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Shammu
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« Reply #180 on: January 18, 2008, 08:33:42 PM »

SANTA MARIA

As of the 18th of January, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported and confirmed that with regards to this volcano; Atmospheric Conditions: Cleared. Wind speed: in calm Direction: Southwest. Pluvial Precipitation: 0.0 mm. Activity: The volcano continues with constant avalanches of blocks, on the active lava flows. Explosions with ash have been observed that reach 300 and 700 metres on the Hot Cone, Some explosions generate Pyroclastic flows of short reach. At night it is possible to observe the incandescence.

The symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The 3772-m-high stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit of Volcán Santa María to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 18th of January, the Monstserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) reported that the pause in activity continues and measurable activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained low with no significant changes over the last 24 hours. During heavy precipitation it must be remembered the potential hazard of lahar (or mudflow) in the drainage channels around the volcano remains. The alert level remained at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at YELLOW LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~~~

SAKURA-JIMA

As of the 10th of January, The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) via the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (TVAAC) reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Sakura-Jima on 2 and 7 January. Details of possible resultant ash plumes were unknown. Sakura-Jima exploded at 1837UTC on the 6th of January but the ash cloud direction and height is unknown at this time. Officials are currently investigating satellite data. Later however, winds were found to be above the volcano at 1830UTC it was at 10,000ft and at 20,000ft@57.5 mph and at 40,000ft@150.65 mph. More details on this eruption will be listed as they are received.

Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

The Current Colour Code for Sakura-Jima is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #181 on: January 18, 2008, 08:36:59 PM »

SHEVELUCH

As of the 18th of January, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported to INTLVRC that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity was above background levels last week. Many shallow volcanic earthquakes and sometimes volcanic tremor were registered all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes up to 4.1 km (13,400 ft) ASL occurred at the volcano on January 12 and 16. Ash plume had raising up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) ASL was observed on Sheveluch web-cam on January 16. Strong fumarolic activity of the volcano was noted on January 15-17. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days. According to satellite data, an invariable thermal anomaly was noting all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskoi volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 18th of January, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mt. St. Helens continues, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. During such eruptions, changes in the level of activity can occur over days to months. The eruption could intensify suddenly or with little warning and produce explosions that cause hazardous conditions within several miles of the crater and farther downwind. Small lahars could suddenly descend the Toutle River if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow and ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard along the river channel upstream.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that any ash clouds rising above the crater rim today would drift to the south at both low and high altitudes.

Crews were in the field at Mt. St. Helens yesterday, servicing seismic stations and remote cameras. Considerable steaming from the new lava dome was evident, as conditions were ideal for cloud formation. Occasional micro-earthquakes continue at the volcano today, consistent with the low-levels of eruptive activity. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

COLIMA

As of the 18th of January, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reports that due to the cloud establishment at the Colima volcano during the last 24 hours, the monitoring of the Colima volcano registered three fumaroles and one exhalation, without generating a report on damages or affectation in the adjacent populations, according to informed the Government of the Colima State Unit of Civil Defence. According to the monitoring, the two first fumaroles happened at 1332 and 2346 hours of yesterday, which went at level of dome and with an east direction; the same course followed the happened fumarole today, at 0106 hours, that rose to 300 metres of height on the level of the dome, and also the white exhalation of the 0834 hours that went at dome level. Since they are at a time of the year in which the appearance of cold fronts is common, those that can cause from cloudy to light rains and sporadic electrical storms in the top of the volcano, it is necessary to remember to the population that they avoid the permanence in bordering ravines, before the possibility of lahars (mud flows). Also, it continues the restriction for the over-flights that do not have scientific aims or of civil defence, and is prohibited the permanence of people other people's to these activities in ravines of the volcano.

In permanent coordination with the State Unit of Civil Defence Jalisco, the Government of Colima is pending of monitoring the activity of the volcano in real time; this way, it counts on the opportune information to be able to respond before any contingency and to guarantee the security of the population, as it is the interest of the governor Jesus Silverio Cavazos Ceballos. Combined to previously exposed, one works in the preventive programmes to maintain informed to the citizens on the evolution into the volcanic activity, and to avoid that alarm by rumors is generated.

Also constant communication with the communitarian brigade that has formed with inhabitants of the town of the Becerrera, to those who exists has become qualified in the self-protection with respect to the natural disasters. Also, permanent contact with the personnel of the military team of Yerbabuena, La Becerrera in Colima, El Jabalí, and Causentla, Cofradía de Tonila, Atenguillo, El Saucillo, El Fresnal, El Embudo, Juan Barragán, Los Machos, El Agostadero and El Borbollón in Jalisco.

