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Soldier4Christ
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« Reply #525 on: December 10, 2006, 02:43:35 PM »

4041b AM, 4751 JP, 38 AD

6592. Herod Agrippa had a daughter by Cypros, named Drusilla, (who later married Felix.) {Ac 24:24} She was six years old when her father died. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 7. <c. 5. 1:485> l. 19. c. ult. <c. 9. 1:524>}

6593. Caligula forced Macro, to whom Egypt was committed, (the six years that were appointed by Tiberius for the government of Flaccus Abilius had expired) and his wife Ennia, by whose help he had gotten the empire, to commit a voluntary suicide. {Philo, Caius} {Philo, Flaccus} {Suetonius, Caligula. c. 26.} {*Dio, l. 59. 7:291}

6594. After Marco was killed, Flaccus, who was the governor of Egypt on whom he most relied was shrewdly afraid of Caligula. Dionysius Lampo and Isidore persuaded him to use that occasion to be generous to the people of Alexandria and befriend them. They said that nothing would be more grateful to them than that he would allow them to plunder the Jews and Flaccus followed their council. {Philo, Flaccus}

6595. Caligula, by a decree of the senate, gave Sohaemus the kingdom of the Arabians of Ituraea. He gave Cotys, Armenia the Less and some parts of Arabia. He gave Rhoematalces, the kingdom of Cotys and to the son of Polemon, his father's kingdom (that is, Pontus.) {*Dio, l. 59. 7:295,297}

6596. In the second year of Caligula's reign, Herod Agrippa asked permission to return home to settle the affairs of his kingdom and he promised that when he had done that, he would return. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 8. <c. 6. 1:492>} The emperor persuaded him that taking the fastest way was by sea and the Etesian winds were expected any day. Therefore he should go directly to Alexandria and go home the rest of the way by land which would be easier than sailing. Agrippa followed his advice and went to Puteoli. He found a ship ready to set sail for Alexandria and a few days later he arrived in Alexandria. {Philo, Flaccus}

6597. The Alexandrians naturally hated the Jews and did not like that they had a king. In their gymnasium they derided Agrippa with scurrilous speeches and mocking verses of jesters. They brought a mad man there who was called Cariba and went naked night and day in the streets. They put him in a high place so everyone could see him. They gave him a paper crown and a mat for his body instead of his robe. He had a piece of a reed taken from the ground for his sceptre. He was adorned with the trappings of a king like actors do and the young men carried poles on their shoulders as a mock guard. Others came to greet him, some desired justice, others asked council of him concerning the state. Then there was a general acclamation of those who were around him and they called him "Marim", which means in the Syrian language, "Lord". {*Philo, Flaccus, c. 6. 1:728} Thus the king of the Jews was derided after the same manner by others, as the Jews themselves five years earlier had mocked the true majesty of their own king, Jesus Christ.

6598. The Jews of Alexandria told Agrippa of the treachery that Flaccus, the governor, had prepared for their destruction. They also gave to him that writing that they had given to Flaccus to be sent to Caius at the beginning of his reign. Flaccus through malice, had prevented them and they could send it no sooner. {*Philo, Flaccus, c. 12. 1:734} {Philo, Caius}

6599. The apostle Peter visited the churches of Judea, Galilee and Samaria and went to the saints that dwelt at Lydda. He healed Aeneas who was sick with the palsy and was in his bed eight years. When all who lived at Lydda and Sharon (concerning which, see {1Ch 5:16 1Ch 27:29}) saw this miracle, they turned to the Lord. {Ac 9:31-35}

6600. A certain disciple called in Syriac language named, Tabitha, and in the Greek, Dorcas, meaning a "she goat", did many good works and alms deeds. She died at Joppa. Since Lydda was close to Joppa, the disciples heard that Peter was there. They sent two men to him to have him immediately come there. When Peter arrived, he fell on his knees and prayed and restored her to life. This was known through all Joppa and many believed in the Lord. Peter stayed there many days in the house of Simon a tanner. {Ac 9:36-43}

6601. When the common people of Alexandria had regained the favour of Flaccus, the governor, early one morning they all agreed that the statues of Caesar were to be set up in the synagogues of the Jews. The governor allowed this to be done without any respect for the public security although he knew that there were more than 100,000 Jews who lived in Alexandria and all that large country from the descent of Libya even to the bounds of Ethiopia. {*Philo, Flaccus, c. 7. 1:729} Then they gathering together in great companies, and either laid waste their synagogues by cutting down their groves or rased them to the ground. In all the synagogues which they could not overthrow or burn, because of the great number of Jews who lived by them, they set up the images of Caius and in the greatest and most frequented synagogues, they set up a statue on high of chariots with four brass horses. In their zeal they ran out of new chariots, so they took out the rusty old ones whose horses lacked their ears, tails, and feet and such as were dedicated (as was reported) to Cleopatra, who was the great grandmother of the last queen by that name. Caius thought that all these things happened from the love that the Alexandrians had for him. He learned this through the registers sent to him from Alexandria (for he read them more willingly than any poem or history) and from some domestic servants (of whom many were Egyptians.) They were in the habit of praising and laughing at these things with him. {Philo, Caius}

6602. Caius Caligula, decreed a holiday for his sister Drusilla who was dead. Anyone who laughed, bathed or made a feast on that day would be killed. {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 24.} {*Dio, l. 59. 7:301}

6603. Flaccus, the governor of Egypt, made an edict, in which he called the Jews, foreigners and did not give the liberty of pleading their cases but condemned outright. There were five divisions of that city named from the first five letters. Two of them were called the Jewish quarters because most of the Jews lived in them although many Jews had houses here and there in the other quarters. The common people of Alexandria obtained from Flaccus, permission to plunder the Jews. They expelled them from four of the divisions and drove them into a small space of the remaining division. The place could not hold them all and the Jews went out to the shores and monuments and dung hills and were robbed of all things. Their enemies ran violently through their abandoned houses. They divided the spoils as would a victorious army and broke open the shops of the Jews which then were shut because of the mourning for Drusilla's death. They carried many things from there and used them for themselves. The ransacking of 400 houses did less harm to the Jews than their loss of trade. When the creditors had lost their security, no husbandman, mariner, merchant, or craftsman, were allowed to use their trades. {*Philo, Flaccus, c. 8. 1:729}

6604. Their enemies thought they should shortly see them lie on heaps since so many thousands of men women and children were thrust into a narrow corner of the city like beasts. They would either be killed or die from famine or be stifled in that hot place. Even the neighbouring air was fouled by their breath. They took diligent heed, lest any should secretly escape. As many as they intercepted, they first tormented them and then they killed them. They used all manner of cruelty. Another band of them lay in wait for the Jews who arrived at the ports. When they had taken away their merchandise, they burned the owners in a fire made from the rudders, oars and planks of the ships. In the middle of the city, others were burned by a most miserable kind of death. They lacked wood so they used green vines and made a fire with them. They cast into it these miserable men who were killed from the smoke rather than the fire. Others were dragged with cords tied to their ankles through the market place and the common people mocked them. They mutilated their dead bodies and cut off their members and trampled on them with such cruelty so that they allowed no remains of them to be found for burial. {Philo, Caius} If anyone mourned the misfortune of his friend or relative, he was punished for his compassion. They were scourged and after they had endured all torments that bodies were able to endure, they were crucified. {*Philo, Flaccus, c. 9. 1:730,731}
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« Reply #526 on: December 10, 2006, 02:44:09 PM »

6605. Flaccus the Governor ordered that 38 of the senate, whom Augustus had appointed for a public council of the Jews, to be taken in their own houses and immediately bound. They dragged these old men through the market place with their hands tied behind them. Some were bound with cords, others with chains. They were brought into the theatre and stripped and scourged as they stood before their enemies who sat as judges. Among these men were Erodius Tryphon and Andron who were thus handled in the sight of those who had robbed them of their goods. It was a custom that no one should be condemned until the solemn celebrations and feast days of the births of the Augusti were past. Flaccus on those very days, (for the birthday of Caius was on the last day of August) afflicted these innocent men in this way that day. From the morning to the third or fourth hour (9 or 10 am) of the day, the Jews were scourged, hanged, tied to wheels, condemned and led through the middle of the wrestling place for punishment. Then were brought in dancers, jesters, trumpeters and other sports. The women were carried away as captives, not only in the market place but in the open theatre also for any trifling matter. They were brought on the stage with grievous reproaches. When the crowd knew they were not Jews, they were let go. In their haste many were mistakenly apprehended for Jews before they examined their origin. If they were found to be any Jews among the spectators, the crowd became tyrannical. They ordered the Jews to eat swine's flesh. As many of the Jewish women who ate it for fear of further torture, were let go. However, those who refused to eat it, were tortured most cruelly. {*Philo, Flaccus, c. 10, 11. 1:731,732,733}

6606. Castor who was the boldest of the centurions, was ordered by the governor to take with him the bravest of his band and break into the Jews' houses to see if they had any hidden weapons. Castor immediately went and did as he was ordered. The Jews showed all their private places to the searchers. Their women who never went abroad and the fearful virgins, who for modesty avoided the sight of their own kindred, were made a spectacle of, not only to strangers but also to the military rage. However, after all this scrutiny, the arms which they looked for, were not found. For all arms were taken a short time before from the Egyptians by Bassus by the orders of Flaccus. One might see a large number of ships arrive at the port full of arms, which were suitable for seditious men who had often before tried to revolt. However, the Jews were never involved nor ever suspected of being part of any revolt. They went about their business and behaved as good citizens of the city. {*Philo, Flaccus, c. 11. 1:732,733}

4042a AM, 4751 JP, 38 AD

6607. The feast of tabernacles around the autumnal equinox was not observed by the Jews because of this persecution. Flaccus, the governor, was suddenly apprehended by Bassus the centurion as he was at a feast prepared by Stephanion, the freedman of Tiberius Caesar. Bassus was sent with a band of soldiers from Italy on purpose to apprehend Flaccus. When he had set sail in the beginning of winter, he was storm tossed and after much toil, he barely arrived in Italy, where Flaccus was immediately welcomed by those two malicious accusers, Lampo and Isodorus who had incited him against the Jews. Flaccus was condemned and despoiled of all his inheritance and goods which were very expensive. He would have been banished to the most barren island of Gyara in the Aegean Sea unless Lepidus had begged that he might be sent to live on Andros which was close to Gyara. He was killed there by the command of Caius, (as he did to all the noble men who were banished.) {*Philo, Flaccus, c. 13-15, 18. 1:734-336, 738}

4042b AM, 4752 JP, 39 AD

6608. Herodias, the sister of Agrippa, and wife of Herod the tetrarch, was mad with envy to see Agrippa so glorious in his kingly majesty. She persuaded her husband, Herod, that they should go to Rome and beg the same honours from Caesar. Agrippa knew of their intention and preparation for the journey. As soon as he knew they had sailed, he also sent his freedman Fortunatus to Rome to Caesar with gifts and letters written against his uncle. Herod arrived at Baial, a most pleasant town in Campania, where Caesar stayed. He was admitted to his presence and before he could do anything, Caesar gave him the letters he had received from Agrippa, which accused Herod that he had previously conspired with Sejanus against Tiberius and that now he favoured Artabanus the Parthian over the new empire of Caius. For that purpose he had prepared enough arms to furnish 70,000 men. Caius asked Herod if those things were true which were spoken concerning the number of arms, which he granted (for he could not deny it.) Caius thought he had enough evidence of a planned revolt and took from him the tetrarchy of Galilee and Peraea which he later added to Agrippa's kingdom as well as all of Herod's treasure. He sent Herod to Lyons in France and condemned him to perpetual banishment. After Caius knew that Herodias was Agrippa's sister, he allowed her to keep her own wealth. He did not think that she would willingly be her husband's companion in banishment and he promised to spare her as a favour to Agrippa. She thanked Caius for this favour but professed that at this time she would not make use of it for she thought it a sin to forsake her husband in his calamity when she had enjoyed prosperous times with him. Caius took that as a reproach and ordered her also to be banished with her husband and gave her goods to Agrippa. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 9. <c. 7. 1:492,493>} So they were punished for their incestuous marriage eight years after John the Baptist had been beheaded by this Herod and six years after Christ our Saviour had been mocked by the same Herod. {Lu 23:11}

