DISCUSSION FORUMS
MAIN MENU
Home
Help
Advanced Search
Recent Posts
Site Statistics
Who's Online
Forum Rules
Bible Resources
• Bible Study Aids
• Bible Devotionals
• Audio Sermons
Community
• ChristiansUnite Blogs
• Christian Forums
• Facebook Apps
Web Search
• Christian Family Sites
• Top Christian Sites
• Christian RSS Feeds
Family Life
• Christian Finance
• ChristiansUnite KIDS
Shop
• Christian Magazines
• Christian Book Store
Read
• Christian News
• Christian Columns
• Christian Song Lyrics
• Christian Mailing Lists
Connect
• Christian Singles
• Christian Classifieds
Graphics
• Free Christian Clipart
• Christian Wallpaper
Fun Stuff
• Clean Christian Jokes
• Bible Trivia Quiz
• Online Video Games
• Bible Crosswords
Webmasters
• Christian Guestbooks
• Banner Exchange
• Dynamic Content

Subscribe to our Free Newsletter.
Enter your email address:

ChristiansUnite
Forums
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.
January 29, 2023, 09:09:30 PM

Login with username, password and session length
Search:     Advanced search
Our Lord Jesus Christ loves you.
286349 Posts in 27567 Topics by 3790 Members
Latest Member: Goodwin
* Home Help Search Login Register
+  ChristiansUnite Forums
|-+  Theology
| |-+  Prophecy - Current Events (Moderator: admin)
| | |-+  Volcanoes
« previous next »
Pages: 1 ... 15 16 [17] 18 19 ... 22 Go Down Print
Author Topic: Volcanoes  (Read 95699 times)
Shammu
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 34862


B(asic) I(nstructions) B(efore) L(eaving) E(arth)


View Profile WWW
« Reply #240 on: January 09, 2009, 11:54:07 AM »

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 31st of December, the Monstserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) reported that a small puff of volcanic ash could be seen moving in 2 directions W and S. A wind shift is ongoing in the middle levels from 5,000 ft. to 10,000 ft. from an easterly flow to northerly. Nearly all levels turn that direction by 12hrs. Satellite imagery showed ash to 7,000 ft. extending 123.1 mi to the south of the summit at 1515Z while an area of residual ash to 10,000 ft. was centred 126.5 mi to the southwest of the summit. The Alert Level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ALERT LEVEL 4 (The next level is RED)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

KORYAKSKY

As of the 30th of December, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that moderate explosive Volcanian type eruption of the volcano occurs. Ash plumes raise about 4.0 km (13.200 ft) ASL and extend to the north-west from the volcano. Probably activity of the volcano will increase. The activity of the volcano is very dangerous for low-flying aircraft. No seismic data about this event by technical reasons. Gas-steam plumes containing small amount of ash were registering during daylight hours on the satellite images on December 23-25. Strong fumarolic activity were noted at the volcano from November, 2008.

The large symmetrical Koryaksky stratovolcano is the most prominent landmark of the NW-trending Avachinskaya volcano group, which towers above Kamchatka's largest city, Petropavlovsk. Erosion has produced a ribbed surface on the eastern flanks of the 3456-m-high volcano; the youngest lava flows are found on the upper western flank and below SE-flank cinder cones. No strong explosive eruptions have been documented during the Holocene. Extensive Holocene lava fields on the western flank were primarily fed by summit vents; those on the SW flank originated from flank vents. Lahars associated with a period of lava effusion from south- and SW-flank fissure vents about 3900-3500 years ago reached Avacha Bay. Only a few moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during historical time. Koryaksky's first historical eruption, in 1895, also produced a lava flow.

The Current Colour Code for Koryaksky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

KLIUCHEVSKOI

As of the 27th of December, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. Probably an ash explosive activity of the volcano will grow. The activity of the volcano is dangerous for international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels: a lot of volcanic earthquakes and continuous volcanic tremor were registered at the volcano all week. According to visual data, gas-steam plume containing ash rose up to 7 km (23,000 ft) ASL on December 20-24. Lava effusion on the north-western flank of the volcano continues. Strombolian activity of the volcano was noted on December 21-25. According to satellite data, a large thermal anomaly was registered over the volcano all week. Ash plumes extended about 270 km (167 mi) to the east and north-east from the volcano on December 20-25.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The Current Colour Code for Kliuchevskoi is currently at ORANGE
Logged

Shammu
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 34862


B(asic) I(nstructions) B(efore) L(eaving) E(arth)


View Profile WWW
« Reply #241 on: January 09, 2009, 11:56:08 AM »