They have been continuing the same recommendations established for months, in which it is indicated that who are or live in zone of risk, follow the indications that this organism transmits through mass media; it is necessary to emphasize that the zone of exclusion of activities for the states of Jalisco and Colima is of 7.5 kilometres from the top of the volcano on the channels of ravines. The radius of preventive alert remains in 11.5 kilometres from the top of the volcano, which includes the populations of La Becerrera in Colima, El Jabalí, and Causentla, Cofradía de Tonila, Atenguillo, El Saucillo, El Fresnal, El Embudo, Juan Barragán, Los Machos, El Agostadero and El Borbollón in Jalisco. The permanence in ravines must be avoided Colima, El Cordobán, San Antonio and Monte Grande, in Colima, and San Antonio and El Muerto, La Tuna, Santa Ana, El Cafecito, La Arena and Beltrán-Durazno in Jalisco.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW
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« Reply #182 on: January 18, 2008, 08:40:51 PM »

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 18th of January, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system detected 20 exhalations accompanied by steam and gas emissions. Also, yesterday at 1650hrs (local time), a volcano-tectonic earthquake was detected with a magnitude of 2.3, a depth of 6 km and located below the crater. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report there is no visibility to the volcano due to the clouds. This morning CENAPRED could observe it with steam and gas emissions.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 18th of January, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the seismic activity is similar in the last days maintaining a high dispersion volume. The populations of the western side are being affected considerably by ash falls. The emissions with variable ash content reached heights smaller to 4 km on the crater, in the direction of the west and the southwest. Strombolian activity has been observed, bearing of blocks and a small pyroclastic flow. Continued being heard are cannon shots and roars in general of moderate intensity. Lahars have not been registered.

With respect to seismicity: In the last 24 hours, Seismicity: A total of 85 events of long period has been entered (LPs), 151 explosions, 15 episodes of tremor of emission, 1 episode of harmonic tremor. Ash/Emissions/Brightness: The observed emissions reached heights of 4 km on the crater. The populations more affected by the ash falls are Choglontus, Manzano, Penipe, and Palitahua. At night incandescence to the height of the crater was appraised, Strombolian activity that reached 200 m on the crater and bearing of blocks by flanks, up to 1000 m under the summit. With the explosions at 1823, 1849 and 1856hrs bearing of blocks was observed up to 2000 m under the summit. In the afternoon, a small pyroclastic flow of about 50 m of wide took place yesterday of 400 m of length, appreciable under the northwestern side of the crater. Noise: From Guadalupe (OVT) it was reported to have listened to roars and cannon shots of variable intensity. Climate/Rains/Lahars: The climate has varied between partially dimmed and dimmed. The wind direction has been towards the west & sothwest. Lahars have not been registered.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

RABAUL

As of the 17th of January, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) has reported that intermittent ash and vapour plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone were observed during 8-15 January. On 11 January, a small explosion produced an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (3,900-4,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. During 11-15 January, ash and vapor plumes rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.2 km (3,000-3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, NE, N, and W. Slight ashfall was reported about 20 km SE in Tokua on 11 and 12 January. Data from deformation-monitoring instruments indicated no deformation. Incandescence from the lava dome on the crater floor was occasionally visible at night. Tokua airport has been temporarily closed after ash emissions resumed at Rabaul volcano in Papua New Guinea. Turvurvur crater began ashing at 0734hrs this morning, local time. Ash fell at Tokua at 1100hrs.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbour utilised by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

The Rabaul volcano is currently at the ORANGE LEVEL 2
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« Reply #183 on: January 18, 2008, 08:44:21 PM »

KILAUEA

As of the 18th of January, it has been reported to INTLVRC direct from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that the Activity Summary for last 24 hours: The rootless shields continued to actively feed mostly short flows. The possibly longer flows to the south are out of webcam view.

Hazard Summary: Based on the information summarised above, there continues to be a threat from lava flows to residents of Royal Gardens subdivision. The rootless shields are a little more than 2 miles uphill of the subdivision and lava is capable of advancing similar distances in a week. Hawai`i County Civil Defence has been notified and is taking appropriate measures. Vent areas and lava channels are hazardous and conditions can change rapidly. Access to the 7/21 eruption site in the Kahauale`a Natural Area Reserve is closed. Wao Kele o Puna is also closed. Lava flows advancing through vegetation are hazardous and can produce fire and methane explosions that propel chunks of lava and rock several feet into the air.

Last 24 hours at 7/21 eruption site: The webcam showed continued activity from the rootless shields feeding generally short flows. The collapsed shield continued to feed a flow to the south whose progress is out of view. The TEB vent was incandescent approximately every hour. Seismic tremor levels were at generally low values with an increase whenever there was visible activity at the TEB vent. An overflight is planned for his morning.

Last 24 hours at Pu`u `O`o crater: There was no incandescence within Pu`u `O`o crater overnight. The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter telemetry was repaired yesterday but recorded no significant change. GPS receivers spanning the crater continued to record slow contraction. Seismic tremor levels remained at low values.

Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeter network recorded no significant change; however, over a week's time, there is slow deflation of a source in the southeast caldera. GPS receivers spanning the caldera continued to record slow contraction. Seismic tremor levels were at low-to-moderate values. Three quakes were located beneath Kilauea - 1 beneath Halema`uma`u and 2 on south flank faults.

Definitions of terms used in the update: Rootless shields: Shield vents are normally built directly over a lava-supplying fissure, as is the case for the TEB shield. Rootless shield vents are not built directly over a lava-supplying fissure and are, instead, fed horizontally from a fissure. Rootless shields have been built over lava tubes in the last few years. Perched ponds or channels: A lava pond or channel becomes perched above the surrounding terrain when repeated overflows build up their edges. The built-up edges are called levees. The perching continues as long as the overflows continue. The channel developed by the July 21, 2007 eruption perched itself more than 100 feet above the pre-eruption ground surface.

