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Shammu
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« Reply #195 on: April 11, 2008, 06:20:26 PM »

Mt. ETNA

As of the 3rd of April, it has been reported by Charles Rivière that a new day of bad weather yesterday with 10 cm of snow storm in Sapienza is this morning the sun is back. Work of clearing of the track to the top of the arrival of the cable car with 2500m was useless since once again it is necessary to start again. What corresponds to 2 days of inactivities, in this moment there is very little world on Mt. Etna, the Easter in advance on the calendar, the capricious weather and can be also the raising of prices of the Sapienza excursion - TDF which passed at 49.50 ?. The crew moved towards the refuge of TDF, Chartles has rackets for snow, but not need to use them snow is hard with the cold wind. The crew met a team of the Alpine Helps of Guardia di Finanza and discussed a little of the next voyage in May on the Elbrus Mount, an old inactive volcano in Russia which culminates with more 5600m. While arriving at the refuge of TDF, a rather strong wind coming from North folds back the Northern gas plumes of the craters Is and Central on the driving path towards Bocca Nuova, the crew moved towards the base of the Southern crater Am and pass by the effusive mouth of the activity of July 2001 and of Sudestino (activity of paroxysms of the South East April 2000) this zone is relatively hot with temperatures on the ground of more than 100° centigrade. the magma is not far ! Direction then towards the depression on the side East of the Southern crater Is, the whirling gases which escape from this mouth do not enable the crew to arrive at the edge. No noise of activity, nor of projection of ash.

Mt. Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Mt. Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

The Mt. Etna is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 11th of April, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) has reported that a large explosion occurred at Turvurvur crater, Rabaul Volcano last night at 2129hrs local time. The explosion rattled windows in Rabaul town and covered the cone with fragments of lava. This morning fine ash was falling on Matupit Island. A night glow was visible at the crater.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The Rabaul volcano is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~

KILAUEA

As of the 11th of April, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that Kilauea Volcano is active at two locations. At the summit, a small explosion occurred at 2308hrs. Ash production and elevated sulfur dioxide emissions continued from the Halema`uma`u vent (both assumed from the most recent measurements). Seismic tremor levels continued elevated to several times background levels. At the coast, lava continued to flow from the east rift zone through tubes into the ocean at the Waikupanaha and Ki ocean entries.

Hazard Summary: Hazardous conditions exist in the summit area and the area between the rift zone (Pu`u `O`o to Kupaianaha) downslope to the ocean between Kalapana and Kapa`ahu.

1. Summit: The current increase in sulfur dioxide emission rates at the summit means that SO2 concentrations in the air are likely to be at hazardous levels for areas downwind of emission sources in Halema`uma`u crater. The National Park Service has closed Crater Rim Drive through the south caldera area until further notice. Most people are sensitive to sulfur dioxide at these levels. Children and individuals with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or other breathing problems especially should avoid downwind areas. During tradewind conditions (brisk winds from the northeast), concentrations will be highest and most hazardous in the south caldera: southwest rift zone, south caldera pullouts, and the Halema`uma`u overlook parking lot - The National Park Service has closed this section of Crater Rim Drive. During weak or southerly winds, concentrations may be high and hazardous throughout the summit area of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and nearby communities. Stay informed about SO2 concentrations in continuously monitored areas at Jaggar Museum and Kilauea Visitor Centre. The gas plume also includes fine rock dust downwind of the source. During the past few days, several people have reported a fine grit on their car windshields while driving under or in the ash plume along highway 11. The possibility of future small explosions or eruption of lava from Halema`uma`u Crater cannot be ruled out.

2. Pu`u `O`o/July 21/TEB flow field: Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Pu`u `O`o are high and result in hazardous concentrations downwind. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Wao Kele o Puna is also closed.

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« Reply #196 on: April 11, 2008, 06:21:21 PM »

3. There continues to be a threat from lava flows to anyone within Royal Gardens subdivision and the coastal plain. As long as lava flows are active south of fissure D, the subdivision is within likely paths of future flows. The rootless shields, which are now less than two miles from the subdivision, can collapse and release lava flows that advance that distance within a few days. Tube- or channel-fed lava flows established within the subdivision and on the coastal plain remain a threat due to tube ruptures which can produce new lava flows. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air. Hawai`i County Civil Defence has been notified and is taking appropriate measures.

4. Lava entering the ocean poses two additional hazards - potential collapse and laze. Lava entering the ocean builds a delta over its own rubble that is extremely unstable. That delta can collapse without warning and expose very hot surfaces to waves which can explode and throw rock debris up to one-quarter mile inland. For these reason, spectators should avoid the delta and the area one-quarter mile inland. The interaction between seawater and lava produces a steam plume laced with acids and fine particles of volcanic glass or 'laze' that is unhealthy if inhaled and can produce skin or eye irritation if contacted. Hawai`i County continues to open a public viewing area between 1400hrs and 2200hrs with the last car allowed in at 2000hrs.

TEB lava flows at the coast as of yesterday evening (from combined HVO and NPS eruption crew reports): Three Waikupanaha and one Ki ocean entries (total of 4) were active yesterday, although the Ki entry seemed to be foundering in the evening. No surface flows were found on the coastal plain during the day, but a breakout near the road was noted around 2200hrs.