6609. Pontius Pilate was so continually vexed by Caius that he committed suicide. {Jerome, Chronicles (from the Roman Historians)} {Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, (from the Greek Writers of the Olympiads.) l. 2. c. 7.} {Orosius, l. 7. c. 5.} {Cassiodorus, Chronicle}

6610. Caius spanned the gulf between Bauli at Puteoli with a bridge almost 3 and an half miles long. He crossed the bridge with his chariot followed by a long train of his supposed spoils. Among the hostages in the train was the Parthian lad Darius who was the son of Artabanus. He called Darius, Xerxes as a mockery because Caius had made a longer bridge upon the sea than Xerxes. (??) {Josephus, Antiq, l. 19. c. 1. <1:502>} {Suetonius, Caligula. c. 19.} {*Dio, l. 59. 7:311,313}

6611. He also, under pretence of the German war, went a little beyond the Rhine River and then immediately returned as though he would go into Britain. {*Dio, l. 59. 7:325}

6612. Caius sent for Vitellius from Syria so that he might be executed. He was accused of allowed Tiridates, a king whom Tiberius had sent to the Parthians, to be kicked out of his kingdom by them. {*Dio, l. 59. 7:351} {in excerptis ab. Heurico. Valesio, edit. p. 670.}

6613. Caius sent Petronius as the successor to Vitellius to Syria. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 11. <c. 8. 1:494>} His full name was Publius Petronius. {Philo, Caius} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 19. c. 6. <1:520>} (Strabo mentions him also. See note on 3983 AM <<5364>>.) He was not Lucius Petronius who died long before this time) whom Valerius Maximus mentions was born of low parentage and rose to the level of an equestrian {Valerius Maximus, l. 4. c. 7.} as Baronius thought. {Baronius, 41 AD num. 4.}

6614. Vitellius came to Caius and escaped death. He composed himself as more humble than his rank. He fell at Caesar's feet and burst out crying and called him a god and worshipped him. He vowed that if he should escape this punishment, he would sacrifice to him. He so mollified and appeased Caesar, that he not only allowed him to live, but counted him among his best friends. {*Dio, l. 59. 7:351} He was the first that taught Caius to be worshipped as a god. Vitellius was quite good in flattering. When he was returned from Syria, he dared not come into Caius' presence, but with his face turned around he fell prostrate on the ground. {Suetonius, Vitellius, c. 2.} Later when Caius affirmed that he talked with the Moon goddess, he asked Vitellius if he had not seen him when he was accompanied with the goddess. Vitellius with his eyes cast down as astonished and trembling, replied in a low voice that it was permitted only for the gods to see one another. {*Dio, l. 59. 7:351} Vitellius made this beginning. Although he had governed the provinces according to the virtues of his ancestors, he excelled all men in flattery. {*Dio, l. 59. 7:351} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 6. c. 32.}

6615. Then Caius made himself priest and took his horse as colleague in his priesthood. {*Dio, l. 59. 7:355} At Miletus in Asia he ordered a temple to be built to him. He selected that city ahead of the others because he said that Ephesus worshipped Diana and Pergamos and Smyrna were dedicated to Augustus and Tiberius. The real reason was that he desired to get for himself that large and beautiful temple which the people of Miletus had built to Apollo. {*Dio, 1. 59. 7:351,353} {in excerptis. Valesii. p. 670. 673.} He purposed also to finish the oracle Didymena at Miletus. {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 21.}
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« Reply #527 on: December 10, 2006, 02:44:43 PM »

4043a AM, 4752 JP, 39 AD

6616. Strangers from of the neighbouring countries had crept into Jamnia, a city of Judea that was very populous. They always tried to do something against the Jewish customs. When they heard how much Caius desired to be worshipped as a god and what a good friend he was to the country of the Jews, they immediately built an altar of clay bricks to vex the Jews. The Jews were scornful and destroyed the altar. Their adversaries accused the Jews before Capito the holy quaester, who had the oversight of the tributes in Judea. He wrote to Caius and aggravated and amplified the business. Caius ordered that to replace the destroyed brick altar in Jamnia, they should erect in the temple of Jerusalem a large image in honour of him all in gold. He followed the advice of Helicon an Egyptian and Apelles of Askelon a tragedian. Caius sent letters to Petronius, the governor of Syria, detailing the dedication of the statue. He was to march with half the army (appointed for defence against the seditions of the kings and countries of the east) from the Euphrates River against the Jews. He was to accompany the statue not necessarily so that the dedication would be more majestic but so that if anyone resisted, he could be immediately executed. The statue was not sent from Italy neither was Petronius commanded to take any troops from Syria otherwise some sudden sedition would have happened about the violation of the Jewish laws. Petronius ordered a statue to be made closer by and sent for the best craftsman from Phoenicia and found the materials and a place where they could make it at Sidon. {Philo, Caius}

6617. In the meantime, he gathered as large an army as he could and with two legions wintered at Ptolemais. He intended to prosecute the war in the beginning of the spring. He sent a letter to Caius who commended his industry and advised him to use all force in this and subdue the stubbornness of that country. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 11. <c. 8. 1:494>}

4043b AM, 4753 JP, 40 AD

6618. In a dispute that arose between the Jews and the Greeks who lived in Alexandria, three chosen ambassadors on either side were sent to Caius. Philo who was most famous, headed the embassy of the Jews. Apion headed the Greek embassy. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 10. <c. 8. 1:493>} He was born at Oasis in Egypt and wished to be called an Alexandrian because he was made a citizen of that place. {Josephus, Apion, l. 2. <1:795>} Pliny {Pliny, Natural History, l. 37. c. 5} stated that he was surnamed by some as the "after Conqueror." Pliny added these things about him in his preface to his whole work to Titus Vespasian:

``Apion the grammarian, he whom Tiberius Caesar called the symbol of the world, whereas he might rather be called the drum, wrote that they were immortalized by him to whom he composed any thing.''

6619. He wrote a most lying book against the Jews to which Josephus replied in his second book against Apion. For the first book was against other slanderers of the Jews.

6620. The ambassadors of the Jews (whom Philo stated to be five at the end of the embassy written by himself and not three as Josephus stated) sailed to Caius in the middle of winter to entreat him that he would stop those wrongs which they suffered. They gave him a record containing the list of all the calamities and the petition against them taken from that larger petition which the Jews had sent him by their King Agrippa. However, their adversaries won the favour of Helicon the Egyptian, who was the prefect of the emperor's chamber. They did this not so much with money as with the hope of future honours which they promised to give him when Caius came to Alexandria. When the Jewish ambassadors desired to pacify and appease Caius, they were not allowed access to him. {Philo, Caius}

6621. At first Caius concealed his hatred against the Jews and received their ambassadors in Mars' field. As he came from his mother's gardens, he greeted them with a cheerful countenance and with his right hand, he made a sign as though he would be kind to them. He sent Obulus to them, who was the master of the ceremonies. Caius promised them that he would take care of their cause when he had time. Later when he came to visit the gardens of Mecenas and Lamia, which were nearby the other garden and the city, the ambassadors were brought in and humbly did their reverence to Caius. They greeted him by the name of Augustus and he smilingly asked them:

``Are you the ones who are hated of the gods, who alone despise me who is declared a god by the confession of all men and had rather worship your unnamed thing?''

6622. Then he held up his hands to heaven and burst into a speech that was not lawful to be heard much less to utter in the same words. The Jews' adversaries then greatly rejoiced and called him by all the names of the gods. When Isidorus, a bitter Sycophant, saw how he was pleased with these titles, he said:

``You would, O my Lord more detest them and all their country, if you knew their impiety and malice against you. For all men kill sacrifices of vows for your health while they only refrained to offer sacrifice.''

6623. Then the ambassadors cried out with one consent:

``O my Lord Caius, we are falsely accused, we have sacrificed hecatombs. We have not as the custom of some is, to bring a little blood to the altar and then carry the flesh home to feast on. We have committed whole sacrifices to be burned with the holy fire and that three times. First, when you became emperor, again when you escaped a great sickness at which all the world was sorrowful and thirdly, as a vow for your victory over Germany.''

6624. Caius repled:

``Well say it were so that you offered sacrifice but to another and to me certainly you did no sacrifices.''

6625. Then an horror seized on the ambassadors who were terrified at his last words. In the meantime, Caius went about the villages and the halls and parlours both below and above stairs, where also he asked the ambassadors particularly: (??)

``Why they forbid swine's flesh and what right the cities of Alexandria pretended.'' (??)

6626. Finally, setting aside his fierceness, he said:

``These men seem to me not to be so wicked, as miserable, that cannot persuade themselves that I am partaker of the divine nature.''

6627. He immediately left and ordered the ambassadors to leave. {*Philo, Caius, c. 28. 1:774}

6628. Caius gave the tetrarchy of his father-in-law Herod (who was banished to Lyons in Gaul) to Agrippa when he returned from his kingdom. For when he had reigned three years in the tetrarchy of Philip, in the fourth year Herod's kingdom was given to him. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. ult. <c. 7. 1:493>??} Philo wrote:

``You have given the kingdom to me which could be no happier fortune to a mortal and which being at first but one region, you have enlarged by the addition of Trachonitis and Galilee.'' {Philo, Caius}
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« Reply #528 on: December 10, 2006, 02:45:15 PM »

6629. Petronius convened the leaders of the Jewish priests and magistrates, to tell them the commands of Caius. He was to erect Caius' statue and dedicate it in their temple. He urged them to bear patiently the decrees of his emperor and cautioned them of the imminent danger that would ensue upon their disobedience. The whole power of the Syrian army was ready to make havock of them and their country. At the first mention of these things they were so shocked, they had not a word to say but poured out rivers of tears, ripping out their hair and pulled their beards in a most mournful way. However, those of Jerusalem and all the surrounding country that heard this, came flocking together with one consent and publicly mourned. They in one group, left their houses, towns, and citadels desolate and continued their march until they came to Phoenicia where Petronius was. At first they made such a doleful and so deep a noise that those that were nearby, could not hear or be heard for it. Calamitous times instructed what was to be done. They were organised into six ranks or orders of old men, young men and boys, of old women, wives and maids. When they saw Petronius on an high place, all the ranks, as if by a general command fell prostrate on the ground and howled as it were in a mournful tone. When they were ordered to rise, they could barely be persuaded to. Finally when they did, they cast dust on themselves and hung their hands behind them like condemned persons. They came before him and made their pitiful complaint and supplication. Petronius and all that sat with him were very much moved. When he had consulted about the matter, he ordered letters sent to Caius. He told him that the dedication of the statue was deferred. The workmen needed time to finish the colossus and time was needed to gather grain for such an expedition. It was reported that Caius had intended to go to Egypt. The grain was then fully ripe and it was feared that the Jews would take the loss so heavily of their religion that they would not value their own lives and waste and burn up all the harvest throughout the fields and mountains in their desperation. {*Philo, Caius, c. 32,33. 1:778-780}

6630. When Caius had received the letters, he concealed his anger to Petronius for he very much feared the governors because they had the power to create seditions. This was especially true of those in large provinces with numerous armies like the province of Syria which extended to the Euphrates River. Thus by his letters he appeased Caius who seemed to applaud his providence and dexterity in foreseeing future problems. Caius ordered that when the harvest was over, he should dedicate the statue without delay. {*Philo, Caius, c. 34. 1:780,781}

6631. The ambassadors of the Alexandrian Jews received the message that Caius had ordered his colossus to be erected at the innermost entrance of the temple and entitled the "New Jupiter." This news terrified them. They entered into the conclave all together and deplored the public as well as their private calamity. They hoped that God would not abandon them, who had so often delivered that country from ruin. {Philo, Caius}

6632. When Agrippa came in his usual manner to greet Caius, he looked sternly at him and said:

``Your good and honest citizens, who alone of all mankind think it scornful to have Caius for a god, even take a course in likelihood to bring destruction upon themselves by their contumacy. When I ordered the statue of Jupiter to be dedicated in their temple, they ran wholly from the city not like suppliants indeed but truly despisers of my commands.''