Public Lectures: The third of four talks on different aspects of the ongoing, 25-year-old eruption is scheduled for Tuesday, January 22, at the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park Visitor's Centre starting at 1900hrs. Mike Poland will present 'A Moving Experience: Surface Deformation of Kilauea Volcano during the Current Eruption.'

The Kilauea volcano is currently at the ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~~

YASUR

As of the 1st of January, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur volcano, in southern Vanuatu continues to be one of the world's most active volcanoes. The volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has for at least 800 years. Yasur has been called the "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because of the regular Strombolian eruptions visible from sea. Warning: Approaching the active crater at Yasur volcano is dangerous at any time ! Observers are at risk from projectiles, toxic gas and avalanches.

Projectile ejection Yasur volcano has not produced a large destructive eruption historically. There is no indication that a large eruption will occur in the near future at Yasur volcano. Magma chamber inflation is currently being accommodated by the volcano. The largest reasonable level of activity expected is the ejection of bombs 3-4 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows threatening low lying areas near the volcano. This type of activity would pose a danger to nearby villages. Ground deformation Yasur volcano has the second greatest level of ground uplift in the world. Since 1000 AD there has been a yearly average uplift of 149 mm. This is only beaten by Iwo Jima volcano in Japan with 200 mm uplift per year since 1200 AD. Tsunami Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes, and landslides may result in the production of tsunamis which may threaten coastal populations. Flooding Lake Siwi broke through its natural dam in 2002 flooding Sulphur Bay Village and destroying houses. Landslides Landslide and debris flow pose significant risks to the surrounding population. Uplift of the caldera creates unstable ground, combined with the deposition of unstable ash and cinders. Ashfall Periods of strong volcanic activity may cause ashfall over large areas of Tanna Island. Ashfall can damage crops, cause roofs to collapse, and result in mudflows after rain. Gas samples collected from the plume crossing Yasur crater rim in 1988 contained SO2 and HCl gases at concentrations between 3 and 9 ppm. This is a hazardous level of gas. This level of SO2 causes a decrease in lung function and immediate irritation of eyes nose and throat. Lava Flow Lava flows occur infrequently at Yasur volcano.

Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous strombolian and vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. Yasur, located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, is a mostly unvegetated 361-m-high pyroclastic cone with a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. Yasur is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centres constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions of Yasur has raised Port Resolution harbour more than 20 m during the past century.

The Current Colour Code for Yasur is ORANGE LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

STROMBOLI

As of the 1st of January, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that Stromboli continues, in the new year, with its relentless eruptions. In November 2007, Marco Fulle and Tom Pfeiffer visited Pizzo with local Magmatrek guides. Mild NE wind made for good visibility of the collapsed crater terrace, on which five vents were erupting every five to ten minutes. The terrace subsided in March 2007: the western rim of SW crater gives a good indication of the amount of subsidence. The eastern part of the terrace is now approximately 100 metres lower than before.

Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterised its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small, 924-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern Stromboli edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli for more than a millennium.

The Current Colour Code for Stromboli is ORANGE
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« Reply #184 on: January 18, 2008, 09:04:49 PM »

Mt. EREBUS

As of the 1st of January, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reports that the volcano has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activity. One of Earth's few long-lived lava lakes. Most active volcano in Antarctica. Lavas and bombs contain large (<10 cm) phenocrysts (crystals) of anorthoclase feldspar.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the worldís southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Each austral summer, a group of scientists and students ascend the volcano to live and work for several weeks (early December to early January). Current research consists of 1) continued monitoring of the SO2 flux from the lava lake, 2) measuring the CO2 emissions from the lava lake and summit, 3) geochronology of the summit and flank lava flows, 4) continued monitoring and interpretation of seismic and seismoacoustic activity volcano through the use of a network of highly-sensitive broad-band seismometers, 5) establishing a GPS base network to monitor the short- and long-term deformation of the volcano.

Mt. Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica is the world's southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970ís had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Erebus is ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

As I post this, these volcanoes are being watched.
E = Erupting at this time.   I = Non-erupting at this time.

