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« Reply #45 on: December 08, 2006, 08:55:41 AM »

 731. In this year, Josiah had a son called Shallum or Jehoahaz by Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. He was made king after his father at the age of 23 years. The people chose him for king passing over his older brothers. 2Ki 23:30,31 It seems the name of Shallum was changed to Jehoahaz for good luck. The other Shallum, the son of Jabesh, only ruled one month before he was murdered by Menahem. 2Ki 15:13,14 Of the four sons which Josiah had that are mentioned in 1Ch 3:15 this Shallum was named last not Johanan the firstborn, as some have thought. It is easily deduced that Jehoahaz was not the firstborn. For it is said that he was anointed by the people. 2Ki 23:30 However the firstborn of kings were not normally so anointed because the kingdom was theirs by common right. Also, Jehoahaz was 23 years old when he was anointed king. However, three months earlier his brother, Eliakim was made king at the at the age of 25. Hence he was older by two years than Jehoahaz. This is confirmed by Josephus, in his tenth book of Antiquities, c. 6. & 7.

3373 AM, 4083 JP, 631 BC

732. Sadyattes, the son of Ardyis, reigned in Lydia for 12 years. (Herodot. l. 1. c. 16.)

733. When the Scythians had subjected all of upper Asia, they went straight into Egypt. When they came as far as Syria Palestina, Psamitichus the king of Egypt met them in person. He persuaded them by gifts and presents not to go any farther.

734. On their return, they came to Askelon which is in Syria. The greater part of the army passed through the area without doing any damage. However some stragglers at the rear, robbed the temple of Venus Urania. For this all their posterity were smitten with the emerods. (Herod. l. 1. c. 105.) In this year, which was the second of the 37th Olympiad, the Scythians invaded Syria Palestina. (Eusebius Chron.) Also Sinope, was built by the Milesians this year. It was the chief city in all the kingdom of Pontus. (Strabo 12th book) Phlegon says, (cited by Stephanus de Tribibus,) the Sinope was built by Macritius of the isle of Coos. It is certain that when the Cimmerians came to Asia after they fled from the Sythians, they built Chersonesus, in the same place where Sinope a city of the Greeks now stands. (Herod. l. 4. c. 12.) After settling in Aziristus for 7 years, the people of Thera were persuaded by the Libyans to leave. They moved to a place called Irasa and settled there near a fountain named after Apollos. (Herod. l. 4. c. 158.)

735. In the 2nd year of the 37th Olympiad, Battus built the city of Cyrene there. He reigned for 40 years and after him his son Arcesilaus for 16 years with those of the first colony only. Later in the reign of Battus, Arcesilaus, his son, went there with a great number of other Greeks who were stirred up by the oracle of Delphi. The city of Cyrene was built when Apryas reigned among the Egyptians. (Herod. l. 4. c. 159.) This is a better account of events than others have given.

3374c AM, 4084 JP, 630 BC

736. In the 12th year of Josiah's reign, he began to cleanse Judah and Jerusalem from idolatry. He destroyed the high places, groves, and altars of Baal with the images. He burned the bones of their priests upon their own altars. He even went as far as to the cites in Manasseh, Ephraim, Simeon and Naphtali and destroyed all the altars, groves and carved images he found. 2Ch 34:3-7

3375c AM, 4085 JP, 629 BC

737. In the 13th year of king Josiah, Jeremiah was called by God to be a prophet. He refused. God called him again and encouraged him with promises and signs belonging to the office and function of a prophet. He was bid to prophesy to the Jews of the calamity which was to happen there by the king of Babylon. Jer 1:2,17 28:3 At the same time, Zephaniah and others warned the rebellious people to repent which they did not. Zep 1:1 Jer 25:3-5

738. Prosias, or Prusa was built in Bithynia. (Euseb. Chron.)

3378 AM, 4088 JP, 626 BC

739. Nabopolasur of Babylon, (who was made general of the army by Saraco also called Chinaladanus, king of Assyria and Chaldea,) and Astyages, (who was made governor of Media, by his father Cyaxares,) made an alliance together. Astyages gave his daughter Amyitis in marriage to Nebuchadnezzar the son of Nabopolasur. The two men joined their forces and took the city of Nineveh with Saraco its king. (We gather this from a fragment of Alexander Polyhistors that was misunderstood by Georgius Symelius, who cites it in Grac. Scalig. p. 38. 39.) We find in the end of the book of the Greek copy of Tobit that Nabuchodonosor is called Nabopolasur and Assuerus is Astyages and is also called Ahasuerus. Da 9:1 Nineveh was taken while Tobit the younger was still living. When Shalmaneser took Samaria, he carried Tobit and his father captive to Assyria. Tobit is said to have lived 127 years. Since only 95 years passed from the captivity of Israel to this time, Tobit must still have been alive. When Josiah was reigning, (as Jerom in his commentaries upon the prophet Jonah affirms) Nineveh was destroyed. Thus the prophecies of both Nahum and Isaiah, concerning the destruction of Nineveh were fulfilled. This is also described in Eze 31:1-18

740. When Saraco was killed, Nabopolasur ruled the kingdom of Chaldea for 21 years. (Polyhistor, Berosus in his 3rd book of the Affairs of Chaldea, Ptolemy, in Reg. Can.)

3379 AM, 4089 JP, 625 BC

741. Sadyattes king of Lydia, invaded the territory of the Milesians and started a war that lasted for 6 years.

3380d AM, 4090 JP, 624 BC

742. In the 18th year of Josiah's reign, he charged Hilkiah the high priest to use the money which had been collected to repair the house of the Lord. When he was doing this he found the original book of the law, which was first laid up in the side of the Ark of the Covenant. De 31:26 This book seems to have disappeared ever since the beginning of Manasseh's reign. When he found it, he sent it by Shaphan the scribe to the king. After Josiah heard the book entirely read to him, he asked counsel of Huldah the prophetess. She prophesied to him that that kingdom should certainly be destroyed but not in his lifetime. 2Ki 22:3-20 2Ch 34:8-28 The king called the elders of Judah and Jerusalem, with the priests and prophets. He had the book of the law read to all the people and renewed the covenant between God and the people. Again, he cleansed the city from idolatry, and throughly restored the worship of God. 2Ki 33:1-14, 2Ch 34:29,30 He demolished the altar and high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat had set up. He burnt the bones of the dead upon the altar as had been foretold 350 years earlier. 2Ki 13:2 When he had destroyed the altars which the kings of Israel had built in the cities of Samaria, slain all their priests and burnt dead men's bones upon them, he then returned to Jerusalem. 2Ki 23:15-20 Even with this renewing of the covenant and general reformation of religion, the inevitable decree of desolation to follow because of the people's sins still stood. From this time of renewing is the beginning both of the 30 years spoken of in the first of the prophecy of Ezekiel and also the 40 years of the iniquity of Judah. Eze 4:6

3381c AM, 4091 JP, 623 BC

743. Josiah kept the passover in the same 18th year of his reign, on the 14th day of the first month (Monday, May 4th) in the presence of all Judah and Israel and the inhabitants of Jerusalem. He kept this with more solemnity than ever had been done by any of the kings of Israel or Judah in olden times. 2Ki 23:21-23 2Ch 35:1-19 He took away all witches and soothsayers, all images and gods and all the abominations, which were found in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem. He obeyed all the words which were written in the book of the law that was found by Hilkiah. 2Ki 33:24 De 18:9-11

3383c AM, 4093 JP, 621 BC

744. Toward the end of the 5th year of Nabopolassur, (which is the 127th from the Epoch of Nabonazar,) on the 27th day of Eygptian month of Athyr, toward the 28th of the month, the moon was eclipsed at Babylon, beginning 5 hours after midnight. (Ptol. Syntax. p. 125. Greek edition) This was on Saturday, April 22nd or the 27th of Athyr as it drew to a close. This is Ptolemy's meaning, when he says, that it was from the 27th to the 28th, lasting in all six hours after the midnight of the 27th day to the sun-rising when the 28th day was to begin.

3384d AM, 4094 JP, 620 BC

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« Reply #46 on: December 08, 2006, 08:56:26 AM »

745. Hamutal bare to Josiah, after Shallum, or Jehoahaz, Mattaniah. He was later called Zedekiah and was 21 years old when he began to reign. Jer 51:1 2Ki 24:17,18

746. Xenophanes Colophonius, founder of the sect of the Eleatic discipline in philosophy, was born in the 40th Olymiad. (Elius Empiricus, in his first book, contra Mathematicos, c. 12.) (More correctly related from Apollodorus, as cited by Clemens Alexandrinus, l. 1. Strommat.)

3385 AM, 4095 JP, 619 BC

747. The son of Sadyattes called Halyattes the younger reigned in Lydia for 57 years. He spent the first 5 years fighting the war against the Libyans that his father had started. (Herod. l. 1. c. 17. 18, 25.)

3387c AM, 4097 JP, 617 BC

748. Jehoiakim son of Josiah, had a son, by Nehushta, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem, called Jehoiakim or Jeconiah. He was 18 years old when he began to reign. 2Ki 28:8

3388 AM, 4098 JP, 616 BC

749. Necho, the son of Psammitichus, reigned in Egypt 16 years. (Herod. l. 20. c. 159.) The Bible calls him Necho or Pharaohnecho. 2Ch 35:24 2Ki 23:29 Jer 46:2 This man began a channel from the Nile to the gulf of Arabia, which cost the lives of 120,000 Egyptians. He abandoned the work when it was half done. He sent certain Phoenicians to sail round Africa. They set sail from the Gulf of Arabia or the Red Sea. They went into the southern sea and sailed around the coast. They finally came to the strait of Gibraltar and returned into Egypt, three years after they started out. (Herod. l. 1. c. 158. and l. 4. c. 52)

3390 AM, 4100 JP, 614 BC

750. In the 12th year of the war between the Lydians and the Milesians, the Lydian army had burnt the harvest of the Milesians, as they normally did each year. It happened, that the wind caught the flames and set the temple of Minerva in Assesus on fire and burnt it to the ground. After the army returned, Halyattes, became sick for a long time. Finally he sent to consult the Oracle at Delphi. The prophetess refused to entertain his request until the temple which his men had destroyed was rebuilt. Periander the son of Cyphelus, ruler of Corinth, found out the reply and told it to his good friend Thrasibulus, king of the Milesians. He cleverly ordered that when Halyattes and his ambassadors came about rebuilding the temple, the Milesians should be feasting and revelling using all the remaining grain and supplies in the city. Halyattes expected to find that the Milesians would be starving from the long war. However, when he saw they appeared to have plenty to eat, he made peace and a league of friendship with the Milesians. Halyattes built two temples of Minerva at Assesus to replace the one he destroyed. When he got well, he sent rich presents and offerings to Delphi. (Herod. l. 1. ca.19,20,22,23,24. with Polyanus, l. 6. Stratag.)

3393a AM, 4102 JP, 612 BC

 751. The 17th Jubilee.

3393c AM, 4103 JP, 611 BC

752. Anaximander Milesius, the son of Praxidemus, was born in Ionia. See note on 3457 AM.

3394c AM, 4104 JP, 610 BC

753. By God's command, Necho king of Egypt went against the king of Assyria, who at that time made war with him and planned to besiege Carchemish on the river Euphrates. 2Ki 23:29 2Ch 35:20-22 Josephus states that he went to fight against the Medes and Babylonians, who had overthrown the empire of the Assyrians. (lib. 10. Antiq. ca. 6.) Carchemish, at the time of Sennacherib belonged to and was occupied by the Assyrians. Isa 10:5-19 However when that kingdom was destroyed, it returned to the hands of the Babylonians. Just as when king of Persia defeated Babylon and Assyria, Ezr 6:22 he was called king of the Assyrians, so when the king of Babylon defeated Assyria, was likewise called king of Assyria. In addition the heathen authors also tell us, that Babylon was in olden times part of Assyria and the Holy Scriptures state that the kingdom of Chaldea was founded by the king of Assyria.Isa 23:13 Nu 24:22 Isa 52:4 Na 9:22

754. When Josiah unadvisedly entered into this war, he was slain. 2Ki 23:29,30 2Ch 32:22,23 This happened in the valley of Megiddo which belonged to the tribe of Manasseh. Jos 17:11 Jud 1:17 (Herod. l. 2.) Herodotus refers to this story saying, Necho attacked the Syrians with an army on foot and overthrew them in Magdala. After the fight he took a great city of Syria named Cadytis. Scaliger notes that this Cadytis was actually Kadesh which is mentioned in Nu 21:16. Scaliger also believes that Magdala and Megiddo, were located near each other. Because Magdala was the more noted place of the two, the fight was said to have taken place there. In the same way it is commonly understood that the battle between Alexander and Darius at Gaugamela, is said to have been fought at Arbela since Gaugamela was an obscure place. It may be that Magdala and Megiddo were the same place since that is the place from which that other Mary obtained her surname of Magdalene. In Mt 15:39 we see Magdalam is how the name is rendered. The Syrian renders it Mageda and the old Latin translates it Magedan, which appears to be similar to Megiddo.