Last 24 hours in the area of the east rift zone that includes Pu`u `O`o and the TEB vent: Lava continued to degas at shallow levels beneath Pu`u `O`o before entering the lava tube system under the TEB vent and the rootless shield complex and flowing southeast to the ocean. The lack of surface flow activity along the tube indicates that it continues to be stable. No incandescence was observed from the TEB vent, the rootless shields, or in Pu`u `O`o crater by webcam overnight. The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter recorded daily oscillations. GPS receivers on opposite sides of the crater have recorded no extension or contraction above measurement error since March 27. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values; episodic seismic tremor bursts continued. The SO2 emission rate was about 1,780 tonnes/day when last measured on April 8.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: HVO's data suggest that molten lava may reside at shallow depth within the new vent. A small explosion at 2308hrs ejected a few blocks up to the rim of Halema`uma`u crater, a little more than 70 m (230 ft) above the vent. By morning light, the vent appeared enlarged; the most obvious change was the removal of a lava rim that separated the vent from the crater floor. The April 9 explosion was smaller than the March 19 event. Preliminary data showed that the debris from last night's explosion differed from the March 19 debris in three important ways: 1) the size of the deposit was smaller, 2) the debris was deposited in a more southerly direction, and 3) the debris contained volcanic glass shards. Many of the ejected fragments were hot enough to melt through the plastic ash collectors. A white plume continued to issue from the vent; returned trade winds is blowing the plume to the west and southwest. HVO cannot confirm the production of ash because the collectors were, in a sense, contaminated by the explosion debris; no ash was detected falling from the plume this morning. Overnight, the base of the plume glowed between passing fog, but was dark briefly just after the explosion.

Seismic tremor levels continued to be elevated to several times background values. The summit tiltmeter network recorded the completion of Tuesday's DI tilt event and daily oscillations. GPS receivers on opposite sides of the summit caldera recorded slowed contraction since late March. Two earthquakes were located beneath the summit caldera and two on south flank faults. Wind speeds were not sufficient yesterday morning to get an SO2 emission rate; the most recent measurement was 800 tonnes/day on April 7, compared to a background rate of between 150-200 tonnes/day. Shifting winds yesterday included much of the summit in SO2 levels that peaked just over 0.6 ppm. With the return of trade winds, the SO2 concentrations are below detection limits this morning.

Definitions of terms used in the update: mauka, makai: Hawaiian terms for the direction toward the mountains and toward the ocean, respectively. incandescence: the production of visible light from a hot surface. The colour of the light is related to the temperature of the surface. Some surfaces can display dull red incandescence at temperatures as low as 430 degrees Centigrade (806 degrees Fahrenheit). By contrast, molten lava displays bright orange to orange-yellow light from surfaces that are hotter than 900 degrees C (1,650 degrees F). TEB: The most recent phase of activity started with a breakout from the perched channel/pond system on November 21, 2007 or Thanksgiving eve. TEB stands for Thanksgiving Eve Breakout. kipuka: a Hawaiian word which describes an area of vegetation that is completely surrounded by active or inactive lava flows. NPS eruption crew: a hardy band of experienced individuals who interpret active lava flow viewing for visitors while keeping them at a safe distance. The National Park Service (NPS) eruption crews normally work within the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park but have been supporting the Hawai`i County lava viewing effort since it opened on Saturday, March 8, 2008. rootless shields: Shield vents are normally built directly over a lava-supplying fissure, as is the case for the TEB shield. Rootless shield vents are not built directly over a lava-supplying fissure and are, instead, fed horizontally from a fissure via a lava tube. Rootless shields have been built over lava tubes in the last few years. perched ponds or channels: A lava pond or channel becomes perched above the surrounding terrain when repeated overflows build up their edges. The perching continues as long as the overflows continue. The channel developed by the July 21, 2007 eruption perched itself more than 100 feet above the pre-eruption ground surface. gas emission rates: usually in metric tonnes (= 1,000 kilograms)/day if measured at HVO, a gas emission rate is the rate at which gas is released by a volcanic vent. Typical background SO2 emission rates for Kilauea are 150-200 tonnes/day from sources in Halema`uma`u crater and 1,500-3,000 tonnes/day from Pu`u `O`o vent. Once the gas is released into the air, the hazard it poses to living things is directly related to its concentration. Higher concentrations are found downwind of sources so changes in wind direction and speed can bring gases at hazardous concentrations into different areas. LP earthquakes: Most volcanic earthquakes that occur in Hawai`i are short-period (SP) in nature, meaning that the shaking starts abruptly and contains relatively high frequency components; these quakes are usually associated with subsurface rock failure (breakage). Long-period (LP) earthquakes have lower frequency energy and emergent beginnings, meaning that their signals start with small amplitude and become stronger. LP earthquakes are usually associated with subsurface fluid movement. DI tilt event: DI is an abbreviation for 'deflation-inflation' and describes a volcanic event of uncertain significance. DI events are recorded by tiltmeters at Kilauea summit as an abrupt deflation of up to a few microradians in magnitude lasting several hours to 2-3 days followed by an abrupt inflation of approximately equal magnitude. The tilt events are usually accompanied by an increase in summit tremor during the deflation phase. A careful analysis of these events suggests that they may be related to changes in magma supply to a storage reservoir at less than 1 km depth, just east of Halema`uma`u crater. Usually, though not always, these changes propagate through the magma conduit from the summit to the eruption site, as many of the DI events at Kilauea summit are also recorded at a tiltmeter at Pu`u `O`o, delayed by 1-2 hours. DI events often correlate with pulses and/or pauses in the eruption at the Pu`u `O`o/July 21/TEB vents.