Akan                      I
Akutan                   I
Alaid                      I
Ambrym                 I
Anatahan               I
Aniakchak               I
Aoba                     I
Arenal                    E
Asama                    I
Aso                        I
Atka (Korovin)         I
Augustine               I
Avachinsky              I
Awu                      I
Azul                       I
Azuma                    I
Bagana                   I
Bamus                    I
Bandai                    I
Barren Is.                I
Batu Tara                I
Batur                      I
Bezymianny              I
Bulusan                   I
Cameroon                I
Cerro Negro             I
Chikurachki              I
Cleveland                I
Colima                    I
Concepcion             I
Copahue                 I
Cereme                   I
Dabbahu                 I
Dempo                   I
Dieng                     I
Dukono                  I
Ebeko                    I
Egmont                  I
Egon                      I
Erta Ale                  I
Fernandina              I
Fisher                     I
Fourpeaked             I
Fuego                    E
Galeras                   E
Galunggung             I
Gamalama                I
Gamkonora              I
Garbuna                  I
Gorely                    I
Great Sitkin             I
Guagua Pichincha     I
Guntur                   I
Hachijo-Jima            I
Hakone                  I
Heard Is.                I
Hekla                     I
Home Reef             I
Huila                      E
Ijen                       I
Iliamna                   I
Iliwerung                I
Inielika                   I
Isanotski                 I
Iwo Jima                 I
Jebel al Tair             I
Kaba                      I
Kanlaon                  I
Karai                       I
Karangetang            I
Karymsky                 I
Kavachi                   I
Karthala                  I
Kelut                      I
Kerinci                    I
Kick-'em-Jenny         I
Kikai                       I
Kilauea                    E
Kliuchevskoi             I
Komagatake            I
Krakatau                 E
Langila                    I
La Palma                  I
Lascar                      I
Lamington                I
Lereboleng               I
Lewotobi                 I
Llaima                      E
Lokon Empung          I
Lopevi                     I
Mageik                     I
Makian                     I
Makushin                  I
Manam                     I
Marapi                      I
Maroa                       I
Martin                       I
Masaya                      I
Mauna Loa                 I
Mayon                       I
McDonald Islands        I
Merapi                      I
Miyake-Jima               E
Mt. Belinda               I
Mt. Erebus               E
Mt. Etna                  E
Mt. Fuji                    I
Mt. Spurr                 I
Mt. St. Helens           E
Mutnovsky                I
Nevado Del Ruiz         I
Ngauruhoe                I
Nyamuragira              I
Nyiragongo               E
Okmok                     I
Ol Doinyo Lengai        I
Pagan                      I
Pacaya                    E
Pago                       I
Papandayan              I
Pavlof                      I
Piton dela Fournaise   I
Popocatepetl           E
Poas                       I
Peuet Sague           I
Rabaul                    E
Raoul Is.                 I
Raung                    I
Redoubt                 I
Rinjani                   I
Ritter Is.                I
Reventador            I
Ruang                   I
Ruapehu               I
Sakura-Jima           E
San Cristobal          I
Sangay                 I
San Miguel            I
Santa Ana            I
Santa Maria           E
Semeru                I
Sheveluch            E
Shishaldin             I
Sierra Negra         I
Slamet                I
Soputan              I
Soufriere Hills       E
Stromboli,            I
Suwanose-Jima,    I
Taal,                   E
Talang                I
Tanaga                I
Tangkuban Parahu     I
Tandikat                I
Taupo                   I
Telica                   I
Tengger (Bromo)       I
Tokachi                  I
Tongkoko               I
Torishima                   I
Trident                   I
Tungurahua              E
Turrialba                 I
Ubinas                     E
Ulawun                  I
Usu                     I
Veniaminof                 I
Villarrica             I
Westdahl               I
White Is.             I
Yasur                   E
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« Reply #185 on: January 18, 2008, 09:42:17 PM »

Few persuaded to flee Colombia volcano

Fri Jan 18, 12:53 PM ET

BOGOTA, Colombia - A volcano in southwestern Colombia spewed ash Friday after a violent eruption, while authorities fought to persuade thousands of living in the mountain's shadow to evacuate.



This video frame released by the Colombian Institute of
Geology and Mining, INGEOMINAS, shows the Galeras
volcano erupting in Pasto, southern Colombia, Thursday
Jan. 17, 2008. The volcano spread ashes for kilometers
prompting an evacuation order for thousands, in the
most serious eruption of the Galeras since its
reactivation in 1989.



A combination picture shows the Galeras volcano
erupting in front of Pasto city January 17, 2008.

No damages or injuries were reported in the eruption of the 14,110-foot Galeras volcano, which began at 8:06 p.m. Thursday.

Although authorities ordered the 8,000 residents of the two towns nearest the volcano evacuated, few people abandoned their homes, fearing theft, the mayor of the nearby city of Pasto, Eduardo Alvarado, told The Associated Press.

"We ordered the evacuation of all the peasant population that lives near the volcano," Alvarado said, adding that only about 100 people had heeded the order.

Pasto is home to about a half million people and seismologists watching the eruption said the state capital, near the Ecuador border, did not appear to be in danger.

The director of Colombia's Seismological Network, Fernando Gil, said it was the most the most serious Galeras eruption since the volcano reactivated in 1989.

A 1993 eruption of the volcano killed nine people, including five scientists who had descended into the crater to sample gases. In November 2005, the volcano spewed ash that fell about 30 miles away.

Few persuaded to flee Colombia volcano
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« Reply #186 on: January 19, 2008, 01:19:48 AM »

I'll just say WOW!
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« Reply #187 on: April 11, 2008, 05:59:14 PM »

I haven't really had time to catch this up, till today.

IBU

As of the 9th of April, the Volcano Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported to INTLVRC that there has been an increase in volcanic earthquakes and emissions at Ibu volcano in Indonesia. Ash emissions reached 150 m above the crater on the 17th of March, 300 m on 31st of March, and 700 m on the 5th of April. Ibu volcano has been on level II alert since 1999, and the alert level may be increased if unrest continues. The Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation has advised local residents to remain calm and not believe rumours about potential eruptions. Visitors and tourists are not permitted to climb Gunung Ibu. Local resudents should take precautions not to inhale volcanic ash because of the effects on the respiritory system.