755. Since the good king was killed in this way and the fact that he lived postponed the Babylonish captivity from that nation, 2Ki 22:20 the last year's jubilee was turned into a year of lamentation. It almost became a common proverb, "The lamentation of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddo". Zec 12:11 Not only all the people at that time bewailed the death of Josiah, but even later, a public mourning for him was voluntarily kept. The prophet Jeremiah also, wrote a song of memorial called "Song of Threnes", or "Lamentations" 2Ch 35:24,25 In this song he bewailed the calamities which were shortly to befall that people. Jeremiah wrote:

``The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of the Lord, is taken in their pits: of whom we said, under the shadow of his wings we shall live among the heathen.'' La 4:20

756. So that we may very justly question the first verse, or poem of that book which we find in the Greek and common Latin translation but disagrees with Jerome. It is prefixed before the Threnes or Lamentations of Jeremiah.

``And it came to pass after that Israel was carried into captivity, and Jerusalem laid waste, Jeremiah the prophet sat down and wept, and made this lamentation in Jerusalem and sighing and howling, out of the bitterness of his heart, said:''

757. Whoever added this should have noted the verse:

`` Add not to his words, that he blame thee not and thou be found a liar,'' Pr 30:6

758. There was also a second Song of Lamentations for the miserable condition of the kingdom of the Jews after the death of Josiah. It was composed by the prophet Ezekiel and appointed to be sung, Eze 19:1-14

759. After the death of Josiah the people feared that the king of Egypt would invade when there was no king. They anointed as king his youngest son Shallum or Jehoahaz. He soon did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord even as his forefathers had done. 2Ki 23:30-32 2Ch 36:1 See note in 3371 AM.

3394d AM, 4104 JP, 610 BC

760. When Necho returned from Assyria, he disposed Shallum from the throne after he had only reigned 3 months. He made Eliakim his older brother king in the place of his father Josiah and changed his name into Jehoiakim. 2Ki 23:31,32,34 2Ch 36:2-4 This was a public witness that he attributed the victory he had over the Assyrians to the Lord Jehovah only. He formerly prophesied that it was God who sent him against the Assyrians. 2Ch 35:21,22 He imposed a tribute of one hundred talents of silver and one talent of gold on the land of Judah. He put Shallum or Jehoiakim in fetters at Riblah and carried him away prisoner into Egypt where he eventually died. 2Ki 23:33-35 2Ch 36:3,4 Eze 19:3,4
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« Reply #47 on: December 08, 2006, 08:56:56 AM »

 761. The prophet Jeremiah by God's appointment went to Shallum in the new king's palace. He earnestly entreated the king, his courtiers and all the people the with promises and threats from Almighty God. He foretold that Shallum or Jehoiakim would be carried away captive into Egypt.

``Weep not for him that is departed (meaning Josiah) nor make lamentation for him; but weep for him that is to depart: (that is Shallum) because he shall return no more to see his native soil.'' Jer 22:1,2,10,-12

3395a AM, 4104 JP, 610 BC

762. In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah was commanded by God to stand in the court of the temple. He exhorted the people who assembled from all the cities of Judah to bow themselves there before the Lord. It being then the feast of Tabernacles, wherein all the males out of the cities were required to appear at Jerusalem. De 15:16) He told them to repent and when they would not, he denounced the judgment of God against them saying:

``That that house should become as Shiloh: and that city should be accursed among all the nations of the earth:''

763. This resulted in his arrest by the priests and prophets and all the people that were then in the court. They accused him to be a man worthy of death, but he was acquitted and set at liberty by the public judgment of the princes and elders. Jer 26:1,2,19

3395b AM, 4105 JP, 609 BC

764. Like Jeremiah, Uriah also the son of Shemariah from Kirjathjearim, prophesied against Jerusalem and the land of Judah. When Jehoiakim the king sought to put him to death, he fled into Egypt. The king sent after him Elnathan the son of Achor and other men who overtook him and brought him back to the king. He had him killed and threw his carcass among the vilest sepulchres of the common people. However Ahikam, the son of Shaphan who had formerly been a man of great authority with king Josiah, 2Ki 22:12 2Ch 34:20 was a friend of Jeremiah. Ahikam prevented Jeremiah from being turned over to people to be killed. Jer 26:20,24

765. To these I might add the prophet Habakkuk. When he complained of the stubbornness of the Jews, God replied:

``That he would shortly send the Chaldeans into Judah'';

766. Further he declared his purpose concerning that matter:

``I will do a work in your days, which you will not believe when it shall be old unto you: For behold I will stir up the Chaldeans, a fierce nation and a swift: which shall walk through the breadth of the land, to possess a land which is none of theirs as their own inheritance. '' Hab 1:5,6

767. In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah foretold that Zedekiah should be king of Judah and Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon. He would conquer his neighbouring nations. Jer 27:1,11

3397a AM, 4106 JP, 608 BC

768. The governor of Coelosyria and Phoenicia revolted from Nabopolassar king of Babylon. When Carchemish was taken, Nabopolassar sent against them his son Nebuchadnezzar (after he made him viceroy in the kingdom) with a large army. This was done in the latter end of the third and beginning of the fourth year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah. Da 1:1 Jer 25:1.

3397b AM, 4107 JP, 607 BC

769. When Nebuchadnezzar was made viceroy in the kingdom, God revealed to Jeremiah these things. First was the defeat of the Egyptians at the river Euphrates then later in their own country. Nebuchadnezzar would make himself master of Egypt. Jer 46:1-28 The first came to pass almost immediately. Pharaohnecho's forces at Carchemish were cut off by Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, in the 4th year of Jehoiakim. Jer 46:2 The second happened after the taking of Tyre, in the 27th year of the captivity of Jeconiah. Eze 29:17-19

770. In the 4th year of Jehoiakim, which was the first of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, the prophet Jeremiah reproved the Jews for not obeying the word of the Lord. He had proclaimed this from the 13th year of king Josiah, even to that present 4th year of Jehoiakim, that is for 23 years. All that time they were stubborn and disobedient to his admonitions as well as all the other prophets whom the Lord had sent. Again he told them of the coming of Nebuchadnezzar upon them and of their captivity in Babylon which was to last 70 years. He stated that Judah and the other nations were to serve the king of Babylon.

3397c AM, 4107 JP, 607 BC

771. Lastly, the kingdom of Babylon itself would be destroyed and the land of Chaldea would be desolate. Jer 25:1,3,11,12 Many years earlier, this 70 years was mentioned by Isaiah in more obscure terms when he spoke of the destruction of Tyre. Isa 23:15,17

3398a AM, 4107 JP, 607 BC

772. In the 4th year of Jehoiakim, Baruch the son of Neriah wrote in a book according to what Jeremiah spoke. It had all the words of the Lord concerning Israel and Judah, from the time of Josiah until that day. He read them in the house of the Lord, in the audience of the men of Jerusalem, and of all the Jews who were assembled there from their cities, in the day of the fast. Jer 36:1-8 That is that solemn fast which was yearly kept on the 10th day of the 7th month, Le 16:29 23:27 Nu 29:7 five days before the feast of tabernacles. All the males from all the cities of Judah, were to appear at Jerusalem. See note on 3395 AM. Baruch was extremely amazed and afflicted in his soul, with the horror of these dreadful judgments which he had written. Jeremiah comforted him, by the word of the Lord concerning this calamity which was to be brought upon all the land by the Babylonians and assured him of his own life, in the midst of all these troubles. Jer 45:1-5 In the passage Jer 31:1-32:44 may allude to this also as well as the promises made concerning the restoration of the church.

773. When Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Judah, the Rechabites, of the descendants of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, 2Ki 10:15 for fear of the host of the Chaldeans and Syrians, left their tents and came into Jerusalem. They had dwelt in tents according to the rule of their forefather Jonadab. Jer 35:8-11 Since material in this chapter is written in the present tense, we gather that the time of the Rechabites refusing to drink wine occurred when the city was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar. Da 1:1

774. God gave Jehoiakim the King of Judah into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, with part of the furniture of the house of the Lord. Da 1:2 This was in the 9th month called Chisleu, as may be gathered from the anniversary of the fast which was kept in remembrance of this calamity and was a tradition of the Jews. Zec 7:3,5 8:19 It was kept in this month. Jer 36:9

775. Nebuchadnezzar chained Jehoiakim to carry him away to Babylon. 2Ch 36:6 Later upon submission and his promises of subjection, he let him stay in his own house where he lived as his servant for 3 years. From this time of the carrying of the king and people of the Jews into the bondage of Nebuchadnezzar, starts the 70 years of the captivity of Babylon which were foretold by the prophet Jeremiah. Jer 25:11 29:10

776. Nebuchadnezzar ordered Ashpenash, the overseer of the eunuchs, that he should carry from there the best of the children of Israel, both of royal blood and of the princes. Da 1:3 This was predicted by Isaiah the prophet to Ezekiel. Isa 39:7 They were under his care and to be educated for 3 years in the language and sciences of the Chaldeans. The best of them were to be picked to stand before the king and serve in his palace. Among those taken from the tribe of Judah, were Daniel, who was Belshazzar, Hananiah, who was Shadrach, Mishael, who was Meshach and Anani, who was Abednego. Each had his name changed at the discretion of the prince of the eunuchs, Da 1:3-7

777. Now after those Scythians, of whom I spoke before, had taken their pleasure in Asia for 28 years, Cyaxares and the Medes gave them a great feast. When they were all drunk on a certain day, he had most of their throats cut. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 106.) In addition to these certain other Scythians of the nomads or shepherds were expelled from their own country by an opposing faction. They had been entertained by Cyaxares and by him employed, partly in hunting , partly in the education of children. After this massacre, when these were poorly treated by him, they killed one of the boys which they had taken to educate. They dressed his flesh like venison and set it before Cyaxares and his guests to eat. After this they quickly fled away to Halyartes the king at Sardis for protection. When Cyaxares demanded Halyartes surrender them to him, Halyattes refused. Hence started a five year war between the Medes and Lydians. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 73,74.) Concerning the Cimmerians, (see note on 3368 AM), Halyattes drove them from all Asia. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 16.)

3399a AM, 4108 JP, 606 BC
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« Reply #48 on: December 08, 2006, 08:57:24 AM »

 778. In the 9th month of the 5th year of Jehoiakim, there was a solemn fast before the Lord proclaimed to all the people at Jerusalem. This was in remembrance, it seemeth, of the taking of the city by the Chaldeans the year before in the same month. Baruch stood at the gate of the house of the Lord and read all the words of the Lord. These words were spoken by Jeremiah to him and written in a book. All the people who were assembled at Jerusalem from all the cities of Judah heard Baruch read the book. When the princes were told of this by Micah the son of Gemariah, they called Baruch to them. They heard him read the same book and fearing the king, advised Jeremiah and him, to hide. When the king heard part of the book read, he first cut the book through with a pen-knife and then hurled it into the fire that was in the hearth and burnt it. Jer 36:9-25 In memory of this detestable act of the king, the Jews to this day keep a fast, upon the 7th day of the 9th month called Chisleu.

3399b AM, 4109 JP, 605 BC

779. When Jehoiakim had burnt the book, he ordered Jerahmeel the son of Hammelech, Seraiah the son of Azriel and Shelemiah the son of Abdiel, to apprehend Baruch the writer and Jeremiah the prophet. God hid them and against that impious king and his kingdom, pronounced this sentence.

``...Thou hast burned this roll, saying, Why hast thou written therein, saying, The king of Babylon shall certainly come and destroy this land and shall cause to cease from thence man and beast? Therefore thus saith the LORD of Jehoiakim king of Judah; He shall have none to sit upon the throne of David: and his dead body shall be cast out in the day to the heat and in the night to the frost. And I will punish him and his seed and his servants for their iniquity; and I will bring upon them and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem and upon the men of Judah, all the evil that I have pronounced against them; ...'' (Jeremiah 36:29-31 AV)

780. Later by God's appointment, Baruch wrote again the words from Jeremiah, the same words, which he had written before and wrote many additional things. Jer 36:26-32

781. Nebuchadnezzar capitalised on his victory over Necho and took from the Egyptians all the lands they possessed between Egypt and Euphrates. From that time on, Necho did not venture out of Egypt. 2Ki 24:7 Meanwhile his father Nabopolassar, died in the land of Babylon, when he had reigned 21 years.

782. When Nebuchadnezzar heard this, he ordered the deportation to Babylon of the captives of Jews, Syrians, Phoenicians and Egyptians. His army and equipment were sent there also. He posted a small company at the nearest way through the desert and returned to Babylon before them. He was made king over all his father's large dominions. He distributed the captives when they were brought to Babylon, into various colonies as he saw fit. (Berosus l. 3. of the affairs, of Chaldea,) The vessels and other furniture of the temple Nebuchadnezzar took away with him to Babylon were put in the temple of his god, Belus. Da 1:2 2Ch 36:7 His son was named after this god. According to Abydenus in his "Assyrian History" and Brosus, he did greatly enrich and adorn that temple with the spoil which he had taken in that war.

783. The rest of the Scythians who had escaped the slaughter of the Medes returning home, were met by a great army of lusty young men. These had been born of their own wives in their long absence by their slaves. With these they fought many a sharp battle but at last, laid aside their swords. Each man took a whip in his hand, as is more fitting for the correction of slaves, and thereby made them all to flee. (Herod, in the beginning of his 4th book.)