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
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« Reply #197 on: April 11, 2008, 06:22:42 PM »

ARENAL

As of the 1st of April, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that the volcano has been erupting almost every day since 1968. Recently, the lava is streaming down every 5 minutes or so but it could vary from 2 to 45 minutes depending if the volcano is in a quiet or active period. It's moody, just like some people.

The Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica (10.5N, 84.7W), around 90 km north-west of San José, in the province of Alajuela. Recognised as a volcano since the 19th century, it was known by foreign investigators as "Volcan Costa Rica, Rio Frio", "Canastos" Volcano and "Cerro de los Guatusos". Arenal is the youngest and most active of all the mountains in Costa Rica. Scientists have been able to date it back to more than 4000 years ago. The area remained largely unexplored until 1937, when a documented expedition took place to reach the summit.

The Current Colour Code for Arenal is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

YASUR

As of the 9th of April, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that a major earthquake (magnitude 7.6) hit southern Vanuatu today at 2346hrs local time. The earthquake was located east of the South New Hebrides Trench and 97 km SW of Yasur volcano. The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre said there was no tsunami threat. The main earthquake was preceded by a large and two medium sized earthquakes; magnitude 6.5, 5.9, and 4.9. Yasur is the closest active volcano to the earthquake epicentre and is currently erupting.

Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time ! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Projectile ejection Yasur volcano has not produced a large destructive eruption historically. There is no indication that a large eruption will occur in the near future at Yasur volcano. Magma chamber inflation is currently being accommodated by the volcano. The largest reasonable level of activity expected is the ejection of bombs 3-4 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows threatening low lying areas near the volcano. This type of activity would pose a danger to nearby villages. Ground deformation Yasur volcano has the second greatest level of ground uplift in the world. Since 1000 AD there has been a yearly average uplift of 149 mm. This is only beaten by Iwo Jima volcano in Japan with 200 mm uplift per year since 1200 AD. Tsunami Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes, and landslides may result in the production of tsunamis which may threaten coastal populations. Flooding Lake Siwi broke through its natural dam in 2002 flooding Sulphur Bay Village and destroying houses. Landslides Landslide and debris flow pose significant risks to the surrounding population. Uplift of the caldera creates unstable ground, combined with the deposition of unstable ash and cinders. Ashfall Periods of strong volcanic activity may cause ashfall over large areas of Tanna Island. Ashfall can damage crops, cause roofs to collapse, and result in mudflows after rain. Gas samples collected from the plume crossing Yasur crater rim in 1988 contained SO2 and HCl gases at concentrations between 3 and 9 ppm. This is a hazardous level of gas. This level of SO2 causes a decrease in lung function and immediate irritation of eyes nose and throat. Lava Flow Lava flows occur infrequently at Yasur volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ALERT LEVEL 3
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« Reply #198 on: April 11, 2008, 06:24:03 PM »