The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the western flank. A group of maars is located below the northern and western flanks of the volcano. Only a few eruptions have been recorded from Ibu in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

The Current Colour Code for Ibu is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~

KERINCI

As of the 7th of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported and confirmed to INTLVRC that seismicity from Kerinci increased during 17-24 March. On 24 March, an ash-and-gas plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 (14,100 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Status remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 1 km of the summit.

The 3800-m-high Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. Kerinci is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. The volcano contains a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit of Kerinci. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. The frequently active Gunung Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

The Current Colour Code for Kerinci. is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2
~~~~~~~~

GARBUNA GROUP

As of the 27th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) & the Rabaul VOlcano Observatory (RVO has reported and confirmed to INTLVRC that white plumes from two sources at the summit of Garbuna drifted SE during 19-21 March. Ashfall and a strong sulfur odor were reported in Kimbe Town (about 17 km SE) on 19 March.

Renewed eruptive activity from Garbuna started on 11 March and consisted of ash emissions accompanied by occasional booming noises. The resultant ash plumes rose to an altitude less that 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Fine ashfall was reported in areas downwind. Ash emissions continued during 12-13 March. During 14-15 March, steam-and-ash plumes again rose to an altitude less that 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Ashfall and a sulfur odor was reported from areas downwind. Occasional booming noises were heard. On 16 March, steam plumes rose to an altitude of 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l. Observers from KVO (15 km SE) reported that multiple steam plumes rose from numerous vents at the summit. Steam plumes were again noted on 17 and 18 March and a strong sulfur odor was noticed on 18 March.

The basaltic-to-dacitic Garbuna volcano group consists of three volcanic peaks, Krummel, Garbuna, and Welcker. They are located along a 7-km N-S line above a shield-like foundation at the southern end of the Willaumez Peninsula. The central and lower peaks of the centrally located 564-m-high Garbuna volcano contain a large vegetation-free area that is probably the most extensive thermal field in Papua New Guinea. A prominent lava dome and blocky lava flow in the center of thermal area have resisted destruction by thermal activity, and may be of Holocene age. The 854-m-high Krummel volcano at the south end of the group contains a summit crater, breached to the NW. The highest peak of the Garbuna group is 1005-m-high Welcker volcano, which has fed blocky lava flows that extend to the eastern coast of the peninsula. The last major eruption from both it and Garbuna volcanoes took place about 1800 years ago. The first historical eruption of the complex took place at Garbuna in October 2005.

The Current Colour Code for Garbuna. is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 2
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« Reply #188 on: April 11, 2008, 06:01:44 PM »

BAGANA

As of the 8th of March, the Volcano Discovery has reported to INTLVRC that based on satellite imagery and information from RVO, Bagana volcano has been producing small ash explosions since the 3rd of March. Also, based on observations of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of less than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. Bagana is a massive symmetrical, roughly 1750-m-high lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is frequent and is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides.

The Current Colour Code for Bagana. is currently at the ALERT LEVEL 3
~~~~~~~~

VENIAMINOF

As of the 11th of April, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has reported to INTLVRC that low level volcanic unrest continues at Mt. Veniaminof volcano with little change from the past several days. Mostly clear satellite views this morning indicated nothing unusual. Clear internet camera views today show occasional low level steam emissions from the intracaldera cone. AVO has received no other information about activity at Mt. Veniaminof. AVO will continue to monitor activity at Mt. Veniaminof using seismic data, satellite images, internet camera data and observer reports.

Massive Mt. Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which reaches an elevation of 2156 m and rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface.

The Current Colour Code for Veniaminof is currently at the YELLOW 2
~~~~~~~~

Mt. CLEVELAND

As of the 11th of April, the Alaska Volcano Obsetrvatory (AVO) reported that satellite views of the volcano have again been obscured by clouds over the past 24 hours. AVO has received no new information about activity at Mt. Cleveland today. AVO monitors Mt. Cleveland volcano with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Mt. Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery.

Beautifully symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Cleveland is joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Mt. Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Mt. Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterised by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

The Current Colour Code for Mt. Cleveland is currently at the YELLOW
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« Reply #189 on: April 11, 2008, 06:04:02 PM »

ANATAHAN

As of the 3rd of April, the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (WVAAC) has reported that seismicity at Anatahan decreased during 26-31 March. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 31 March.

The elongate, 9-km-long island of Anatahan in the central Mariana Islands consists of a large stratovolcano with a 2.3 x 5 km, E-W-trending compound summit caldera. The larger western portion of the caldera is 2.3 x 3 km wide, and its western rim forms the island's 790-m high point. Ponded lava flows overlain by pyroclastic deposits fill the floor of the western caldera, whose SW side is cut by a fresh-looking smaller crater. The 2-km-wide eastern portion of the caldera contained a steep-walled inner crater whose floor prior to the 2003 eruption was only 68 m above sea level. A submarine volcano, NE Anatahan, rises to within 460 m of the sea surface on the NE flank of the volcano, and numerous other submarine vents are found on the NE-to-SE flanks. Sparseness of vegetation on the most recent lava flows on Anatahan had indicated that they were of Holocene age, but the first historical eruption of Anatahan did not occur until May 2003, when a large explosive eruption took place forming a new crater inside the eastern caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Anatahan is currently at Alert Level YELLOW
~~~~~~~~

OL DOINYO LENGAI

As of the 8th of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported to INTLVRC that over the past three weeks, Ol Doinyo Lengai has quietened down significantly. Observers report a complete pause in activity lasting about two weeks, and then resuming of relatively small ash eruptions. A thermal anomaly is still visibile on satellite date in the crater of the ash cone.