3401a AM, 4110 JP, 604 BC

784. When Jehoiakim had lived 3 years in subjection to the king of Babylon, he rebelled against him. 2Ki 24:1

785. Daniel and his three followers refused the diet provided for them from the king's allowance. They dined only on pulse and water. However they were found to look better and of a more fair complexion than the rest which did eat of the king's food. After three years, they were brought into court to attend the king. They greatly excelled in all matters of knowledge, wisdom, and science, which the king was pleased to ask them about, above all the Magi and astronomers that were in his kingdom. Da 1:5-20

786. In the second year of his kingdom, Nebuchadnezzar dreamed of the great image made of various metals. When he forgot his dream, he asked his Magi and astronomers what his dream was and what it meant. When they could not satisfy him in so unreasonable a demand, he commanded them all to be put to death. When Daniel saw the execution being prepared and understood the reason for it, he asked the king to delay for a while. Daniel and his companions prayed to God. God revealed the dream to Daniel and the interpretation of it. He declared to the king what his dream was and also the four monarchies which were to come. This was the meaning of the image which he saw in his dream. After this the king enriched him with great gifts and made him governor of all the province of Babylon and chief over all its wise men. Moreover at his request, he made his three companions, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, principal officers in all that province. Da 2:1-49

3403d AM, 4113 JP, 601 BC

787. In the beginning of the 6th year of the war between the Medes and the Lydians, the war was stalemated. Thales the philosopher of Miletus had predicted to the Ionians that an eclipse of the sun would happen. When both the armies saw the day grow dark like the night, they stopped fighting. Later they made a peace between themselves by the mediation of Syennesis of Cilicia and of Labynitus the Babylonian (which was Nebuchadnezzar). Halyattes gave his daughter Ariena, to Astyages the son of Cyaxeres in marriage. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 74.) This eclipse as predicted by Thales, happened exactly when Cyaxeres the father of Astyages and king of the Medes and Halyattes Cresus' father and king of the Lydians were fighting together. This is confirmed by Endemus, in his "Astronomical History". Also Pliny speaks of it and gave the following reason for the eclipse: (l. 1. c. 12.)

``Among the Greeks, the first one that found out how to predict the eclipses was Thales the Milesian. He foretold the eclipse of the sun, in the 4th year of the 48th Olympiad, which was in the reign of Halyattes, ''

788. (For so is the reading in the old copy, not of Astyages, as the common edition has it) 170 years after the building of Rome. Clemens Alexan. (lib. 1. Strom.) places this fight of Cyaxares and eclipse of the sun about the 50th Olympiad. He differs greatly from the opinion of Endemus, whom he cites for it. For both the time assigned by Endemus and Pliny does not agree with Cyaxares, but with the reign of Astyages. Also from Ptolemy's, sun and moon-tables, which are the same with those of Hipparchus, it appears plainly that the sun was eclipsed in the 4th year of the 44th olympiad. That is in the 147th of Nabonasar, on the 4th day of the Egyptian month Pacon, (or Sunday, September 20th according to the Julian Calendar) 3 hours 25 minutes before noon. This eclipse was of 9 digits, (12 digits is 100%) and continued almost two hours.

3404c AM, 4114 JP, 600 BC

789. Plamnis the son of Neco reigned in Egypt for 6 years (Herod. l. 2. c. 161.)

790. The Phocenses set sail from Ionia and built Marseilles on the coast of Liguria in Italy 120 years before the naval battle at Salamis. (According to Marcianus in his Periegesis reports from Timeus.) This was in the first year of the 45th olympiad according to both Eusebius in his Chronicle and Solinus in Polyhistor. However the latter confounds this first colony of the Phocenses made in the days of Tarquinius Priscus with their later one under Servius Tullus. See note on 3461 AM. The story of the wedding which was the occasion for the building of this city, is described in detail by Atheneus, l. 3. from Aristotle. He speaks of the commonwealth of the Marseilians. Justin has a similar account in his 43rd book out of Tro. Pomp. who relates the same thing, though differing in the names of the persons concerned.
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« Reply #49 on: December 08, 2006, 08:57:51 AM »

 791. Nebuchadnezzar's army of Syrians, Chaldeans, Moabites and Ammonites, attacked Jehoiakim and destroyed all of Judah. 2Ki 24:2 They took 3023 prisoners from there in the 7th year of Nebuchadnezzar. Jer 52:28

792. Astyages or Ahasuerus, Da 9:1 who married Ariena the year before had a son called Syaxares or Darius, the Mede. He was 62 years old when he succeeded Belshazzar, who was slain, in the kingdom of the Chaldeans. Da 5:30,31 Astyages, in the lifetime of his father, gave in marriage his daughter, Mandanes, who was born by his former wife, to Cambyses son of Achemenes, king of Persia. (This is according to Xenophon, who states this in his first book of the education of Cyrus.) He derives his family pedigree from Perseus. From this union Cyrus was born the next year. Hence we do not believe Ctesias, who contrary to Herodotus and Xenophon and others, states that that Astyages was related to Cyrus in any way.

3405c AM, 4115 JP, 599 BC

793. After Jehoiakim was taken prisoner by the Chaldeans, he was thrown out without a proper burial, buried like an ass. His body was dragged out of the gate of Jerusalem, according as was foretold by the prophet. Jer 22:18,19 36:30 Though in reference to the common course of nature, he also may be said to have slept with his fathers. 2Ki 24:6

794. After him, his son Jehoiachin, who was also called Coniah and Jeconiah, reigned 3 months and ten days in Jerusalem. He also did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, as his father Jehoiakim had done before him. 2Ki 24:8,9 2Ch 36:8,9 God pronounced this most dreadful decree against him:

``Write this man childless, a man which shall not prosper in his days; for none of his seed shall prosper to sit in the throne of David, nor reign any more in Judah'' Jer 22:30

795. Concerning this matter, refer to Christophorus Helvicus' book of the Genealogy of Christ. At this time, the prophecy of Jeremiah contained in Jer 23:1-40 seems to have been uttered.

796. In the same year when the former army was sent, the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to besiege Jerusalem. When Nebuchadnezzar himself came to the city while his servants besieged it. Jehoiachim the king, with his mother Nehushta, a woman of Jerusalem and his servants and officers, with all his courtiers, came forth to the king of Babylon. This happened in the 8th year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign over Babylon. He took from there all the treasure, both of the temple and of the king's house. He broke in pieces all the golden vessels and furniture, which Solomon had made for the temple of the Lord, just as the Lord, Isa 39:6 had foretold. He carried away king Jehoiachim to Babylon with his mother, his wives and his courtiers. From all of Jerusalem he took 10,000 men, the magistrates, every man of strength, all the carpenters and smiths. He left only at Jerusalem the poorer sort of people. From the other parts of the land, he carried away 7000 able bodied men and 1000 of the smiths and carpenters. These were all strong men and fit for war. They were carried prisoners into Babylon. 2Ki 24:8-16 2Ch 36:10 Jer 24:1 29:1,2 Eze 17:12 Among the captives was Mordecai of the tribe of Benjamin, the son of Jair, Es 2:5,6 and Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi. Therefore he in his prophecy starts the captivity from this time, Eze 1:2,3 which he also calls his own banishment. Eze 40:1 An Epistle, said to be Jeremiah's, is sent to those that were appointed to be carried away to Babylon. It warned them to beware of the idolatry which they should see practised in Babylon. /APC Bar 6:1-73

797. While the king of Babylon thus ravaged in Judah, God prepared a worm which in due time should eat out this spreading tree. The cry of this poor people came to the Lord.

``O daughter of Babylon, wasted with misery, happy shall he be that shall reward thee, as thou hast served us, who shall take thy children and dash them against the stones,'' Ps 137:8

798. For in this very year, was Cyrus the Media-Persian born whose father was a Persian and his mother a Mede, as I showed before. This very Nebuchadnezzar, at the hour of his death, as Abydenus has it, uttered this prophecy:

``There shall come a Persian Mule, who shall make use of your Devils, as his fellow-soldiers, to bring you into bondage:''

799. This was also foretold by that Oracle given to Croesus:

``When a mule king, shall to the Medes be born, &c.''

800. The Pythian Priests interpreted this to refer to Cyrus, who was to be born of a father and a mother of two different nations, a Persian and a Mede. (Herod. l. 2. c. 55. and 91.) But most plainly and truly Isaiah foretold, Isa 13:1,2 that the Babylonians also should have a time wherein to endure their hell of slavery. Their children would one day be dashed against the stones before their eyes. Isa 13:16 These miserably captive Jews would one day be restored to their liberty. He called their deliverer many years before by his proper name of Cyrus. Isa 44:28 45:1 God gave him the reason for this unusual revelation:

``For my servant Jacob and for Israel my chosen's sake, have I called thee by thy name and given thee a surname, though thou hast not known me,'' Isa 45:4

801. As for the age of this Cyrus, Tully in his 1st book de Divinations, cited it from Dionysius a Persian writer, in this manner:

``The sun appeared to Cyrus in his sleep, standing at his feet. When Cyrus endeavoured to take the sun in his hands three times, the sun turned aside and went away. The Magi, who are counted as wise and learned men among the Persians, said that by his three attempts to take hold of the sun meant that he should reign 30 years. This came to pass accordingly, for he started to reign at the age of 40 and lived to the age of 70.''

802. From which dream perhaps, so expounded by the magicians, Cyrus took his name; for, as Ctesias rightly says,

``Cyrus in the Persian language, means the sun:''

803. So also said Plutarch in his work on the life of Artaxerxes as well as Chur or Churshid, in the Persian poets, as it is said to this day. From the work of Tully's compared with Da 5:31 it appears that Darius the Mede or Cyaxares the son of Astyages that Cyrus' uncle was born before him. Therefore Xenophon in his book entitled, "Of the Institution of Cyrus", l. 6. coined the expression:

``seeing I am here present and am older than Cyrus, it is fitting that I speak first: ''

804. And in book 4 by the same author, when Cyrus wrote to Darius, he used these words:

``I advise you, though I be the younger of the two.''

805. Nebuchadnezzar made Mattaniah the son of Josiah, king in place of Jeconiah his uncle and changed his name to Zedekiah, meaning "the justice of the Lord". Jer 37:1 2Ki 24:17 He had made a covenant with him and had taken an oath of allegiance from him and Zedekiah, had taken an oath by God to perform it. 2Ch 36:13 Eze 17:13,14,18 By giving him this new name, he intended to remind Zedekiah of the just judgment of God if he would break the oath.

806. Zedekiah reigned a full 11 years in Jerusalem and did evil in the sight of the Lord his God. He did not humble himself before Jeremiah the prophet who spoke to him in the name the Lord but stiffened his neck and hardened his heart that he might not return to the Lord God of Israel. Jer 1:3 32:1,2 2Ki 24:18,19 2Ch 36:11-13 Indeed, all the leaders of the priests and the people of the whole land transgressed the law and polluted the house of the Lord which God had sanctified in Jerusalem. Nor would they listen to the word of the Lord, which he spoke to them by the mouth of his prophet Jeremiah and other prophets. Instead, they despised them and mocked the messengers which God sent to them until the fire of God's fury burst upon his people. Jer 37:2 2Ch 36:14-16.

807. After Jeconiah was carried away, God revealed to Jeremiah in a vision of two baskets of figs, the captivity of the new king Zedekiah and the remainder of the people. Jer 24:1,2,8,9,

808. In the beginning of Zedekiah's reign, Jeremiah prophesied the captivity and restoration of the Elamites. Jer 49:34-39 For Nebuchadnezzar had taken from Astyages, the whole province of Elam, with the city Susa on the river Ulai and annexed it to his kingdom. Jer 25:25 Da 8:1,2 Later these Elamites combined with the Medes against the Babylonians. Isa 21:2 When Belshazzar was overthrown, they recovered their state again, under Cyrus. Their chief city Susa was made by Cyrus to be the seat of the Persian kingdom. (Strabo, l. 15)
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« Reply #50 on: December 08, 2006, 08:58:20 AM »

 809. When ambassadors came from the various kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre and Sidon to Jerusalem, to visit the new king Zedekiah, God told Jeremiah to give to each of them chains and whips to be presented to their masters. He commanded them all to submit to Nebuchadnezzar and stop listening to their wizards and stargazers, who advised them not to submit. He advised Zedekiah to remain loyal to the king of Babylon and to beware of the false prophets. By threats and promises he persuaded many of the people to submit to and obey the king of Babylon. Jer 39:1-18

810. When Jeconiah was carried away with the other captives, Zedekiah sent Elasah, the son of Shaphan and Gemariah the son of Hilkiah, to Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon. Jeremiah sent a letter by them which he had written to the elders and priests and prophets and the rest of the people, who had been carried from there by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. In the letter, the prophet instructed them how to behave themselves in captivity and comforted them with a gracious promise of deliverance at the end of the 70 years. He predicts the great calamities which were to fall on those whom they had left behind in Jerusalem. He foretold the miserable end which Ahab, the son of Kolaiah and Zedekiah the son of Maaseiah, the two false prophets should come to. Jer 29:1-23

3406 AM, 4116 JP, 598 BC

811. Seraiah sent letters, as it seems, by Zedekiah's messengers, when they returned from Babylon, to Zephaniah, (who was the second chief priest) 2Ki 25:18 and to the rest of the priests at Jerusalem. He denounced what the prophet Jeremiah had written to them. When this was read to Jeremiah, he pronounced a heavy judgment from God on him. Jer 29:24,32 At this time also it seems he made those notable prophecies concerning the kingdom of Christ and restoration of the church in Jer 30:1-31:40.