KARYMSKY

As of the 27th of December, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL are possible. The explosive activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels on December 18th and 20th - possibly ash-gas explosions up to 3 km (9,800 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano on December 18th. There was not seismic data in the other days of the week by technical reasons. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered over the volcano; and ash plumes extended about 80 km (50 mi) to the east from the volcano on December 21st-23rd. Ash deposits were noted on December 21st: 26 km long to the southeast and 9 km to the northeast. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of this week.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 27th of December, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Strong seismicity of Klyuchevskoy volcano does not allow to detach a seismicity of Bezymianny volcano. A moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observed on web-camera on December 21st and 23rd. Clouds obscured the volcano in other days of the week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet; or obscured by clouds.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW .
~~~~~~~~~~~~

SHEVELUCH

As of the 27th of December, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported to INTLVRC that activity of the volcano slightly increased last week. Ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The lava flow continues to effuse on the southern flank of the lava dome. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, probably ash plumes up to 8.5 km (27,800 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano on December 19th-20th, and up to 5.0 km (16,400 ft) ASL in the other days last week. According to visual data, an ash plume rose up to 5.0 km (16,400 ft) ASL on December 22nd. Strong and moderate gas-steam activity was noted on December 23rd-24th. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of the week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was registered over the lava dome all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskoi volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
Logged

Shammu
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 34862


B(asic) I(nstructions) B(efore) L(eaving) E(arth)


View Profile WWW
« Reply #242 on: January 09, 2009, 11:58:09 AM »

COLIMA

As of the 31st of December, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reports that there has not been registered activity, during the last 24; luckyly, there has not been generated reports on damages or affectation in the adjacent populations. The zone where is the volcano finds cleared most of the time, but the possibility of storm clouds, water precipitations does not discard and electrical activity due to meteorological phenomena; for that reason one reminds the population to avoid the permanence in bordering ravines, before the possibility of lahars (mud flows). Also, it follows the restriction effective for the overflights that do not have scientific aims or of civil defence, and is prohibited the permanence of people other people's to these activities in ravines of the volcano.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW.
~~~~~~~~~~~

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 31st of December, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system detected 2 low intensity exhalations acompanied by steam, gas and sometimes small ammounts of ash. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report CENAPRED can see the volcano with a steam and gas emissions. From high to low probability the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions; occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater. There is a permanent monitoring of the volcano to detect any change. The traffic light of volcanic alert remains in YELLOW Phase 2.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 31st of December, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the seismic activity of the volcano stays discharge with characteristics similar to preceding days. Ash emissions and falls were registered in the environs. At night it was appraised incandescence and bearing of blocks. Cannon shots were heard and roars and vibration of the ground felt. Rains have not appeared nor registered lahars.

The IG reports that seismicity: In the last 24 hours, a total of 9 events of long period (LP) were registered, 3 episodes of harmonic tremor. Power went at 1134 hrs (local time), with an approximated duration of 30 minutes, that saturated the stations of short period and it was registered in distant stations. Also one registered 20 episodes of tremor of emission continued and 47 explosions of diverse intensity. Observations, Emissions and Ash: Heavy and black ash falls were reported of sectors of Manzano and Puela. At night bearing of blocks was observed and up to 800 m under the summit. Noises: Some explosions were heard like cannon shots. The acoustics of the explosions they generated vibration of large windows sometimes and roars. Rains and Lahars: Rains did not appear nor registered lahars.

Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major volcanic edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
Logged

Shammu
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 34862


B(asic) I(nstructions) B(efore) L(eaving) E(arth)


View Profile WWW
« Reply #243 on: January 09, 2009, 12:02:04 PM »

RABAUL

As of the 25th of December, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) has reported that during during 13-19 December gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.2 km (5,600-7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW). Rumbling and roaring noises were reported on some days. Explosions or forceful emissions sometimes ejected incandescent lava fragments. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 and 23 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The Rabaul volcano is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 31st of December, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the Dec. 27th DI event is completed with no other significant changes. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from Halema`uma`u vent are still elevated above pre-2008 values; tephra production has decreased substantially. At the east rift eruption site, sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Pu`u `O`o vents remain elevated. Lava from the east rift zone vents flows through tubes to the ocean; surface flows are probably active on the pali and the coastal plain.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: Consistent northeasterly winds kept the plume moving to the southwest. The vent remained dark overnight. This morning, a thicker white plume is being blown to the southwest low over the Ka`u Desert. Recent rains are making fume from hot gas vents more visible along the south and west rims of Halema`uma`u Crater. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain elevated and variable. The most recent average measurement was 800 tonnes/day on December 29th, still elevated above the 2003-2007 average rate of 140 tonnes/day. Following a decreasing trend since Dec. 15th, the Halema`uma`u vent produced minimal amounts of tephra that consist mostly of fine rock dust. The network of tiltmeters within the caldera recorded minimal tilt after completion of the recent DI event. The GPS receiver networks (less sensitive than tiltmeters) recorded a total 2 cm of contraction across the caldera over the previous 3 months. Seismic activity continues to be focused on the south caldera; tremor levels are at moderate values. The number of RB2S2BL earthquakes are at background values; a total of 3 earthquakes were strong enough to be located beneath Kilauea or nearby, with 2 beneath the summit caldera and 1 on south flank faults. Eight earthquakes were located within the Ka`oiki seismic zone just west of Kilauea volcano.