The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain S of Lake Natron. The cone-building stage of the volcano ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatite and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra eruptions and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater. Petrologists first observed the eruption of carbonatitic lava flows in the 1960s. Subsequent more frequent visits have documented long-term lava effusion in the summit crater that would not have been seen from the foot of the volcano.

The Current Colour Code for Ol Doinyo Lengai is currently at Alert Level YELLOW
~~~~~~~

GALERAS

As of the 9th of April, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto - INGEOMINAS, informs that the seismic activity of the volcano continues in low levels, in occurrence as in energy as much released. The predominant seismicity follows associate with flowed processes of dynamics of of hydrothermal and magmatic origin. Nevertheless, an earthquake associated with processes of fracturing of cortical material stands out, registered the 2nd of April at 1108hrs, with a magnitude of 3.2 on the Richter scale, located to 1 km to the northwest of the crater and with a depth of 3 km with respect to the top of the volcano, that was reported as sensed by people who were in the cabin of National Parks of the Urcunina sector (orients of the volcano). In a fly over carried out in the morning of today, with the support of the Colombian Air Force, stands out a significant gas discharge (mainly water steam), from different sectors from the active cone, including the main crater; with a column of little height (about 400 m on the top), directed towards the western flank; during the flight, scents of sulphured gases in some sectors near the volcanic complex were felt. From another side, thermal images were taken that showed maximum temperatures of 195°C of the main crater. In general, the regions with thermal anomalies are similar to the registered ones during the fly over of the 23rd of January, with slightly greater values for the measurements of today.

Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

The Current Colour Code for Galeras is currently at LEVEL III
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« Reply #190 on: April 11, 2008, 06:06:11 PM »

NEVADO del HUILA

As of the 10th of April, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, INGEOMINAS reported that according to news articles, communities surrounding Nevado del Huila responded to the raised Alert Level of Orange, established by INGEOMINAS on 29 March. The Local Committee of Disaster Prevention ordered the closing of a school with a student population of 1,100, declared the maximum alert for a local hospital, and facilitated meetings of multiple groups. Residents bought supplies and repaired roads that were key evacuation routes, and sirens were tested each day. Several populations in high-risk areas did not have systems of communication. On 7 April, residents in high-risk areas near the Páez river were evacuated to shelters as a precautionary measure. On 8 April, INGEOMINAS lowered the Alert Level to Yellow due to decreased seismicity during 2-8 April. In addition, no superficial changes associated with the recent activity were observed during an overflight on 5 April.

Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The 5365-m-high andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. The high point of the complex is Pico Central. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Nevade del Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano was an explosive eruption in the mid-16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from Pico Central, and hot springs are also present.

The Current Colour Code for Nevado del Huila is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~

PACAYA

As of the 11th of April, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric Conditions: Cleared. Pluvial Precipitation: 12.6 mm. Wind speed: 14.0 km/hr. Direction: Southwest. Activity: Pacaya volcano in Guatemala remains active. On 9th April weak explosions were heard lasting up to 10 minutes. Lava flowed north east a distance of 400 m. Blue/white vapour was visible 300 m above the volcano.

The eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

The Current Colour Code for Pacaya is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~~

FUEGO

As of the 10th of April, the the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric Conditions: Dimmed. Wind speed: 5.0 Km/h, Direction: South, southwest. Pluvial Precipitation: 1.5 mm. Activity: They continue rumblings and moderate explosions, being moderate in you complete 24 hours: 5 strong rumblings with shock waves, 3 moderate explosions that threw to the atmosphere ash columns, with duration average between 1 and 2 minutes reaching altitudes between 800 and 1.000 m on the crater with southwestern direction and the fine ash west, generating fallen in the neighbourhoods by lapses to of 10 minutes, maintaining gas plumes and ash of 7 kilometres in length, generate small avalanches in the neighbourhoods of the crater. Constant monitoring on the part of the INSIVUMEH stays.

The Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta volcano may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango volcano, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

The Current Colour Code for Fuego is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #191 on: April 11, 2008, 06:08:42 PM »

SANTA MARIA

As of the 10th of April, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that for Atmospheric Conditions: Partially dimmed. Wind speed: 5 km/hr. Direction: Southwest & west. Pluvial Precipitation: 2.6 mm. Activity: Presence of of column of white degassing to heights between 100 and 150 m. On the crater, originating two weak explosions in hours of the dawn, arriving to reach a height of 800 metres, being generated a gas cloud and pens and fine ash of up to 2 km of length with a southwestern direction.

The symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The 3772-m-high stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit of Volcán Santa María to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

The Current Colour Code for Santa Maria is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~~

SOUFRIERE HILLS

As of the 5th of April, the Monstserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) reported that measureable activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano has remained low with no significant change throughout the period and the pause in dome growth continues. No good visual observations were possible during the period due to overcast conditions and the lack of helicoptor support. Recorded seismic activity remained low with only one rockfall signal. The recorded sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux rate for the period was lower than during the last reporting period, ranging from a minimum of 382 tonnes per day (t/d) on the 31st of March to a maximum of 905 t/d on the 29th . The average flux rate for the period was 688 t/d. Whilst lava extrusion has ceased and the dome may not be actively growing, it remains a large mass of mainly hot lava capable of collapsing or exploding. The likelihood of this should decrease with time as it slowly cools with no fresh lava extrusion. During heavy downpours lahar activity in river valleys around the volcano remains a potential hazard. Access to all areas on the southern flanks of the Belham Valley except Isles Bay Hill and the east of the Belham Bridge, is prohibited as is south of Jack Boy Hill to Bramble airport and beyond. The Maritime Exclusion Zone around the southern part of the island extends 4 km off shore from Spanish Point to Roches Yard on the east side of the volcano, 2 km offshore from O'Garras to Sturge Park on the southwest. The alert level remains at 4.

The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

The Current Colour Code for Soufriere Hills is currently at ALERT LEVEL 4
~~~~~~~~