STROMBOLI

As of the 1st of April, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that Stromboli continues with its relentless eruptions. The volcano is remarkable because of the length of time for which it has been in almost continuous eruption. For at least the last 2,000 years, the same pattern of eruption has been maintained, in which explosions occur at the summit craters with mild to moderate eruptions of incandescent volcanic bombs at intervals ranging from minutes to hours. This characteristic Strombolian eruption, as it is known, is also observed at other volcanoes worldwide. Eruptions from the summit craters typically result in few second-lasting mild energetic bursts emitting ash, incandescent lava fragments and lithic blocks up to a few hundred meters high. Stromboli's activity is almost exclusively explosive, but lava flows do occasionally occur - an effusive eruption in 2002 was its first in 17 years.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
~~~~~~~

Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of April, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that the volcano continues to have frequent Strombolian eruptions with infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows are confined to inner crater. Some of the notable features of Mt. Erebus are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activity. One of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes. Thsi volcano is the most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring and interpretation of seismic and seismoacoustic activity volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the world's southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE
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« Reply #199 on: April 11, 2008, 06:41:40 PM »

WOW! - Thanks for the update Brother!

I wonder if anyone has reported any of this to Al Gore. After all, Any ONE of these volcanoes could GLOBALLY effect the climate. Maybe the countries of origins of these volcanoes should be paying Al Gore a tax for emissions. UM? - I wonder if CARBON could be involved? Al really needs to put on his helmet and go CORK those VOLCANOES.
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« Reply #200 on: April 15, 2008, 01:32:42 PM »

Thousands Evacuate as Colombian Volcano Erupts in Shower of Hot Ash

Tuesday, April 15, 2008

Colombia's Nevado del Huila volcano erupted in a shower of hot ash, prompting authorities to evacuate thousands of people and declare a state of alert.

There were no reports of damage or injuries.

The volcano, 150 miles southwest of Bogata, erupted at 11:08 p.m. Monday (0508 GMT Tuesday), according to the Colombian Institute of Geology and Mining.

Martha Calvache, deputy director of the institute's seismic department, told Caracol Radio that authorities were unable to estimate the size of the eruption.

She said the volcano was expelling ash. "Other types of material could come, like lava, but we don't at the moment know the exact situation," she said.

Caracol Radio reported that between 13,000 and 15,000 people who live near the volcano were being evacuated.

Thousands Evacuate as Colombian Volcano Erupts in Shower of Hot Ash
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« Reply #201 on: May 10, 2008, 12:09:58 PM »

Volcano Awakens After 10,000 Years <---- (I disagree with the time frame. DW)
Source: The Associated Press
Posted: 05/03/08 3:24PM

SANTIAGO, Chile (May 3) - Authorities evacuated hundreds of people from villages in southern Chile Friday after a snowcapped volcano considered dormant for thousands of years erupted. The blast sent minor earthquakes rippling through the region.

The 3,550-foot Chaiten volcano belched fire and ash Thursday night, causing more than 60 small tremors in the Los Lagos region, 750 miles south of the capital, Santiago, the government's Emergency Bureau said.

Mild seismic activity could continue for the next several days, said bureau director Carmen Fernandez.

Chile's government declared a state of emergency, evacuating as many as 1,500 people from nearby villages and the town of Chaiten, just over 6 miles from the volcano, the bureau said.

The amount of ash falling in Chaiten had dropped considerably by Friday afternoon, and the wind was moving it southeast, Emergency Bureau volcanologist Juan Cayupi told The Associated Press by telephone there.

Ash from the eruption was polluting water supplies and prompting officials to hand out more than 10,000 protective masks, said Interior Minister Edmundo Perez.

Military, police, doctors and seismologists traveled to the region by sea to avoid the area's remote mountain roads, Los Lagos Gov. Sergio Galilea said.

Winds also carried ash over the Andes mountains to neighboring Argentina, where the Education Ministry suspended classes in several towns, including Esquel and Trevelin -- two popular Patagonian tourist destinations.

Authorities there declared a state of alert on two major highways as falling ash reduced visibility.

The Chaiten volcano has "probably been dormant for about 9,000 or 10,000 years but that's not unusual," said Charles Stern, a professor of volcanology at the University of Colorado, who specializes in Andes volcanoes.

Stern, who has studied Chaiten specifically, said it is still considered "a potentially active volcano."

Chaiten last had "an explosive eruption that generated a very big ash cloud," he added. "I would really worry about the village of Chaiten. I think they would want to get everybody out of there really soon."

Volcano Awakens After 10,000 Years
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« Reply #202 on: July 11, 2008, 12:29:17 AM »

Chile Llaima volcano revs up, evacuations considered

Thu Jul 10, 2008 7:28pm EDT

By Rodrigo Martinez

SANTIAGO (Reuters) - Chile's National Emergency Office (Onemi) said on Thursday it extended a red alert to additional locales near the Llaima volcano, even though the intensity of the volcanic activity had decreased.

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Llaima, one of the most active volcanoes in South America, spewed pyroclastic rock 1,300 feet into night skies early Thursday morning, spooking residents a week after lava shot down one of its sides.

Onemi said later in the day that 19 people were in the process of being evacuated from around the volcano's base, including six employees at the Las Araucarias ski resort.

The office said it decided to evacuate the areas even though the intensity of volcanic activity decreased in the day.

"It's a phenomenon that can undergo big fluctuations, so we think there is still a risk that the Calbuco and Lan Lan rivers could overflow," Onemi Director Carmen Fernandez told Reuters.

Llaima, about 435 miles south of the capital Santiago, belched fiery volcanic rocks into the sky above its crater at 3:20 a.m. and the images were caught on national television.

Onemi activated emergency committees in the villages of Vilcun, Melipeuco and Curacautin as a result, also putting local police and fire departments on alert.

Snow-capped Llaima, near Chile's picturesque lake region, erupted violently on New Year's Day, forcing the evacuation of some tourists and residents from the surrounding Conguillio National Park.

The 10,253-foot volcano then belched ash and lava in February and saw renewed activity last week that required the evacuation of about 50 people

Chile Llaima volcano revs up, evacuations considered
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« Reply #203 on: July 11, 2008, 07:07:07 PM »

Huge Volcanoes May Be Erupting Under Arctic Ice

Wednesday, July 02, 2008
By Jeanna Bryner


New evidence deep beneath the Arctic ice suggests a series of underwater volcanoes have erupted in violent explosions in the past decade.

Hidden 2.5 miles (4,000 meters) beneath the Arctic surface, the volcanoes are up to a mile (2,000 meters) in diameter and a few hundred yards tall.

They formed along the Gakkel Ridge, a lengthy crack in the ocean crust where two rocky plates are spreading apart, pulling new melted rock to the surface.

Until now, scientists thought undersea volcanoes only dribbled lava from cracks in the seafloor. The extreme pressure from the overlying water makes it difficult for gas and magma to blast outward.