Last 24 hours in the middle east rift zone vents and flow field: Magma continues to degas through Pu`u `O`o Crater. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 1,700 tonnes/day measured on December 23rd compared to the 2003-2007 average of about 1,700 tonnes/day for this vent. No incandescence was observed within the crater overnight. The tiltmeter on the north side of Pu`u `O`o recorded inward tilting (deflation) since completion of the DI event yesterday morning. GPS stations spanning the crater (less sensitive than tiltmeters) recorded more than 3 cm of contraction over the past 3 months and no obvious response to the ongoing DI event. Seismic tremor levels near Pu`u `O`o and the TEB vent were at low values. Lava from the TEB vent and the rootless shield complex flows through tubes to the ocean. Last night, CD officials reported an active entry with explosions and incandescence visible on the pali but not on the coastal plain. GOES-WEST imagery intermittently showed a thermal anomaly on the coastal plain between cloud banks suggesting continuing surface flow activity. This morning, CD officials report a huge plume indicating that lava continues to enter the ocean at Waikupanaha.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 8th of December, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that eruptions still continue at Stromboli. As of September 23rd, Hans Aeschlimann recorded moderate to strong activity on Pizzo as shown in the sample images above.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
Logged

nChrist
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 64256


May God Lead And Guide Us All


View Profile
« Reply #244 on: January 10, 2009, 09:58:53 AM »

THANKS BROTHER BOB!

I always find these reports to be fascinating because they give us just a glimpse of the POWER GOD has locked up in HIS CREATION. As Christians, we should know that one of the signs of the coming Tribulation Period will be increased natural disasters. Volcanoes are certainly capable of causing horrendous disasters, even though most people in this part of the world take them for granted. This is just one tiny example of the overall picture of Bible Prophecy, but one worthy of watching.

If nothing else, Christians should know that we don't have unlimited time to help the lost on a path to accept JESUS CHRIST as LORD and SAVIOUR. Everything is uncertain, even the days and hours of our own lives. Only GOD knows how much time we have left, so we should pray and ask GOD to guide us in using our time wisely to reach the lost before it's too late. The lost don't know how much time they have either. They can't keep putting off the most important decision of their lives:  asking JESUS CHRIST to be their LORD and SAVIOUR forever! Tomorrow might be too late!


GOOD NEWS!

1:  Romans 3:10 NASB  as it is written, "THERE IS NONE RIGHTEOUS, NOT EVEN ONE; THERE IS NONE WHO UNDERSTANDS, THERE IS NONE WHO SEEKS FOR GOD; ALL HAVE TURNED ASIDE, TOGETHER THEY HAVE BECOME USELESS; THERE IS NONE WHO DOES GOOD, THERE IS NOT EVEN ONE."

2:  Romans 3:23  NASB  for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

3:  Romans 5:12  NASB  Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned--

4:  Romans 6:23  NASB  For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

5:  Romans 1:18  NASB  For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness,

6:  Romans 3:20  NASB  because by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.

7:  Romans 3:27  NASB  Where then is boasting? It is excluded. By what kind of law? Of works? No, but by a law of faith.

8:  Romans 5:8-9  NASB  But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from the wrath of God through Him.

9:  Romans 2:4  NASB  Or do you think lightly of the riches of His kindness and tolerance and patience, not knowing that the kindness of God leads you to repentance?

10:  Romans 3:22  NASB  even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction;

11:  Romans 3:28  NASB  For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from works of the Law.

12:  Romans 10:9  NASB  that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved;

13:  Romans 4:21  NASB  and being fully assured that what God had promised, He was able also to perform.

14:  Romans 4:24 NASB  but for our sake also, to whom it will be credited, as those who believe in Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead,

15:  Romans 5:1  NASB  Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,

16:  Romans 10:10  NASB  for with the heart a person believes, resulting in righteousness, and with the mouth he confesses, resulting in salvation.

17:  Romans 10:13  NASB  for "WHOEVER WILL CALL ON THE NAME OF THE LORD WILL BE SAVED."


Thanks be unto GOD for HIS unspeakable GIFT!, JESUS CHRIST, our Lord and Saviour forever!
Logged

Soldier4Christ
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 60498


One Nation Under God


View Profile
« Reply #245 on: January 30, 2009, 12:00:51 PM »

Alaskans brace for Redoubt Volcano eruption


Hardware stores and auto parts shops scored a post-holiday run of business this week as Anchorage-area residents stocked up on protective eyewear and masks ahead of a possible eruption of Mount Redoubt.

Monitoring earthquakes underneath the 10,200-foot Redoubt Volcano about 100 miles southwest of Anchorage, scientists from the Alaska Volcano Observatory warned that an eruption was imminent, sending experienced Alaskans shopping for protection against a dusty shower of volcanic ash that could descend on south-central Alaska.

"Every time this happens we do get a run on dust masks and goggles," said Phil Robinson, manager of an Alaska Industrial Hardware store in Anchorage. "That's the two main things for eye and respiratory protection."

Customer Ron Cowan picked up gear at the store Thursday before heading off to an auto parts store for a spare air filter.

"I'm older now and I'm being a little more proactive than I was the last time," Cowan said.

When another Alaska volcano, Mount Spurr, blew in 1992, he waited too long.

"The shelves were cleared, so I thought I wouldn't wait until the last minute," Cowan said.

Unlike earthquakes, volcanoes often give off warning signs that usually give people time to prepare.

The observatory, a joint program between the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute and the state Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, was formed in response to the 1986 eruption of Mount Augustine.