3407 AM, 4117 JP, 597 BC

812. Cresus was born. He was the son of Halyattes, king of Lydia and his mother was a woman of Caria. It appears that he was 35 years of age, when he began to reign. (Herod. l. 1. c. 26. and 92.)

3408d AM, 4118 JP, 596 BC

813. In the 5th month of the 4th year of Zedekiah, Hananiah a false prophet, made a false prophesy. He said that at the end of two years, all the vessels, and furniture of the house of the Lord and Jeconiah and all the people, who were carried away to Babylon would return and be brought home again. When Jeremiah mocked him, he took a yoke of wood from about Jeremiah's neck and broke it. He said:

``Thus shall the Lord break the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar, within two years precisely, from off the neck of all the nations:''

814. Jeremiah replied,

``That God, instead of that wooden yoke, would lay an iron one upon the neck of all these nations, under which they should bow, and serve the king of Babylon, Jer 28:1-14

3409a AM, 4118 JP, 596 BC

815. Hananiah the false prophet died in the seventh month according to the word of Jeremiah. Astyages, after the death of his father Cyaxares, reigned over the Medes 35 years. (Herod. l. 1. c. 130.) He is also called, Ahasuerus, Da 9:1 or Asuerus. /APC Tob 14:15

3409c AM, 4119 JP, 595 BC

816. God by his prophet Jeremiah foretold that Babylon and the land of Chaldea should be overrun and laid waste by the Medes and Persians. He comforted his people with the sweet promises of their deliverance. Jer 50:1-51:64

817. Zedekiah, in the 4th year of his reign, sent Seraiah, the son of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah to Babylon, to whom Jeremiah delivered the these prophecies of the destruction of Babylon. These were written in a book. He read the book to the people and threw it into the river Euphrates. Jer 51:59-64 His brother Baruch, son also of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah, Jer 32:12 51:59 Jeremiah's scribe, is thought to have gone to Babylon with Seraiah.

3409d AM, 4119 JP, 595 BC

818. Baruch is said to have read all the words of his own book to Jeconiah, the son of Jehoiakim and to all the captives that were then dwelling with him at that time in Babylon. This was in the 5th year, (that is after Jeconiah was carried away to Babylon) in the 7th month, at the time when the Chaldeans took Jerusalem and burnt it with fire. /APC Bar 1:2-4 Some think that this was the same month when Jeconiah gave himself up to the king of Babylon and Jerusalem was taken and perhaps partially set on fire by the Chaldeans. For I cannot agree with Severus Salpicius, who perhaps taking it from that text, states in his first book of his Sacred History that at this very time:

``Nebuchadnezzar entered Jerusalem with his army and laid both city and walls, temple and all, even with the ground,''

819. Yet the former guess of Fran. Junius, concerning the quenching of the fire, and the taking of the city is somewhat more tolerable than that of our seminary priests of Downay when they said:

``that the whole time of the taking of Jerusalem, lasted eleven years before it was wholly burnt:''

820. That is from the time, when it was taken under Jeconiah until the time it was taken under Zedekiah. This book was written in the 5th year of that interval of time. Hugo Grotius thinks that the first writer of it means here that the fifth year after the carrying away of Jeconiah. The phrase "the rest of the burning of Jerusalem", was added later by someone else who was of opinion that Baruch never went to Babylon until after the burning of Jerusalem, which happened in the reign of Zedekiah.

821. Ezekiel had his first vision from God in the beginning of the 30th year from restoration of the worship of God in the 18th year of Josiah's reign, or the 5th year of the captivity of Jehoiakim or Jeconiah, 5th day of the 4th month, (on Saturday, July 24th). He was among the rest of the company that were carried away to Babylon, by the river Chebar or Chaborra according to Strabo and Ptolemy. Eze 1:1,2,28 From here he was sent to be a prophet among the Jews of the captivity. When he came to those who dwelt at Telabib near the river Chebar, he sat down as a man distressed for 7 days. After this, God reminded him of his call with promises if he obeyed and with threats if he refused. He confirmed him with a new sign and gave him courage and boldness by his word. Eze 2:1-3:27

822. The prophet was commanded to make a drawing of the siege of Jerusalem, and to lie a long time on his side for 390 days. This was to be a type of how many days the siege of the city of Jerusalem would last and of the number of years of the iniquity of the house of Israel from the time of Jeroboam. Eze 4:1-17

3410 AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC
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« Reply #51 on: December 08, 2006, 08:59:08 AM »

 823. Shortly after Plammis king of Egypt returned from his journey which he had made into Ethiopia, he died. His son, Apryes, succeeded him and reigned for 25 years. (Herod. l. 2. c. 161) The scriptures call him Pharaohhophra. Jer 44:30 He and a well equipped army made an incursion into the Isle of Cyprus and upon Phoenicia. He took Sidon by force and the rest of that country by the very dread and terror of his name. After a main victory at sea, over both Cyprians and Phoenicians, he returned into Egypt with a huge spoil taken from them. (Diod. Sic. l. 1.) It is reported of him, that he said that no God was able to put him out of his kingdom for he thought he made his kingdom very secure. (Herod. 2 c. 169) In Eze 39:3 (as Tremelius has noted) is in that allegorical Prosopopeia, most elegantly expressed,

``The river is mine own, for I have made for it myself.''

3410c AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC

824. When Ezekiel had lain 390 days upon his left side, he turned to his right and lay there 40 more days. This was a type of the many years of the iniquity of Judah. Eze 4:6 See also Eze 5:1-7:27

3410d AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC

825. In the 6th year of Jeconiah's captivity and 5th day of it, (which was Wednesday, September 22nd) God carried Ezekiel away by the Spirit to Jerusalem. In a vision there, he showed him the infinite idolatry practised there and the plagues which were to befall that city for this. Eze 8:1 9:1-11:25

826. According to his prediction, Pelatia, the son of Benaiah died. God comforted the godly in their captivity in Babylon by the sanctification of his presence and with his evangelical promises for the time to come. When the vision was over, the prophet was brought back by the Spirit to his people in Chaldea and there declares to them all that God had showed him. Eze 11:13-25

3411a AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC

827. God by signs and words predicts Zedekiah's flight by night, the putting out of his eyes, his going into captivity and his dying in Babylon. Also he foretells the captivity of the Jews and the calamities which they were to endure before this captivity. Eze 12:1-28 In this same year, the next 7 chapters of Ezekiel were written. From his writings we understand that Daniel's name was at that time very famous for his continual prayers which he made for the people of the captivity. Eze 14:14,20 Zedekiah did not regard the covenant and oath which he had sworn and rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar. Eze 17:15,17

3411d AM, 4121 JP, 593 BC

828. In the 7th year of Jeconiah's captivity, the 10th day of the 5th month (Sunday, August 27th), Ezekiel reproved the elders for their gross hypocrisy in coming to ask counsel of God. He prophesied of the calamity that was to come on all flesh. He pronounced God's judgment on the idolaters and comfort to the godly. Eze 20:1-23:49

3413 AM, 4123 JP, 591 BC

829. After Battus founded the kingdom of Cyrene, he was succeeded by his son Arcesilaus who reigned 16 years. (Herod. l. 4. c. 159.)

3414d AM, 4124 JP, 590 BC

830. This was a sabbatical year in which the men of Jerusalem, set their servants at liberty according to the law. Eze 21:2 De 15:1,2,12 Jer 34:8-10 The men of Jerusalem also heard that Nebuchadnezzar was approaching with his army. Nebuchadnezzar marched against Zedekiah and ravaged all the country. He took their strong holds and came before the very walls of Jerusalem. (Joseph, Antiq. l. 10. c. 10.) He had taken all the cities of Judah, except Lachish, Azekah and Jerusalem. All of these cities were besieged by all his forces. Jer. 34:1-7

3414b AM, 4124 JP, 590 BC

831. The siege of Jerusalem did not begin until the middle of winter. In the 9th year of the reign of Zedekiah on the 10th day, (Thursday, January 30th) Nebuchadnezzar with all his army came before Jerusalem. He built forts all around it. 2Ki 25:1 Jer 39:1 52:4 In memorial of this event a yearly fast is kept among the Jews beginning from the captivity until this day.Zec 8:19

832. On the same day of the siege of Jerusalem, God revealed to Ezekiel who was in Chaldea its complete destruction. This was represented to him in type to a seething pot. His wife died that day in the evening. He was told not to mourn her death. In this way he was to signify the grievous calamity of the Jews which was to surpass all expressions of grief by mourning.Eze 24:1-27

3414d AM, 4124 JP, 590 BC

833. God told the prophet Jeremiah to tell Zedekiah of the complete destruction and burning of Jerusalem brought on by the king of Babylon. Zedekiah was to be carried away prisoner to Babylon. However, he would die in peace and have an honourable burial.Jer 34:1-7

834. Zedekiah imprisoned Jeremiah for his prophecy in the king's prison house. This happened in the 10th year of Zedekiah and the beginning of the 18th year of Nebuchadnezzar. He recovered the land of Hanameel, by right of redemption. Jer 32:1-16 All things then came to pass which he foretold. These are contained in Jer 32:1-33:26

835. Pharaohhophra, also called Vaphris, came with his army from Egypt, to help Zedekiah and the Chaldeans raised the siege before Jerusalem. Jeremiah was allowed to go free during the siege and had not been thrown into the dungeon until later. Zedekiah sent messengers to Jeremiah to ask him to make intercession to God for the deliverance of the people. Jeremiah told him that the Egyptians would return to their own land and the Chaldeans would return to Jerusalem and destroy the city by fire.Jer 37:3-10

836. When the siege was raised the people took back their Hebrew servants whom they had formerly set free, because they no longer feared the enemy. They made them serve them as before, which was contrary to the law and covenant. For this barbarous act, Jeremiah reproved them, telling them if they released their servants they would escape the sword, famine and pestilence of the returning Chaldeans. He told them the Chaldeans would be returning to make war again and would take their city and burn it to the ground. Jer 34:11-22

837. While the Chaldeans were perusing the Egyptian army, Jeremiah planned to escape but he was stopped by the princes. He was taken and scourged and cast into the dungeon in Jonathan's house for a long time. Jer 37:11-16 While Nebuchadnezzar was perusing the Egyptians in the 18th year of his reign, he took 832 prisoners from Jerusalem and for safeguard, he sent them all back to Babylon. Jer 52:29

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« Reply #52 on: December 08, 2006, 08:59:44 AM »

838. Pittacus of Mitylene was one of the 7 wise men. He was sent against Phrynon who was surnamed the Pancratiast, which means "a man excellent in all feats of chivalry". Phrynon was an olympian who won the bell in the games at Olympus. At that time he was serving as a general of the Athenian army. He had taken two towns, Sigeum and Achilleum, from the Lacedemonians, with a Navy to Troas. In this battle, the Athenians were victorious. They took the shield of Abraeus, since the poet of Mitylene, had thrown it away in his efforts to escape. They hung it up in the temple of Minerva in Sigeum. After this, Phrynon challenged any man that dared to encounter him to a single combat. Pittacus accepted the challenge and with a little net which he had hid under the hollow of his shield, he caught him by the head and killed him with his three-forked spear. The Mitylenians offered him a large portion of land for killing Phrynon. He only accepted as much land as he could throw his spear across. On this land he built a temple and called it Pittacium. This story seems to be mangled and is imperfect in Herodotus, (l. 5. c. 95.) However that defects in him is supplied by Plutarch, in his book entitled, "De malignitate Herodoti", of the envy, or spitefulness of Herodotus, together with (Strabo, l. 13. Polyenus, l. 1.) Festus, in the word, Retiarius "a fighter with a net." and Diogenes Laetius, l. 1.) He tells us, that the Mitylenians for that service made him their sovereign, of their own accord, 20 years before he died. He states this was in the third year of the 52nd Olympiad. In carefully calculating it, I chose to place it in the 3rd year of the 47th, though Eusebius places it on the 2nd year of the 43rd Olympiad. This seems to more closely agree because in the Catalogue of the Victorious Runners who won prizes, Phrynon, is said to have gotten the bell in the 36th Olympiad. The war did not end with this duel, but their quarrel was referred to by both parties to Periander of Corinth, who was also reckoned as another of the seven wise men of the world. As an indifferent arbitrator, he ordered that each party should hold what they had in their possession. The Mitylenians were to keep the Town of Achilleum and the Athenians Sigeum. (Herod. l. 5. c. 94. 54. Strabo l. 13.) Periander out of Sosicrates shows that Laertius died 6 years after this and before the 49th Olympiad. This reveals Herodotus' error in his account of times, where he makes this peace between the Athenians and Mitylenians, toward the latter end of the Successors of Pisistratus in Athens' government.