UBINAS

As of the 10th of April, the El Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN) reported that based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 6 April.

A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Perú. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I volcano was followed by construction of Ubinas II volcano beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.

The Current Colour Code for Ubinas is currently at ORANGE
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« Reply #192 on: April 11, 2008, 06:10:43 PM »

LLAIMA

As of the 10th of April, the El Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN) reported that during 28 March-4 April, fumarolic plumes from Llaima drifted several tens of kilometres mainly to the SE. Explosions produced ash and gas emissions. An overflight on 2 April of the main crater revealed that gas, pyroclastic material, and ash emissions, occasionally accompanied by small explosions, originated from three cones. On 4 April, several explosions were heard and incandescence was reflected in a gas-and-ash plume.

L laima, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, contains two historically active craters, one at the summit and the other, Pichillaima, to the SE. The massive 3125-m-high, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano has a volume of 400 cu km. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 cu km Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterized by strombolian, hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.

The Current Colour Code for Llaima is currently at YELLOW
~~~~~~

KARYMSKY

As of the 11th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 6 km (or 19,700 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The explosive activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels all week. The number of weak shallow earthquakes in the area of the volcano has increased from April 04 to the end of the week. According to seismic data, possible weak ash-gas explosions or hot avalanches occurred at the volcano all week. According to satellite data, a weak ash plume extending about 70-80 km (43-50 mi) to the east-south-east from the volcano was noted on April 8th. A thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano on April 4th-6th.

Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately south of Karymsky volcano. The caldera enclosing Karymsky volcano formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

The Current Colour Code for Karymsky is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

BEZYMIANNY

As of the 11th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that growth of the lava dome continues. A viscous lava flow is effusing at the lava dome. Sudden ash emission related to this activity could affect low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Seismic activity was at background levels on April 3rd and 5th-7th, and didn`t exceed background levels in the other days. According to visual and video data, a weak or moderate fumarolic activity was noted on the lava dome all week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the lava dome was observing on April 4th-6th. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days.

Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. The modern Bezymianny volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbours Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral volcano that was built between about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

The Current Colour Code for Bezymianny is currently at YELLOW
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« Reply #193 on: April 11, 2008, 06:12:35 PM »

SHEVELUCH

As of the 11th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported to INTLVRC that activity of the volcano continues and ash explosions up to 10 km (32,800 ft.) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity was slightly above background levels last week: a large number of weak seismic events and a weak volcanic tremor were registering all week. Seismic activity indicates that a growth of the lava dome continues and probably hot avalanches occur each day. According to visual and video data, a moderate fumarolic activity of the dome was observed all week. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered over lava dome all week.

The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskoi volcano group. The 1300 cu km Shiveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

The Current Colour Code for Sheveluch is currently at ORANGE
~~~~~~~

Mt. St. HELENS

As of the 6th of April, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that the pause in lava dome growth continues, and all CVO's monitoring instruments show trifling or nil volcanic-related activity. This pause, which began in late January 2008, was recognised by absence of measurable growth among successive fixed-camera images, nearly quiescent seismicity, and the absence of tilt signals that might characterise extrusion of lava from the conduit.

CVO continues to monitor closely for evidence of renewed extrusion or other activity. The new lava dome remains hot in places; thus, it is capable of producing hot avalanches or small steam explosions that could cause hazardous conditions in and around the crater. Sudden melting of snow and ice could send small lahars onto the Pumice Plain and perhaps down the Toutle River as far as the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS). Ash clouds from explosions could affect aircraft.

Recent observations: The crater area has been seismically quiet this week. No additional field work was carried out. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.