It has a variety of tools to predict eruptions. As magma moves beneath a volcano before an eruption, it often generates earthquakes, swells the surface of a mountain and increases the gases emitted. The observatory samples gases, measures earthquake activity with seismometers and watches for deformities in the landscape.

On Nov. 5, geologists noted changed emissions and minor melting near the Redoubt summit and raised the threat level from green to yellow. It jumped to orange — the stage just before eruption — on Sunday in response to a sharp increase in earthquake activity below the volcano.

Alaska's volcanoes are not like Hawaii's. "Most of them don't put out the red river of lava," said the observatory's John Power.

Instead, they typically explode and shoot ash 30,000 to 50,000 feet high — more than nine miles — into the jet stream.

"It's a very abrasive kind of rock fragment," Power said. "It's not the kind of ash that you find at the base of your wood stove."

The particulate has jagged edges and has been used as an industrial abrasive. "They use this to polish all kinds of metals," he said.

Particulate can injure skin, eyes and breathing passages. The young, the elderly and people with respiratory problems are especially susceptible. Put enough ash under a windshield wiper and it will scratch glass.

It's also potentially deadly for anyone flying in a jet. "Think of flying an airliner into a sandblaster," Power said.

Redoubt blew on Dec. 15, 1989, and sent ash 150 miles away into the path of a KLM jet carrying 231 passengers. Its four engines flamed out.

As the crew tried to restart the engines, "smoke" and a strong odor of sulfur filled the cockpit and cabin, according to a USGS account. The jet dropped more than 2 miles, from 27,900 feet to 13,300 feet, before the crew was able to restart all engines and land the plane safely at Anchorage. The plane required $80 million in repairs.

The observatory's first call after an eruption is now to the Federal Aviation Administration. The observatory's data collection has become far more advanced in 19 years, as has the alert system.

"Pilots are routinely trained to avoid ash and in what to do if they encounter an ash cloud," Power said. "That kind of thing was not routinely done in the 1980s."

The jet stream can carry ash for hundreds of miles. Ash from Kasatochi Volcano in the Aleutians last August blew all the way to Montana and threatened aircraft, Power said.

Particulate is mildly corrosive but can be blocked with masks and filters.

Power advises Alaskans to prepare as they would for a bad snowstorm: Keep flashlights, batteries and several days' worth of food in the house, limit driving and prepare to hunker down if the worst of an ash cloud hits.

Merely going indoors is a defense against ash. The American Red Cross recommends wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants outside, plus goggles and glasses instead of contact lenses. If no dust mask is available, an effective respiratory filter is a damp cloth over nose and mouth.

But potential danger all depends on the wind. Mount Spurr erupted three times in 1992. When it blew that June, only climbers on Mount McKinley — about 150 miles north of Anchorage — were affected, Power said. An August eruption dumped significant ash on Anchorage and a September blow sent ash about 40 miles north of Anchorage to Wasilla.

Dust mask customer Elizabeth Keating said Thursday that if the volcano erupts, she expects to stay inside. She bought masks for her school-age grandchildren to carry in their backpacks.

"I want to make sure they're carrying these in case they're en route," she said.
Logged

Joh 9:4  I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work.
Shammu
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 34862


B(asic) I(nstructions) B(efore) L(eaving) E(arth)


View Profile WWW
« Reply #246 on: February 07, 2009, 02:21:48 PM »

Alaska volcano on verge of venting
Area braces for what scientists see as likely eruption

2/6/09
By Oren Dorell
USA TODAY

Brent Hibbert will replace the air filters in his 18 taxicabs every 50 to 100 miles if the volcano at Alaska's Mount Redoubt erupts and coats his hometown of Kenai with engine-choking ash.

"It gets into everything," Hibbert said.

He and other residents are preparing for what geologists say could be imminent. Steam and tremors emanating from the 10,200-foot Redoubt Volcano, located about 100 miles southwest of Anchorage, are more likely than not to result in an eruption.

If that happens, the abrasive ash could blanket the state's most populous area and threaten commercial air traffic in the region, said geologist Tina Neal of the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory.

The Redoubt Volcano produces thick, grayish lava that rises in a dome. The ash can spew up to 40,000 feet, observatory volcanologist Dave Schneider said.

"This is rock fragments, mineral fragments and glass," Schneider said. "It has the density of rock, not fluffy ash like when you burn wood."

For the past few weeks, the gurgling mountain has prompted residents to make a run on dust masks and health officials to warn the old, young and people with respiratory problems to stay indoors if the volcano blows.

George Sides, 52, a sales clerk at Andy's Ace Hardware and Radio Shack in Anchorage, said his store received a new shipment of dust masks after running out this week.

Shoppers also were buying safety goggles and emergency radios, said Sides, who was in Anchorage in 1992 when another volcano, Mount Spurr, erupted.

"It was just dirty," Sides said. "We had to sweep our roof. We had to wear dust masks for days."

Sgt. Robb Quelland of the Soldotna Police Department, said public safety officials are prepared to be extra busy if Mount Redoubt erupts, especially if the wind continues to blow in the direction of his town of 4,000 residents.

The last time Mount Redoubt erupted, in 1989, a Boeing 747 flew through the plume at 40,000 feet. It lost all four engines and dropped 30,000 feet before pilots were able to land safely.