6633. By these words Agrippa was so struck with horror that he trembled and his knees knocked together, he would have surely fallen to the ground had not the bystanders supported him. They were ordered to carry him home in that condition. By the suddenness of the events, Agrippa had lost his memory and was grown quite stupid and senseless. However, Caius was the more exasperated against the country of the Jews and said:

``If Agrippa, who is my close friend and obliged to me by so many benefits, is so attached to his country customs that he cannot endure they should be violated so much as by my word only but faints, what is to be expected from them who have no tie to restrain them?'' {*Philo, Caius, c. 35. 1:781,782}

6634. When Agrippa was come to himself, he wrote a very long letter to Caius on the behalf of his country. {Philo had a copy of it in his book) He closed with this epilogue:

``What will my countrymen or anyone else say of me? For either it will follow that I betrayed my country or I must be blotted from the list of your friends. Which of the two can be more unhappy? For before I was your close friend and now I shall be considered a traitor if I do not keep my country from indemnity nor the temple sacred. For you have the power for protection of men. If in anything I am offensive to you, do me the favour not to bind me (as Tiberius) but lest I should remain in fear of bonds, kill me immediately. For what need have I then of life when as the hope of my welfare wholly rests on your favour.'' {Philo, Caius, c. 36,37 1:782-787}

6635. Caius seeming to be somewhat appeased by these letters and replied more mildly and granted to Agrippa a great favour that the statue should not be dedicated. He wrote the same to Petronius, the governor of Syria that he cause no sedition in the temple of the Jews. Lest this favour should seem too generous, he added some terror and wrote:

``If anyone shall please in the other province or anywhere outside the metropolis in any other city, to dedicate any temple or altar to me, whoever shall oppose it, let them either be immediately executed or sent to me.''

6636. But divine providence so ordered it so that none in any of the other provinces planned to do this. {*Philo, Caius, c. 52. 1:787}

6637. When the pestilence grew very severe at Babylon, a great number of the Jews left for Seleucia. More arrived five years later from Neerda, (which is a city of Babylon on an island in the Nile River and has an academy of the Jews. In Syriac it is called a[dÄrhb as if one should say:)

``The river of knowledge.''

6638. Now at Seleucia, the Greeks and Syrians were always at odds but the Greek faction was too strong for the Syrians. Since the arrival of the Jews, the Syrians made their friendship and became the stronger party. In addition, they still increased in warlike and resolute men. Therefore when the Greeks saw they were becoming weaker and did not know how to change the situation, they made all the friendship they could to have a peace mediated between them and the Syrians. This thing was easily obtained. For the chief men on both sides were involved and they concluded and confirmed a peace on the condition they should both persecute the Jews. They attacked them by surprise and killed 50,000 men so that none escaped unless they were saved by the mercy of some friends or relatives. They escaped to Ctesiphon, a Greek city near Seleucia, where the king used to make his winter quarters and he stored most and the best part of his household belongings. They settled there and established themselves under the reverence of the regal majesty. The terror of the Babylonians and Seleucians spread over all those parts of Judea. Wherever any of the Syrians were in those parts with the Seleucians, they conspired the ruin of the Jews. Hence it came to pass that many fled to Neerda and Nisibis and had security because the cities were strongly fortified, although otherwise they were occupied by very warlike people. {Joseph. l. 18. c. ult. <c. 9. 1:501,502>}

6639. Caius triumphantly entered Rome on his birthday (which was the last of the month of August.) {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 43.}
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« Reply #529 on: December 10, 2006, 02:45:43 PM »

4044a AM, 4753 JP, 40 AD

6640. When the Alexandrian delegates appeared before Caius, Apion accused the Jews of many things and they did not give Caesar his due respect. All the countries built temples and altars to Caius and worshipped him with equal honour with the rest of their deities. Only the Jews thought it scornful to build altars to him or swear by the name of Caesar. When he had alleged these and what other matters he thought would exasperate Caius, Philo prepared to answer him. Before he could, he was interrupted by Caesar who ordered him to get out and was so enraged that Philo barely escaped without harm. After Philo was put out, he encouraged those who were with him. Although Caius was angry in his words, yet they might be assured that God would defend and provide for them, in spite of all that Caius could do. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 18. c. 10. <c. 9. 1:494>} {Eusebius, History Eccles., l. 5.}

6641. Caius repented of the favour he had given the Jews. He ordered another colossus to be built at Rome of brass covered with gold. He left the statue alone at Sidon lest it should cause any sedition among the people. It was to be carried secretly by ship and be placed in the temple at Jerusalem before any were aware of it. This was to be done as they sailed into Egypt, for Caius had a great desire to see Alexandria. He took great care in preparing for his journey, because he intended to stay a long time. He was possessed that his deification which he dreamed of, would succeed in this city alone and from there the religion would spread to smaller cities. Thus Philo wrote, who was very well acquainted with these things. {Philo, Caius} Tacitus should be amended:

``They were ordered by Caesar to place his statue in their temple and they chose rather to take up arms. The death of Caesar ended the rebellion.'' {Tacitus, Histories, l. 5. c. 9.}

6642. Apelles from Askelon who incited Caius against the Jews was punished for some other crimes he committed. Caius had him bound and racked in a most tormenting and delaying manner with some intermissions to make it the more painful. {*Philo, Caius, c. 30. 1:776}

6643. Caius was admonished by the Antiatinian lots to beware of Cassius. Cassius Longinus was then proconsul of Asia and was suspected because he was of the family of Cassius, one of the murderers of Caesar. Caius ordered him to be brought bound to him and condemned him to death. He forgot the Chaereas, who a little later killed him, was also called Cassius. {Suetonius, Caligula, c. 57.} {*Dio, l. 59. 7:359}

6644. Apollonius the Egyptian, who at home foretold what should become of Caius, was dragged before Caius at Rome the day before his death. (Suetonius says this was January 23rd, (9th calends of February) {Surtonius, Caligula, l. 58.}) His punishment was postponed and he escaped death when Caius died first. {*Dio, l. 59. 7:359}

6645. Caligula reigned three years, ten months eight days or {Suetonius, Caligula, l. 59.} {Clements Alexandria, Stromatum, l. 1} or rather 9 months and 28 days. {*Dio, l. 59. 7:362} In whose place, his uncle Claudius Caesar, the son of Drusius, was declared emperor by the praetorian guard.

6646. King Agrippa heard that the empire was forced upon Claudius by the soldiers. With much adieu in getting through the multitude, he came to Claudius and found him troubled and desirous to resign his place to the senate. Agrippa dispelled his fears and encouraged him to go on courageously and retain the empire. Agrippa was called by the senate and he pretended that he knew nothing of the business and arrived as if he had been prepared to dine. He asked them what was done concerning Claudius and they told him the truth and asked his advice. He said he would forsake no danger that might be for the dignity of the senate and that he thought the best way was to send one to Claudius who might persuade him to lay down his authority. He offered to be a part of that embassy. When Agrippa was sent with others to Claudius, he told him plainly the fearful condition the senate was in and advised him to answer like a prince. Agrippa was the reason that Claudius was more mild to the senate than he would have been. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 19. c. 3. <c. 4. 1:516,517>}

6647. After Claudius was confirmed in the empire, he sent Mithridates of Iberia (whom Caius had kept in bonds) home to receive his kingdom. He gave to another Mithridates who was descended from that great Mithridates, the kingdom of Bosphorus, except a part of Cilicia which he gave to Polemon. {*Dio, l. 60. 7:387}

6648. Claudius enlarged Agrippa's kingdom. He had helped him to get the empire and was then at Rome. Claudius also gave him the honours of a consul. He gave his brother Herod praetorian honours and a certain principality (that is of Chalcis) and permitted them to go into the senate and to thank to the senators. {*Dio, l. 60, 7:387}

6649. Claudius also proposed an edict whereby he confirmed Agrippa in the kingdom formerly granted him by Caius. He praised his endeavour and his industry and added Judea and Samaria to his kingdom. These, formerly belonged to the kingdom of his grandfather Herod. These therefore he restored as due to the family. Abila and the regions around the Libanus Mountain which was Lysanias' and belonged to the emperor. He gave these also to Agrippa. There was a league between the king and the people of Rome cut in brass and placed in the middle of the forum of the city. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 19. c. 4. <c. 5. 1:519>}

6650. Claudius released Alexander Lysimachus of Alabarcha, his old friend, and formerly procurator to his mother Antonia, whom Caius in his anger had committed to bonds. Bernice, the daughter of Agrippa was betrothed to his son, Marcus (Concerning this see {Ac 25:13-23}) who died while married to her as her first husband. The king gave her to his brother Herod, after getting the kingdom of Chalcis from Claudius for him. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 19. c. 4. <c. 5. 1:519>}

6651. He bestowed Commagena and a larger part of Cilicia on Antiochus whom Caius had deprived of his kingdom. {*Dio, l. 60. 7:387} {Joseph. l. 19. c. 4. <c. 5. 1:519>}

6652. Helicon the Egyptian, who was master of the bedchamber to Caius and the man who most incited him against the Jews, was executed by Claudius. {Philo, Caius, c. 30. 1:776} Philo's book ironically was entitled "De virutibus" (for in it the wickedness of Caius was clearly set out.) Philo was said at the command of Claudius to read it before the whole senate. Later, the Romans so liked this and his other works, that they thought them worthy as precious monuments to be set up in their public library. {Eusebius, History Ecclesiast, l. 2. c. 17.} Among his writings were five books of the miseries the Jews endured under the empire of Caius of which three were lost. {Eusebius, History Ecclesiast, l. 2. c. 5.} The book about Flaccus and Philo's embassy to Caius still survive.
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« Reply #530 on: December 10, 2006, 02:46:13 PM »

6653. After Caius was murdered, the Jews who under him were much oppressed by the Alexandrians, were encouraged and took up arms. Claudius ordered the governor of Egypt that he should appease that sedition. By the entreaty of Agrippa, the king of Judea and Herod, the king of Chalcis, Claudius sent this edict to Alexandria:

``I will that their rites be not infringed by the madness of Caius and that they shall have full power and liberty to persevere in their father's religion and worship. I order both parties, as much as in them lies, to live peaceably one toward another and to endeavour to prevent all distractions or seditions of state between them.'' {Josephus, l. 19. c. 4. <c. 5. 1:519>}

6654. At the entreaty of these two kings when he was for the second time designed consul (the first year of his reign), Claudius permitted the Jews in Alexandria and his whole empire to live according to their own laws and the customs of their ancestors. Along with this, he advised them that under this grace, they should live the more modestly and warily and that they should not abuse the religions of the other countries. They should be content quietly to enjoy their own customs and traditions. {Josephus, l. 19. c. 4. <c. 5. 1:519,520>} When the Jews grew so numerous at Rome, the city could scarcely hold them without tumults. He did not eject them but forbid those who lived after their own laws to hold meetings. Also he disbanded the clubs which Caius had allowed and abolished the taverns where they met and drank. {*Dio, l. 60. 7:383}