But the Gakkel Ridge, which is relatively unexplored and considered unique for its slow spreading rate, is just the place for surprises.

Robert Reeves-Sohn of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Massachusetts and his colleagues discovered jagged, glassy fragments of rock scattered around the volcanoes, suggesting explosive eruptions occurred between 1999 and 2001.

They hypothesize that the slow spreading could allow excess gas to build up in pockets of magma beneath the oceanic crust. When the gas pressure gets high enough, it pops like a champagne bottle being uncorked.

With news this week that polar ice is melting dramatically, underwater Arctic pyrotechnics might seem like a logical smoking gun.

Scientists don't see any significant connection, however.

"We don't believe the volcanoes had much effect on the overlying ice," Reeves-Sohn told LiveScience, "but they seem to have had a major impact on the overlying water column."

The eruptions discharge large amounts of carbon dioxide, helium, trace metals and heat into the water over long distances, he said.

The research, detailed in the June 26 issue of the journal Nature, was funded by NASA, the National Science Foundation and WHOI.

Huge Volcanoes May Be Erupting Under Arctic Ice
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« Reply #204 on: July 13, 2008, 01:13:21 AM »

Remote Alaska volcano erupts, spewing rock and ash

A volcano erupted Saturday with little warning on a remote island in Alaska, sending residents of a nearby ranch fleeing from falling ash and volcanic rock.

The Okmok Caldera erupted late Saturday morning, just hours after seismologists at the Alaska Volcano Center began detecting a series of small tremors.

The explosion flung an ash cloud at least 50,000 feet high, said geophysicist Steve McNutt.

Nine people, including three children, were at Fort Glenn, a private cattle ranch six miles south of the volcano on Umnak Island, located in the western Aleutians. They managed to call authorities on a satellite phone before losing their connection.

A vessel responding to a Coast Guard request for emergency assistance managed to pick them up Saturday night, and the Coast Guard canceled plans to send its own cutter to the island, which is about 860 miles southwest of Anchorage.

Coast Guard Petty Officer Lee Goldsmith said those at the ranch reported rock and ash falling around them.

Okmok is 60 miles west of the busy fishing port of Dutch Harbor on Unalaska Island. Ash was reported falling in the region, McNutt said.

Two planned flights from Unalaska were canceled in response to the eruption, said Jerry Lucas, a spokesman for PenAir, the primary airliner serving the area.

The 3,500-foot volcano last erupted in 1997, according to McNutt. The volcano has shown signs of increased activity during the last few months, he said.

Previous eruptions have typically produced lava flows, but the volcano center could not immediately determine if that had occurred in Saturday's explosion, McNutt said.
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Joh 9:4  I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work.
nChrist
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« Reply #205 on: July 14, 2008, 02:46:50 AM »

Quote
New evidence deep beneath the Arctic ice suggests a series of underwater volcanoes have erupted in violent explosions in the past decade.

Hidden 2.5 miles (4,000 meters) beneath the Arctic surface, the volcanoes are up to a mile (2,000 meters) in diameter and a few hundred yards tall.

They formed along the Gakkel Ridge, a lengthy crack in the ocean crust where two rocky plates are spreading apart, pulling new melted rock to the surface.

I think this is just a tiny example of the massive POWER GOD has locked up in HIS CREATION! This is more than enough to make me say WOW! Our ALL POWERFUL CREATOR made this volcano. How many other things did HE make that we don't know anything about? Can man make anything that compares? NO! Our biggest nuclear weapons would be like toys. Is it a coincidence that we are learning about and seeing things like this during these specific times? I don't think so, but I don't claim to know anything special at all. We have been able to read Bible Prophecy recorded in the Holy Bible for thousands of years. Much of it is too horrible for men to even imagine, but the events are the Promises of the CREATOR! The events will happen at HIS chosen time that HE set before the current earth had any form.

GOD gave us HIS WORD, the Holy Bible, for many reasons, HIS Reasons. HE gave us Bible Prophecy to inform us of future events HE wants us to know about. We are HIS Children, so we know there is a reason for everything HE tells us in HIS WORD. HIS WORD will endure forever because HE said it would. Likewise, Bible Prophecy will happen because HE said it WILL! We don't understand everything GOD has told us in HIS WORD, but we must believe it because HE said it!

I've posted the two following messages before, but I want to post them again. They will give everyone an idea about where to read about what GOD said is about to happen!


Love In Christ,
Tom



Christian Quotes 99 -
But we see a more favored spot of grass
As the sheep of His pasture, He has allotted our portion
for us. But we see a more favored spot of grass on the
opposite valley. The sunbeams are playing upon it. We
imagine the herbage is greener and more luxuriant. We
cross to the other valley. The sun gets behind a cloud.
The bright patch is found to be in reality no better than
that which we had left!
What divine philosophy there is in the Apostle's injunction,
"Be content with such things as you have; for He has said,
I will never leave you nor forsake you." Hebrews 13:5
 -- John MacDuff  1895
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« Reply #206 on: July 14, 2008, 02:49:54 AM »

Matthew 24:23-31 NASB  "Then if anyone says to you, 'Behold, here is the Christ,' or 'There He is,' do not believe him.  24  "For false Christs and false prophets will arise and will show great signs and wonders, so as to mislead, if possible, even the elect.  25  "Behold, I have told you in advance.  26  "So if they say to you, 'Behold, He is in the wilderness,' do not go out, or, 'Behold, He is in the inner rooms,' do not believe them.  27  "For just as the lightning comes from the east and flashes even to the west, so will the coming of the Son of Man be.  28  "Wherever the corpse is, there the vultures will gather.  29  "But immediately after the tribulation of those days THE SUN WILL BE DARKENED, AND THE MOON WILL NOT GIVE ITS LIGHT, AND THE STARS WILL FALL from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken.  30  "And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the SON OF MAN COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF THE SKY with power and great glory.  31  "And He will send forth His angels with A GREAT TRUMPET and THEY WILL GATHER TOGETHER His elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other.

Matthew 24:32-44 NASB  "Now learn the parable from the fig tree: when its branch has already become tender and puts forth its leaves, you know that summer is near;  33  so, you too, when you see all these things, recognize that He is near, right at the door.  34  "Truly I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place.  35  "Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will not pass away.  36  "But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone.  37  "For the coming of the Son of Man will be just like the days of Noah.  38  "For as in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark,  39  and they did not understand until the flood came and took them all away; so will the coming of the Son of Man be.  40  "Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken and one will be left.  41  "Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken and one will be left.  42  "Therefore be on the alert, for you do not know which day your Lord is coming.  43  "But be sure of this, that if the head of the house had known at what time of the night the thief was coming, he would have been on the alert and would not have allowed his house to be broken into.  44  "For this reason you also must be ready; for the Son of Man is coming at an hour when you do not think He will.