Neal said new technology and better communications developed since that incident make a repeat less likely.

As they wait, businesses and residents prepare.

At the end of each day, city workers cover their computers with plastic bags so the ash won't damage them, said Minta Montalbo, a spokeswoman for the Anchorage Department of Health and Human Services. Power companies are prepared to shut down turbines, which could lead to blackouts.

Day care worker Anna Coleman, 41, has stocked her workplace with extra food and supplies in case parents can't pick up their children before the ash cloud arrives. "We're all prepared," she said.

Alaska volcano on verge of venting
Logged

Soldier4Christ
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 60498


One Nation Under God


View Profile
« Reply #247 on: February 23, 2009, 11:38:55 PM »

Chaiten Volcano Erupts in Chile

More than 150 people who had returned to a Chilean town destroyed by a volcanic eruption last year were evacuated again on Thursday as the volcano roared back to life, spewing ash high into the air.

The explosion apparently rocked the dome of the Chaiten volcano and sent volcanic material down the mountain's slope, threatening to block a river and trigger flooding, said Paula Narvaez, a presidential delegate to the area in southern Chile.

Experts who flew over the volcano reported "large emanation of gas" on Thursday and said the situation is risky for the nearby seaside town of Chaiten because rains could trigger avalanches.

"The experts were unanimous in considering that no one must remain in Chaiten," Chile's Emergency Bureau said in a communique.

Narvaez said that as many as 160 people were evacuated from the vicinity of the 2,700-foot volcano.

More than 4,000 people were initially evacuated after Chaiten erupted on May 2 for the first time in recorded history.

On Thursday, increased seismic activity was reported and ash fell 100 miles away in Futaleufu.

Some residents of Chaiten, six miles from the like-named volcano, have strongly resisted government efforts to relocate them to a new settlement following the devastating eruption last year.

Residents opposed to the move in recent weeks staged protests in the town's ruins, amid houses buried under ash and volcanic mudflows.

Narvaez said the situation on Thursday "was exactly the kind of danger we were talking about when we decided to relocate Chaiten."

The relocation site has yet to be determined.
Logged

Joh 9:4  I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work.
Shammu
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 34862


B(asic) I(nstructions) B(efore) L(eaving) E(arth)


View Profile WWW
« Reply #248 on: March 21, 2009, 11:14:58 PM »

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 20th of March, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity of the volcano didn't exceeded background levels last week. According to visual data, a weak fumarolic activity of the volcano was observed on March 12-14 and 18. Clouds obscured the volcano during the other days. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the dome was registered on March 13-15 and 16-18.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbors Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The colour code at Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW.
~~~~~~~~~

CLEVELAND

As of the 12th of March, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported that AVO has received no new reports of activity at Cleveland. Satellite views have been obscured by clouds for the past 24 hours.

Beautifully symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Cleveland is joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mount Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The colour code at Cleveland is currently at YELLOW.
~~~~~~~~~~~

MAUNA LOA

As of the 4th of March, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has reported that Mauna Loa is not erupting. Slow extension, as measured by GPS receivers on opposite sides of the volcano, continued. Line lengths have been increasing at a slightly faster rate since September, 2008, due mostly to slippage on basalt faults beneath Mauna Loa's east flank and not to an increase in magma supply to the volcano. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes other than abrupt offsets that are related to instrumental issues. Diurnal tilt, or the tilting due to daily heating and cooling of the ground, was diminished by snowfall starting Christmas Eve, 2008. Sensors within a crack in Moku`aweoweo crater floor continued to record background gas concentrations and temperatures.

Since the beginning of January, 2005, HVO analysts have rarely located more than 10 earthquakes per week beneath Mauna Loa summit. Each week, 1-5 earthquakes are also located beneath the Kealakekua area of west Mauna Loa. These levels are typical of the past several years. The Kao`iki seismic zone between Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcano summits remained active with an average of about 10-40 earthquakes per week; these numbers may reflect increased seismic activity nearer Kilauea summit rather than increased Kao`iki activity.

The colour code at Mauna Loa is currently at YELLOW.
Logged

Shammu
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 34862


B(asic) I(nstructions) B(efore) L(eaving) E(arth)


View Profile WWW
« Reply #249 on: March 21, 2009, 11:17:32 PM »

REDOUBT

As of the 21st of March, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), reported that on Sunday, March 15, 2009, AVO raised the colour code and alert level to ORANGE/Warning during an abrupt increase in seismicity and following a burst of steam and ash that was observed by airborne AVO staff. High volcanic gas emissions were measured during the event. After several hours, seismicity and steam emissions declined, and remained low for the next several days. The color code and alert level was subsequently reduced to YELLOW/Advisory on March 18th, 2009.

Seismic activity at Redoubt has been low over the remainder of the week but remains above background levels. The seismicity consists of occasional short periods of low amplitude volcanic tremor and small discrete earthquakes. A burst of several dozen larger events occurred Friday morning. Mostly clear weather at the volcano this week has provided good satellite and web camera images, and these showed nothing unusual. A steam plume rising just above the summit of the volcano has been visible most of the week. It is still possible for unrest at the volcano to change rapidly, and seismic activity or other signs of unrest could escalate over time periods as short as 24 hours or less. AVO continues to monitor Redoubt closely, but the AVO operations center in Anchorage is no longer formally staffed 24 hours per day, although someone is on duty 24 hours per day and can be contacted by calling 907-786-7497.

