka and Pauahi craters. A couple of earthquakes were located farther east beneath Pua`i-`alua crater, immediately south of Napau crater. Seismic tremor levels continue to be below pre-June 17 levels. GPS receivers indicate that the rift zone here continues to expand at a rate of 2 cm/week.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The tiltmeter near HVO is recording continued northward tilt at a rate of about 0.6 microradian per day; the direction is away from Halema`uma`u and therefore indicates summit inflation. Seismic tremor levels continue to be below pre-June 17 levels. GPS receivers on opposite sides of the caldera are moving apart at a rate of about 1.5 cm/week, also indicating summit inflation.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
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« Reply #44 on: July 17, 2007, 08:03:31 PM »

WOW! - Am I right in assuming this is a LOT of volcanic activity all at once? I had heard some about several - maybe three. My older brother lives just South of Mt. St. Helens, and he was there for the eruption in the 80s. I think they are about 60 miles away, and that was still close enough for the air  to be almost ruined. I can't remember how large an area was covered by ash, but it was huge. I think that I remember reading that all we've had in recent memory were very small percentages of what each volcano could have been, and that includes the last eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Realistically, I understand that one major eruption could impact the entire earth.
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