Revelation 11:1-13 NASB  Then there was given me a measuring rod like a staff; and someone said, "Get up and measure the temple of God and the altar, and those who worship in it.  2  "Leave out the court which is outside the temple and do not measure it, for it has been given to the nations; and they will tread under foot the holy city for forty-two months.  3  "And I will grant authority to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy for twelve hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth."  4  These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth.  5  And if anyone wants to harm them, fire flows out of their mouth and devours their enemies; so if anyone wants to harm them, he must be killed in this way.  6  These have the power to shut up the sky, so that rain will not fall during the days of their prophesying; and they have power over the waters to turn them into blood, and to strike the earth with every plague, as often as they desire.  7  When they have finished their testimony, the beast that comes up out of the abyss will make war with them, and overcome them and kill them.  8  And their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city which mystically is called Sodom and Egypt, where also their Lord was crucified.  9  Those from the peoples and tribes and tongues and nations will look at their dead bodies for three and a half days, and will not permit their dead bodies to be laid in a tomb.  10  And those who dwell on the earth will rejoice over them and celebrate; and they will send gifts to one another, because these two prophets tormented those who dwell on the earth.  11  But after the three and a half days, the breath of life from God came into them, and they stood on their feet; and great fear fell upon those who were watching them.  12  And they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, "Come up here." Then they went up into heaven in the cloud, and their enemies watched them.  13  And in that hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell; seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven.

Ezekiel 7:1-9 NASB  Moreover, the word of the LORD came to me saying,  2  "And you, son of man, thus says the Lord GOD to the land of Israel, 'An end! The end is coming on the four corners of the land.  3  'Now the end is upon you, and I will send My anger against you; I will judge you according to your ways and bring all your abominations upon you.  4  'For My eye will have no pity on you, nor will I spare you, but I will bring your ways upon you, and your abominations will be among you; then you will know that I am the LORD!'  5  "Thus says the Lord GOD, 'A disaster, unique disaster, behold it is coming!  6  'An end is coming; the end has come! It has awakened against you; behold, it has come!  7  'Your doom has come to you, O inhabitant of the land. The time has come, the day is near--tumult rather than joyful shouting on the mountains.  8  'Now I will shortly pour out My wrath on you and spend My anger against you; judge you according to your ways and bring on you all your abominations.  9  'My eye will show no pity nor will I spare. I will repay you according to your ways, while your abominations are in your midst; then you will know that I, the LORD, do the smiting.

Ezekiel 7:14-20 NASB  'They have blown the trumpet and made everything ready, but no one is going to the battle, for My wrath is against all their multitude.  15  'The sword is outside and the plague and the famine are within. He who is in the field will die by the sword; famine and the plague will also consume those in the city.  16  'Even when their survivors escape, they will be on the mountains like doves of the valleys, all of them mourning, each over his own iniquity.  17  'All hands will hang limp and all knees will become like water.  18  'They will gird themselves with sackcloth and shuddering will overwhelm them; and shame will be on all faces and baldness on all their heads.  19  'They will fling their silver into the streets and their gold will become an abhorrent thing; their silver and their gold will not be able to deliver them in the day of the wrath of the LORD. They cannot satisfy their appetite nor can they fill their stomachs, for their iniquity has become an occasion of stumbling.  20  'They transformed the beauty of His ornaments into pride, and they made the images of their abominations and their detestable things with it; therefore I will make it an abhorrent thing to them.

Ezekiel 7:25-27 NASB  'When anguish comes, they will seek peace, but there will be none.  26  'Disaster will come upon disaster and rumor will be added to rumor; then they will seek a vision from a prophet, but the law will be lost from the priest and counsel from the elders.  27  'The king will mourn, the prince will be clothed with horror, and the hands of the people of the land will tremble. According to their conduct I will deal with them, and by their judgments I will judge them. And they will know that I am the LORD.'"
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« Reply #207 on: July 14, 2008, 02:51:04 AM »

Ezekiel 38:14-23 NASB  "Therefore prophesy, son of man, and say to Gog, 'Thus says the Lord GOD, "On that day when My people Israel are living securely, will you not know it?  15  "You will come from your place out of the remote parts of the north, you and many peoples with you, all of them riding on horses, a great assembly and a mighty army;  16  and you will come up against My people Israel like a cloud to cover the land. It shall come about in the last days that I will bring you against My land, so that the nations may know Me when I am sanctified through you before their eyes, O Gog."  17  'Thus says the Lord GOD, "Are you the one of whom I spoke in former days through My servants the prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days for many years that I would bring you against them?  18  "It will come about on that day, when Gog comes against the land of Israel," declares the Lord GOD, "that My fury will mount up in My anger.  19  "In My zeal and in My blazing wrath I declare that on that day there will surely be a great earthquake in the land of Israel.  20  "The fish of the sea, the birds of the heavens, the beasts of the field, all the creeping things that creep on the earth, and all the men who are on the face of the earth will shake at My presence; the mountains also will be thrown down, the steep pathways will collapse and every wall will fall to the ground.  21  "I will call for a sword against him on all My mountains," declares the Lord GOD. "Every man's sword will be against his brother.  22  "With pestilence and with blood I will enter into judgment with him; and I will rain on him and on his troops, and on the many peoples who are with him, a torrential rain, with hailstones, fire and brimstone.  23  "I will magnify Myself, sanctify Myself, and make Myself known in the sight of many nations; and they will know that I am the LORD."'

Ezekiel 39:1-7 NASB  "And you, son of man, prophesy against Gog and say, 'Thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I am against you, O Gog, prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal;  2  and I will turn you around, drive you on, take you up from the remotest parts of the north and bring you against the mountains of Israel.  3  "I will strike your bow from your left hand and dash down your arrows from your right hand.  4  "You will fall on the mountains of Israel, you and all your troops and the peoples who are with you; I will give you as food to every kind of predatory bird and beast of the field.  5  "You will fall on the open field; for it is I who have spoken," declares the Lord GOD.  6  "And I will send fire upon Magog and those who inhabit the coastlands in safety; and they will know that I am the LORD.  7  "My holy name I will make known in the midst of My people Israel; and I will not let My holy name be profaned anymore. And the nations will know that I am the LORD, the Holy One in Israel.