Redoubt is a 3108-m-high glacier-covered stratovolcano with a breached summit crater in Lake Clark National Park about 170 km SW of Anchorage. Next to Mt. Spurr, Redoubt has been the most active Holocene volcano in the upper Cook Inlet. The volcano was constructed beginning about 890,000 years ago over Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith. Collapse of the summit of Redoubt 10,500-13,000 years ago produced a major debris avalanche that reached Cook Inlet. Holocene activity has included the emplacement of large clay-rich lahars, one of which dammed Lake Crescent on the south side and reached Cook Inlet about 3500 years ago. Eruptions during the past few centuries have affected only the Drift River drainage on the north. Historical eruptions have originated from a vent at the north end of the 1.8-km-wide breached summit crater. The 1989-90 eruption of Redoubt had severe economic impact on the Cook Inlet region and affected air traffic far beyond the volcano.

The colour code at Redoubt is currently at YELLOW.
~~~~~~~~~~~

YELLOWSTONE CALDERA

As of the 5th of March, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), reported that the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) reports that during the month of February 2009, 51 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone region. The largest event was a magnitude 2.1 on February 19th at 1702 hrs MST, located about 2 miles north of Fishing Bridge, YNP. There were no swarms during the month of February. Earthquake activity in the Yellowstone region is at relatively normal background levels. Scientists continue to look at data collected during the swarm and will publish their results over the coming months and years. However, if any findings have direct implications for public safety, they will be released to the public immediately.

Ground Deformation Summary: Through January 2009, continuous GPS data show that much of the Yellowstone caldera continued moving upward, though at a lower rate than the past several years. The WLWY station, located in the northeastern part of the caldera has undergone ~22 cm of uplift over this time period. The general uplift of the Yellowstone caldera is of scientific importance and will continue to be monitored closely by YVO staff. Information on earthquakes can also be viewed at the University of Utah Seismograph Stations web site: http://www.seis.utah.edu/.
Seismographic recordings from Yellowstone seismograph stations can be viewed online at: http://www.quake.utah.edu/helicorder/heli/yellowstone/index.html.

The colour code at Yellowstone is currently at GREEN.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ARENAL

As of the 19th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that OVSICORI-UNA reported that during February, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts that traveled down the SW flanks. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

Conical volcano Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1,657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7,000 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
Logged

Shammu
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 34862


B(asic) I(nstructions) B(efore) L(eaving) E(arth)


View Profile WWW
« Reply #250 on: March 21, 2009, 11:19:46 PM »

ASAMA

As of the 19th of March, the Japan Meteorlogical Agency (JMA) reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 March an eruption from Asama produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Carried by winds, volcanic ash fell like snow flakes on towns at the foot of the mountain. Traces of ash were even reported in central Tokyo and all the way in the metropolis of Yokohama southeast of the capital. "I've been a taxi driver in Yokohama for 10 years but I've never seen this kind of volcanic ash before," the driver said on television as he wiped a thin blanket of ash off his windshield. "I heard a rumbling and my windowpanes kept rattling," said a female resident of one of the towns near the volcano where local officials urged inhabitants to wear masks. The weather agency warned of a possible fall of rocks within four kilometres of the crater.

Asama, Honshu's most active volcano, overlooks the resort town of Karuizawa, 140 km NW of Tokyo. The volcano is located at the junction of the Izu-Marianas and NE Japan volcanic arcs. The modern cone of Maekake-yama forms the summit of the volcano and is situated east of the horseshoe-shaped remnant of an older andesitic volcano, Kurofu-yama, which was destroyed by a late-Pleistocene landslide about 20,000 years before present (BP). Growth of a dacitic shield volcano was accompanied by pumiceous pyroclastic flows, the largest of which occurred about 14,000-11,000 years BP, and by growth of the Ko-Asama-yama lava dome on the east flank. Maekake-yama, capped by the Kama-yama pyroclastic cone that forms the present summit of the volcano, is probably only a few thousand years old and has an historical record dating back at least to the 11th century AD. Maekake-yama has had several major plinian eruptions, the last two of which occurred in 1108 (Asama's largest Holocene eruption) and 1783 AD.

The Current Colour Code for Asama is ORANGE .
~````~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: BARREN IS.

As of the 26th of February, the Global Volcanism Netowrk (GVN) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-21 February ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 75-90 km WNW, NW, and N.

Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the centre of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during historical eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Barren Is. is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~

BATU TARA

As of the 19th of March, the Global Volcanism Netowrk (GVN) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 March ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW.

The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The first historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow.

The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is ORANGE .
Logged

Shammu
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 34862


B(asic) I(nstructions) B(efore) L(eaving) E(arth)


View Profile WWW
« Reply #251 on: March 21, 2009, 11:21:39 PM »

CHAITEN

As of the 19th of March, the Government of Chile has announced that based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 11-15 March ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE, NE, E, and SE. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery on 15 March.

Chaitén is a small, glacier-free caldera with a Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. A pyroclastic-surge and pumice layer that was considered to originate from the eruption that formed the elliptical 2.5 x 4 km wide summit caldera was dated at about 9400 years ago. A rhyolitic, 962-m-high obsidian lava dome occupies much of the caldera floor. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km away from the volcano to the north and south. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén, and the high point on its southern rim reaches 1122 m. Two small lakes occupy the caldera floor on the west and north sides of the lava dome.

The Current Colour Code for Chaiten is RED .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: COLIMA

As of the 21st of March, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reported that the equipment of monitoring of the Colima volcano reported that there was null activity during last the 24 hours; luckyly, it has not generated reports on damages or affectation in the adjacent populations. Even though the zone where is the volcano is cleared most of the time, sporadically establishment of clouds, water precipitations appears and electrical activity; for that reason one reminds the population to avoid the permanence in bordering ravines, before the risk of lahars (mud flows). Also, it follows the restriction effective for the overflights that do not have scientific aims or of civil defence, and is prohibited the permanence of people other people's to these activities in ravines of the volcano. According to the monitoring, emanation has this past Friday not been observed some, this due to the cloudiness that prevents the visibility in the area of volcanic observation.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for Colima is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Volcano: DEMPO

As of the 15th of January, the Global Volcanism Netowrk (GVN) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on the 7th of January ash plumes from Dempo rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

Dempo is a prominent 3173-m-high stratovolcano that rises above the Pasumah Plain of SE Sumatra. Remnants of 7 craters are found at or near the summit, with volcanism migrating to the WNW with time. The historically active summit crater of Gunung Dempo contains a 400-m-wide lake, located at the NW end of the crater complex. Historical eruptions have been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive activity that produced ashfall near the volcano.

The Current Colour Code for Dempo is ORANGE ALERT LEVEL 2
Logged

Shammu
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 34862


B(asic) I(nstructions) B(efore) L(eaving) E(arth)


View Profile WWW
« Reply #252 on: March 21, 2009, 11:23:27 PM »

DIENG

As of the 29th of January, the Pusat Vulkanologi Dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVDMBG) has reported that the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported on 22 January that field observations of Dieng's Sibanteng crater revealed that deposits from a 15th of January landslide (of an estimated total volume of 40,000 cubic metres) had covered the vent and triggered a phreatic eruption. The landslide deposits near the vent were covered by tephra from the 15th of January eruption.

The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century AD. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic eruptions. Toxic volcanic gas emission has caused fatalities and is a hazard at several craters. The abundant thermal features that dot the plateau and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal prospect.

The Current Colour Code for Dieng is ORANGE ALERT LEVEL 2 .
~~~~~~~~~~~