3415b AM, 4125 JP, 589 BC

839. In the 10th year of the captivity of Jeconiah and on the 12th day of the 10th month, (on Sunday, February 1st.) Ezekiel prophesied against Pharaoh and all Egypt. Ezekiel foretold that Pharaoh would prove to be only a staff or reed to the house of Israel. Pharaoh's attempts to relieve Israel were all in vain. He predicted that Pharaoh himself would be over thrown in the desert of Libya by the Cyreraeans. (see note in the year 3430). Egypt was to be miserably wasted by the Babylonians and that desolation would last for 40 years, Eze 29:1-16

3415c AM, 4125 JP, 589 BC

840. When Nebuchadnezzar had routed the Egyptian army, he presently returned to the siege of Jerusalem about the 15th day of the 3rd month, that is , 30 days before he took it.Eze 4:5,8 Jeremiah told Zedekiah that he would be given into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar. Zedekiah then command him to be removed out of the Dungeon of the prison in Jonathan's house and taken into the court of the prison. He was to be given a roll of bread each day as long as there was any bread left in the city, Jer 37: 17,21

3415d AM, 4125 JP, 589 BC

 841. As the siege continued Zedekiah inquired of Jeremiah, but he still sent him the same answer, that both king and people must fall into Nebuchadnezzar's hands. He said if any stayed in the city they would perish by sword, famine or pestilence. However, if any would go out, and submit to the king of Babylon, they would have their lives saved.Jer 21:1-14

842. The princes cast Jeremiah into Malchiah's dungeon, which was in the court of the prison for answering the king in this way. He was delivered by the help of Ebed-Melech, one of the kings Eunuchs, and was again consulted by the king. When he still continued in pronouncing judgment against the land of Judah, he was still kept in the court of the prison until the city was taken. Jer 38:1-28 He assured Ebedmelech, in the name of the Lord; that he would be free from all harm and danger in that calamity. Jer 39:15-18

3416c AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC

843. Tyre rejoiced to see the wretched condition Jerusalem experienced by Nebuchadnezzar's hand. However, in the 11th year of Jeconiah's captivity, in the first day of the first month, Ezekiel prophesied that Tyre would also perish in like manner by the same hand and that all who saw her former wealth and bravery would be amazed. Tremellius and Pradus places this prophecy in the 5th month. This would place it in the 12th year of Jeconiah's captivity in Babylon. He also foretold the same misery for the Sidonians, Tyre's neighbours. Eze 26:1-18 At that time the fame of Daniel's wisdom was so great, even in foreign nations, that used to speak in a proverbial way "as wise as Daniel". It was from this man that God upbraided Ithobolus king of Tyre, with his pride and arrogancy of his mind.

``behold, thou art wiser than Daniel; no secret can be hid from thee,'' Eze 28:3

844. In the same year, the 7th day of the 3rd month, (Tuesday, April 26th) God revealed his will to Ezekiel, of sending and arming Nebuchadnezzar against Pharaoh, to the ruin of Egypt. Eze 30:20-26

845. In the same year also, upon the first day of the 3rd month, (Sunday, June 19th) God declared that the Egyptian, could no more avoid this determination, than the Assyrian could. Eze 31:1-18

846. Near the end of the 11th year of Zedekiah, Jer 1:3 on the 9th day of the 4th month (Wednesday, July 27th) the famine grew strong in Jerusalem. The city was broken up and the Chaldeans entered it. 2Ki 26:2-4 Jer 39:2,3 52:5-7

847. When the city was taken Zedekiah and all the men of war fled away by night.

848. The Chaldeans pursued after them and took Zedekiah. They brought him as a prisoner to Riblah where Nebuchadnezzar was. He saw his children slaughtered and he had then his eyes put out. He was enchained with steel chains and carried away from there to Babylon. 2Ki 25:4,7 Jer 39:4,7 52:7,11 The prophecies were fulfilled of him, that with his eyes he would see the king of Babylon, Jer 32:4 34:3 but he would not see Babylon although he would die there.Eze 12:13

849. On the 7th day of the 4th month (Wednesday, August 24th) Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard was sent by Nebuchadnezzar to enter the city.2Ki 25:8 He spent two days preparing provisions. On the 10th day of that month, (Sunday, August 27th) he executed his charge. He set fire to the temple and on the king's palace. He also burned to the ground all the noble men's houses, with all the rest of the houses in Jerusalem.Jer 52:13 39:8 Our country man Tho. Lydiate, thinks that fire was set on it on the 7th day; but not burnt down till the 10th. In remembrance of this calamity, the fast of the 5th month was ordained to be kept.Zec 7:3,5 8:19 This fast is observed by the Jews to this day. However it is kept by them on the 9th day and not the 10th of the month Ab. The temple was destroyed toward the end of the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign.Jer 52:12 2Ki 25:9 This was in the beginning of the first year of the 48th olympiad, in the 160th year, running of Nebonasar's account, 424 years, 3 months and 8 days, from the time that Solomon laid the first stone.

850. On the same 5th month, Jer 1:3 all the walls of Jerusalem were levelled to the ground. Nebuchadnezzar carried back to Babylon all the remaining people in the city, all those who had formerly fled over to him, all the common people of the city, all the treasure of the king and of his nobles and the furniture of the temple. Jer 39: 8,9 52:14,23 2Ki 25:10,17 2Ch 36:18-20 Thus, Judah was carried away out of her own land. Jer 52:27 2Ki 25:21 468 years after David began to reign over it. These events have been recorded from the dividing of the 10 tribes, from the tribe of Judah, 388 years and from the destruction of the kingdom of Israel, 134 years.
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« Reply #53 on: December 08, 2006, 09:02:57 AM »

 The Sixth Age of the World

851. Nebuzaradan left the basest sort of the people in the land of Judah to dress the vineyards and to till the ground. The king appointed Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, a man of the same country as governor Jer 39:10 42:16 2Ki 25:1,22,23 but without any kingly title. The reason for this is, as Severus Supitius, in his sacred History, notes:

``To have some preeminence over a few miserable boors or persons, was not reckoned to be any dignity at all.''

852. Nebuzaradan took to Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah, Seraiah the chief priest and Zephaniah the second priest and the three keepers of the gate of the temple, and other principal men. They were put to death there. Jer 52:24,27 2Ki 25:18,21 Jehozadak, the son of Seraiah and who after him came to be the high priest, was carried away captive to Babylon. 1Ch 6:15

853. Jeremiah was bound with chains and was carried with the rest as far as Ramah towards Babylon. There his irons were removed and he was set free. He was given his choice of either going to Babylon and there to be honourably treated or stay in the country with those miserable wretches who were left behind. He decided to stay and was sent back with money in his purse to Gedaliah the governor at Mizpah in the tribe of Benjamin. Jer 39:11-14 40:1-6

854. The captains and companies, who fled by night when the city was first taken, 2Ki 25:4 Jer 52:7 were scattered over the country. These with all the Jews who had fled to the Moabites and Ammonites and other nearby nations, after a while returned to Gedaliah in their own country. They were given a good provision of wine and oil and other summer fruits to live on. Jer 40:7,12 2Ki 25:23,24

855. Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah, of the family of the kings of Judah was bribed by Baalis king of the Ammonites to kill Gedaliah. He came to him with ten resolute fellows to Mizpah. They were graciously entertained by Gedaliah who gave no credit to those who told him of Ishmael's treachery and died as a result. Jer 40:13-16

3417a AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC

856. In the 7th month, Ishmael with his ten companions murdered Gedaliah as well as any Chaldeans and men of arms they found in Mizpah. Jer 41:1-3 2Ki 25:25 In remembrance of this, the Jews keep a fast to this day, on the 3rd day of this month Tizri. A day or two later, the same Ishmael slew some more men, who clad in mourning apparel, brought offerings and frankincense from Sichem, Shiloh and Samaria to the house of the Lord that now lay in ruins. These were tricked into going to Mizpah, where they were murdered in the open streets. Their bodies were cast into the well of king Asa. Jer 41:4-9

857. Ishmael returned to the king of Ammon with the king's daughters and the rest of the people who were left at Mizpah as his prisoners. Johanan, the son of Kareah, met him with a band of men and took away all his prisoners and set them free. Ishmael with only eight men in his company fled to the Ammonites. Jer 41:10,15

858. Johanan and all his captains with the rest of the people remained near Bethlehem. For fear of the Chaldeans they intended to flee into Egypt. Jer 41:16-18 Many of them went to Jeremiah and desired an answer by him from God about this plan. After 10 days, he told them God's message. He exhorted them not to leave their country. He assured them that if they stayed, God would protect them there and that no harm should come to them from the Babylonians. If they went into Egypt, everyone of them would perish by sword, by famine, by other kinds of death. The common people went into Egypt according to their old custom of never obeying good counsel nor God's commands. They took Jeremiah and Baruch the son of Neriah with them to Tahpanhes. Here Jeremiah declared to them in a type, the destruction of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. Jer 42:1-43:13 (Severus Sulpicius, Sacred History, l. 2.)

3417b AM, 4127 JP, 587 BC

859. In the 12th year of Jeconiah's captivity, on the 5th day of the 10th month, (Wednesday, January 25th) when news came to Ezekiel of the taking of Jerusalem, the prophet foretold of the utter destruction of the remaining Israelites. This was after the others had fled to Egypt. Eze 32:1-16

860. In the same 12th year, in the first day of the 12th month, (Wednesday, March 22nd) Ezekiel prophesied of the grievous plague and affliction which Nebuchadnezzar would bring on the land of Egypt. Eze 33:1-16

861. On the 15th day, the same prophet predicted of Pharaoh and all the people of Egypt that they would be brought down as low as hell with the rest of the uncircumcised nations. Eze 32:17-32

862. Jeremiah prophesied of the destruction which would follow the Israelites at Migdol not far from the Red Sea, Ex 14:2 at Tahpanhes, (or Daphne-pelusium), at Noph, at Memphis and in Pathros, a country in Egypt. For a certain sign of their own misery, he gave them Pharaoh, or Apryes, king of Egypt, whom they should see brought low before their eyes. Jer 44:1-30

863. Obadiah the prophet uttered a prophecy against Edom, which shamefully gloated over the calamity of the Jews when Jerusalem was destroyed. Likewise Jeremiah did, Jer 49:7 Eze 25:12 and the authors of the Psalms, Ps 79:1-1-13 137:1-9 who wrote about the same time.

3418 AM, 4128 JP, 586 BC

864. When Cyrus had lived 12 years or more with his father in Persia, his grandfather Astyages sent for him. He and his mother Mandane went to him in Media. (Xenophon, li. 1. of the Unstitu. of Cyrus.)

3419 AM, 4129 JP, 585 BC

865. When Ithobalus was reigning in Tyre, it was besieged 13 years by Nebuchadnezzar. Josephus reports this from Philostratus and other writers of the affairs of Phoenicia. (Antiq. l. 10. c. 11. & l. 1. cont. Apion.) During these 13 years, it seems that the neighbouring nations, the Moabites, the Ammonites and Edomites, were also subdued by Nebuchadnezzar, according to the predictions of the prophets. Jer 27:1-22 48:1-49:39 Eze 25:1-17

3420 AM, 4130 JP, 584 BC

866. It was the 23rd year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign when he lay siege to Tyre, which borders the land of Israel.Jos 19:29 Nebuzaradan, captain of his guard, took away 745 remaining Jews and Israelites together to Babylon. Jer 52:30 This extreme depopulation was foretold by Ezekiel Eze 4:5,6 in reference to the iniquity of Israel lasting 350 years, which was distinct from Judah's iniquity lasting 40 years until it was ended.

3421 AM, 4131 JP, 583 BC

867. Cyrus was now almost 16 years of age. Evil-merodach, the king of Assyria's son, was about to marry a wife called Nicotris. He made an inroad, with a great army of cavalry and foot soldiers on the borders of Media. There he took his pleasure in hunting and harrowing the country. Astyages, Cyaxares' son and Cyrus' grandchild had just begun to bear arms. They marched out and met him in a battle with the cavalry and overthrew him, driving him out of his borders. (Xenophon. l. 1. of the institution of Cyrus.)
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« Reply #54 on: December 08, 2006, 09:03:32 AM »

 868. After this Cyrus was called home by his father Cambyses. He had one year left of schooling. Xenophon in the same book tells us this. It is also referenced in Athenaeus', 14th book Dipnosoph out of Dion that Cyrus who served Astyages as the holder of his battle-axe and later as one of his armour bearers returned into Persia. At that same time Angeres who was a musician sang a song while Astyages feasted his friends. He said:

``That a fierce wild beast, more fierce than any boar; was let go, and sent into a sunny country and that he should reign over all these provinces and should with a handful of men, maintain war against great armies, &c.''

869. Astyages tried to call back Cyrus again, but could not get him.

3422 AM, 4132 JP, 582 BC

870. Cyrus spent 17 years among boys and then he spent ten years more among the youths. (Xenophon l. 1. of the Instit. of Cyrus.)

3424 AM, 4134 JP, 580 BC

871. In the 50th Olympiad, Epitelides the Lacedemonian, won the race in running. Certain men from Cnidos, not Rhodes, avoided the hostility of the kings of Asia by agreeing to make a colony elsewhere. They made Pentathlus a Cnidian, who was of the family of Hippotas, the son of Hercules. They moved to Sicily when Egesta and Selinunte were at war with each other. Pentathlus was killed while fighting within the ranks of the Selinuntians. The rest of them made Gorgus, Thestor and Epethirsis their captains. These men were all from the same family as Pentathlus was. They set sail from there and settled in the Isle of Lipara, (Diod. Sic. l. 5.)