6655. Through his letters, Claudius commended Agrippa to all the governors of the provinces. He sent King Agrippa into his own kingdom to take care of it. Agrippa made a very large great expedition and came to Jerusalem and paid his vows. He omitted nothing prescribed by the law. He ordered many Nazarites to be shaven and hung up in the holy temple over the treasury, a gold chain which he had received from Caius, as a memorial of his many miseries and happy deliverances by God. When he had duly performed his vows to God, he removed Theophilus, the son of Ananius, from the high priesthood and appointed Simon surnamed Cantharus in his place. Simon was the son of Boethus whose daughter Herod the Great had married. He gained the good will and gratitude of the people at Jerusalem by remitting a tribute to them which they annually paid from every house. He made Silas master over all the militia, who was his constant companion in all his difficulties and plans. {Josephus, l. 19. c. 5. <c. 6. 1:522>}

6656. A little after this, certain rash young men of the Doris people, under pretence of religion, erected a statue to Caesar in the temple at Jerusalem. Agrippa, the king of the Jews, was very angry and immediately went to Petronius into Syria and complained of the impudent boldness of them. Petronius was equally offended by this impious action and that it went directly against the laws of the empire. He wrote very sharply to the magistrates of the Doris people that they should send those bound to him whoever they were, who dared do such actions which were so contrary to the emperor's edicts. He ordered them to never let that happen again. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 19. c. 5, 6. <c. 6. 1:520,521>}

6657. At Caesarea, Cornelius who was a Roman centurion of a company which belonged to the Italian band, favoured the Jewish religion and studied it. He was uncircumcised. (The Hebrews usually called such people, "Proselytes of the Gate", and the "Godly of the Nations".) About the ninth hour of the day (3 pm), he was ordered by an angel who appeared to him, to send for Simon Peter. Simon had stayed a long time at the house of Simon a tanner. Cornelius obeyed the command and sent two of his household servants and a godly soldier who was one of those who were constantly with him. {Ac 10:1-8 9:43}

6658. The next day as they journeyed and came near the city, Peter ascended to the housetop to pray about the sixth hour (noon). While he was waiting for dinner to be prepared, he became hungry. He saw a large linen sheet coming down from heaven full of all kinds of animals. He was ordered to freely eat without regard to what he ate. By this object lesson, Peter was taught that the Gentiles were not to be considered unclean. The next day, Peter arrived at Caesarea with the men who were sent by Cornelius and six brethren who accompanied them from Joppa. Peter found at Cornelius' house, his whole family. They were converted to the faith in Christ and the Spirit of God descended on them all of his own accord without any laying on of hands by Peter. Then Peter baptized them into Christ. {Ac 10:9-48 11:5-17}

6659. The apostles and brethren who were at Judea and heard that the Gentiles also had received the Word of God. When Peter came to Jerusalem, there arose a contention between those who had been converted from Judaism to Christ and Peter because Peter had associated with uncircumcised persons and ate with them. When Peter had told them everything that had happened and proved it by the testimony of the six who were with him, they were satisfied. They glorified God who also had given repentance to life to the Gentiles. {Ac 11:1-18}

6660. King Agrippa removed Simon Cantheras from the high priesthood. When he would have given it to Jonathan, the son of Ananus, he declined from modesty and because he had held the office before. Jonathan recommended it be given to Matthias, his brother since he thought his brother was more worthy than himself. {Josephus, l. 19. c. 6. <1:521>}

6661. Vibius Marsus succeeded Petronius as governor in the province of Syria. {Josephus, l. 19. c. 6. <1:521>}

6662. Silas was the general to King Agrippa's cavalry. All along he had been faithful to him and shared every danger with him and was a very close friend of Agrippa. Silas began to desire equal honours with the king because of his close friendship. Sometimes he praised himself beyond all modesty and recalled the hard times they had gone through together. He did this so often that he very highly exasperated the king against him. Agrippa was so fed up that he removed Silas from his command and sent him bound to his own country to be kept. A little later, the king was to celebrate his birthday and he sent for Silas to attend the kingly feast. Silas returned such a churlish answer that the king left him with his keepers. {Josephus, l. 19. c. 7. <1:521,522>}

6663. King Agrippa now turned his attention to Jerusalem. He fortified the walls of the part which was called the new city (Bezethal), and made the gates wider and higher than they had been before. He did all this at the public expense. He would have completed the walls so that they would be impregnable by human force had not Marsus, the president of Syria, written letters to Claudius about this. The emperor suspected that the Jews were about to attempt some sedition and wrote earnestly to Agrippa that he should stop this work and he immediately obeyed. {Josephus, l. 19. c. 7. <1:522>}

6664. A door of faith was now opened to the Gentiles. The men of Cyprus and Cyrene who were scattered to Antioch after the martyrdom of Stephen and preached Christ to the Greeks. (It is Ellhnaj in the oldest book of Alexandria has it, not as the common edition Ellhnisaj) There was a large number who believed and turned to the Lord. When the church at Jerusalem heard this, they sent Barnabas there who admonished them all to stedfastly adhere to the Lord. A large company were added to the Lord. {Ac 11:20-24}
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« Reply #531 on: December 10, 2006, 02:46:47 PM »

6665. A severe famine raged at Rome. Claudius provided plenty of provisions for the present need and also took care for the future. Since most of the grain and other provisions came from foreign lands and the mouth of Tiber had no good ports, Claudius built the port Ostia. {*Dio, l. 60. 7:393,395} After eleven years it was barely finished, although he kept 30,000 men working at it constantly. {Suetonius, Claudius, c. 20.}

6666. This famine happened in the second year of Claudius. There was a notable famine also in his eleventh year of which others have mentioned. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 43.} {Suetonius, Claudius, c. 18.} {Orosius, l. 7. c. 6.} This was not that world wide famine which was foretold by Agabus. It began in the fourth year of Claudius as evident from history. {Eusebius, Chronicles} {Orosius, l. 7. c. 6.} This famine happened at the same time as Herod Agrippa's death. {Ac 12:23-25}

4046 AM, 4756 JP, 43 AD

6667. Barnabas went to Tarsus to find Saul. When he had located him, he brought him to Antioch. It came to pass that for a whole year, they met together in the church and taught a large multitude. The disciples were first called Christians at Antioch. This name was derived in Latin form and not from the Greek form of Christ. It seems to have been created by some Romans who were then at Antioch.

6668. About this time, the prophets went down from Jerusalem to Antioch. One of these was Agabus who made known by the Spirit that there would come a severe famine in the whole world. {Ac 11:27,28}

6669. Claudius brought the Lycians again to his servitude who had revolted and killed many Romans. He added their country to the prefecture of Pamphylia. While he was examining this business in court, he asked in Latin a certain ambassador who was born of Lycian parents but born at Rome. When the ambassador did not understand Latin, Claudius deprived him of his Roman citizenship and said it was not fitting that he should be a Roman who could not speak Latin. {*Dio, l. 60. 7:411}

6670. King Agrippa build at enormous cost at Berytus a theatre, amphitheatre, baths and porches. He celebrated the dedication of them most sumptuously. He held shows in the theatre of all kinds of musical performances of the greatest variety. In the amphitheatre he held many gladiatorial games. Furthermore, because he desired to gratify and please the spectators, he had two troops of 700 criminals to be brought and to fight with each other. This presentation of war concurred as well to the punishment of the malefactors as to the delight of those who loved peace. So they were all killed by one another's mutual wounds. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 19. c. ult. <c. 7. 1:522>}

6671. At last, the kings came to Agrippa at Tiberius in Galilee, Antiochus of Commagene, Sampsigeranus of the Emesa, Cotys of the Lesser Armenia, Ptolemon of Pontus and his brother Herod, king of Calcis. While they were all together, Marsus, the governor of Syria also came. Therefore, Agrippa paid his due respects to the Romans and went to meet him even to the seventh road marker, (about a mile.) When Agrippa rode in the same chariot with his guests, Marsus distrusted the friendship of so many kings. Therefore he sent his messengers to every one in particular to depart without delay. Agrippa was most grievously offended by this so that he hated Marsus. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 19. c. ult. <c. 8. 1:523>} Agrippa very often solicited Claudius by his letters, to remove Marsus from being governor of Syria. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 1. <l. 19. c. 8. 1:523>}

6672. Agrippa removed the high priesthood from Matthias, the son of Ananus, and gave it to Elioneus, the son of Cantheras. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 19. c. ult. <c. 8. }

4047 AM, 4757 JP, 44 AD

6673. The famine foretold by Agabus increased and the Christians of Antioch, collected a gift for their friends who lived in Judea. They sent it by Barnabas and Saul after they preached for a whole year preached the word of the Lord to the people of Antioch. {Ac 11:26,29,30}

6674. About this time King Herod Agrippa, (as the Syriac paraphrase correctly called him) laid hands on them who belonged to the church {Ac 12:1} because they opposed the institutions and rites of their country of which Agrippa was a most religious observer. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 19. c. ult. <c. 6. 1:521>}

6675. Agrippa killed James, (the son of Zebedee) the brother of John with a sword. Ac 12:2 Clement Alexandria added from the tradition of his anscestors {Clement, Institutions, l. 7.} {*Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, l. 2. c. 9. 1:58} that the very same man who brought James into judgment became a Christian. He saw how freely he gave testimony of Jesus and that he publicly confessed he was a Christian in spite of having received most severe warnings. Therefore when they were brought both together for punishment, he desired James' forgiveness and James considered little of it and said:

``Peace be to you.''

6676. James kissed him and so later they were both beheaded.

6677. When the king saw that the death of James pleased the people, he cast Peter into prison during the days of the feast of unleavened bread. He was guarded by four quaternions (sixteen) soldiers. Agrippa intended after the passover to being him out to the people. The church prayed daily for him and an angel of the Lord delivered him miraculously in the night. He went to the house of Mary the mother of John Mark where many met and prayed. After he told them of his deliverance that they might inform James, the son of Alphaeus and brother of our Lord, and the rest. Peter then went into another place. {Ac 12:3-17}

6678. Herod Agrippa was frustrated and in a rage he ordered the innocent keepers to be dragged to execution. He travelled down to Caesarea and stayed there. He was displeased with the people of Tyre and Sidon whose land was not sufficient to maintain them (especially in that year of famine) and they were forced to seek sustenance from Galilee and other places under Herod's jurisdiction. Therefore, they came unanimously to him through the mediation of Blastus the king's chamberlain, whom they had made their friend and desired peace with him. A day was appointed and Herod in his royal attire, sat before the tribunal and made a speech to them. The people with acclamations shouted out that this was the voice of a god not a man. Immediately, an angel of the Lord smote him because he did not give the glory to God. He was eaten up by worms and he died. {Ac 12:18-23}

6679. The historian Josephus mentions this and added an owl appeared to him lest the prophecy of his German prophet would be void.