DUKONO

As of the 19th of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Dukono drifted SE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 11 February.

Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

The Current Colour Code for Dukono is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: EBEKO

As of the 19th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 March an ash plume from Ebeko drifted E at an altitude of 0.6 km (2,000 ft) a.s.l.

The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. The eastern part of the southern crater of Ebeko contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater of Ebeko is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters of Ebeko, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

The Current Colour Code for Ebeko is ORANGE
Logged

Shammu
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 34862


B(asic) I(nstructions) B(efore) L(eaving) E(arth)


View Profile WWW
« Reply #253 on: March 21, 2009, 11:24:59 PM »

DIENG

As of the 29th of January, the Pusat Vulkanologi Dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVDMBG) has reported that the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported on 22 January that field observations of Dieng's Sibanteng crater revealed that deposits from a 15th of January landslide (of an estimated total volume of 40,000 cubic metres) had covered the vent and triggered a phreatic eruption. The landslide deposits near the vent were covered by tephra from the 15th of January eruption.

The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century AD. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic eruptions. Toxic volcanic gas emission has caused fatalities and is a hazard at several craters. The abundant thermal features that dot the plateau and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal prospect.

The Current Colour Code for Dieng is ORANGE ALERT LEVEL 2 .
~~~~~~~~~~
DUKONO

As of the 19th of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Dukono drifted SE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 11 February.

Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

The Current Colour Code for Dukono is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~

Volcano: EBEKO

As of the 19th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 March an ash plume from Ebeko drifted E at an altitude of 0.6 km (2,000 ft) a.s.l.

The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. The eastern part of the southern crater of Ebeko contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater of Ebeko is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters of Ebeko, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

The Current Colour Code for Ebeko is ORANGE
Logged

Shammu
Global Moderator
Gold Member
*****
Offline Offline

Gender: Male
Posts: 34862


B(asic) I(nstructions) B(efore) L(eaving) E(arth)


View Profile WWW
« Reply #254 on: March 21, 2009, 11:27:17 PM »

HUNGA TONGA-HUNGA HA'APAI

As of the 21st of March, as posted by volcanism in Pacific, Tonga has reported that eruptive activity at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai appears to have declined somewhat over the last 12 hours, according to the latest advisory from Wellington VAAC (1029 hrs GMT 19 March 2009). The VAAC advisory, based on pilot observations and satellite imagery, reports "no more active eruptions, steaming to 6000ft (1800 metres)", with "white and wispy ash haze extending to large areas ENE blw 5000ft (below 1500 metres)". An earlier advisory (1758 hrs GMT 19 March 2009) reported frequent eruptions and ash clouds to 13000 feet, (4000 metres), with a plume extending 300 miles (480 kilometres) ENE.

At 01:30 hrs GMT today NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a MODIS image which showed only a small plume extending less than 10 kilometres ENE of the volcano (from the NASA MODIS Rapid Response site: original image is here, detail reproduced above). The BBC has some fresh video of the eruption from the inspection trip made by Tongan geologists yesterday. CBS News has the AP report of the eruption, with added video, pictures, and the usual mad/dumb/hilarious comments from the visiting public; they also have a short photo essay on the eruption (titled, in typically odd CBS fashion, ‘Undersea Volcano Erupts Photos’). As if this eruption wasn’t enough of a reminder that Tonga is situated in a geologically highly active part of the planet, there was a magnitude 7.9 earthquake in the Tongan Arc yesterday. There is no reason to suspect a direct link to the eruption. A tsunami alert was issued following the earthquake, but was later cancelled because it was "a tiny tsunami … nothing to worry about".