3429 AM, 4139 JP, 575 BC

872. Arcesilars reigned 16 years in Cyrenaica and was succeeded by his son Battus who was surnamed Eudaemon. A large multitude of Greeks were advised by the Oracle at Delphi to go to Battus. They ravaged the lands of the bordering Libyans and divided it among themselves. Before this the colony in Cyrene consisted only of those who came from the Isle of Thera whose founder was Battus. (Herod. l. 4. c. 159.)

3430c AM, 4140 JP, 574 BC

873. On the 10th day of the first month of the 25th year of the captivity of Jeconiah, (Tuesday, April 30th) Jonathan the Chaldee Paraphrast states that 14 years after the destruction of Jerusalem, Ezekiel had a vision. In this vision the temple, the city and the kingdom of the Israelites was restored. This also foretold the restoration of the church by Christ with its greatness, honour and excellence.Eze 40:1-48:35

874. The Libyans were driven out of their lands and country by the inhabitants of Cyrenaica. They put themselves under the protection of Apryes king of Egypt. He gathered a great army together and sent them against the Cyrenians. The Cyrenians camped at a place called Irasa near the fountain called Thestis. They routed the army of the Egyptians so that only a few of them were left to return again into Egypt. The Egyptians grew angry with Apryes and revolted from him. They thought that he purposely sent them on a suicide mission to be rid of them. They reasoned that he did this so that he might more easily dominate the rest that were left. (Herod. l. 4. c. 159, l. 2. 161. Diodor. sic. l. 1.)

3431 AM, 4141 JP, 573 BC

875. Amasis, also called Saits, (who was frequently spoken of by Plato in his Timaeus) was sent by his father to stop this rebellion of the people. However, they made him king instead of his father. Apryes sent Paterbanes, a noble person, to call Amasis back. When Paterbanes returned, they cut off his nose and ears, because he did not bring Amasis back with him. After this unworthy act took place, all the people defected from him to Amasis. (Herod. l. 2. c. 162.)

3432b AM, 4142 JP, 572 BC

876. Finally, Tyre surrendered to Nebuchadnezzar. It was not taken by force, and was ransacked by the soldiers. Eze 29:18,19 Therefore he replaced king Ithobains with Gaal, a man of the same country to be a petty king there. He governed them 10 years, as Josephus affirms from the Annals of the Phoenicians. (lib. 1. contra Apion.)

3432c AM, 4142 JP, 572 BC

877. In the 1st day of the 1st month of the 27th year of the captivity of Jeconiah, (Tuesday, April 21st.) God promised to give all Egypt to Nebuchadnezzar for a spoil in recompence for his long labour in defeating Tyre. Eze 29:17-20

878. When Cyrus was 27 years old, he was taken from the rank of striplings, and reckoned among the number of men, according to the discipline and use of the Persians. (Xenophon, l. 1. of the institution of Cyrus.)

879. Taking advantage of the rebellion in Eygpt, Nebuchadnezzar invaded Egypt with his army after he was solicited by Amasis to help him against his father Apryes. After he conquored it from Syene to the ends of it, he made havock of the Egyptians and of the Jews which lived there. Some he killed and he lead away the rest into captivity according to Jeremiah's prophecies. Jer 43:1-44:30 46:1-24 Eze 29:1-31:18

3433 AM, 4143 JP, 571 BC
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« Reply #55 on: December 08, 2006, 09:04:04 AM »

 880. Pharaohhophra, or Apryes, was forced to retreat into the country of Thebez. It seems Nebuchadnezzar made Amasis his viceroy over all Egypt. Though Herodotus did not know of this for Scaliger observes in his notes, Ad Fragmenta:

``The priests of Egypt told him of such things, as he desired to know. They spoke only of things that glorified their nation, but concealed the rest. This showed their cowardice and slavery, and made payment of tribute to the Chaldeans.''

3434 AM, 4144 JP, 570 BC

881. When Nebuchadnezzar finished his conquests, he returned to Babylon. When at ease in his own palace, he had that remarkable dream of the great tree whose destiny was to be cut down. This tree represented him. The meaning of it was explained by Daniel when he could not learn it from his wizards of Chaldea. Da 4:1-37

882. Nebuchadnezzar now built up Babylon in wonderful magnificence and beauty. He built a whole new city outside the old one and enclosed all of it with a triple wall made of brick. As a favour to his Median wife called Amyrtis, (of whom I spoke in 3374 AM) king Astyages' daughter, he made that famous and so much renowned garden, born on pillars of which Berosus writes:

``He built that garden, called the Hanging Garden, because his wife desired the pleasure of the hills since she was brought up in Media.''

883. Q. Curtius said:

``It is said that a king of Syria, reigning in Babylon, built this great work at the importunity of his wife, whom he dearly loved. She desired to enjoy the pleasure of hills and woods, in that low country of Babylon and set her husband to the task of imitating the genius or spirit of Nature itself, by the amenity and pleasantness of this work.''

884. Those who would know more of the infinite magnificence and sumptuousness of this work must read the fragments which are left from Berosus and Abydenus. The former blames the Greek writers who attribute this work to Semyramis, where indeed, this and those other vast and magnificent structures were the works of this Nebuchadnezzar. So states Josephus, in his first Book centra Apion. The latter writer says plainly that those vast walls with their brazen gates were reckoned among the wonders of the world and remained to the times of Alexander the Great. Eubebius in his ninth book, De Evangelical Preparat. attributes this to Nebuchadnezzar. Clitarchus and others, who accompanied Alexander in that journey state that the circumfirence of that wall was 365 furlongs, (about 46 miles) according to the number of the days of the year. (Diod. Sic. l. 1.) They also state that every furlong's length of it was built and completed in one day. (Q. Curtius, l. 5. c. 4.)

885. Twelve whole months were no sooner past, but Nebuchadnezzar, growing proud and boastful of the magnificency of his buildings, lost his mind and was put out of his palace. He spent seven years in the woods and fields among beasts. Da 4:32,33

886. Apryes gathered an army of 30,000 mercenaries from Ionia and Caria to help him fight with his son Amasis, at Memphis. The army was routed and he was taken prisoner. He was kept for a while in the city of Sais. Not long after this, he was strangled, according to the prophecy of Jer 44:30. (Herod. l. 2. 163. and 169 and by Diod. Sic. l. 1.)

887. After his death Amasis reigned 44 years, (Herod. l. 31. c. 10.) and paid tribute all that time to the king of Babylon. The priests did not make that known to Herodotus.

3442a AM, 4151 JP, 563 BC

888. The 18th year of Jubilee.

889. At the end of 7 years, Nebuchadnezzar humbly acknowledged the power of God. He was restored both to his right mind and his kingdom. He publicly proclaimed God's great grace and mercy shown toward him and his power over all nations. Da 4:34-37

3442b AM, 4152 JP, 562 BC

890. Nebuchadnezzar died after he had foretold that Cyrus would capture Babylon. So states Abydenus (quoted by Euseb. l. 9. Prapar. Evang. c. ult.) based on the account from the Chaldeans. He departed this life after he had reigned about 20 months as viceroy in the kingdom with his father and 43 years by himself.

891. After Nebuchadnezzar, his son Evilmerodach reigned. In the 37th year of the captivity of Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, about the 25th day of the 12th month (Tuesday, April 15th), Evilmerodach ordered Jeconiah to be promoted. Jer 52:31 Two days later he took him from prison, changed his prison clothes and sat him ahead of all the princes in his court. He counted him among the king's friends and for the rest of his life, Jeconiah ate at the king's table. 2Ki 25:27-29

892. In Lydia after Haylyattes died, his son Cresus reigned for 14 years. (Herod. l. 1. c. 86)

893. After king Baal, the king of Babylon governed Tyre by judges. The first one was Ecnibalus the son of Baslacus, whom Scaliger calls. xl[m !b l[b─ynk[ He ruled 3 months. Next came Chelbes, the son of Abdeus, whom Scaliger also calls ydba !b fbklx . He ruled there 10 months according to Josephus who writes this from the Phoenician Annals, {Josephus, Apion l. 1. <1:783>}

3443 AM, 4153 JP, 561 BC

894. Abhar the high priest judged Tyre 3 months. After him, Mitgonus and Gerastratus governed them for 6 years. {Josephus, Apion l. 1. <1:783>}

895. When Croesus was living at Sardis, all the wise and learned men of Greece went to him including Solon the law maker. Solon had that famous discussion with Croesus about of the uncertainty of man's life and of all human happiness in it. (Herod. l. 1. c. 28-33) There exists at Laertius a short epistle of Solon's to Croesus that Solon wrote near the end of his life. He said that he was sent for by Croesus at the time Pisistratus governed Athens. At the same time, Aesop, a Phrygian who composed those famous fables, was sent for by Croesus to come to him at Sardis. Croesus held Aesop in great esteem. Croesus was upset with Solon and was dismissed in an uncivil manner because Solon spoke quite candidly to him. He sent him a letter stating that kings must have either very few or very pleasing words spoken to them. Solon wrote back that kings must have, either very few or very honest things spoken to them. {*Plutarch, Solon, l. 1. c. 28. 1:483,485}

896. Aesop went from Sardis to Delphi and was there most unjustly sentenced to die. Accordingly he was thrown down the rock there, called Phaedrias, about the 54th olympiad according to Trabe. That is near the end of the 4th year of that olympiad, if the times be correctly calculated. The revenge of this murder was often threatened by the Oracle there. It was later executed by Judmon, grandchild to that Judmon of the Isle of Samos. Aesop sometime had been with this slave and with Rhodope of Thracia, that famous strumpet. (Herod. l. 2. ca. 134.)

897. After Solon left Croesus, he went into Cilicia and there built a city, and called it Solos after himself. He settled certain Athenians there. In process of time, they corrupted the native language and were said to commit solecisms in their speech according to Laertius in his life reports. This place is more properly said of the Solii in Cyprus than of the Solenses in Cilicia. This is shown by Solon in his eulogies written to Philonyprus the king, recorded by Plutarch, in the life of Solon. Here Plutarch also tells us that this petty king of Cyprus made use of Solon's wit and counsel in some of his own affairs. He moved a little town formerly called Epea, into a lower ground more fit and useful for habitation and in honour of Solon, called it Solos.

898. After Solon departed, Croesus, who deemed himself the happiest man alive, found out by sad experience that all Solon had told him, of the instability of man's life and happiness of it was true. For shortly thereafter he had a dream in which he saw his son Atys thrust through with a spear. This was a portent of the violent death which was soon to happen to him. He sought diligently to prevent this and was prepared to marry him. Adrastus of Phrygia of the king's family there had slain his own brother. He was banished against his will by his father Midas, the son of Gordius, (not that old Midas, the son of Gordias king of Phrygia, whose Epitaph made by Homer and set upon his tomb, Herodutus in the life of Homer recounts). He came to Sardis and Croesus pardoned him for this accidental death. When Croesus had done this, he committed to him the care and safe keeping of his son Atys. At that time, he was requested by the Mysians to come and help kill a huge boar which destroyed the grain and other crops growing about the hill Olympus. It also often killed many of the farmers. When Adrastus aimed at the boar with the point of his spear, he accidentally gored Atys and killed him. When Croesus had pardoned him for this, he killed himself on the tomb of Atys. When Croesus lost his son, he spent two whole years mourning for him. He broke off his mourning for fear of Cyrus' growing power and by whom he was afterward conquered. (Herod. l. 1. c. 34-46.) whereof also you may see, what Hen. Valesius states in his collections (Diodo. Sic. p. 238.) and what Val. Max. states (l. 1. c. 7.).

3444c AM, 4154 JP, 560 BC
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« Reply #56 on: December 08, 2006, 09:04:34 AM »

 899. Evilmerodach the king of Babylon, was a wicked man. He had many attempts made on his life and was murdered by Neriglissoros, his sister's husband, when he had reigned little more than two years. (Berosus l. 3. of the Chaldean Affairs, cited by Josephus l. 1. contra Apion) We read that Jeconiah king of Judah had a daily food allowance made for him for his diet until he died. Jer 52:34 2Ki 25:30 Therefore, it is most probable, that Jeconiah himself died about the same time Evilmerodach died.

3444d AM, 4154 JP, 560 BC

900. After Neriglissoros murdered Evilmerodach, he reigned 4 years. (Berosus l. 3. Chalean Affairs)

901. In the kingdom of Media when Astyages or Assuerus died, /APC Tob 14:15 he was succeeded by his son Cyaxares, Cyrus his mother's brother. (Xenophon l. 1. of the Institution of Cyrus) This was in the beginning of the first year of the 55th Olympiad, 31 years before the death of Cyrus. Daniel calls Cyaxares, Darius the Mede, the son of Assuerus.