``When Agrippa had now finished the third year of his reign and was starting his fourth year, he went to Caesarea which was formerly called Strato's Tower. He solemnized some annual plays for Caesar's health which were attended by a large number of noble men and youngsters from all the province. On the second day of this celebrity, he went all attired with his princely robes. These were richly and intricately woven with silver, which by the reflection of the rising sun produced an angelical or extraordinary lustre. This struck reverence in the spectators. Immediately some wicked men shouted from the distance and greeted him as a god and desired that he would be propitious to them. Before this, they had only honoured him as a man but now they saw there was something more in him than human. He neither refused nor repelled this impious adulation. A little later, he looked up and saw over his head on owl sitting on a rope that was extended for some occasion. He immediately knew that as this which had been a token of his good fortune, was now a sign of his ruin and he was struck to the very heart. Later his belly began to torment him more and more grievously. Therefore he turned to his friends, he said. "Behold I who by your greeting was called god, am now ordered from this life. My certain fate gives the lie to your flattery. I whom you greeted as immortal, am forced to die. I must endure the wishes of providence, for I have not lived poorly nor so happily that all men may call me blessed." When he had said those things his pain grew worse and worse. Immediately those things were told around the country and the rumour went out that he was dying. Therefore immediately all the people with their wives and children were in sackcloth after their country's manner, praying to God for the health of their king. They made all places ring with their lamentations and howling. As the king was laying on a high bed and looked down and saw the people prostrate on their faces, he could not stop weeping. His pain lasted in great extremity and without intermission for five days time and then he died. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 19. c. ult. <c. 8. 1:523>}
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« Reply #532 on: December 10, 2006, 02:47:17 PM »

6680. Josephus stated he reigned for seven years, four under Caius (less three or four months, for Caius himself did not rule four whole years) and three under Claudius (adding in like manner three or four months.) He stated that his yearly revenue came to 12,000,000 drachmas and because he was so noble and generous that this was not enough and he was forced to borrow money. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 19. c. ult. <c. 8. 1:524>}

6681. Before the king's death was known, Herod of the king of Chalcis and Chelcias, the general of the cavalry, conferred together and sent Aristo to kill Silas, their common enemy as if by Agrippa's orders. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 19. c. ult. <c. 8. 1:524>}

6682. Agrippa left only one son named Agrippa who was seventeen and was being educated at Rome with Claudius. He left three daughters, of whom Bernice was married to Herod her uncle at the age of sixteen and the other were still virgins. Mariamme was ten years old and was betrothed by her father to Julius Archelaus Epiphanes, the son of Antiochus, the son of Chelcias. Drusilla was six years old and betrothed to the king of the Commagenians. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 19. c. ult. <c. 9. 1:524>}

6683. When it was known for sure that Agrippa was dead, the people of Caesarea and Sebaste (two cities which were built by his father) acted like enemies of the dead prince. The common soldiers, with one consent, dragged his and his daughters' statues from of the palace and brought them into the brothels. They abused them in such calumnious ways that it is a shame to recount. They made feasts and banquets in all public places. They were very happy and adorned themselves with garlands and anointed their bodies. They sacrificed and made offerings to Charon and even worshipped one another for the joy they had by the death of the king. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 19. c. ult. <c. 9. 1:524>}

6684. The Word of God was sown, increased and multiplied. Barnabas and Saul returned to Jerusalem. When they had finished their ministry there, they took along with them John Mark. {Ac 12:24,25}

6685. Claudius deprived the Rhodians of their liberty because they had crucified some Romans. {*Dio, l. 60. p. 681.}

6686. When Claudius wanted to send the young Agrippa into his kingdom, to succeed his father, his freedman and friends, who could do much with him, dissuaded him. They said it was dangerous to commit so large a kingdom to so young a youth who had barely reached manhood. He was very unqualified to rule there since the kingdom required a large force of soldiers to keep it. Claudius could not deny that they spoke rationally and truly. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 19. c. ult. <c. 9. 1:524>} Although indeed their aim was at the prefectureship of that kingdom and by this to make themselves rich. Tacitus stated: {Tacitus, History, l. 5. c. 9.}

``When the kings had either all died or lost most of their territory, Claudius made Judah a prefecture to be governed by Roman equestrians or freedmen.''

6687. Therefore Claudius made Cuspius Fadus, governor of Judea and all the kingdom of Agrippa, (which was much larger than the first Herod, his grandfather.) Claudius honoured the dead king in this in that he would not bring Marsus, his enemy, into his kingdom. He ordered Fadus to severely chastise the cities of Caesarea and Sebaste for their ingratitude to their dead king and the contumely against his daughters who were still alive. He wanted the troops from Caesarea and Sebaste, along with the fifth cohort to make war in Pontus. He would substitute in their place, soldiers chosen from the Romans who were ordered to defend Syria. Later, the soldiers sent an ambassador to Claudius and obtained permission to stay in Judea. In later times they were involved in the most grievous calamity to the Jews and sowed the seeds of that war which started when Florus was governor. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 19. c. fin. <c. 9. 1:524,525>}

6688. Josephus wrote {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 1. <1:525>} that Claudius moved Marsus as a favour to his dead friend, Agrippa and he made Cassius Longinus governor of Syria in his place. Tacitus stated this happened three years later.

4048a AM, 4757 JP, 44 AD

6689. The Jews who lived beyond the Jordan River, had a dispute with the Philadelphians about the limits of the town Mia, a place full of most warlike people. The Jews who lived on the other side of the river, had taken up arms without the knowledge or consent of their rulers and killed many of the Philadelphians. When Caspius knew this, he was greatly offended that they did not let him decide the matter if the Jews thought that the Philadephians had done them any wrong rather than so rashly take up arms on their own accord against them. Therefore, he captured three of the ringleaders and had them bound. He executed Hannibal and banished Amaram and Eleazar. Not long after this, he took and condemned Tholomy to death, who was the leader of the robbers and had done many wrongs to Idumea and Arabia. He tried to eliminate all the robbers from the whole country of Judea. {Josephus, l. 20. c. 1. <1:525>}

4048b AM, 4758 JP, 45 AD

6690. When Cassius Longinus (whom Tacitus thought was Vibius Marsus) was governor of Syria, he went to Jerusalem with his army, together with Caspius Fadus, the procurator of the Jews. They convened the priests and chief of the Jews and plainly showed to them the full intent of the emperor's commands. They were to store the clothes of the high priest in the tower of Antonia where the Romans would guard them as was done in the time of Vitellius. The Jews dared not oppose them in anything but desired time to send an ambassador to Caesar to try to gain the favour of him that they might not be deprived of the privilege of keeping the holy clothes. They also wanted nothing to be done until Caesar had replied. Fadus and Longinus said they would allow this if they would first give hostages while they waited for Caesar's reply. They readily turned over their children and sent away the ambassadors. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. ult. <c. 11. 1:425>} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 1. <1:525>}

6691. At the church at Antioch there were prophets and teachers as Barnabas and Simeon who was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Menahem, who was educated together with Herod the Tetrarch and Saul. All served God and fasted. The Holy Ghost ordered Barnabas and Saul to separate themselves from the rest and to start preaching the gospel. These were commended to God by the church with fasting and praying and laying on of hands. They took with them, John Mark, a servant and came to Seleucia. From there they sailed into Cyprus, (Barnabas' country) where they first began to preach the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews at Salamis. {Ac 13:1-4}

6692. They travelled over that island as far as Paphas and they found a false Jewish prophet, Barjesus, surnamed Elymas or Magus. He tried to turn away Sergius Paulus, the ruler of that country, who had a desire to hear Saul and Barnabas. Saul sharply reproved this man and he was immediately struck with blindness. The proconsul was stirred with this miracle and the gospel and was converted to the faith. From this time on, Saul was always called by the name of Paul. He and those that came with him to Paphos went to Perga of Pamphylia, where John Mark left them and returned to Jerusalem. {Ac 13:6-13}

6693. The ambassadors from Jerusalem through the intercession of Agrippa, who was then with Claudius, obtained the confirmation of that privilege of keeping the holy garments which was first granted to them by Vitellius. These also received a written ruling to take to the magistrates at Jerusalem from the emperor about this matter in the fifth year of his tribunal power. This was dated June 27th (4th calends of July) when Rufus and Pompeius Sylvanus were consuls by Claudius to gratify Herod the king of Chalcis and Aristobulus the younger, his most endeared friends, so that herein he would gratify them. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 15. c. ult. <c. 11. 1:425>} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 1. <1:525,526>}

6694. About the same time, Herod the king of Chalcis, successfully petitioned Claudius for the authority over the temple and holy treasury and the right of choosing the high priests. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 1. <1:525,526>}

6695. Since there was to be an eclipse of the sun on his birthday and because of some other portents that had already happened, Claudius was afraid lest it might be an occasion for some sedition. Before the time, he wrote and had it known that there would be an eclipse. He noted the very time, space, and all the natural causes of it and showed that it was inevitable. {*Dio, l. 60. 7:433,435} The birthday of Claudius was on the first of August {*Dio, l. 60. {*Dio, l. 60. 7:379} on which day the sun was eclipsed about two hours before noon to a fourth part of its diameter.
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« Reply #533 on: December 10, 2006, 02:47:50 PM »

6696. Herod, king of Chalcis, removed Simon Cantheras and placed Joseph the son of Camus (or Camydes) in the high priesthood. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 1. <1:526>}

6697. Theudas, a mere impostor, pretended himself to be a prophet and persuaded a large number of the Jews to take their riches with them and follow him to Jordan. He promised them that he would divide the river and make an easy way for them to pass through. Fabius Caspius, the procurator of the Jews, sent out some cavalry troops who overtook the company by surprise and killed a large number of them and took many alive. Theudas was beheaded and they took his head to Jerusalem. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 2. fin. <c. 5. 1:531>}

6698. Paul and Barnabas left Perga and came to Antioch in Pisidia. They entered into their synagogues on the sabbath day after the reading of the law and the prophets. They were invited by the rulers of the synagogue to teach. After Paul had preached an excellent sermon, the Jews left the synagogue. However, the Gentiles asked that they would expound the same things to them the next sabbath day. After they had broken up, many devout Jews and religious proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas. They spoke to them and admonished them to continue in the grace and favour of God. {Ac 13:14-43}

6699. The next sabbath almost all the city came flocking to hear the Word of God. When the Jews saw the multitude, they were filled with envy and opposed what Paul taught with blasphemies. Paul and Barnabas were grievously offended and they left the Jews and preached only to the Gentiles. They joyfully embraced the gospel and all believed who were ordained to eternal life. The Word of God was spread over that whole country. The Jews were frustrated in their malicious designs and stirred up many honourable religious women, (called by the Jews, Proselytes of the Gate) and the chief men in the city. They raised a commotion and drove Paul and Barnabas from their region. Paul and Barnabas shook the dust off their feet against them and travelled to Iconium. The disciples were filled with joy and the Holy Ghost. {Ac 13:44-52}

6700. At Iconium, Paul and Barnabas entered the synagogue of the Jews and spoke so that a large number of Jews and Greeks believed. The unbelieving Jews exasperated and prejudiced the minds of the Greeks against the brethren. However, they stayed there a long time and spoke freely as inspired by the Lord who gave testimony to the word of his grace and did many miracles by their hands. {Ac 14:1-3} At which time Thecla, a noble maid of Iconium, was thought to be converted to Christ. Her acts are most deservedly recorded among the Apocrypha by the LXX by a synod of bishops who met under Gelasius.

6701. The multitude of Iconium was divided. Some were for the Jews and some for the apostles. When it came to pass that a number of Jews and Gentiles together with their chief rulers came to assault and stone them, they fled away into the cities of Lycaonia, Lystra, Derbe and the surrounding regions and preached the gospel there. {Ac 14:4-7}

6702. At Lystra, a man who was born lame, was healed by Paul. When the Lystrians would have sacrificed to Paul as Mercury, and Barnabas as Jupiter, they tore their clothes, refused the honour and had much trouble restraining the multitude from sacrificing to them. Soon after, the unbelieving Jews came there from Iconium and Antioch and raised a tumult and excited the people against them. The furious multitude stoned Paul and threw his body out of the city for they thought he was dead. When his disciples came around him, he arose and entered the city. {Ac 14:8-20}

6703. In this year and it may be at this very time, Paul was taken into the third heavens and heard unspeakable words fourteen years before the second epistle to the Corinthians was written. {2Co 12:2-4} This may be the event that is thought to refer to that of Triephon in Lucian or the more ancient author of that dialogue written by Philopatris.

``When I met that Jewish bald head, I justly laughed at him who was wrapped up into the very third heavens through the air. He learned there those things that were most excellent and glorious. He renewed us by water and made us walk in the steps of the blessed and redeemed us from the dominions of the wicked.''

6704. So Triephon:

``God reigned on high, great, heavenly, and eternal, the Son of the Father, the Spirit, proceeding from the Father, one of three, and three of one.''