Ezekiel 39:17-22 NASB  "As for you, son of man, thus says the Lord GOD, 'Speak to every kind of bird and to every beast of the field, "Assemble and come, gather from every side to My sacrifice which I am going to sacrifice for you, as a great sacrifice on the mountains of Israel, that you may eat flesh and drink blood.  18  "You will eat the flesh of mighty men and drink the blood of the princes of the earth, as though they were rams, lambs, goats and bulls, all of them fatlings of Bashan.  19  "So you will eat fat until you are glutted, and drink blood until you are drunk, from My sacrifice which I have sacrificed for you.  20  "You will be glutted at My table with horses and charioteers, with mighty men and all the men of war," declares the Lord GOD.  21  "And I will set My glory among the nations; and all the nations will see My judgment which I have executed and My hand which I have laid on them.  22  "And the house of Israel will know that I am the LORD their God from that day onward.

Ezekiel 39:25-29 NASB  Therefore thus says the Lord GOD, "Now I will restore the fortunes of Jacob and have mercy on the whole house of Israel; and I will be jealous for My holy name.  26  "They will forget their disgrace and all their treachery which they perpetrated against Me, when they live securely on their own land with no one to make them afraid.  27  "When I bring them back from the peoples and gather them from the lands of their enemies, then I shall be sanctified through them in the sight of the many nations.  28  "Then they will know that I am the LORD their God because I made them go into exile among the nations, and then gathered them again to their own land; and I will leave none of them there any longer.  29  "I will not hide My face from them any longer, for I will have poured out My Spirit on the house of Israel," declares the Lord GOD.

Isaiah 2:1-5 NASB  The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.  2  Now it will come about that In the last days The mountain of the house of the LORD Will be established as the chief of the mountains, And will be raised above the hills; And all the nations will stream to it.  3  And many peoples will come and say, "Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; That He may teach us concerning His ways And that we may walk in His paths." For the law will go forth from Zion And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.  4  And He will judge between the nations, And will render decisions for many peoples; And they will hammer their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not lift up sword against nation, And never again will they learn war.  5  Come, house of Jacob, and let us walk in the light of the LORD.

Isaiah 9:2-7 NASB  The people who walk in darkness Will see a great light; Those who live in a dark land, The light will shine on them.  3  You shall multiply the nation, You shall increase their gladness; They will be glad in Your presence As with the gladness of harvest, As men rejoice when they divide the spoil.  4  For You shall break the yoke of their burden and the staff on their shoulders, The rod of their oppressor, as at the battle of Midian.  5  For every boot of the booted warrior in the battle tumult, And cloak rolled in blood, will be for burning, fuel for the fire.  6  For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.  7  There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, On the throne of David and over his kingdom, To establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness From then on and forevermore. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will accomplish this.

Isaiah 65:17-25 NASB  "For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; And the former things will not be remembered or come to mind.  18  "But be glad and rejoice forever in what I create; For behold, I create Jerusalem for rejoicing And her people for gladness.  19  "I will also rejoice in Jerusalem and be glad in My people; And there will no longer be heard in her The voice of weeping and the sound of crying.  20  "No longer will there be in it an infant who lives but a few days, Or an old man who does not live out his days; For the youth will die at the age of one hundred And the one who does not reach the age of one hundred Will be thought accursed.  21  "They will build houses and inhabit them; They will also plant vineyards and eat their fruit.  22  "They will not build and another inhabit, They will not plant and another eat; For as the lifetime of a tree, so will be the days of My people, And My chosen ones will wear out the work of their hands.  23  "They will not labor in vain, Or bear children for calamity; For they are the offspring of those blessed by the LORD, And their descendants with them.  24  "It will also come to pass that before they call, I will answer; and while they are still speaking, I will hear.  25  "The wolf and the lamb will graze together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox; and dust will be the serpent's food. They will do no evil or harm in all My holy mountain," says the LORD.
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« Reply #208 on: July 18, 2008, 12:44:44 AM »

Yellowstone Park A Ticking Bomb
Jul 12, 2008

(WCCO) Three million visitors go to Yellowstone National Park each year, but little do they know, it's the world's largest active volcano.

It's the country's first national park for obvious reasons. The beauty and wonder of Yellowstone provide a protected home for wildlife as well as being an amazing tourist attraction. It's an incredible piece of earth for a good reason.

"There is this huge volcano underneath Yellowstone National Park," said Greg Breining, a writer from St. Paul.

Breining spent some time studying the geology and enjoying the natural wonders of Yellowstone before writing Super Volcano: The Ticking Time Bomb Beneath Yellowstone National Park.

"There is this huge reservoir of magma just 3 or 4 miles beneath the surface of the park, and it is that magma -- this is still an active volcano -- that creates the geysers, the mudpots, the hot springs, all the other features for which Yellowstone is famous," said Breining.

The volcano here has erupted three times in the past 2 million years at fairly regular intervals of every 600,000 to 700,000 years.

The last blast was about 640,000 years ago.

Volcanic eruptions around the world today give us only a small glimpse of what another explosion at Yellowstone would be like. Thick ash deposits would bury large parts of the United States and volcanic gases could drastically affect the global climate.

"The aerosols that wind up high into the atmosphere circle the globe, and for a period of 20 years, 30 years, we would have cool cloudy weather as a result. Agriculture would be less successful than normal, and people would die by the millions," said Breining.

Nearly 30 years ago, Mount St. Helens near the Washington/Oregon border erupted killing 57 people and blowing more than a 1000 feet off the top of the mountain.

"We think of mount St. Helens -- went off in 1980 -- as a big explosion, and indeed it was," said Breining. "The most recent Yellowstone explosion was a thousand times larger than Mount St. Helens."

Scientists carefully watch what's happening with the earth at Yellowstone and it's very interesting.

"Indeed the land beneath Yellowstone is rising and falling like ... you know, somebody breathing," said Breining.

You don't have to be a scientist to be impressed with the wonder and mysterious beauty of Yellowstone, all due to the fact that just beneath the surface lies a napping volcano.

"So, it's going to go off again. It's still hot, it's still active. Will it happen in our life times? Chances are microscopic," said Breining. "I wouldn't put my vacation to Yellowstone on hold, though. I think I'd feel pretty safe in going."

Breining is also writing about the volcanic ash that blew out the last time the Yellowstone volcano erupted.

It reached as far as parts of Iowa and left amazing fossil remains in Nebraska.

Yellowstone Park A Ticking Bomb
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« Reply #209 on: August 30, 2008, 11:54:33 PM »

Well I'm only going to post everything happening since, July 1st. It's been a while since I've up-dated this topic.
~~~~~~~~~~~~