Prior to 1980, Mt. St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mt. St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Mt. St. Helens remains at YELLOW
~~~~~~~

COLIMA

As of the 11th of April, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reports that in the last 24 hours, the monitoring of the Colima volcano that the equipment of monitoring of the Colima volcano registered four exhalations during last the twenty-four hours, which has not caused the generation of reports on damages or affectation in the adjacent populations, according to information the Government into the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence Colima. Most of the time, the zone where is the volcano is cleared but due to cold fronts or humidity flows, originating of the Pacific Ocean, still the cloud establishment, light rains and electrical storms in its top is possible; of there the necessity to remind the population to avoid the permanence in bordering ravines, before the possibility of lahars (mud flows). On the other hand, it continues the restriction for the over-flights that do not have scientific aims or of civil defence, and is prohibited the permanence of people other people's to these activities in ravines of the volcano. According to the monitoring and soon after the last report, Wednesday, three white exhalations were detected yesterday, at 1223, 1616 and 1908 hours, with a northeast direction; the first one rose to 400 metres, on the level of the volcanic dome, whereas the two following ones had a height of 200 metres. Today, another white exhalation at 1008hrs has been only registered hours that, with hardly 50 metres of height, went towards the east.

Also constant communication with the communitarian brigade that has formed with inhabitants of the town of the Becerrera, to those who exists has become qualified in the self-protection with respect to the natural disasters. Also, permanent contact with the personnel of the military team of Yerbabuena, La Becerrera in Colima, El Jabalí, and Causentla, Cofradía de Tonila, Atenguillo, El Saucillo, El Fresnal, El Embudo, Juan Barragán, Los Machos, El Agostadero and El Borbollón in Jalisco.

They have been continuing the same recommendations established for months, in which it is indicated that who are or live in zone of risk, follow the indications that this organism transmits through mass media; it is necessary to emphasize that the zone of exclusion of activities for the states of Jalisco and Colima is of 7.5 kilometres from the top of the volcano on the channels of ravines. The radius of preventive alert remains in 11.5 kilometres from the top of the volcano, which includes the populations of La Becerrera in Colima, El Jabalí, and Causentla, Cofradía de Tonila, Atenguillo, El Saucillo, El Fresnal, El Embudo, Juan Barragán, Los Machos, El Agostadero and El Borbollón in Jalisco. The permanence in ravines must be avoided Colima, El Cordobán, San Antonio and Monte Grande, in Colima, and San Antonio and El Muerto, La Tuna, Santa Ana, El Cafecito, La Arena and Beltrán-Durazno in Jalisco.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Colima is YELLOW
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« Reply #194 on: April 11, 2008, 06:15:38 PM »

POPOCATEPETL

As of the 11th of April, the El Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de la Secretaría de Gobernación (CENAPRED) has reported that in the last 24 hours the monitoring system again detected 12 exhalations acompanied by steam and gas. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report CENAPRED can see the volcano with a steam and gas emission. From high to low probability the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions; occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater. There is a permanent monitoring of the volcano to detect any change. The traffic light of volcanic alert remains in YELLOW Phase 2.

Volcano Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since pre-columbian time.

The Current Colour Code for volcano Popocatepetl is YELLOW
~~~~~~

GUAGUA PICHINCHA

As of the 12th of March, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the activity of the volcano stays in a low level, nevertheless during this week registered a slight increase in the number of volcano-tectonic events, which are related to rupture of rock to the interior of the volcano. Possibly this activity must to a change in the field of efforts within the hydrothermal system of the volcano due to the entrance of a greater amount of fluids, specially from the surface (meteoric water or of rain).

Guagua Pichincha and the older Pleistocene Rucu Pichincha stratovolcanoes form a broad volcanic massif that rises immediately to the west of Ecuador's capital city, Quito. A lava dome is located at the head of a 6-km-wide breached caldera that formed during a late-Pleistocene slope failure of Guagua Pichincha about 50,000 years ago. Subsequent late-Pleistocene and Holocene eruptions from the central vent in the breached caldera consisted of explosive activity with pyroclastic flows accompanied by periodic growth and destruction of the central lava dome. Many minor eruptions have occurred since the beginning of the Spanish era at Guagua Pichincha, which is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. The largest historical eruption took place in 1660, when ash fell over a 1000 km radius, accumulating to 30 cm depth in Quito. Pyroclastic flows and surges also occurred, primarily to the west, and affected agricultural activity, causing great economic losses.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on YELLOW
~~~~~~~~~

TUNGURAHUA

As of the 11th of April, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the volcano continues the episodes of tremor of continuous emission and the presence of few explosions. The emissions, of low and moderate steam and with contents of ash, go to northwest. Ash fall was reported in the near populations. At night incandescent material to the height of the crater was appraised. The only reported noises are related to the explosions. Rains have not appeared nor registered lahars.

The IG reports that seismicity: A total of 18 events of long period (LP), 11 episodes of continuous tremor of emission and 5 explosions has been entered; at 0756hrs (DR = 3.37 cm2, 0926hrs (DR =7.75 cm2, 1307hrs (DR=4.65 cm2, 1358hrs (DR = 4.27 cm2, 1622hrs (DR =4.99 cm2. From noon from today the amplitude of the tremor it descended but it is continued observing steam emissions. Ash, emissions and observations: In last the 24 hours the climate has varied between cleared, to partially dimmed and dimmed. The observed emissions have not surpassed 3 km on the summit being of steam or with low and moderate content of ash. They have gone most of the time to the east and nor-orients. From Ambato fall of fine gray ash was reported and from Baños and heavy ash-gray Runtún. At night he was feasible to observe incandescence the height of the crater, Stromboliana activity and bearing of blocks by flanks up to 500 m under the crater. Rains and lahars: Rains were not reported nor registered lahars. Noises: The happened explosions were accompanied of cannon shots listened to clearly in the environs of the volcano. With the explosions also bearing of blocks was listened to. Roars have not been heard.

Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major volcanic edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.

The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on ORANGE
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