6705. In a similar manner, the Christians used to preach.

6706. Paul with Barnabas left Lystra and came to Derbe. They preached the gospel there and had many converts to Christ. {Ac 14:20,21}

6707. Among many others who were converted to Christ at this time, was Timothy with his holy mother Eunice and his grandmother Lois, who took care to teach him the Scriptures from his very infancy. Timothy was there and although he was still a child, he was an eye witness of the sufferings of his spiritual father, Paul at Antioch (in Pisidia) Iconium and Lystra (in Lycaonia.) {Ac 16:1,2 2Ti 1:2-5 3:11-15}

6708. Paul and Barnabas went no further than Derbe and returned to Lystra Iconium and to Antioch. They confirmed the minds of the disciples and exhorted them to endure affliction for their faith's sake without wavering. They appointed bishops over them in everyone of their churches and prayed for them with fasting. They commended them to God in whom they believed. Later they travelled over Pisidia and came into Pamphylia. After they had declared and published the word of the Lord at Perga, they crossed to Attalia and sailed to Antioch from where they started. They told to the congregated churches what God had done through them and how he had opened the door of faith to the Gentiles. {Ac 14:21-27}

6709. Tiberius Alexander replaced Caspius Fidus as the governor of the Jewish government. He was the son of Alexander, the alabarch of Alexandria (an old friend of Claudius') who had forsaken the Jewish religion. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 3. <c. 5. 1:531>}

6710. A little after this when the news spread through all Judea, Helena the queen of Adiabene (in the confines of Assyria and Mesopotamia) was converted by a certain Jew to the worship of the true God and came to visit the temple at Jerusalem. She wanted to worship the true God there and to pay her vows and made ample provision for her journey. She was delayed for a few days by her son Izates, who was then king, and later converted to the same religion by Ananias, a Jewish merchant. When she saw many of the Jews starving from famine, she sent some to Alexandria for a large quantity of wheat which she paid for by herself. She sent others to Cyprus to get a large quantity of figs to their relief. These quickly returned and she divided all the food to those who needed it. When her son, Izates heard of the hardships caused by the famine, he sent money to the chief magistrates at Jerusalem. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 2,3. <c. 2. 1:527,528>}

6711. Izates, the king, sent his five sons to Jerusalem to learn their language and customs correctly. His mother Helena also erected three pyramids about 600 yards from Jerusalem in which the bones of her son, Izates were entombed. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 20. c. 2. <c. 3,4. 1:529,530>} The monuments of Helena were extant, not only in the time of Josephus, but in Eusebius also. {Josephus, Wars, l. 5. bell. kef. n. & is in Greek, or l. 6. cap. 6 & 7. in Latin,} {*Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, l. 2. c. 12. p. 61} {Jerome, Epistle 27.}
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« Reply #534 on: December 10, 2006, 02:48:25 PM »

4050a AM, 4759 JP, 46 AD

6712. Paul and Barnabas stayed at Antioch with the disciples for a long time. {Ac 14:28} After that, Paul, as it appears, preached the gospel even to Illyricum to those who never heard it before. {Ro 15:19,20} He suffered those things there which he mentioned in his second epistle to the Corinthians. {2Co 11:24-26} He mentioned that he had been whipped with rods at Philippi and twice elsewhere by the Gentiles. Five times he received 39 stripes from the Jews. He had been shipwrecked three times and was all night in the deep. We find that five years elapsed between the return of Paul and Barnabas to Antioch and their going to the council at Jerusalem. We cannot place these things better anywhere else than in so large a vacuum and silence in the history of the church.

6713. When Valerius Asiaticus was again consul, the island of Therasia rose from the Aegean Sea {Seneca, Natural Quest., l. 2. c. 26. & l. 6. c. 21.) on a night when the moon was eclipsed. {Aurelius Victor, in Claudius} This eclipse was seen the last night of December (which ended the year when Valerius Asiaticus was consul for the second time) and the first of January which began the consulships of Claudius (fourth time) and Lucius Vitellius (third time.) This little island appeared for the first time near Thera. {*Dio, l. 60. 8:5}

4050b AM, 4760 JP, 47 AD

6714. James and Simon the sons of Judas of Galilee were crucified because in Qurinius' time, they incited the Jews to revolt. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 3. <c. 5. 1:531}

6715. Herod, the king of Chalcis, removed Joseph the son of Camydus, and made Ananias the son of Nebedaeus the high priest in his place. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 3. <c. 5. 1:531}

6716. Gotarzes prepared to kill Artabanus, the king of the Parthians, with his wife and son. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 11. c. 8.} However, Artabanus died and left his kingdom to his son, Bardanes. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 2.} Tacitus stated that Gotarzes and Bardanes were brothers and Josephus thought them to be Artabanus' sons.

6717. Bardanes was invited by the Parthians (who feared the cruelty of Gotarzes) to be their king. He was always an adventurous man and in two days had covered 350 miles and invaded Gotarzes. He was terrified by his sudden coming. Without delay Bardanes seized the next provinces also. Only the city of Seleucia refused to submit. Since they had also revolted against his father, he was very angry with them. He unwisely wasted time and besieged their very strong city which was fortified on the one side by a river and on the other with a very strong guard. In the interim, Gotarzes with the help of the Dahae and Hyrcanians, recruited his forces and renewed the war. Thereupon Bardanes was forced to abandon the siege of Seleucia and withdraw to Bactria. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 11. c. 8.}

6718. The news of the Parthian discord and that they were fighting to appoint a new king reached Rome. Mithridates, the king of Armenia the Greater, was advised by Claudius Caesar to march into Armenia. He trusted in the power and wealth of his brother Pharasmanes, the king of the Iberians. Indeed, the affairs of the east were in such a turmoil, that Mithridates took over Armenia. The Roman soldiers subdued the citadels and strong forts while the Iberian army held the field. The Armenians did not resist for Demonactes, their general was killed in a battle. Immediately, Cotys, the king of Armenia the Less advanced there but Caesar changed his mind through letters he sent him. All the countries rallied to Mithridates, who behaved more harshly than was fitting for a new king. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 11. c. 8,9.}

6719. Gotarzes and Bardanes were about to fight. Gotarzes showed his brother the treachery of the people and they shook hands and swore at an altar to revenge themselves on each others' enemies. They made peace between themselves. Bardanes appeared better to hold the kingdom so Gotarzes, to avoid all strife, retired into Hyrcania. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 11. c. 9.}

6720. When Bardanes returned, Seleucia surrendered in the seventh year after its defection. After this he invaded the strongest provinces and planned to recover Armenia. Vibius Marsus (or, according to Josephus, Cassius Longinus) who was the governor of Syria, threatened him with war through his ambassador. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 11. c. 9.}

4051 AM, 4761 JP, 48 AD

6721. Ventidius Cumanus replaced Tiberius Alexander in the government of the Jews and Herod, the king of Chalcis brother of that great Agrippa died in the eighth year of Claudius' reign. He was survived by three sons of whom Aristobulus was by his former wife Mariamme and Berniciansus, and Hyrcanus were sons of Bernice his brother's daughter. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 3. <c. 5. 1:531>}

6722. As the feast of the passover was approaching, many people came from all parts to the feasts. Cumanus followed the example of the previous governors and set one cohort for a guard on the porch of the temple to preclude any riots. On the fourth day of the feast, one of the soldiers showed his obscene parts to the crowd who cried out and were enraged by that action. (History's first flasher!) They said that the one whom they honoured in that feast was affronted by it and some of the boldest of them railed against Cumanus saying this impudent soldier was sent by him. When Cumanus heard this he was quite troubled and wanted the people to raise no commotions in the time of the feast. When they still railed at him, he commanded the whole army to Antonia, a citadel that adjoined the temple. When the common people saw the soldiers coming, they were afraid. They began to flee in panic and stampeded into a narrow passage and thought that the soldiers had pursued them. They oppressed and trampled one another so that 20,000 of them were found dead. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 4. <c. 5. 1:531>} Josephus stated elsewhere that only 10,000 died. {Josephus, Wars, l. 2. c. 11. <c. 12. 1:612>} {*Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, l. 2. c. 19. 1:72} Rufinus noted more than 30,000 perished. Eusebius and Orosius also confirmed Rufinus' number. {Eusebius, Chronicles} {Orosius, l. 7. c. 6.}

6723. Some who fled and escaped this tumult, robbed Caesar's servant, Steven on the road near Bethhoron about 12 miles from Jerusalem. They took all his bags of treasure. When Cumanus heard this he sent soldiers there with orders to destroy the surrounding villages. In this havock one of the soldiers brought out the books of the Mosaic law which he found in one of those villages. He tore it up in the sight of them all and railed exceedingly against the law and the Jews. When the Jews heard this, they gathered a large company and went to Caesarea where Cumanus lived. They entreated him that he would revenge this act not just for their sakes but for the contempt and wrong of their God. Then the governor was afraid of a revolt among people. Through the advice of his friends, he executed the soldier that had done this and so appeased the people. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 4. <c. 5. 1:531,532>}
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« Reply #535 on: December 10, 2006, 02:49:20 PM »

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6724. Apollonius, the Tyanean, on his journey to the Indians, entered the city of Babylon in the second month of the third year of Bardanes and conferred with the king. {Philostratus, Life of Apollonius, l. 1. c. 19,20.} {Eusebius, in Hierocl.}

6725. Gotarzes, regretted that he had surrendered his kingdom and was recalled by his nobility who were the more enslaved by the peace. He gathered a large force and fought with Bardanes at the Erindes River in a fierce battle. Bardanes won and with good success he proceeded and subdued the mid countries to the Tedzhen River which divided the Dahae and the Arii. Their his success ended for although the Parthians were conquerors they hated fighting a long way from home. Therefore he erected monuments there glorifying his power and the subjection to peoples that were never before subject to the Parthians. Bardanes returned home with great glory and became much sterner and more intolerable to his subjects. {Tacitus, l. 11. c. 10.}

6726. Bardanes went to Izates, the king of Adialene, and tried to persuade him to join with him in a war against the Romans. Izates tried to change his mind by telling him of the Roman acts and their power. Bardanes was offended at this and immediately planed to war against Izates. His death prevented this war. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 2. <1:527>} When the Parthians knew that he planned to make war with the Romans, they surprised and killed him while he was hunting. He died in his prime and was one of the most famous for such a young king. If he had obtained the love of his subjects as he had the fear of his enemies, he might have been numbered among the old ones. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 2. <1:527>} {Tacitus, Annals, l. 11. c. 10.}

6727. The Parthian affairs were thrown into confusion by the death of Bardanes and they did not know who would be the next king. Many favoured Gotarzes and some wanted Meherdates (the son of Phraates the 4th, the son of Zenones the 1st) who was then a hostage with the Romans. At last Gotarzes prevailed and occupied the throne. He forced the Parthians by his luxury and cruelty to send secretly to Claudius to send them Meherdates to be their king. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 11. c. 10.} They complained of Gotarzes' cruelty to the nobility and the common people. First Gotarzes killed his brothers then his close relatives then his more distant relatives. He even killed pregnant women and their small children. He was slothful and licentious at home and unlucky in war, he covered his foul deeds by his cruelty. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 10.}

6728. Didius, the Roman general had deposed Mithridates from the kingdom of Bosphorus and made his son Cotys, a rash young fellow, king there. Didius led away the power of the army and left the new king with only a few cohorts under the command of Julius Aquila, a Roman equestrian. When Mithridates had lost everything, he wandered about and incited the countries and gathered from them all the renegades. He got together an army and disposed the king of the Daridaridae and took over his kingdom. {Tacitus, l. 12. c. 15.}

6729. After Claudius heard the Parthian ambassadors, he sent Mithridates (or Meherdates) to be their king. He told him that he should not think of himself as an autocrat among slaves but as a guide of free men and that he should show mercy and justice. He ordered C. Cassius, who was governor of Syria that he escort the young man safely to the banks of the Euphrates River. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 11.}