3445 AM, 4155 JP, 559 BC

902. The king of Babylon conscripted troops from his own subjects and help from Croesus the king of Lydia with the Cappadocians, the Phrygians, Carians Paphlagonians and Cisicians, on the west. On the east he approached the Indians also to join with him in battle against the Medes and Persians. He told them that they were two great nations who were now allied together. If they were not checked, they would eventually overrun and bring into subjection all countries near and far. Cyrus was made general of the Persian army by his father Cambyes and all the counsel of the kingdom. He was sent to Media with 30,000 soldiers and 1000 commanders all of equal authority under his command. (Xenophon, l. 1. Institution of Cyrus ) When he came he was made general of the Median forces by his uncle Cyaxares who had sent for him and was placed solely in charge of the war against the Babylonians. From this time are the 30 years of his reign or principality reckoned starting from the end of the 1st year of the 55th Olympiad. (Julius Africanus, l. 3. of his Annals, from Diod. Sic.) Thallus, Castor, Polybius, Phlegon, and other chronologers also count this as the beginning of the reign of Cyrus as cited by Eusebius. (l. 10. de Prapara. Evangelica.)

903. In the spring of that year, at the close of the same year of the same Olympiad, Solon, left Philocyprus the king and the Solii. He thought to return to Athens as we find in his eulogies as mentioned before in Plutarch. However, he suddenly became sick and died in Cyprus at the age of 80 years. Laertius says this happened in the year when Hegestrates was archon or president of Athens and in the second year of Pisistratus ruling there. (Plutarch from Phanias the Ephesian)

3446b AM, 4156 JP, 558 BC

904. In the 30th year after the desolation of Jerusalem, the unknown author of 2nd Esdras claims to have had that conference with the angel Uriel. This is recorded in /APC 2Es 3:1-4:52 at what time Salathiel was captain of the people, /APC 2Es 5:16 because Jeconiah was dead.

905. When Croesus was preparing to fight with Cyrus, he sent great presents to Delphi and consulted the oracle there concerning the matter of this war. This was 3 years before Sardis was taken. (Herod. l. 1. c. 53-55, 91.)

3447 AM, 4157 JP, 557 BC

906. When the king of Armenia saw that the Babylonians were making preparations against Cyraxeres, he would neither send him aid nor pay him tribute any longer in spite of the agreement he had made when Astyages or Cyaxares had overcome and subjected him. Therefore, Cyaxares, under the pretence of a hunting trip, attacked Armenia and defeated both him and his son Tigranes in a battle. He put them under his control again. He also conquered the mountains which lie between Armenia and Chaldea and there built a strong fort. He made peace on certain conditions between the two nations. (Xenoph. l. 3. de Instit. Cyri.)

3448 AM, 4158 JP, 556 BC

907. Cyaxares and Cyrus marched against the Babylonian king, Croesus and the rest of the confederates and gained a major victory over them. The king of Babylon fell in the battle and Croesus with those which were left, broke his camp by night and fled. Cyrus who had made a league with the Hircanians who had defected to him from the Babylonians, used their help and guidance in the way to pursue the fleeing enemy. He overtook them and after another battle he defeated them. After Croesus sent away his women by night because the days were so hot, he left his camp with all his horses. The Hyrcanins fell upon the companies of the Cappadocians and Arabians and slew both their kings. Cyrus spared the lives of such as either were taken by force or had yielded to mercy. He divided the spoil of the battle among his soldiers. (Herod. l. 3, 4.)

3448c AM, 4158 JP, 556 BC

908. Laborosoarchodus, son of Neriglissorus, was much more wicked than his father. He reigned after his father for 9 months in Babylon. (Berosus.)

909. Balatorus reigned in Tyre for one year among other judges. (Phoenici. Annal.)

910. Gobrias, had an only son who was killed by that new king of Babylon in a hunting match. He and his friends defected to Cyrus. (Xen. l. 4.)

911. Cyrus came to invade the country of Babylon. He stood outside the walls of the city and challenged the new king to a duel. Gadatas, was a noble man of whom this new king was jealous because the king's wife admired him, so he defected to Cyrus. The Babylonians sought revenge for this and spoiled Gadatas' lands. Cyrus pursued them and routed their forces. Unknown to Cyrus, the Cadusii, whom he had appointed as the rear guards of his army, had laid siege to a country near the city. They were cut off by the king of Babylon. When Cyrus first revenged the death of these men, he came to an agreement with the king to allow only the soldiers to fight allowing the peasants on both sides to hold a truce. He passed beyond the city and captured three of their forts. He returned to the confines of Assyria and Media from where he started. He invited his uncle Cyaxares to come him. When he came there, Cyrus honourably received and entertained him in the pavilion of the king of Assyria, Neriglostorus. Since winter was approaching, they consulted together about the things necessary to maintain the siege, should it carry on that long. (Xenophon l. 5. & 6.)

3449b AM, 4159 JP, 555 BC

912. After Laborosoarchadus, who was disposed of by his subjects for his acts of villany, Nebuchadnezzar's grandchild by his daughter succeeded him. He was his son by Evilmerodach and called by Berosus, Nabonidus, but by Herodotus, Labynitus, by Abydenus, Mabannidochus and by Daniel, Belshazzar, also Baltazar. He reigned 17 years, according to Berosus in his third book of his Chaldee History and Ptolemy in Can. Reg.

913. In the first year of this king's reign, Daniel had a vision of 4 beasts which signified the 4 empires of the world. He also saw God overcoming all earthly powers and the sovereignty of the Son of Man in all things. Da 7:1-28

914. When Balatorus, the petty king of Tyre died, Merbalus was sent from Babylon to replace him and reigned for 4 years. (Phoenis. Annal.)

3451 AM, 4161 JP, 553 BC

915. In the 3rd year of Belshazzar, Daniel had a vision of a ram and a goat, foreshadowed the destruction of the Persian Empire by Alexander and the great misery which Antiochus would bring upon the people of God. Daniel was living at Susa in the province of Elam, upon the bank of the river Ulai. Da 8:1,2 This river surrounds the citadel of Susa and parts the provinces of Susa and Elimais. That is the Susachaeans from the Elamites, as the inhabitants of those two provinces are distinguished by Ezr 4:9 and as Pliny l. 6. c. 27. From this we know that at this time the province of Susa was not in the hands of the Medes or Persians. It was controlled by the Babylonians, under whom Daniel then lived, as I noted before in 3405 AM.
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« Reply #57 on: December 08, 2006, 09:05:42 AM »

 916. Berosus tells us (in his third book of his Chaldee History, quoted by Josephus, l. 1. cont, Apion.) that those walls about the river of the city of Babylon, (which were started by Nebuchadnezzar) were fully lined with brick laid with a kind of slime, or liquid brimstone. For his mother Nicotris, an astute woman, saw the gathering storm about to break upon Babylon. She had turned the river Euphrates, which normally ran swiftly in a straight course. After drawing it through many winding channels, which she had cut for that purpose, she made it to run more slowly than it did formerly. Then she raised a huge dam on each side of the river. Upstream from the city she constructed a huge lake into which she diverted the river. Thus, she left the channel of the river dry. When this was done, she lined the banks of the river inside the city brick walls. She installed watergates in the walls around the city. She also built a stone bridge in the middle of the city. When this was done, she diverted the river from the lake to its original channel. (Herod. l. 1. c. 185, 186, 188.) The magnificence of this stone bridge which joined the king's houses, that stood on each side of the river, is described by Philostratus, in the life of Apollonius. (lib. 1. c. 18) He said that it was built by a queen that came out of Media. Hence we gather that as Nebuchadnezzar married Amyitis, so likewise his son, Evilmerodach married this Nicotris from Media.

3453 AM, 4163 JP, 551 BC

917. When Merbalus died, the king of Babylon sent Hirom, his brother in his place. He reigned in Tyre for 20 years. (Phoenic. Annal.)

3455 AM, 4165 JP, 549 BC

918. Darius the son of Hystaspis, was born. He was almost 20 years old shortly before Cyrus died. (Herod. l. 1, c. 209)

3456c AM, 4166 JP, 548 BC

919. When Croesus was made general of the army of the Babylonians and others, he crossed over the river Halys which divided the lands of Media and Lydia. Using the skill of Thales the Median philosopher, he crossed the river without a bridge and came into Cappadocia. There he took the city of Pteria and all the surrounding cities. He utterly destroyed the Syrians who had done him no wrong. Herodotus in (lib. 1. c. 72.) states that Cappadocians were called Syrians by the Greeks.

3456d AM, 4166 JP, 548 BC

920. After Cyrus had sent to the Ionians to see if they would join him or remain loyal to Croesus, he fought an indecisive battle with Croesus. The next day Croesus returned to Sardis because Cyrus did not attack him again. He intended not to fight that winter but wait for the next spring. to march against the Persians. In the meantime, he sent all his auxiliaries to their homes and sent ambassadors to those who were loyal to him, as were the Lacedemonians. He ordered them all to come to meet at Sardis in five months. When Croesus had disbanded his army, Cyrus attacked him with all his forces. When this surprise attack was made, Croesus, though greatly troubled, still went forth to fight with him with such of his Lydians as he had. He trusted mainly in his cavalry. Cyrus thwarted his design by placing his camels in front of his troops, knowing that horses cannot tolerate the smell of camels. Therefore all the horses of Croesus turned tail and carried their riders away with them. However, the Lydians left their horses and set themselves in battle array. Yet at last, after many were killed on each side they fled. The Persians followed up on this victory and attacked Sardis which they took in 14 days. Croesus was condemned to be burned. When he came to the place of execution, he cried out, "O Solon, Solon", whose wise counsel, concerning the instability of human affairs he had formerly so much despised. When Cyrus heard this he not only spared his life but took him also into his privy counsel. Cyrus arranged the funerals of Abradatos the king of Susa (who defected from the king of Babylon to him and was slain in the battle). Also he arranged the funeral of Panthea his queen who killed herself when she saw her dead husband. He made a huge and magnificent monument for them. (Herod. l. 1. c. 75-90 with Xeno. instruc. l. 7. The collections out of Diod. Sic. by Hen. Vales. p. 241. Plut. in the life of Solon. Ployan. in his stratag. l. 7. in Cyrus and Croesus and Solinus in Polyhist. l. 1.) Eusebus in his Chronicles states that Cyrus attacked Sardis, in the 28th Olympiad that is in its 1st year.

921. When Croesus sent his shackles as a present to Delphi, he complained in vain that he had been misled by the Oracle. (Herod. l. 1. c. 90, 91) When the men of Ionia and Eolia, wanted to submit to Cyrus under the same conditions that they had formerly lived by under Croesus, Cyrus declined. He granted those terms only to the Milesians, who feared what might happen to them and had previously made peace with him. (Herod. l. 1. c. 141, 143, 169) The rest of the Greek city states were fortified. They sent Pithermon of Phocca, with other ambassadors to the Lacedemonians to seek help from them which they refused to do. Yet they sent their ambassador Lachrines to Cyrus to warn him not to touch any of the Greeks in Asia. He sent them word again, that he would shortly make them stop caring for the Ionians and the rest of the Greeks in Asia and attend to their own affairs at home. (Herod. l. 1. c. 141, 152, 153)

3457 AM, 4167 JP, 547 BC

922. Thales the Milesian advised them to hold a counsel at Treos, which was a city in the centre of Ionia. (Herod. l. 1. c. 170.) Cyrus remained at Sardis and built battering rams and other equipment purposing to raze the walls of all that stood against him. The Carions sent and asked his help to settle their civil war. He sent Adusius, a Persian with an army. The Cilicians and Cyprians willingly joined this force. Adusius put an end to their difference, however he left sufficient garrisons of his own in the cities of either party. (Xenoph. l. 7. Instit.)

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« Reply #58 on: December 08, 2006, 09:06:18 AM »

923. At the end of the first year of the 58th Olympiad, Thales the Milesian philosopher died, (as Laertius states from of Sosicrates). Anaximander, his countrymen first observed the loxodromy, or motions of the stars in the Zodiac, as Pliny, from other authors states. (lib. 1. c. 8.) However Plutarch in his 2nd book, "de Placitis Philosophorum", has more correctly told us that that point of astronomy was known to Thales the Milesian, Anaximander's teacher. He died at the age of 64 in the 2nd year of this Olympiad according to Laertius in his "Chronicle of Appolodorus the Athenian", Further from Phavorinus' "Varia Historia", he tells of his scientific inventions. He was the first to invent the sun dial which he installed in Sparta. He also invented the horoscopes for the finding out the equinoxes and solstices for the dial to determine the hour of the day. The horoscope or instrument is used to observe the equinoxes and the tropics, or the summer and winter solstice is different from this. Pliny attributes the invention of the dial and clock to Anaximenes, his scholar, and fellowcitizen: (lib. 2. ca. 76.)