The small islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai cap a large seamount located about 30 km SSE of Falcon Island. The two linear andesitic islands are about 2 km long and represent the western and northern remnants of a the rim of a largely submarine caldera lying east and south of the islands. Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai reach an elevation of only 149 m and 128 m above sea level, respectively, and display inward-facing sea cliffs with lava and tephra layers dipping gently away from the submarine caldera. A rocky shoal 3.2 km SE of Hunga Ha'apai and 3 km south of Hunga Tonga marks the most prominent historically active vent. Submarine eruptions were reported here in 1912 and 1937 and from a fissure 1 km SSE of Hunga Ha'apai in 1988.

The Current Colour Code for Hunga Tonga is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 20th of March, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 6.0 km (or 19,700 ft) ASL are possible. The explosive activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels 12 and 18. There was not data for a technical reason on March 13-17. According to seismic data, probably ash plumes up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano. According to the data by AMC Yelizovo, an ash plume raising up to 3.9 km (12,800 ft) ASL and extending to the east from the volcano was observed by pilots on March 12th. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered over the volcano on March 12-14 and 16-17. Ash plumes extended about 200 km (124 mi) to the eastern directions from the volcano on March 12-13 and 16-17.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is ORANGE .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 21st of March, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that there were no significant changes. Lava from east rift zone vents continues to flow through tubes to the coast and is entering the ocean at two locations. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `O`o vents remain elevated.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: Very faint glow from the summit vent was captured in webcam images overnight and was observed from the field during this morning's tephra collection; very small amounts of tephra, mostly rock dust, are still being carried by the gas plume. This morning, trade winds are moving the white plume southwest over the Ka`u Desert. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain elevated and variable. The most recent emission rate was 500 tonnes/day on March 19th, compared to the 2003-2007 average rate of 140 tonnes/day. Summit tremor levels are at elevated values. Four earthquakes were located beneath the south caldera and one was located below the lower southwest rift zone. The number of RB2S2BL earthquakes are within background levels. The network of tiltmeters across Kilauea summit resumed recording weak deflation after completion of the most recent DI event. The GPS network (less sensitive than the tiltmeter network) recorded about 1 cm of contraction across the caldera over the past 3 months.

Last 24 hours in the middle east rift zone vents and flow field: Magma continues to degas through Pu`u `O`o Crater before erupting from vents to the east. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 1,000 tonnes/day measured on March 19th compared to the 2003-2007 average of about 1,700 tonnes/day for this vent. No incandescence was observed within the crater or from the TEB vents overnight. The tiltmeter on the north flank of Pu`u `O`o resumed recording weak deflation after the rain stopped last night. GPS stations spanning the crater (less sensitive than tiltmeters) have recorded about 1.5 cm of contraction over the past month and more than 5 cm over the past 3 months. Seismic tremor levels near the eruptive vents are increasing slowly but remain at low values. Lava from the TEB vent and the rootless shield complex flows through tubes to the ocean at Waikupanaha and Kupapa`u. The portion of the Prince lobe that recently pushed to the ocean is now about 350 m (1,150 ft) wide and mostly outside the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. The Kupapa`u entry had built up a sizeable bench area 320 m (1,050 ft) along-shore width and 70 m (230 ft) seaward extension and an estimated area of 0.015 sq km (3.8 acres). Weak thermal anomalies in the overnight GOES-WEST imagery suggests contnuing surface flow activity on the coastal plain.

Kilauea volcano, which overlaps the east flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions of Kilauea are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

The Current Colour Code for Kilauea is ORANGE.
Logged

Pages: 1 ... 15 16 [17] 18 19 ... 22 Go Up Print 
« previous next »
Jump to:  



More From ChristiansUnite...    About Us | Privacy Policy | | ChristiansUnite.com Site Map | Statement of Beliefs



Copyright © 1999-2019 ChristiansUnite.com. All rights reserved.
Please send your questions, comments, or bug reports to the

Powered by SMF 1.1 RC2 | SMF © 2001-2005, Lewis Media