6730. At this time Cassius excelled all others in his legal skill but was inexperienced in martial affairs since there were no wars going on. He renewed the ancient customs of exercising the legions with the same care as if an enemy had been invading the country. He wanted to live up to the name of the Cassian family and his ancestors who were held in high esteem in those countries. When he had pitched his tents at Zeugma, where the river was easily crossed, he convened those who had voted to make Meherdates king. When the Parthian nobles and the king of the Arabians, Acbarus (or Abgarus) had arrived, he, before them, admonished the young man Meherdates not to delay since that caused people to lose enthusiasm and instigated treachery. Therefore he advised him to press on with his plans quickly. Meherdates despised this good advice through the deceit of Acbarus. Meherdates was young and thought all fortune consisted in luxury and stayed at the town Edessa for many days. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 12.}

6731. Mithridates was possessed of the kingdom of the Dandaridae and he thought of invading the Bosphorus. Aquila and Cotys, did not think they could handle Mithridates with their own weak forces because Zorsines, king of the Siraci (to Caucasus) had joined with Mithridates. They sent for foreign troops and sent ambassadors to Eunones, who ruled over the country of the Aorsori, (among the Scythians) whose friendship they easily obtained by showing how Mithridates had rebelled against the Romans. Therefore they agreed that Eunones should fight the cavalry battles and the Romans would handle the besieging of their cities. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 15.}

6732. After they had marshalled their forces, they advanced. The Romans and Bosphorans defended each wing of Aorsus from before and behind. After they had driven the enemy back, they came to Soza, a town of the Dandaridae which was abandoned by Mithridates because the loyalty of the people was suspect. The invading forces thought it best to take it and leave a garrison there. They went on into the country of the Siracians. After they crossed the Panda River they besieged Uspe which was defended by walls and ditches. The walls were not made of stone, but wickerwork hurdles with earth between and were weak. From the high seige towers, they attacked the besieged with firebrands and spears. Had night not intervened and stopped the battle, the place would have been captured the same day. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 16.}

6733. The next day ambassadors, unsuccessfully asked that they might go free who were free born and offered 10,000 slaves. The conquerors despised this offer because it would be cruelty to kill those who had surrendered and dangerous to keep such a large company of prisoners. They decided to let the matter be settled in a battle. They ordered the soldiers, who scaled the walls, to kill everyone in the city. The rest of the country was terrified by the destruction of Uspe. They saw that eminent and fortified places were of no value but the enemy broke through rivers and all. Zorsines thought hard about the future of his alliance with Mithridates and if he should rather attend to his own distressed country. At last he abandoned Mithridates and gave hostages to the Romans. He fell down at the image of Caesar, in respect to the great glory of the Roman army, who were victorious. The Romans were unscathed and triumphant and were only a three day's journey from the Tanais River. Their return journey was not so successful. Some of their returning ships ran aground on the coasts of the Tuarians. The barbarians surrounded them and killed the captain of their cohort and many more. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 17.}

6734. In the interim Mithridates had no relief and tried to decide whose mercy he had best seek. His brother Cotys, who was formerly his traitor, he now feared would be his enemy. There was none of the Romans of sufficient authority for his promises to carry much weight. He fled to Eunones, entered his palace, fell at his feet and said:

``Mithridates hunted for by sea and land for so many years, behold, is now present of his own accord. Use as you please the son of great Achamenes, for my enemies have taken all other help from me.''

6735. Eunones was moved with the honour of the person, the change of his fortune and his generous petition. He wrote to Caesar and sent ambassadors to entreat Claudius not to restore Mithridates' kingdom, not to have him in a triumph nor put him to death. Claudius was undecided whether to punish or pardon him. At last he decided to grant a more merciful sentence. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 18-20.}

4053a AM, 4762 JP, 49 AD

6736. Carrenes sent for Mehardates to take over the kingdom and told him it would be very easy if he came without delay. Mehardates was given bad advice and did not go straight to Mesopotamia but took a more round about way through Armenia at the start of the winter season which was a difficult time to travel. They were exhausted by the journey through the mountains when they finally arrived in the plain country. They joined forces with Carrenes and crossed the Tigris River. They marched across Adiabene, whose King Izites was publicly friendly with Mehardates but privately loyal to Gotarzes. In spite of their journey, they captured the ancient Assyrian capital city of Ninos. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 12,13.}

6737. Mithridates of Bosphorus was brought to Rome by Junius Cilo, the procurator of Pontus. He is said to have addressed Caesar somewhat more highly than his condition warranted and that he said these words:

``I am not sent back to you, but I have come back. If you do not believe me, let me go again--and then try to catch me.''
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« Reply #536 on: December 10, 2006, 02:49:50 PM »

6738. His countenance continued undaunted, when at the rostrum he was exposed to public view and hemmed in on all sides with guards. Consular ensigns were given to Cilo and the praetorian ones to Aquila. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 21.}

6739. The Bithynians accused Junius Cilo their prefect of taking many large bribes. They spoke before Claudius in a riotous fashion and Claudius did not understand what they meant. He asked those who stood by what they said. They lied and replied that they thanked him for Junius Cilo. Claudius believed it and said:

``Let him therefore be their procurator for two more years.'' {*Dio, l. 60. 8:25}

6740. At this time the Bithynians accused Cadius Rufus, their governor, of extortion and he was condemned. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 22.} {Tacitus, Histories, l. 1. c. 77.}

6741. When the King Sohaemus of Ituraea and King Agrippa of Judea were dead, their countries are added to the province of Syria. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 23.} Indeed the years of Agrippa the younger's reign were calculated from Josephus. He stated that the beginning of the Jewish war (which started in May 66 AD) was in the 17th year of King Agrippa. {Josephus, Wars, l. 2. c. 13. fin. kef ke init.) It is also calculated from the Greek money which stated that when Judea was taken (about September 70 AD), it was the 21st year of Agrippa. Claudius did not give his father's kingdom of Judea to Agrippa the younger, but to his uncle Herod of Chalcis. Herod also received authority over the temple and holy treasury and to choose the high priests, which was granted before to his uncle Herod. (??) His father's kingdom was added to Syria so that it should have a procurator there. However by Caesar's choice Ventidius Cumanus (as formerly) retained at this time the administration of Judea and Galilee and Felix was sent as procurator for Samaria which was between them. Felix was a freedman of Claudius and his mother. Antonius, had the surname Antonius from her and Claudius from him. He was the brother of another freedman, Pallantes, whom Tacitus notes to have been most affectionately beloved by his patron Claudius. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12.? c. 53.?}
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« Reply #537 on: December 10, 2006, 02:51:37 PM »

4053b AM, 4763 JP, 50 AD

6742. Gotarzes at the mountain Sambulon made vows to the god of the place. The chief cult of that is Hercules. His army was not yet strong enough and he used the Corma (Adhaim??) River for his defence. Although he was incited to battle by envoys with challenges, he delayed and moved from place to place. He sent bribes to corrupt the loyalty of his enemies. The king of Adiabene and King Acbarus of the Arabians (of Edessa) deserted to Gotarzes because by experience it was known that the barbarians would rather seek a king at Rome than keep him. Meherdates was stripped of his forces and did not trust those who remained. He resolved to decide the matter in a battle. Gotarzes joined battle confident now that he could defeat his weakened forces. They fought with a great slaughter and uncertain outcome. When Carrenes routed his opponents and advanced too far, fresh troops cut off his return. Mehardates gave up all hope and trusted to the promises of Parraces, his father's client. Mehardates was defeated by his deceit, and turned over to the conqueror. Gotarzes sneered at Meherdates as being no relative of his, not of the royal family of the Arsaces but one who was a Roman and foreigner. He cut off his ears in contempt of the Romans and gave him his life to show his mercy. (Tacit. l. 12. c. 14.)

6743. At the age of fourteen, Josephus, the son of Matthias, was an accomplished scholar and was consulted about the more full sense and meaning of the law, even by the high priests and leaders of Jerusalem. {Josephus, Life, <1:1>}

6744. After Gotarzes died of a disease, Venones who was the president of the Medes, was called to the rule there. He had a short and most undistinguished reign among them. The Parthian kingdom was given to Volgeses, his son. His mother was a concubine and he attained the kingdom with the agreement of his brothers. {Tacitus, l. 12. c. 14, 44.} Josephus wrote that Gotarzes was killed by treachery and his brother Volgeses succeeded him. He added that he divided the kingdom to his two brothers by the same father. Pacorus who was the oldest received Media and to the younger Tiridates, Armenia. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 2. <c. 3. 1:529>}

4054 AM, 4764 JP, 51 AD

6745. A war arose between the Armenians and Iberians, which was the cause of very great troubles between the Romans and Parthians. Pharasmanes obtained the Iberians by ancient possession and his brother Mithridates the Armenia with the help of the Romans. Pharasmanes had a son called Rhadamistus who was very handsome, proper composure, of a very strong body and much admired by the whole country. When he began to desire his father's kingdom, the aged Pharasmanes was afraid and tried to divert him by giving him the idea of taking over Armenia. He told his son that he defeated the Parthians and gave it to Mithridates. He added that it was better to use craft than force to get it and so take Mithridates by surprise. Then they might easily oust him and do what they pleased. So Rhadamistus, pretended to have fallen out with his father and said he could not endure his step mother's hostility. He then defected to his uncle Mithridates and behaved well. All the while he was seducing the Armenian nobles and leaders to rebel. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 44.}

6746. Rhadamistus pretended to be reconciled and after he returned to his father, he told him how far he had gone by deceit and that the rest must be done by force. In the interim, Pharasmanes trumped up some reasons for war. He alleged that during the war against the king of the Albanians, his brother had opposed his appeal for Roman help and he must pay for that wrong with his life. He gave his son a large army and he suddenly invaded Armenia. Mithridates was compelled to repair to the citadel of Gorneas and was terrified and deprived of the country. The place was very secure because of its location and the strong guard under Coelius Pollio and Casperius was his centurion. Rhadamistus tried in vain and with great loss to capture the fortress. Then he began to see if he could bribe Pollio with money. However, Casperius opposed the overthrow of a king and ally because Armenia was given to Mithridates by the Romans and should not be sold for money. At last, when Casperius argued for the superior number of the enemy, Rhadamistus pleaded his father's orders. Finally they made a truce and Casperius left. He stated that although he had frightened Pharasmanes by wars, he should make T. Numidius Quadratus, the governor of Syria, aware of the state of affairs in Armenia. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 45.}

6747. The sixth Calippic period began.

6748. After the departure of Casperius the centurion, Pollio the prefect, was no longer under his supervision. He urged Mithridates to make a league, with his older brother Pharasmanes. Pollio said that Mithridates had married Pharasmanes' daughter and he was an uncle to Rhadamistus and gave him many other reasons. Mithridates delayed the matter and did not trust Pollio for he kept a whore and was given up to all manner of lust and luxury. He was known to be available for a price for any outrage. In the meantime, Casparius required Pharasmanes to withdraw the Iberians from the siege. He gave vague answers and seemed inclined to do it but in the meantime he sent secretly to Rhadamistus to capture the citadel as quickly as possible by any means he could. Rhadamistus secretly bribed the soldiers to demand peace and to threaten to stop fighting. This forced Mithridates to appoint a day for a conference and he left the citadel. At first Rhadamistus feigned obedience and embraced him and called him his father-in-law and father. He swore an oath that he would not harm him with the sword or poison. He lead him immediately to a nearby grove and told Mithridates that he had provided to sacrifice there that by the witness of the gods, their peace might be confirmed. However, Mithridates was thrown down and bound with chains. Finally when Pharsamanes' orders were received, Rhadamistus, as if mindful of his oath, cast down his father-in-law (Rhadamistus' uncle), together with wife (Rhadamistus' sister) and heaped heavy clothing on them so that they were smothered to death. His sons were all killed because they cried at their father's death. {Tacitus, l. 12. c. 46, 47.}

6749. When Quatratus heard that Mithridates was betrayed and slain and Armenia was ruled by his murderers, he called a council and explained the business and whether it was to be revenged. After they had debated the matter, many were of the opinion to do nothing. However lest they should seem to assent to such a wickedness and Caesar should order them otherwise, they sent messengers to Pharasmanes to order him to get out of Armenia and to recall his son. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 48.}