Kliuchevskoi

As of the 29th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that seismic activity of the volcano has been gradually increasing since June. The activity of the volcano, possibly, could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of the volcano was slightly above background levels all week: a lot of volcanic earthquakes and intermittent volcanic tremor were registered at the volcano all week. According to visual data, weak gas-steam activity was observed on August 25-27, clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered over the volcano all week.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

The colour code at Kliuchevskoi is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~

Anatahan

As of the 7th of August, the USGS has reported that during 30 July-5 August seismic tremor from Anatahan fluctuated. Gas-and-steam plumes possibly containing some ash were occasionally visible on satellite imagery at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and below. Plumes drifted W and NW. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

The elongate, 9-km-long island of Anatahan in the central Mariana Islands consists of large stratovolcano with a 2.3 x 5 km, E-W-trending compound summit caldera. The larger western caldera is 2.3 x 3 km wide, and its western rim forms the island's 790-m high point. Ponded lava flows overlain by pyroclastic deposits fill the floor of the western caldera, whose SW side is cut by a fresh-looking smaller crater. The 2-km-wide eastern caldera contained a steep-walled inner crater whose floor prior to the 2003 eruption was only 68 m above sea level. Sparseness of vegetation on the most recent lava flows on Anatahan had indicated that they were of Holocene age, but the first historical eruption of Anatahan did not occur until May 2003, when a large explosive eruption took place forming a new crater inside the eastern caldera.

The colour code at Anatahan is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~~

Mauna Loa

As of the 25th of July, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has reported that Mauna Loa is not erupting. Slow extension, as measured by GPS receivers on either side of the volcano, continued. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes. Sensors within a crack in Moku`aweoweo crater floor continued to record background gas concentrations and temperatures.

Mauna Loa remains seismically quiet with few earthquakes occurring beneath Mauna Loa Volcano. Since the beginning of January, 2005, HVO analysts have rarely located more than 10 earthquakes per week beneath Mauna Loa summit. The Kao`iki seismic zone between Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcano summits remained active with 10-20 earthquakes per week. Each week, 1-5 earthquakes are also located beneath the Kealakekua area of west Mauna Loa. These levels are typical of the past several years.

The colour code at Mauna Loa is currently at YELLOW
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