``This rule and reason of shadows, which was also called Gnomonical, or Dial work, was first discovered by Anaximenes, Anaximander's student. He was the first that set up a Sciathericum, which is a dial to show what is the time in Sparta. (See note on 3291 AM)''

924. Anaximenes the son of Eurystratus succeeded Anaximander in his school at Meletus according to Clemens. (Alexandri. in his 1st book of his Aronsat.) Following the advise of Thales, Pythagoras went into Egypt when both his teachers Anaximander and Anaximenes were dead. Polyerates of Samos sent with him a letter of commendation to Amasis king of Egypt according to Laertius in his life of Pythagorus. It seems this Amasis was surnamed by the Egyptians Somnesartcus. Pliny (in his 36th book, c. 9.) shows that in his reign Pythagoras came into Egypt. He stayed there 22 years and conversed with the priests. From them he learned his knowledge in astronomy and geometry. He was initiated into all their rites and ceremonies, according to Jamblichus, (in the life of Pythagorus, c. 3. & 4.) Therefore he was circumcised by them and after he was admitted into the secrets of their religion so that he might more freely partake of the mystical philosophy of the Egyptians. In attaining this, he was mainly indebted to Sonchedes, the chief prophet among them. (Clem. Alexan. l. 1. Strom.) I think this Sonchedes was from Sais. He talked much with Solon according to Plutarch in his life. They taught Pythagoras about Metempsuchosis, or transmigration of souls out of one body into another, according to Diodr. Sic. He was quite familiar with their books and writings about history. (Valer. Max. l. 8. c. 7.)

3458 AM, 4168 JP, 546 BC

925. Hystaspes and Adusius united forces and conquered all Phrygia bordering on the Hellespont. They captured their king and brought him prisoner to Cyrus. (Xenoph. Instit. l. 7. )

926. Cyrus committed Sardis to the keeping of Tabulus a Persian. He committed the treasure of Croesus and the rest of the Lydians to Pactyas of Lydia. He returned towards Ecbatan and took Croesus along with him. He paid little attention to the affairs of Ionia. No sooner had Cyrus left Sardis, but Pactyas immediately persuaded the Lydians to revolt from Cyrus and his governor,Tabulus. Using the king's treasure he hired soldiers from other parts and drove Tabulus into the citadel and besieged him there. When Cyrus was told this on his way he took the advice of Croesus. He sent back Mazares a Median, with a part of his army. He defeated the Lydians and made them agreeable to the rule of Cyrus. (Herod. l. 1. c. 153-157) So the nation that was famous for hard work, power and chivalry, grew soft from luxury and lost their courage and virtue. (Justin, from Trogus, l. 1. ca. 7.)

3459 AM, 4169 JP, 545 BC

927. Mazares demanded Pactyas from Cumaeans where he had sought refuge. The Cumaeans consulted the Oracle at Branchis who said that they should deliver him up. Aristodicus the son of Heraclides persuaded them not to give him up to be slain by the Persians. Since they did not want him to stay lest Cyrus come and destroy their city, they sent him away safely to Mitylene. When the Mitylenians were ready to surrender him, the Cumaeans sent a ship to Lesbos and there took him to Chios. There the Chii drew him by force from the temple of Minerva and delivered him to Mazares. The Lesbos were rewarded by having Atarneum a place in Mysia opposite Lesbos given to them. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 157-160.) Plutarch seeks to justify both the Mitylenians and the Chii in this matter in his book, of "The malignity of Herodotus", using the more ancient historian, Caron of Lampsacus. He states the matter thus:

``Pactyas hearing of the approach of the Persian's army, fled first to Mitylene. and then to Chios and there Cyrus took him.

 928. When Mazares had captured Pactyas, he marched against those who with Pactyas had attacked Tabulus. He conquered the inhabitants of Priene, partly ravaged the country lying on the Maeander River. He gave both it and the city of Magnesia for a reward to his soldiers. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 161.)

3461 AM, 4171 JP, 543 BC

929. Harpagus, who was a chief general under Cyrus, went with his army against Ionia. He fought with them (as Eusebius in his Chron. upon the 2nd year of the 59th Olympiad notes) for Mazares was dying of a disease. Harpagus (whom some erroneously call Harpalus) was made general in the place of Mazares. When Harpagus came into Ionia, he immediately besieged whatever city he came to. He took Phocaea, the capital city of all Ionia. (Herod. l. 1. ca. 162)

930. The Phoeneans abandoned the city when they saw they could not hold it. They escaped by ship with their wives and children to Chios. Seeking revenge for the loss of Phocaea, they killed all the garrison which Harpagus had left there to hold it. From there they sailed to the isles of Oenusae and then to the isle of Cyrnus or Corsica. Here, 20 years before they had made a colony and built a city called Alatia. When they had stayed five years and made all the neighbouring countries weary of them by their robbing and plundering, the Italians and Carthaginians sent a navy of 60 ships. After several naval battles, the Phocaeans won but at the cost of many lives and lost 40 ships. They moved to Rhegium in Italy and there built the city Hyela, later called Velia in the territory of Oenotria. (Herod. l. 1. c. 164-167) Also Thucides (lib. 7. of his history) confirms that the Phocaeans, which built Marseillus, defeated the Carthaginians at sea. One group built Velia and another Marseilles, in the time of Servins Tullus king of the Romans. This was more than 600 years after the coming of Aeneas into Italy as is testified by Hyginus who is quoted by A. Gellius. (lib. 10. Noct. Attica, c. 6.) Concerning this colony of the Marseillius, Isocrates mentions in his Archidamus. See note on 3404 AM.

931. When Harpagus besieged the city of the Teians, they abandoned the city and sailed into Thrace. There they built a city called Abdera. This city was begun earlier and unsuccessfully by Timesius, a man of Clazomenae. See note on 3349 AM. The rest of the Ionians, all except the Milesians who had before hand made a league with Cyrus, were conquered one by one by Harpagus. He allowed them to stay in their own country. They paid what was imposed upon them. (Herod. l. 1. c. 168, 169.) When they were afflicted in this manner, they assembled in their old common council of Ionia, called Panionium. Bias of Priene, chief of all the wise men of Greece, counselled that they should build a common navy and sail to Sardinia. There they should make a common city for all Ionians to live in and be free from this slavery and live happily. (Herod. l. 1. c. 170)

3464c AM, 4174 JP, 540 BC
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« Reply #59 on: December 08, 2006, 09:06:49 AM »

 932. When Cyrus had subdued Asia Minor, he immediately made war on the Assyrians. He marched with his army against Labynitus or Nabonidus their king. (Herod. l. 1. c. 178, 188.) The news of this came to Babylon two full years before the city was besieged. Jer 51:46 When Cyrus was marching toward Babylon, he was delayed at the river Gnides which runs into the Tigris. For want of boats, he could not cross over it. While he stayed there, one of the white horses which were consecrated to the sun, went into the river and drowned in its swift current. Cyrus was furious about this event and stopped his march to Babylon. That summer he had the river divided into 360 channels. He intended to make it so that a woman may pass through it and not get her knees wet. (Herod. l. 1. c. 189, 190, 202. l. 5. c. 52.)

3465b AM, 4175 JP, 539 BC

933. The next year Cyrus marched to Babylon. Here Cyrus defeated, Belshazzar, or Nabonidus. The Chaldeans retreated into the city and resolved to endure a siege (Herod. l. 1. c. 190.) Jer 51: 27,28,30 which they took lightly for two reasons. First, they had more than 20 years of provisions in Babylon. Secondly, they thought there were many in Cyrus' army who favoured the Chaldeans more than the Persians. (Herod. ib. Xenophon. Instru. l. 7.)

934. Cyrus made a vast trench around the wall of the city. He cast up the earth towards his own army and made bulwarks along it. He placed guards on these and divided his whole army into 12 parts. He ordered that each part would in turn stand watch for a month. (Xenophon. ib.)

3466b AM, 4176 JP, 538 BC

935. When Cyrus had spent much time in this work with little to show for it, at last he made a ditch from the river to that vast lake which was 300 or 400 furlongs wide (40 to 50 miles wide). Belshazzar's mother, Nicotris, had dug this lake. Then he opened the mouths of this and that other ditch which he had newly built about the city and let the river flow into them. Hence he made the channel which was not more than two furlongs wide (1/4 mile) passable for his men. (Herod. l. 1. c. 190, 191. Xenophon Institut. l. 7.) Jer 51:32,36

936. Cyrus with his army went through the water gates in the wall and got into the city on a festival day while all the men were at banquets. (Herod. l. 1. c. 190, 191. Xenophon Institut. l. 7.) Jer 51:39,57 So vast was that city that as the inhabitants reported, when the outskirts of it were surprised and taken by the enemy, they who dwelt in the heart of the city, never heard of it. (Herod. l. 1. c. 191) Jer 51:31 alludes to this when it says:

``that post upon post and messenger upon messenger shall run to tell the king of Babylon, that all the outskirts of the city were possessed by the enemies.''

937. When Belshazzar and all his nobles were feasting, he ordered his servants to bring all the vessels of the house of the Lord, which Nebuchadnezzar his father, or grandfather (for he was his son's son Jer 27:7) had brought away from Jerusalem. As they glorified his idols and reproached the true God, God sent a hand to write on the wall of the room, where Belshazzar sat drinking. It wrote the number of years which the Babylonian Empire was to last and that it had been now weighed in the balance and was found wanting. Therefore it was to be transferred to the Medes. It also declared what was to happen to Belshazzar. When his wizards of Chaldea, could not read the writing, his queen advised him to send for Daniel. When he came, he read the writing and interpreted it for him. For his efforts, he was publicly proclaimed the third man in the kingdom.Da 5:1-31 Since the king's wives are said to have been present at the banquet, Da 5:2,3 and the queen to have come in afterward, Da 5:10 this is to be understood of the queen mother, Nicotris. She was the mother of this last king of Babylon, as we have already shown out of Herodotus.

938. In the same night of this banquet, Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans was slain Da 5:30 by the soldiers of Gobryas and Gadneas. (Xen. l. 7. Instr.) So the Babylonian kingdom came to an end, as had been predicted, Isa 13:1-14:32 21:1-17 34:1-17 46:1-13 Hab 2:1-20 Jer 25:1-38 50:1-51:64 and the empire transferred to the Medes and Persians. Da 5:21 6:8,12,15

939. Darius the Mede, son of Assuccus or Cyaxares, the son of Astyages, took over the kingdom as given to him by Cyrus the conqueror. Da 5:31 9:1 Cyrus had set apart the king's house and all his palaces in Babylon so that if he should come to Babylon, he would have a palace of his own to stay in. (Xenophon, Instit. l. 8.) The angel, in this first year of his reign, is said to have confirmed and strengthened him in his kingdom. Da 11:1 After this he is said to have reigned for 2 years.

940. When Cyrus had set all things in order at Babylon, he returned through Media into Persia, to his father Cambyses and Mandana his mother who were yet living. From there he returned again into Media and married the only daughter and heir of Cyaxares. For a dowry he had the whole kingdom of Media given to him. After the marriage, he left for Babylon taking her with him. At Babylon he sent governors into all his dominions. Megabyxos went into Arabia. Artacaman went into Phtygia the Greater. Chrysantas went into Lydia and Ionia. Adusius went into Carin. Pharmichas went into Phrygia Hellespontiaca, or the Less. In Cilicia and Cyprus and Paphlagonia he sent no Persian governors because they submitted to him and of their own accord helped him against the king of Babylon. However, he made them pay tribute. (Xen. Instis. l. Cool

941. All the countries which Cyrus subdued as general of the forces of Media, he added to the dominions of Cyaxares. (Xen. l. 5.) Therefore it is most likely that at the former meeting in council, he made that distribution of the governments by Cyaxares' advise. Xenophon (lib. 8.) states about Cyrus,

``It seemed good unto him, to set governors over all the nations which he had subdued:''

942. Daniel, who, as it seems went at this time with Cyrus from Babylon to Media, said of Cyaxares:

``It seems good to Darius, to set over the kingdoms,120 governors, that they should be over all the kingdoms.'' Da 6:1

943. Over all the governors he made three overseers, the principal one was Daniel. As a result the rest were envious of him and had the king make a decree that:

``for 30 days time, no petition should be made to any god or man, but to himself only''

944. When Daniel had broken this decree by praying to God, he was cast into the lion's den. He was delivered from the den with no harm done to him. Then Darius cast those plotters against Daniel into the same lion's den and published that famous decree through all his dominions, that every man should reverence and fear Daniel's God. Da 6:1-28

3467a AM, 4176 JP, 538 BC

945. From the year of the Babylonian captivity of the Jews that started when Jehoiakim was defeated in the first year of Nebuchadnezzar, until the end of the first year of the reign of Darius the Mede, was almost 70 years. According to Jer 29:10 the captivity was almost over:

``Thus saith the Lord, when the 70 years shall begin to be finished with Babylon, then will I visit you and perform my good word unto you and will bring you again to this place and when you shall call upon me to depart from thence and when you shall pray unto me, then will I hear you.''

946. Knowing the time of the captivity was almost up, Daniel prayed fervently for the remission of his own sins and of his people's and for the release from captivity. The angel Gabriel brought him an answer not only for this but also concerning the spiritual deliverance of the church to be effected at last by the death of the Messiah. He gave that famous prophecy of the 70 weeks. Da 9:12-27

947. When Cyrus had spent one whole year with his wife in Babylon, he assembled his whole army. It is said to have 120,000 calvary, 2,000 iron chariots, and 600,000 foot soldiers. When he outfitted his troops he undertook that campaign whereby he is said to have subdued all nations from Syria to the Red Sea. (Xenophon, Instit. l. 8.)

3468a AM, 4177 JP, 537 BC
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Joh 9:4  I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work.
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