4055a AM, 4764 JP, 51 AD

6750. Julius Pelignus was the procurator of Cappadocia and was equally contemptible for his stupidity and his appearance. He was extremely intimate with Claudius when he was a private man and most amused with ease and sloth. Pelignus gathered together the auxiliaries of the provinces as if he would recover Armenia. He then preyed rather on his friends than his enemies. His troops deserted him and he was left defenceless against the barbarian invasions. He went to Rhadamistus who bribed him well. Pelignus urged him to assume the kingly ensigns and was the very author and abettor to him in it. When this dishonourable conduct was known and lest the rest of the Romans would be branded with Pelignus' fault, Helvidius Priscus was sent as an ambassador with a legion for a time to take care of those unsettled affairs. He quickly crossed the Taurus Mountains and settled more things by diplomacy than with force. He was ordered to return into Syria for fear of a new Parthian war. Vologeses planned to invade Armenia which was part of his ancient kingdom and now ruled by a wicked foreign king. He gathered an army and prepared to give his brother Tiridates the kingdom so that none of the family might be without a kingdom. When the Parthians came, the Iberians were overcome without a fight and the cities of Armenia, Artaxata and Tigranocerta came under their yoke. A very terrible winter followed and an epidemic broke out among the Parthians for lack of supplies. This compelled Vologeses to evacuate the country for the time being. {Tacitus, l. 12. c. 49,50}

.
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« Reply #538 on: December 10, 2006, 02:52:15 PM »

6751. Rhadamistus invaded Armenia now that there was no ruler there. He behaved more cruelly than before as if he came against rebels and who in time would rebel again. Although the Armenians were accustomed to servitude, their patience ran out and they took up arms. They surrounded the palace and forced Rhadamistus and his wife, Zenobia, to flee on fast horses. His wife was great with child and tried at first to endure the flight for she feared the enemy and loved her husband. Afterwards with continued haste, her belly was jarred too much and her bowels tormented her with pangs. She begged that she might die rather honourably than live in the disgrace of captivity. At first, he embraced, cherished and helped her. He admired her courage and was sick with fear if he should have to leave her that someone might find and harm her. At last for the vehemency of his love and being no stranger to wicked exploits, he drew his sabre. After he wounded her sufficiently, he dragged her body to the bank of the Araxis River and threw her into it so that she would not fall into enemy hands. He immediately went through Iberia to his father's throne. In the meantime some shepherds found Zenobia, obviously breathing and alive and thought that she was nobly born by her appearance. They bound up her wounds and applied their country medicines. When they knew her name and story, they carried her to Artaxata. From there she was officially brought to Tiridates. He accepted her courteously and took her as his queen. {Tacitus, l. 12. c. 50,51.}

6752. Certain professors of the name of Christ, of the sect of the Pharisees, came down from Judea to Antioch, and said that the Christians of the Gentiles ought to be circumcised and keep the law of Moses if they would be saved. This upset many of the brethren in Syria and Cilicia with their perverse doctrine. Both Paul and Barnabas stiffly opposed them. Ac 15:1,2,5,23,24 Paul called them "brethren brought in unawares." Ga 2:4 Philastrius {Philastrius, de Haeres. c. 87.} and Epiphanius {Epiphanius, Heres. 28.} said that Cerinthus, who was an arch heritic, was the first to hold this opinion

4055b AM, 4765 JP, 52 AD

6753. Fourteen years after he went to Jerusalem, which he did three years after his conversion, Paul went to Jerusalem with Barnabas. {Ga 2:1} Both of them were sent from the church at Antioch with some others that they might ask the judgment of the apostles and elders at Jerusalem, (whose names those disturbers had misused to bolster their own opinion) concerning the recent controversy. {Ac 15:2,3,24}

6754. Paul went up by revelation and Titus, a Greek, accompanied him. Paul would not compel him to be circumcised lest he should seem to give place to the false brethren for a moment. {Ga 2:1-5}

6755. On their journey through Phoenicia and Samaria, Paul and Barnabas told of the conversion of the Gentiles to the great joy of all the brethren. When they came to Jerusalem, they were received by the church and of the apostles and elders. Paul and Barnabas told what things God had done through them. {Ac 15:3,4}

6756. Paul related the gospel that he had preached among the Gentiles, privately to the leaders among the apostles, James, Peter and John, (who were thought to be the pillars of the church.) They saw that the gospel among the Gentiles was committed to Paul just as the Jews were to Peter. They saw the grace that was given to Paul and they gave the right hand of fellowship to him and Barnabas that these should perform the office of the apostleship among the Gentiles and they among the Jews. They advised them only that they should take care to relieve the poor at Jerusalem. {Ga 2:2,7,9,10}

6757. In a council of the apostles and elders held at Jerusalem, there was a long dispute. After Peter had spoken his opinion, Barnabas and Paul told what great miracles God had done by them among the Gentiles. Then James concluded that it seemed good by the common decree of the apostles, elders and of the whole church that the Gentiles should abstain from things sacrificed to idols, fornication, strangled animals and eating blood. For this purpose, letters were written to them at Antioch, and to the rest of the brethren in Syria and Cilicia. Paul and Barnabas carried these letters to Antioch to Judas. After they had delivered and read the letters, the brethren greatly rejoiced. Judas and Silas were also prophets and exhorted the brethren with many words. {Ac 15:6-32}

6758. Later Judas returned to the apostles and Silas thought it best to stay at Antioch where Paul and Barnabas along with many others preached the gospel. {Ac 15:33-35}
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« Reply #539 on: December 10, 2006, 02:52:47 PM »

6759. Josephus, the son of Matthias, when he was sixteenth, began with much hard labour, to learned as much as he could about all three sects of the Jews: the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes. {Josephus, Life, 1:1}

6760. Pallas, the freed man of Claudius, was given an honourary praetorship and 15,000,000 sesterces. {Tacitus, Annals, l. 12. c. 53.}

6761. When the Galileans went up to the feast at Jerusalem, they had to travel through Samaria. {Joh 4:3-4} It happened that there was a Galilean killed in a Samaritan village called Nais, (or Ginea.) This caused a fight between the travellers and the villagers in which many of the Galileans were killed. The Jewish rulers took this very heinously and stirred up the Jews to arms and exhorted them to defend their liberty. They said slavery was bad enough without having to suffer additional wrongs as well. At Jerusalem, the common people left the feast, took up arms and invaded Samaria. They would not stop fighting no matter what the magistrates said or did. The people also called for help from Eleazar, the son of Dineus, and Alexander, both the captains of the thieves. They invaded the part of Samaria which bordered on the country of Acrabatene and made a confused slaughter. They spared no age nor sex and also burnt the towns. When Cumanus knew what was done, he took with him one cavalry troop from Sebaste and four cohorts of foot soldiers along with armed Samaritans and he attacked the Jews. When he had overtaken them, he killed many of those who followed Eleazar but took more prisoners. When the rulers of Jerusalem saw the magnitude of the calamity, they put on sack cloth and ashes on their heads and pleaded with the rest of the multitude who went to destroy the territories of Samaria that they would change their minds. They told them how their country would be destroyed, the temple burnt and their wives and children taken captives. Therefore they begged them to put down their arms and go home. The Jews obeyed and went home. However, the thieves retired again to their strongholds and after this time Judea was overrun by thieves. {Josephus, Wars, l. 2. c. 11. <c. 12. 1:612>} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 5. <c. 6. 1:532>}

6762. The governors of Samaria resorted to Numidius Quadratus, the president of Syria who then lived at Tyre. They begged him to take vengeance on the Jews who had plundered and burned their towns. Some of the Jewish nobility and Jonathan, the son of Ananus the high priest answered the changes. They stated that the Samaritans started this sedition by murdering a Jew and that Cumanus was the cause of all the calamities that followed because he was bribed and would not revenge that murder. When Quadratus had heard them, he deferred his sentence and said that he would decide that matter when he came to Judea and there more exactly know the truth of the matter. So they departed and nothing was done. {Josephus, Wars, l. 2. c. 11. <c. 12. 1:613>} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 5. <c. 6. 1:532>}

6763. In the meantime Felix, by his injudicious disciplinary measures, provoked the Jews to offend the more. Ventidius Cumanus, who controlled part of the province was his rival in all manner of wickedness. Cumanus administered the area of Galilee and Felix the Samaritans. Both countries were always at odds but then much more through the contempt of their governors. Therefore they invaded one another and sent thieves and robbers to plunder. They laid ambushes and sometimes fought battles and brought the spoils and preys to the governors. At first the governors were pleased but when the disorder grew intolerable, they sent soldiers to quell it who were all killed. The whole province would have been in an uproar had not Quadratus redressed the matter in time. {Tacitus, l. 12. c. 54.}

6764. He acted immediately and executed those Jews who had killed the Roman soldiers. Cumanus' and Felix's actions were told to Claudius. When he had heard the causes of the rebellion, he gave authority to Quadratus to deal with the matter even with the officials of the provinces. Quadratus appointed Felix among the judges, (because he was the brother of Pallas, the great favourite at Rome) and received him into the tribunal to intimidate his accusers. Cumanus alone was condemned for the faults that both had committed. By that means, Quadratus made peace in the province. {Tacitus, l. 12. c. 54.}

6765. The Cietae tribes of Cilicia made Trosoborus (or Arosoboras) their captain. They camped on rough mountains and from there ran down to the shores and cities. They plundered the husbandmen and citizens but most commonly the merchants and seamen. They besieged also the cities of the Anemunenses and also routed the cavalry sent from Syria who were sent there under their captain Curtius Severus. The places around there were good to fight on foot but poor for the cavalry. Then Antiochus Epiphanes the 4th, the king of that country, used diplomacy toward the common people and craft toward their captain and divided their forces. He executed Trosuborus and some of the ring leaders and appeased the rest through his clemency. {Tacitus, l. 12. c. 55.}

6766. When Peter the apostle came to Antioch, he ate and was friendly with the believing Gentiles. When certain Jewish brethren came there from James, he withdrew himself from the Gentiles and some Jews of the church of Antioch followed his example. Barnabas was even carried away with their hypocrisy. This was plainly contrary to the gospel and Paul did not stand for it. He withstood Barnabas to the face and sharply reproved his fearfulness before them all. {Ga 2:11-14}

4056 AM, 4766 JP, 53 AD

6767. When Quadratus came to Samaria, he ordered those who were accused to defend their actions and found that the tumult was caused by the Samaritans. When he went to Caesarea, he knew that some Jews were trying to rebel. Therefore he hanged those whom Cumanus had taken alive and taken prisoner. He went to Lydda which was almost the size of a city, and held a tribunal to hear again the cause of the Samaritans. He learned from a certain Samaritan, that Dortus, a ruler of the Jews had persuaded the Jews to a revolt. Quadratus had Dortus executed. He also beheaded eighteen Jews, who had been in the fight. {Josephus, Wars, l. 2. c. 11. <c. 12. 1:613>} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 5. <c. 6. 1:533>}

6768. Quadratus sent to Caesar, two of the chief priests, Jonathan and Ananias and his son Ananus along with some of the nobility of the Jews and of the Samaritans. He ordered also that Cumanus the governor and Celer the tribune to go to Rome to give an account to Caesar of what they had done in the country. {Josephus, Wars, l. 2. c. 11. <c. 12. 1:613>} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 5. <c. 6. 1:532>}

6769. After this was done, Quadratus feared that the Jews might revolt. He went from Lydda to Jerusalem where he found all things quiet and the people busy celebrating their feast of unleavened bread and offering sacrifices. Therefore, he thought that they would be quiet and he left them busy at their feast and returned to Antioch. {Josephus, Wars, l. 2. c. 11. <c. 12. 1:613>} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 20. c. 5. <c. 6. 1:532>}
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